Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 13 - Modulation & Form | J. Anthony Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 13 - Modulation & Form

teacher avatar J. Anthony Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Tools for this class


    • 3.

      A Little Review


    • 4.

      The Full MuseScore File


    • 5.

      Modulation Vs. Tonicization


    • 6.

      Rules For Modulation


    • 7.

      Using Pivot Chords


    • 8.

      Mozart: Piano Sonata In D Major


    • 9.

      Analyzing The Pivot Chord


    • 10.

      Modulating To V Using Pivot Chords


    • 11.

      Modulating From Minor To Relative Major


    • 12.

      Pivoting From I to IV


    • 13.

      Pivoting From i To v


    • 14.

      Rules Of Pivoting


    • 15.

      Abrupt Modulation


    • 16.

      Bach: O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden


    • 17.

      Modulations In Bach


    • 18.

      Bach Errors?


    • 19.

      Modulation By Secondary Dominant


    • 20.

      The Modulation Game


    • 21.

      Mary Had A Little Modulation


    • 22.

      The Easy Part


    • 23.

      The Modulation


    • 24.

      The Cadence


    • 25.

      New Developments In Form


    • 26.



    • 27.

      Rounded Binary


    • 28.

      The B Section


    • 29.

      Rounded Binary Recap


    • 30.

      Binary In A Minor Key


    • 31.

      Phrasing In Binary Form


    • 32.

      Balanced Binary Form


    • 33.

      Simple Ternary Form


    • 34.

      Composite Ternary Form


    • 35.

      Form Summary


    • 36.

      What Next? The Fugue!


    • 37.

      Thanks and Bye!


    • 38.



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About This Class

Welcome to the COMPLETE Music Theory Guide!

This is a class designed for the average person who is ready to take their music career (or music interest) and level up. Whether you are an active musician, an aspiring musician, or an aspiring music manager or agent - this class is perfect for you.

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own. If you've tried to learn music theory before, or if you are just starting out - this series of courses is the perfect fit.

Dr. Allen is a professional musician, top-rated online instructor, and university professor. In 2017 the Star Tribune featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

This class is Part 13: Modulations and Form. It starts what would be the third semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

In this class, we will cover:

  • Modulation and Tonicization

  • Rules for Modulation

  • Using Pivot Chords

  • Analyzing Mozart

  • Modulating to V using Pivot Chords

  • Modulating to the Relative Major Using Pivot Chords

  • Pivoting from I to IV

  • Pivoting from i to v

  • Rules of Pivoting

  • Direct Modulations

  • Abrupt Modulations

  • Analyzing Bach

  • Modulations by Secondary Dominant

  • Modulation Challenge

  • Mary Had a Little Modulation

  • New Developments in Form

  • Binary Form

  • Rounded Binary Form

  • Binary Form in a Minor Key

  • Phrasing in Binary Form

  • Balanced Binary Form

  • Simple Ternary Form

  • Composite Ternary Form

  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

All the tools you need to successfully learn Music Theory are included in this course and the entire course is based on real-life experiences - not just academic theory.

Please click the "Take This Course" button so you can launch your music career today.

Closed captions have been added to all lessons in this course.


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith


Meet Your Teacher

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J. Anthony Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


Dr. J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen tea... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction: Hey, everyone! And welcome Teoh Music Theory, part 13. I've been doing it on my hands like part 45 but don't have enough hands. I don't have enough fingers anymore to do all of the parts that we've done of music theory . So this is part 13. In this class, we're gonna be talking about modulation and more on form. Now, we've talked about in the last few classes, especially the last one, but probably 10 11 and 12. We've talked about Thomas ization. That's a term that should be familiar if you're following along with this whole class. And Thomas ization is a brief flirtation with changing keys. But not going. All in modulation, however, is going all in and actually changing keys. And some of it uses the same techniques that we used to modulate like secondary dominance and things like that. And some of it uses some new techniques. So we are going to be talking about modulation in this class for about the 1st 3/4 of it. And then for the last quarter, we're gonna revisit form and talk a little bit more about form, because when you add tonal centres into form, it becomes a little more complicated, and we're going to learn some new form ideas. Aziz. Well, so this has been a really fun class to make, as they all are. So I hope you decide to join us in music theory 13. And without further ado, let's just dive in right now. Here we go. - Okay . G Major is a common court between the two. A minor is a common core between the two. B is not because in one it's diminished and the other it's minor, so that doesn't work. But let's go over here. Okay, Let's just keep right on going with F. And, um, I should point out that when you're doing these analyses, this happens a lot where you do analysis, you might go all the way in f and then you say, Okay, wait, I'm I missed the The train derailed at some point, and then you walk backwards and find where the modulation actually happened. That's true. And pivot cords, especially where you might say, Okay, so what I thought we do next is this modulation challenge. This could be really tricky. It can be really fun. It can also be a super disaster. so we'll see how it goes. We might be deleting these videos after we make up on you. Might never see them, but, uh, maybe maybe we'll work. Um, So what we're gonna do here is we're gonna take a popular melody and we're gonna try to modulation. We're gonna try to harmonize it. Ah, with a modulation in it where there wasn't one. Okay, so in a minor key, what we typically have that's different. And this isn't true. 100% of the time, this is just mostly true, and the rules are this, but 2. Tools for this class: All right, let's get started with some of the tools that you need. Now we're on part of 13 here. So if you've watched, um, parts one through 12 then you know the spiel I'm about to give. But there is one thing that's different that I want to point out. So long Story short, the two tools that I want you to have access to, if possible. Ah, one is this program called Muse Score and the other is some staff paper. So let's start with staff paper. That's the easy one. Um, in the next lecture, I'm going to give you a pdf download of some staff paper. Please download that printed out and, um, keep a couple sheets of it handy so printed out, like three or four times when you're taking notes on some of the topics in that we talk about here. It's sometimes easier to take notes on staff paper because you're going to be writing notes than on normal paper. So that could be handy. So I'm gonna give you a copy of that. Just print out a couple copies and then you'll be good to go. Keep that by your desk as you take this class thing to this program called New Score. If you've taken classes with me up till now, you probably are familiar with it. This is a free program. You can use it. But here's different. There's. Here's what's different. There's some confusion about this. So, UM, you score is a free program. It's available. ATM. You score dot org's. However, if you're watching this class on a tablet or anything like that, Um, but there is, I'm told, a tablet version of Muse Score. That is not free. Um, you can use that if you want. I don't know anything about it. I don't know if it's good or bad or whatever, but, um, I'm using the desktop version, which is still free. So if you're using a laptop or a desktop or any kind of not tablet or phone, then you score is a free program. I'm using version 2.1 in this class. If you're on a tablet or anything like that, Ah, you could use the version of new score that's there. I don't know how much it costs. There are also other notation programs. There's one called notion. There are a few other ones any of them will do. All we really need you to be able to do is put in some notes and then here than back so that you can hear what you're doing. So any notation program will work, whether it's ah, on a tablet or a phone or on a desktop. If you have something else like Finale or Sibelius or Doric. Oh, there are a lot of options for it. No, Um, all of those air fine. I like to recommend music or just because it's free. It's actually a very fine program, but, um, it's also free. So, uh, if you don't have anything else getting you scar because it's free, if you do have something else that's fine as well. Doesn't really matter. Cool. So, uh, with that, let's go on to the next lecture. I'm going to give you this, um, staff paper. Download that print out a couple copies and keep that buyer desk, and then we'll go on and talk about a little bit of review 3. A Little Review: Okay, What are you going to need to brush up on for this class? So in this class, we're gonna be talking about modulations, and we're gonna be talking about form. So for form, there isn't really anything major to brush up on. Although, um, it will have a lot to do with all of the things that we've learn. Actually, probably the best thing to brush up on when it comes to form is those tonic, dominant, predominant relationships that we've already talked about a little bit. Those were going to come up in form. So if you're rusty on those, jump backwards and check some of that out again. Um, in the previous classes, when it comes to modulations, the best thing to review or make sure that you're really comfortable with will be the diatonic chord progressions eso, especially when we jump right in on pivot cords, which is the first big chunk of stuff we're gonna work on. Uh, we need to be able to shoot off our diatonic chord progressions are really comfortably. The next thing I would also check. Make sure you're up to speed on diminished chords because that's another way that we're gonna work on modulating some of those leading tone diminished chords are gonna come back to haunt us and our secondary dominance. So make sure that you're comfortable with all of those things. If you're not, jump back to Parts 12 maybe Part 11 where we really got into some of that Thomas ization stuff with secondary dominance and take a review of that Cool. If you are comfortable with all of that stuff and don't need to review, then let's press on, uh, and go to Let's talk about next, uh, how we're going to use Muse score and this whole music or file business. 4. The Full MuseScore File: Okay. So just like the last couple of classes, I started doing this music or file thing. It seems to work pretty well. Something to keep doing it. Basically, in the next segment There, in the next lecture I'm going to give you, um you score file. That is the file I'm going to use for the entire class. So, um, this is gonna be so this will have all the examples that I build in the class. I'm going to kind of use a time warping thing to make all of it, and then I'll go back and put it in the next section, so I'm gonna make it as we go. But this has all the examples that we're using in it. I also put it up as a pdf file. So if you're not using music or you can still download it and play with it this file totally optional, you don't need it. It's just kind of a fun thing to have. It seemed to be useful to some people, so I started including it. Uh, if you want to make everything with me as we go in your program, that's fine to actually, that's probably better for learning. But if you learn best by looking at what I've done and then going from there, here's the file. If not, uh, then don't download the file. That's totally cool, too. All right, So next segment, I'm gonna magically give you the file that I haven't made yet. And then we'll go from there. Off we go. 5. Modulation Vs. Tonicization: okay, down to business. So we're gonna talk first about modulation. Now, before we get into that, we need to define really what a modulation is because we've talked about Tanase ization, right, but not modulation. And what is the difference between the two? It's actually a really tricky thing to figure out, so let's talk about it a little bit. Um, let's review what Thomas ization is. Thomas Ization is a change in the key, sort of, but only temporary, right? It's when we might go to a new key for a couple bars, and it just feels like a new key. And then we go right back to our original key. So it's not a key change. We don't really change key. We just kind of flirt with a new key. And then we go right back. Um, so it's a brief moment of going somewhere else and then coming back. We call it a Tanase ionization, because what we're really doing is we're Tanase sizing another key for a minute, um and then leaving it behind. So we're saying we're let's say hypothetically were in the key of G. Everything's going along and g really fine. We do something weird and all of a sudden we have this, Let's say, Well, d would be the easiest, right? Because it's the five. So suddenly we do a big cadence in D and it feels like we're in D For a minute. We have temporarily kind of put a crown on D and said he is now the tonic. Um, so we've Tana sized d We've made d feel like the tonic, but we're not going to stay here very long. And then we're gonna take the crown off D and put it back on G and G is the tonic. Just kidding, at least, and we get back to G. That is Atanasov ization. Now there's really no firm, um, length of time. Like we say atomization is a brief, ah, moment of of moving to a different place but then going back. But what is brief means that two bars is that one bars at 12 bars. You know, Elkana depends on the contact. So this is a very wishy washy kind of rule. So the question is, at what point does it become a modulation? Ah, modulation is a change in key. Like we are going to a new key. And that is where we are. We're going to stay there. And we could stay in that new key all the way to the end of the song. Um, maybe at some point will probably come back to the original key, but maybe not. And we need to do it in such a way that it's gonna feel really natural to be in that new key. So the big difference between Thomas ization and modulation is that Tanase ization is temporary. Modulation could be permanent. Um, modulation is a change in key, and it's really it's fairly common in classical music. Uh, not as common in popular music. Um, not as comes. You would think a lot of people say, Oh, this song change is key when it really kind of doesn't it's quite rare for a pop song toe actually change key. Um, except for like, ballads. In the eighties, they did a lot, but, um, modern popular songs don't change key very often, But in classical music they do. They change key all that. You might have a seven minutes piano sonata, and it might change keys 10 times. Um, that's totally normal because there's a lot of music happening in that seven minutes, and in order to keep things moving along, changing key is a nice way to make something feel like it's going somewhere, right? So there are a couple rules that we can look at other than just the length of time to decide if something has modulated or if it's just a tanase ization. So let's go to a new video and let's talk through those rules. 6. Rules For Modulation: Okay, The rules for modulation. Now, before I go through these few rules, um, just point out one more time. It's not cut and dry. Even if you follow all of the rules, somebody might analyze something as atomization and somebody else might much might analyze it as, ah, modulation. And you might both be right. So this is one of those things where, um, it really kind of comes down to the justification. If I asked somebody to analyze something and it was debatable Ah, and it was on an exam in college, I might ask them to explain why they decided that it was a tennis ization or why they decided it was a modulation if they have a good answer than they would be right, regardless of how they did it. So there are There can be situations where there's no correct answer and where both answers are correct. So that being said, here are the main things that we look for. Um, okay, so let's say we modulate to this new key right when we get there. OK, right when we get to the new key, we don't know yet if it's atomization or if it's Ah, modulation. The first thing that we might look for is see if there is some kind of predominant, dominant tonic progression in the new key. Okay, so we're in the key of G, and then we modulate to D. Does it do something in D and then go back to G, or is there a predominant, dominant tonic progression in the new key? So remember, that would be something like the most simple version of a predominant, dominant tonic progression would be a 451 progression. Is there some kind of 451 in the new key that would help to establish the new key right, Because that 451 is going to really make that one feel like a new is gonna make it really feel like tonic. So if there is a predominant, dominant tonic progression in the new key, it points towards it being a modulation. Okay, if there is some kind of firm cadence like a perfect authentic cadence in the new key, that would lead us to believe that it's a modulation as well. Typically, if something is a tanase ization, we don't get a really strong cadence at any point in it, you might get one. Ah, but it's not super common toe. Have one. So we look for some kind of really strong cadence, and then the third thing is some kind of extended progression in the new key. So not just a 51 in the new key. But some kind of longer progression that sticks to the new key doesn't go outside of it very much, Um, and really establishes the new key. So those three things are kind of our three rules for deciding if something is a modulation or Atanasov ization. So one more time. First thing, Ah, predominant dominant tonic progression in the new key second thing, some kind of firm cadence in the new key third thing, some kind of extended progression in the new key. So it's not that it's a length of time that were in the new key. That doesn't really tell us, Um, although if something is in, if something goes to a new key and stays there for five minutes, it's probably a modulation. But the length of time is not exactly the best factor to figure out. Okay, so those are the main rules now for the purposes of this section. We're not going to debate this topic very much. We're talking about modulations, so we're gonna assume everything we do from here on out. Ah, until I say otherwise is a modulation, because we're going to be looking at short examples, right? Because I don't want to analyze an entire piece just to point out how we do a certain modulation. So everything that we're gonna dio we're just going to say this is a modulation, regardless of context, because when we only look at a few bars of something, it's impossible to say whether it's a modulation or a Thomas ization, Right? So for the purposes of this class, all of these are gonna be modulations because I say they are cool. Um, so just go with me on that so that we can find the best way to do some modulations. Okay, cool. Moving on 7. Using Pivot Chords: Okay, so when we're using pivot cords, the basic idea is we've got a key and we're going to find Accord or maybe two chords or maybe three chords that work in both. The key were in and that he we're going to OK, so for example, let's just say let's just write some text here. Ah, uh, staff text. We're gonna look at this example that I have here in just a second, but let's say were in the key of see Right, uh, we have 12345 six, seven and one. Okay, now let's say what's another key? Well, what I really should do here is Let's do this. That's right. The names of the court C major D minor E minor F major G major A minor. Be okay. Those were all our records. And see, Major. Okay, so let's pick another key. Um, what's a Oh, let's do this. Let's say an obvious one would be like G. So we go to the five, right? So this is just one step over on the circle of fits, right? This is a closely related key. That means on a circle of fifths. It's one step in either direction. So C is going to be one step to the right and f is gonna be one step the left. So that means it's probably gonna be a few ah, common courts between the two. So the cords in G r g major a minor B minor d major, what am I doing? Uh, not D is not after b c major d major e minor f sharp, dim and then g major again. Okay, so if I just scoot this over in line this up this way, Okay, G major is a common court between the two. A minor is a common core between the two. B is not because in one it's diminished and the other it's minor, so that doesn't work. But let's go over here. Uh, see, let's do this. That's lineup R. C. Okay. See, Major is also a common chord. D is not a common court because in C, it's minor. And in G, it's major case. So De doesn't work e minor works because it is a common chord in both F is not a common chord because it's f major in one and F sharp diminished in the other. So f is definitely not. So we could do just to make this a little bit easier looking is Let's do this. Let's just put this kind of out of order. Okay? So the key, the cords in G starting on C just so that they're lined up here. See, major d minor E minor f I was gonna space things that they lined up. There we go. Okay, so see majors in common. D is not e minor is in common. F is not or f sharp. G major is a minor is so we have one, 234 chords in common between the two keys. Okay, That means we have four potential pivot chords with four chords that we could do something in C major Get to, for example Ah, an e minor chord. And then after we do something using the e minor chord, we then continue on through a core progression in G, and we do a cadence to G major. Right? That means e minor was our pivot cord. We went through a core progression. We used e minor sort of in both keys when we did use e minor and then we resolved to G major, therefore making e minor the pivot cord. Okay, sometimes there's a few pivot cords where you might do something an e minor, or you might hit the e minor chord, then maybe do a G major in a minor and then, ah, resolve it down to G Major or something like that so you can find a few pivot cords and use them. That makes it even stronger. Okay, so that's basically how pivot cords work, and it's an easy way to do a modulation. Now let's look at this little example we have up here and see if we confined, um, a pivot court happening just in this short little excerpt. 8. Mozart: Piano Sonata In D Major: Okay. Lets reorder this just so that it's not confusing. Ah, And then let's just set these down here for a minute, because we're gonna want those in a minute, I think. Let's just hear this excerpt. This is Mozart, Piano, Sonata and D Major. Their movement measures four through eight. So let's just hear it. Okay? Nothing strange. Right? Um, everything sounds just fine. Now, notice that, uh, we start and tonic is probably D F sharp. D a. We have very strong one k. The name of the piece is Piano Sonata in D Major. It's probably Tonic is in D, major. Right? And everything goes along just fine and we get a little cave ins. But did you notice this cadence? Sounds like tonic, right? Everything's fine. Clearly these two notes on this sweet little suspension here what we have here a c sharp, because the key signature a e A. This is a major. So somehow in these three bars right here, we went from D major to a major, and he might not have even noticed. Right? It was a sneaky little modulation that happened there. See if you can hear it again. We're starting off in D. Major were ending in a major. So what did he dio? How did he do that? How did he pull that little, sneaky little trick on us? Leave it to Mozart to do a sneaky little trick. Well, let's analyze it. And Okay, so So we're in d major. So whenever we're working with modulations, I can't run. If he did this in the last class or not, we start off with We always say, what key were in with the key? Uh, colon, Right? So d were in key of d major here. If we were in the key of D minor, I do that. Okay, so in the key of d major, that's how I'm analyzing this. And that's gonna become important as we do modulations because we might be changing. He's a lot, which we will. Okay, so let's called this. Let's call this at one. Because they're very clearly is D all d. And then what about here? So we have d b f sharp be that does make a triad of, uh, with a root of B B. D f. Does that make sense up here? Yeah, I have sharp d of sharp. Sorry, is that it? Should have said f sharp second ago. So be, uh, be d f sharp. What is that? Let's just write out all records really quick in the key of D here. Let's say D when we have d minor. Um, I guess Be consistent here. The our troops D major E minor have sharp minor G major, A major B minor C sharp, dim. Okay, there's all records. So with the root of B, we have B minor. That's a six court. Okay, that's totally cool. Six. Okay, now let's go here. So same thing we're just looking at d major. Nothing funny here. We do see this accidental here, though, which tells us something strange is about to happen. But let's see, So we have e b g sharp that says e major Ah b d b d So e b g sharp b is in both chords de natural. It's also in here that makes e g sharp b D. That is a big old seventh chord as a dominant chord Cable. That's an E, right? Our big dominant chord is gonna be It's always the five, right? So that's gonna be on a So this is not in key, which we knew because we see this g sharp here. But what this really is is a to seven chord. Okay, so I'm gonna put this in parentheses because it's out of key, so that doesn't make really any sense. Um, it could just be an out of key to seven court, but unlikely. Um, it could be a five of five chord, right? That would make sense. Or ah, what would it be? It would be, Ah, five of six. Chord is what it would be. So five of six Chord doesn't make a ton of sense here either. But let's go on to the next chord and see what's happening here. See if this gives us a clue as to anything else. So we have ah g b s i d g d b. So G b d is a g triad, not a d be g sharp. Oh, still g sharp. I forgot. So g sharp B de b two Sharps or G sharp makes sense. Um, is there 1/7 year G g B D f sharp? Here's an f sharp. So it's quick, though, so probably not calling that 1/7 cause It's on a week beat. So we have a g sharp. Um, what would that be? G Sharp to be is a minor third B to D as a minor third. That is diminished chord. So we have a G sharp, diminished chord, so we don't even have a g sharp in our key. So what, we would call that if we had to call it something in the key of D, We would call it a sharp for diminished. And that makes very, very little sense, Right? This means the root isn't even in the key. So we're clearly not in the same key anymore. Okay, once you have to cords out of key, and one of them is super out of key. Then you start to say, Wait a minute. I'm not in the right key anymore. So 16 27 maybe we're selling key Sharp for diminished know we've switched. So now is when you say I think I missed a boat here, and we may have pivoted out of this key somewhere else. If one of these could be considered a pivot. Okay, let's go to a new video and see if we can figure out where the pivot waas 9. Analyzing The Pivot Chord: Okay, So in order to figure out where the pivot might be, let's look at our possible pivots. We know we start in, de So here's all records and D We know we end in a because this clearly sounds like tonic at this point, and this is an A court, so let's do the same thing. But let's go a, um so records in a are a major B minor c sharp minor D major e major F sharp, minor G sharp diminished. Okay, so where are, Let's figure out first, Where are possible? Pivot cords are so let's go like this. And so a major is a pop possible pivot court. It's one in the key of a and five in the key of D. Hey, B Minor is a possible pivot cord. It's two in the key of a and six in the key of D. C. Sharp Minor is not because it's finished in one D. Major is a possible pivot cord. It's four in the key of a and one in the key of D E. Major is not a possible pivot cord. It's two in the key of De and three. We're sorry, five are. And it's major in one key in a major and minor. Indeed. G sharp diminished is not in both keys. Okay, so we have a C 123 four possible pivot courts. Okay, so, uh, now let's rule that down a little bit more. Um, when we're using pivot cords, the least good pivot cord is tonic in either key. So d major could be a pivot cord. But it's not a great one because it really just feels like tonic. Um, and in this case, when you're going from, uh, one to the five of to the key, that's a five away, you know? So it's really closely related because it's only one step on the circle of fifths D major. If that's gonna be our pivot cord, it's really going to feel like one and D, and it's gonna feel like four. And a. That's not a real strong poll. The same thing. If we used one in the new key in a, it's gonna feel like one and Indy. It's gonna feel like five. So if we just went de toe a two D, it's gonna feel like 1 to 5 to one. It's not gonna feel like a strong pull. So those are a little the less the least good options. So it's probably not one. Not this one. It's probably not six. Could it be this one, though? Let's look at it. So six in the key of D is B minor and B minor is two and a so it actually could be that court. Right? It very well could be the cord. What about this one? 27 were already out of key here, So this is nothing in D, right? So it's probably not this. So what was this? An e major? Yeah. This is an e major. So it's not really even in d anymore. So actually, it's probably are six court here, so let's pull these down. Let's keep him lined up. So what we're gonna do here, we're gonna go like this and the next line down, we're gonna right a and then we're going Teoh, duplicate this, but we're going to say in a this is too okay. And we want things that kind of line up as best as possible. And then here we're going to say, What is this chord in a Does it make more sense. Uh, e g sharp B d. That would be 570 that makes so much sense, right? 57 What about this one? Ah, doesn't make any sense in D, but let's see. What was it again? Ah g sharp b de, uh Oh, yeah, that was RG sharp. Diminished. Well, that's a good old seven. Diminished seven. Right? So that is he I I diminished seven. That's looking very good. So are pivot. Cord was right here. So this to cord in a are this? What was it? A B minor chord. This B minor chord pivoted, and it led us right into 57 in the second key and in the new key. And by that point by that 57 were feeling a like a is probably feeling like tonic already right here. So it's right away right there. We get it. Let's analyze rest of it. Um, So what we have here and I think we're firmly in a So let's see, we have a c e c sharp. So let's call that one. I'm still gonna leave it here in this row because we want to show that we're in a here. We have d B f sharp. So that's Ah to I should be ready. My inversions. What? I'm not That's okay. Uh, then we have Let's see, e a c and e So a c e c sharp. So that's one Oops. 17 Here we have E g sharp de with the B right there. So that's 57 just like that. And in fact, Ah, if we wanted to get ah fancy, which we always do, we could call this a credential. Um, 64 Because this is a 164 going Teoh 57 Right. Remember that? So a tonic chord with five in the base leading to a five chord with five in the base makes a potential 64 So let's just call it 57 all the way through there. So, technically, we should call this 56453 You remember we did that a few classes ago, but since I'm not writing inversions at the moment, let's just right five. And then here. We're gonna call this one with a suspension right here, but by their we get toe one. So well, it's called that court one. Cool. Okay, So this is how we would know Tate. This we would say D now we're in d happily here's our pivot, and then we go forward in a You don't really need these in here. Although you can write him in there if you want. We just, um, put him in parentheses or something like that. Um, And then if we want to get fancy, sometimes you would circle this or draw a box around this so that you can see that it is a pivot. But we do in two lines like this. Right? But there you go. Now you have it. I'm going to get rid of these to clean that up, and then we'll leave that analysis there. So there is our pivot cord. 10. Modulating To V Using Pivot Chords: Okay, Here's a weird analogy about pivot cords that just came to mind. This is kind of this is I don't know if this is even appropriate, but I'm just gonna tell the story anyway. So at one point when I was in graduate school ah, my teacher hired me. So my teacher was taking care of a composer who is a well known composer whose name I won't mention. But she was in a nursing home and she had dementia. She didn't really know a lot of what was going on at the time, But we lived in Baltimore and she was in New York, and they wanted to get her closer to where he I lived my teacher, because he was in charge of her estate and taking care of her, so he wanted get her closer, but she didn't want to leave New York. Ah, so and this is this is really kind of terrible. But, I mean, I got to continue now. So what he did because she was not very knowledgeable about what was happening around her. What it is. He hired me to me and a friend of mine to get a moving van go to New York. Uh, and while the nurse took her out, somehow the nurse took her out of her, um, room in the nursing home for a night and we loaded up all her stuff and we drove it back down to Baltimore and we went to a new nursing home in Baltimore and we set it all up, And then the nurse eventually drove her down to Baltimore and just said, OK, now your hope. And, uh, she didn't really even know that she wasn't in New York anymore. She was in Baltimore. That's kind of how piva courts work. Weird analogy. I don't know if you stuck with me through that, but basically, or, uh, we're starting off a drive and then we're gonna get home, and the home that we get to is going to be somewhere totally different, and we're not even going to know it. Um, that's how it works. It's really weird, but that's how it works. OK, so, um, a couple rules about Pippa cords. Um, we've talked about this, but ah, here in this case, we used the six to progression. Um, so six and one key to and in the other key. I shouldn't say progression, but the six to pivot, which is usually a really good one because they're both pre dominant chords, right? They both flint can function is predominant chords. So it can lead you to do something in a five after it a dominant, uh, area. And then you can can a cadence in the one. Which is exactly what we did here, right? Sweded five. Diminished one. Uh, like I said before using the pivot of one and 41 in the first key and four on the other key . It's not a very strong one. It's just really hard to convince somebody that the new tonic is home. You know that the home has changed when because it didn't really change that much, so that's harder to get away with. Another one that's hard is three and six. So three and in the key of D three would be F sharp, minor and in the key of a six would be F sharp minor. So the three and the six that's hard. Just because three just isn't a real strong tendency court, it doesn't really feel like it needs to go anywhere. So it's hard to use that by itself as a pivot cord and also five and one. So ah, five and her first key, so that would be a and one in our second key would be a both major, so that could be a pivot. But that just tends to sound like five and one in the old key doesn't really pull you into the new key very strongly. So that one's tricky to know. All of these relate to just the pivot cords related to going from a tonic earned going from one key to the dominant of that key. So I'm modulation from D to A right now. We can go through modulation from one key to any other key, and we will go through a good handful of them in the next couple videos. But, um, because they each have their own, you know what's good and what's bad. But generally speaking, when you're modulating from I one key to the dominant of that key, so you're modulating up 1/5. The 62 pivot motion is that, generally speaking, the smoothest way to go. So something to keep in mind about that? Okay, that being said, let's look at a different pattern. So let's look at ah, if we were in a minor key and we were modulating to its relative Major, how could we do that with a pivot cord? 11. Modulating From Minor To Relative Major: Okay, let's talk about ah, finding pivot chords between a minor key. And it's relative major. Okay, so we want to go, for example, from a minor, and we modulate to see Major. Now, this is trickier than it sounds because, um well, let's let's do it here. So if we have a minor, we have, um, a minor B diminished C major D minor E minor F major G major, and then a minor. How were Well, okay, so keep that in mind. And now let's look at modulating Did things in common with C major. Okay, so, see, Major, we have C d e f g a minor b diminished. Okay, So what have we have here? Nearly everything in common, right? That's the kind of whole point of relative majors and miners, right? Um, all cords are the same. However, they're kind of not all the same, because remember, in minor, we have the five. Chord is minor, but it's also major because we very often raise that and raise the leading tone right. Ah, and raising leading tone alters the five court to major and the leading tone to a leading tone diminished seven court. So When that happens, these ones are not able to be used as pivot cords because not only are they not in common, but they're altered chord, so we don't want to use them. To call them pivot cords is really not quite accurate, but they're not even in common, so it doesn't really matter. So when we do this, the most common way to do it. So we're talking about modulating from a minor key to its relative major. The most common thing to Dio are those pre dominant function things. So something like four and two. So the four in a minor, which is 1234 D minor and the two in C major being D minor. So using the before and the to as a common one because of that predominant function, other options are one in six, so you could use a minor and the six of C major, which is a minor that's possible. That's a little trickier, but it can be done It followed by a strong cadence three and one, uh, also possible to see Major is three and a minor down to one in C major foreign to where you talked about Ah six and four So F major to f major like that, Um, that one gives us a lot of predominant function, so that one's really good as well. Um, if I had to choose the most effective, I would probably say the four and two relationship so diviner to D minor foreign to here, or six and four f major f major in this particular switch. So this one is tricky because everything is in common. So you have to remember basically, your best routes are the predominant area cords, and you have to watch out for raised leading tones in your minor key Kuo. 12. Pivoting From I to IV: Okay, let's take a look at going from 1 to 4 to see what our options are. So to see, Major as our one and then we'll do f major. Okay, So records an F major are a major G minor. Any minor? The major. Sorry, B flat Major. C major D minor E diminished. Okay, so what we have in common, we have the one in the floor. We don't have Jeanne e g. The G chord in common. A minor is in common. Not to be. C major isn't common, and D minor is in common, not e. So we hav four chords, right? If Major a minor c major and D minor. Okay, so what's gonna be our best choice here? What's gonna make the smoothest transition? Well, let's see, f major. If we use f major, we're going to be on a four to a one of four and a one. Okay, that's okay. That's not really strong, though. Although one of those two chords and has a predominant function, remember, the predominant function is what we really want, um, to make this stick. The best way to go is a predominant funder, a minor. So here we have six and three. That's not bad. Um, six can have a predominant function. Three. Not so much. Um, three is really kind of hard to make that pole stick, so that's not great. Ah, see, Major, that would be one 26 I'm sorry. 1 to 5. Not great. Because really not predominant at all. De Miner would be 2 to 6. That's not bad. We've already seen 2 to 6 before. Um, up here. Uh, so let's try that. Um and I thought, maybe this time, let's just here. Let's hear it. Um, OK, so let's get over into C major key signature. Now, I should point out, um, because I don't think I pointed out when we were up here that even though we did switch keys to a major, we did not switch key signatures. Right? You don't have to switch key signatures to make to be in a different key. The key signature is just a convenience to help you be able to read something a little easier. It doesn't tell us what key it is necessarily. So even though our key signature here shows d major, we are firmly in a major at this point. So and the key signature didn't change. We're just gonna have some more accidental. That's totally okay. But let's go to see Major and let's try just writing something. So I want to establish that we're in C Major, Let's do something really simple. Let's do one five. Um, let's not go right back to one. Let's do, um, not a four. I'm gonna use that to in a minute. So don't want to use to Don't use 345 Let's trust six. So a minor a c e And then let's go back to five and then to one Okay, firmly established C major here. Now let's see if we can pivot. So we're gonna use D minor. So in C Major, what's my quickest route to get to D minor? Could go right to D minor. Or I could do something. That'll be a little more elegant. Let's go to six first a c E. Now to two. Because 62 is a nice core progression. Okay, now I'm on our pivot cord. There it is. D minor. Okay, now I'm gonna take off in D minor now. I really want to try to do some kind of dominant ah function next. So if I can get to dominant in F, that'd be great. So let's try to get to see Major. Oh, but that's tricky, right? Because it's gonna feel like I didn't go anywhere unless I cheat in that B flat right there . Make 1/7 chord that's going to make a nice, big dominant motion. Now let's go toe f f a. C as our new tonic. And then let's just establish tonic a little bit here by doing a another 51 We just did a five. So five we did a 51 right there. Um, let's do it to 51 again. So it's good G minor as a to C major toe f So do you minor? We're sorry. G minor hoops. G d. I need to be flat, too. Five. And let's put the B flat in the bottom. And then to one Oops! One in our new key f it's do that. Okay, so let's see if it worked. Remember, our pivot is right there. Okay? And now from here on out were in F, but we'll see if it feels like f by the time we get there, they're pretty good. Uh, definitely feels right here. Like we've gone somewhere else, or we are on our way somewhere else, but, um, f felt really good when we got there, so I'm pretty content with that. So there we go. We used De Miner as our pivot as a two and C major and a six in F major. 13. Pivoting From i To v: Okay. How about minor 12 minor five. I promises to be the last one we do, but I'm trying to do is kind of get in your head how we can figure these out. So, minor one. Let's do good old a minor. Our cords are a minor. Be diminished. C major d minor E minor F Major G major. Right now, assuming no modifications to that. So we don't have a raised leading tone or anything like that. Now let's go to minor five. So e minor. So e minor is going to be e minor f sharp, diminished. G major, A minor B minor C major D major. Okay, so minor. 12 minor. Five. What do we have in common and see a minor. So we're gonna have a minor and e minor in common. Most of the time, you're gonna have the tonic of each key and common unless you're doing something really strange. So a minor be diminished? Nope. C major is in common. De miner is not in common. E minor is in common. F is not in common. G major is in common. So we have 12 three, four things in common so to see what they are. Let's write these down a little bit differently here. So let's do this. So are possible Pivots Could be, um, one toc. How should I do this? Let's see. Like that? Uh, no, I'm just going to use a hyphen one. And so that's a minor and a minor. So I e a minor is four. So one and four, Uh, not B c major. So three and six de miner is not in common. E minor is so that would be five and one f major is not uncommon. G major is so that would be seven and three. Okay, so here's our possible pivot chords. So what's gonna be the best? Well, this one has some predominant function to it, but it also has a tonic, so it's not awesome, but it's not bad. Three and 66 has some predominant, but three doesn't give us very much ammo here. 5 to 1. Ah, kind of the same is the 1st 1 Not a lot of pre dominant function, actually. Um, and a tonic makes it a little hard. And seven and three. Mm. So in our seven and three, we have some dominant functionality here in the seven, although not really because it's minor. Um, and then we have three. So it's That's not awesome, either. So we have a whole bunch of bad choices. We don't have a great choice here. Um, but given all of these choices, I'm going to eliminate this one is probably the worst choice, I think because there's no predominant function here a little bit in the one, but not a lot. Um, I might go one and four. Um, I think you could make it work with one and four, um, or three and six probably be my second choice. Third choice would be seven end three. This one is trickier, because seven is sort of a dominant function. Um, although without the leading tone, it's not so much, Um, but at least in the 3 to 6, we have some dominant function here, so we could make that really kind of feel like dominant, especially are predominant, I should say, especially sense. The pre dominant is in the destination. So when we get to this cord, we can make it feel like a predominant weaken. Do a cadence and we can finish it out and establish the new key. So I probably go with one of the top two. Um, both of those, I think could work. Okay. Okay. So, um, let's do one more thing on the pivots, and let's just talk about kind of generally speaking, going from anywhere to anywhere. 14. Rules Of Pivoting: Okay, so just a quick review of the rules here. If you want a transition between any two keys using a pivot cord, the easiest way to do it list out all the chords in the key, find one that's in common and use that chord and use it to pivot. And by pivoting, we mean we're gonna use it. And then we're going to do some kind of strong cadence in the new key right after it. The best pivots are going to be the ones that have a pre dominant function to them. So some kind of 462 that kind of a thing that gets us that pre dominant feel. So we're gonna do a predominant function, and then that leads us right into being able to do a dominant function right after it, which will be some kind of strong 51 cadence that will really help us establish the new key . And that's how you can kind of sneak in a key change like this one where we didn't really feel it real strong or even more so. This one where it just kind of happened. And before we knew it, we were in the new key to this one more time. Just remind us, right? Start in D. We ended on a and you didn't even know it. So that's what we're looking for. Okay, cool. 15. Abrupt Modulation: all right. So not all modulations that happen Use a pivot cord. There are other ways you can modulate, and one of the biggest other ways is what we call direct modulation. Now the term direct modulation. It's kind of a general term for a few different ways of modulating, all of which don't involve Ah pivot court. So we sometimes call direct modulations abrupt modulation. Same thing, just a different word. And we also we have 1/3 word yet for it. Or third phrase, I guess. And that's phrase modulations and what that basically means. Like in phrase modulations, they all kind of in the same thing. But when I think about a phrase modulation, what I'm thinking of is a piece of music in which one phrase ends and then another phrase starts. But it starts in a new key, right? So it's just something comes to an end. Something else starts and the start is in a new key. So it's a much more abrupt form of modulation, which is why we also calendar and abrupt modulation. It's also a much more direct modulation, which is why we call it a direct modulation, and there are other modulation things. There are other ways we can modulate other than direct our other than pivot cords that fall into direct modulations as well. Like using a secondary dominant right. That's a great way to do a modulation. We looked at using secondary dominance to do Atanasov ization. But if you could do a tanase ization with it, why couldn't you do a modulation with it, right? You totally can. We're gonna look at that in this section. Um So first, let's look at one of these phrase modulations by, ah, analyzing a short Bach piece and finding how he did a modulation. And I'm not gonna tell you where it is. We're just gonna analyze this and find it as we go. Okay, Let's go to a new video and let's do some analysis 16. Bach: O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden: All right. So I have here, uh, excerpts. The beginning of a box corral. Oh, hops, Vole Blute kun. Wound in is my absolutely terrible German pronunciation. But, um, that is the name of this car out. Let's hear. Okay, let's slow it down. Just a touch. That was a little hard to wrap our heads around. Okay, one more time. A little bit slower tempo. Okay, so there's a modulation here. Um, So how do I know there are two things that tell me right away that there's a modulation happening here? One is that Ah, we start and end in a different spot. So here we have f a d. So probably in could be d minor, but probably see is our note, so f a c So we're in f, probably here. Um, we'll confirm that in just a second, but trust me for a minute. We're in f here, Um, and we end in de here minor d minor. So, um and this feels like tonic. So that says probably modulation. Another thing that tells me probably a modulation is I start to see some accidental pop up right here. Okay. And, uh, whenever you see Sharps pop up, you can make a guess, and this isn't a surefire thing, but you can make a guess that those sharps are leading tones, right? So that pro. So when I see a bunch of c sharps pop up, I'm my gut says we're probably heading to some kind of D It might be major minor. I don't know. Um, but just by seeing these c sharps, I might start thinking of D um, Now you might notice there are flats here as well, but don't get confused by those. This is just a weird music or thing. Um, B Flat is in the key signature, and it's showing them here. I'm not sure why it's showing these flats. Can I just Yeah, there we go. They're cool. Um, those air in the key signature. So don't get thrown off by those. Okay, so let's do a little analysis. So let's do that. Go there. This Okay, so let's say we're in F. So we're going to F. Cohen, meaning this is our analysis in F. So let's call this. I really need to call this one. Actually, let's call this a D f A. Which is going to be. What? In the key of F, it's going to six. So we're starting to six, which is okay, it's Bach. You know, he's he's tricky. Okay, then we're gonna go to here. What we got here? We have d f d b. So how do we get that into a Triad B flat? Sorry, B flat D f is a triad in the key of F That is a major woops for Okay, let's go to the next down be they're not. Not the next downbeat, but the next beat. We're going to call these two notes here. Pathan notes their step wives in between feels pretty good to call those passing what we have here a c f a. So we have a one. And if we want to be fancy, we call it a 16 because it's ah, inversion six. It's really hard to write inversions here in music or because they're I can't do like a sub script like a really small six. That's what it should be. Okay, let's go on to the next chord and what we have here. Um, so we have d B. That's a G and de so G B flat D is to cord and then our last week here. F a c f. It's a good old one chord. Okay? Nothing out of the ordinary. Just having a good time in F. Now we can confirm here that f is tonic because if we stop right here, it should feel like a good place to stop. It should feel like tonic. Let's try it. That's OK. That could be the end of the piece would be an awfully short piece, but we get it right. It's okay, so let's keep going. Here's another B flat. So let's just delete the flat because it's in the key signature. So do we have here? B D F g. Okay, so probably G B flat d half right. So to seven. So some things getting a little weird, but not too weird because, says, really, we should call us to 65 If we're going to write our inversions down, I'm gonna call it a 265 So it's 1/7 chord on to, but it's not a key. It's on a dominant seven chord. It's perfectly fine. It's in key, so that's lead that here we have C e c so that with a lot of see right there, so that really kind of points to a five chord. Because we're doubling the roots. It's in the base, C E. That's five chord. And then here f a c f a one chord. So we have a little perfect authentic cadence right there. Right? 51 Great. Okay, So what happens next? Now we get into these c sharp, start popping up. So something strange is about to happen. Okay, so this video is getting quite long, so let's break it and cut to a new one and figure out the modulation in the next part. 17. Modulations In Bach: Okay, let's just keep right on going with F. And, um, I should point out that when you're doing these analyses, this happens a lot where you do analysis, you might go all the way in f and then you say, Okay, wait, I'm I missed the the train derailed at some point, and then you walk backwards and find where the modulation actually happened. That's true. And pivot cords, especially where you might say, Okay, we're analyzing we're analyzing. Well, here's a better example analysing in D bubble blah and then weird stuff is in de here. And so you step backwards and say, Oh, this was a pivot court And now we're in a So it's very common for you to go too far in one key and then start walking backwards to find it. So let's just do that. What is this chord in F? Let's figure out what it is, so we have an A and e another e and a c sharp. So a c sharp eat. We have an a major chord that would be this is gonna be out of key, so it's put in parentheses is going to be a major three chord. Okay, now three and F three in a major key is minor, right? But this is a major chord that c sharp got it, major. So weird. Let's do one more record. So we have f a e d. So if we put that into a triad would have d f a don't know quite what to do with that e. We might have to call that the e a passing or a suspension from this E. Because of that, it resolves down to a d here, so that's probably a suspension. So let's call this d f a. So it's a d minor, which would be in the key of F six. And that actually is in key. Okay, so that's six. That's okay. Not too weird. What about here? Same thing. Different inversion, but still a six we get here. We have d a e d we be again on a suspension again while this time Is that a suspension? Um, but probably a passing tone. So let's call this still d. And here a c sharp e a So that is this major three again and then we have six again. De. Okay, So what went wrong here. There's two things we can tell that are wrong down here. One is that we have these two chords that are out of key. Another is that we have all of these sixes and we end on a six. And that six does not feel like a six. That six feels like a tonic right there. Right? Let's hear. Right. That is tonic. So at some point, we shifted keys. So what is this? Uh, six. This is a D. Okay, so let's figure out where we switched to D. And it's probably right here, right where we started seeing that those c sharps pop up. So, what is this chord in the key of D? It is five. So? So now if we called this d, we'd have five. We'd have one here. We'd have one or 16 here if we really dug down to it. What we could have here is a credential. 64 So we have a five 6453 potential 64 right there to a one. Do we need to review potential? Six fours? I think we just talked about him, but so basically, because we have a five in the base. We can call this a type of five chord, even though it's a one chord, but it's gonna kind of function like a five chord that resolves as a 642 of 53 eso. The notes from the tonic chord resolved down to the father the actual five chord, which is the 553 and then resolved to a one. That's our credential. 64 We talked about it a couple classes ago. So is that our pivot cord? No, there's not. We just jump right into it, right? So if we were analyzing this, we don't really even need to use the multiple lanes of analysis. We could just do this. We could just get rid of all of this and say, You know what? Cheat that over a little bit. I could just do it all in one line if you want, because it's a direct modulation. There's no overlap. It doesn't need to be a different line for it. It's a little bit hard to read this way, but this is how we like to do it. So we're in F, blah, blah, blah. We're analyzing so 64121251 And now we're Indy 5116564531 So we are in one here. So that's how we like to analyze these. This is an abrupt modulation. There's no pivot. We just go right in. We just say, And I should point out, this is the end of a phrase. There should be a firm outta here, but I can't actually find a for Mata in new score moment, so I'll put a breath mark. Okay, so this is the end of a phrase. There's a for Mata here. Okay, that really tells us that this is starting up in a new key, right? So it's a phrase modulation if you want. It's a direct modulation if you want. It's an abrupt modulation. It is all of those things. Let's hear a former time and keep your eye on the analysis right? So there you go direct modulation in Bach 18. Bach Errors?: and hey. Ah, real quick. Just wanted to point out if you noticed it. Ah, there. Bach made an error here. Um, did anyone see the counterpoint? Error? Um, there's a wicked voice crossing right here. Right. This G goes way above that D right. So this f if this was on the trouble class would be right there, and then it goes up. So here. It's not a voice crossing here. It goes up over the alto de, and then it jumps down so wicked voice crossing right there. Um, someone told me that if you analyze, um, the entire Riemenschneider book that I pointed out the other day there are something like 10 counterpoint errors, but there's, like probably 100,000 notes in there, So, um and I don't know if I would even call them errors. I would call them Bach Having such a mastery of this. Ah, he breaks rules on occasion rarely, but on occasion, he breaks rules, and he's probably well aware that he's breaking the rules, and he probably does it anyway because he's a master of these techniques. So calling in an error is probably foolish. That implies that he didn't know what he was doing. I think he knew full well that he was making a voice crossing here anyway. Just want to point that out. 19. Modulation By Secondary Dominant: okay. We can also do modulations with secondary dominance, like I already said. So let's take a little look at this. So this, essentially, the way you do this is the exact same way we've done Thomas's ations with secondary dominance. Uh, except you need to have a cadence at the end of it. Um, in the new key to establish it. Eso Let's just make something. Let's just use triads and see if we can I'll use half notes. Okay? So let's say we're in the key. Ah, let's go to easier to follow key. That one's hard, but Okay, so let's to see, Major. Okay, so we're in C Major, we need to establish C Major. Let's do a five on one. Okay. 1151 doesn't. Doesn't get any more clear than that. We are in C major. Okay, so let's do a modulation to G using a leading tone chord. Okay, so what I'm gonna do here as I'm going to use a leading tone diminished court and let me just do this first. Um, let me just write out what I'm gonna do. Okay, So we're gonna do one. What? We've already done One one, five one. Okay. Now what I'm gonna do here is I want to do a diminished seven chord of five. Okay, So Sneed, a little line. So here's a secondary dominance is a secondary leading tone chord. We've talked about these in the last class, so five is G. Right? Um, so in order lead into G, I need a leading tone of G f sharp diminished chord. Okay, so let's go f sharp. A see, And I want to make it 1/7. Just a really hit home. So an e let's say that you have the bottoms for better kind of voice leading between here. I could tell that it's so that see, at the bottom two, give her to that see at the top just cause I want everything to kind of be in the same range here. So there's nothing to jarring, right? I'm trying to make this a smooth as possible. Okay, So leading toned him in a seven of five. And now let's go to ah, one chord in G. So I have good resolutions. My seventh is here to put that be up there, make sure my leading toned resolve. Okay, That f sharp goes G, that should work. And now So, uh, let's let's go back to labelling. So now we're one in G. So really, what we've done here is this court kind of functions as a pivot in a way because this is what it is in The old key is in the key of C. This is a secondary dominant, but in the new key, this is not a secondary dominant. It is just what it is. It is. Let's see here in the key of G. This is just seven, right? So we could do that. And that's probably the best way to know Tate. This is you're using to cords for just this one. And then from here we say, OK, one. And then in order to establish this a little bit stronger, we need a cadence. So let's do Let's do maybe a two so a c e. And then let's do like a credential. 64 So we need a G with a D in the base troops so we could call it that will make a big load D. And then the actual 57 chord are not 57 court just five chord to make the connection. 64 I need an f sharp d f sharp a and then we'll land on one in G. Here we go. Okay, so let's continue labeling here. So what we do here? We did it too. And here we did. 564 Financial 64 and then a one in the new key. So we have modulation by secondary. Dominant, right? Let's hear it. Nice. Not too bad. So secondary dominant modulations don't need to be all that abrupt. They are a type of direct modulation. Um, they are technically director modulations slash abrupt modulations, but they can be relatively smooth if you do them right. You really only need to introduce one new note to make a secondary dying dominant or a secondary leading tone and push it into a new key. You know that one note can just know just over into that new key, um, and get us there. Cool. 20. The Modulation Game: Okay, So what I thought we do next is this modulation challenge. This could be really tricky. It could be really fun. It can also be a super disaster. So we'll see how it goes. We might be deleting these videos after we make him. Ah, and you might never see them, but, uh, maybe maybe we'll work. Um, So what we're gonna do here is we're gonna take a popular melody and we're gonna try to modulation. We're gonna try to harmonize it. Ah, with a modulation in it where there wasn't one. So we're gonna try to make it shift to a new key. So we need to decide on, ah, a melody to use we could use, like a popular song like Mary had a lamb we could use. The Star Spangled Banner is one that we often use for this kind of a challenge because it does have some odd numbers. Odd, um, notes in it, um, that lend to a modulation pretty well. Um, we could use Christmas songs, but, you know, I don't think I want to use the Star Spangled Banner because I have such an international audience here. Um, maybe we'll try Mary had a little lamb. Let's try. Mary had a little lamb. So the idea here is not to change any notes in the melody, but just make it feel like it's moved to a new key. Okay, so, um, you can do this with any song you can imagine. You can harmonize something tohave a modulation in it. Ah, whether or not it sounds good is ah whole other can of worms. But let's modulate Mary had a little lamb and see what happens. 21. Mary Had A Little Modulation: Okay, so I need a few more measures here, and then I'm going. Teoh, I think to switch us over to looking, Um uh, continuous view here so we can just get up here. Okay, So let's just add a bunch of measures, okay? That should be enough. Ah, what key do we want to do this? And let's do it in C major. Just because I have a good feeling that this is going to be a mess. Um, and let's do it in four voices. So let's start off in the soprano with the melody whips. All right? Okay, So our goal here is to start off in C major. So let's put C and we need toe end. I can't I don't want to change this note. That's part of the game, right? So we need to end in a key that this c makes sense in. So we could go to a minor, right? Because then if we played an a minor chord here, this see would make sense. What else is Seon? We could end in F. That would make sense. That would be harder. Um, especially because we have the ease here, but that could be a five chord or leading tone chord, so a minor would be the easier one. But let's not play it safe. Let's let's get weird. So let's try to modulate this toe f Okay, so we're gonna end an F. So this is gonna be enough. Major quarter there. I'm just gonna right after for now. Okay, So let's spot where we want our modulation toe happen. Remember, we still we need enough time to do a cadence. Yeah, so we don't want to modulate right at the end, right? That's not gonna make it feel right. So it should be somewhere right in here. We could do a direct modulation right here, because we have a little pause. And it's the restart of a phrase. We could try to find a pivot chord in here, or we could find a secondary dominant. Now, these ease air. Gonna give me some trouble if I'm going to be an f. Um and we have all of these ease, but those could be a big five chord. Right? So I'm thinking direct modulation right here. End of a phrase. We just jump right into it. So here we say, we're in F starting right there. And we're gonna do something like five. I don't know what to do with that, D but that could be a one. This is all going to be some kind of five, and we can do in our pet jiating five chord. And then maybe we can dio and see if we can find a Well, we can't do. Ah, credential. 64 here. That won't work, but five and then one. Okay, I think this will work. All right, so let's do just the sea part first, Okay? This should be relatively easy. So we're gonna let's start on a one chord. So let's let's actually figure out what chords were going to do before, Actually, let's figure out all of our cords and then we'll go through and do the harmonization. So we started a one chord. Let's harmonize every note just for the heck of it, because we're getting weird. So what do we want to do on a d cor around with with a d? There's a d in the note. So, uh, in the key of C, doing something with the five would be good There. There's a D in the five chord of C, we have a C. Let's just go right back to a one just to really establish our tonic back to a D. We could do a five court again. Keep it simple until we have to. As long as we can, I should say so. Here. Let's do a one. But let's not do 111 here. Let's do one. What could we do? What else can we do with an E in it? Um, see, e g. We could do a three chord, Um, or we could do. Ah, a minor chord. A 6/4. That might be nice. So let's do a six court here hoops. So we'll just do a little 161 just to set a little change there. Okay? And then here, we can do a five. Let's do a similar thing. So, five. What else could we do with the D chord? That would be subtle, kind of dominant related thing so we could do ah diminished seven chord. We could do a we could do a to court. Let's do it to Court two. And then let's go back to five. Okay, so now we want to end here. We're We're going to do a direct modulation, so we don't need to do anything too crazy here. So let's go back to one. And then is there anything that could help us get toe F? We don't really need to, though, Um, because this is gonna be direct, but we wanted to be a smoothest possible. So if we did just out of curiosity, what is the five of f at sea? So actually, we could do a nice little sneaky thing here if we did. I'm gonna go back on what I said because we were set up perfectly to do a secondary dominant here. Because what if we did here, um, of five here. Right, So that would be a G chord. And then here we did. Ah, five of four. The five of four would be essentially a one court right and be a 17 chord. So let's make this is 57 chord. So now I changed my mind. We're going to use a secondary dominant, because it's just too perfect. Okay, so we're gonna use 57 of four, and that's gonna lead us right into f. Okay, Now the only problem here is that we're gonna go 5742 of five. We're not going to get a one till down there, but I think we could make it work. Okay. Did you follow me on that? So what's basically happening here is we're gonna add 1/7 to this. We're gonna do a C seven, even though we're in the key of C. But adding that seventh is going to give us that little push. Just that it's gonna be a B flat. That b flat is going to just push us right over into into F, and it's gonna feel great. I think this will actually be really smooth. Um, I think this could work this next part. I don't know. Um, so let's see. So now we're in the key of F. So we have five. What can I do with D? I have to harmonize the pitch D and F so I could do a d f A. That would be a six chord. That would be nice. Um, I could do a B flat DF That would be a four chord. I could do a two chord. I think I like six cord the best. So let's do a six year, then one. And then let's do another six here. Five. What's gonna do? Five. This whole barks. We really need to establish the new key of F. Um, let's dio six here. I guess 665 561 is not great. Um, what else could I do here? I could do four. It's gonna make playgirl cadence at the end, which is not real strong, for one is a playgirl cadence. Um, that would be be d b flat d f d f a Or I could do I could do it too. I might have to go with the play goal Gaitan's. So I'm gonna have to go with the four here, Okay? So that's gonna be not really strong, but because we're gonna go 541 in the 41 ending, it is going to feel a little awkward, but I think maybe we could make it. OK, Okay, Now we just have to fill in the notes. All right, So let's go to a new video and let's see if we could make this work 22. The Easy Part: Okay, so let's go bar by bar and just focus on the C section for now. Okay, So hoops we go, I do. Okay. So I'm gonna be on layer to and I want eso I need to make it. Let's go g And then five I'm gonna try to do all of this all of the second layer first and then go down to the bass clef. So for a five, I need G b D. Let's go to be and then g for one on in five up to be again. Okay, now let's go down to our bass clef. So it's I think I need to do like to first cause I want to do our base. See, G Let's just do time. That's just do root position for this 1st 1 actually. Take that back. Let's put that there. So we have a d in the base. S o r cord is g B D. Yet so six for it. That's OK. Okay, Now let's go here and see if you can fill that out. So I have See e g. What I want to double see would probably be nice here. I have g be the I could double the D. That would be OK. In this case. I could also go down to be That makes parallels third's, which is OK if I go up to the sea again. That's okay. If I go up to a d here, we've got parallel octaves. Let's go down to the B again. Okay, that looks OK now. There's probably errors in there. I have to like, really kind of study it to see if there's not, but you all can point them out if I made errors. Uh, main thing I'm focusing here on is the modulation. So I'm trying to go kind of fast. Okay, let's go. Here. So one so C e g, let's see what we've got there. G six. So six and C is a Let's go a and then back down. Okay, let's go here. So we have we have this nice line going up. So let's see if I could do an e here and then and a c e. I could stay on the e, but that's parallel unison, which isn't awesome. Um, actually d t e d t e. That's a parallel active, So this can't be e um, let's pull him back down to see and then let's go. This is still true position. That's okay. Let's do that. And then almost to the fun part, see, e g to go back up to a C. Do you see? That's okay. I think so. I have a e and really need to see here, which is great. Let's do that. Okay. I should really change these 2/2 notes. Okay? All right. More bar before things start getting fun. 1.5 more bars. Okay, so here we have five. So let's do G and then two is gonna B d f Yeah, d s s Let's go up. Let's do that, then in our base, let's go. Can I go up to a D? I can't go to a d That'll be nice, And then we'll put a root position. Five chord here. So then, for two chord d f A. So I want something in between the connect these two notes. So a woodwork de kind of works. That's parallel unison again? Kind of. Okay, but let's go a, um the f might be kind of fun that goes down and swoops up, but Let's go with a and then, um G So the five chord g b d we have we need to be It could be And d f a. We have d A s. We needed f here. Okay, so I'm gonna have to do a big leap here to get this f I could also lead down, but that might make a parallel. Well, it won't, so that's okay. That gives me some room to play around up here. Uh, and then g b d really sneak up to a G here. That makes a unison with that note. But let's go to a T G. I need a B. Okay. This is pretty bad here because we're going be F B, which is a tri tone and back. That's that's ugly. Um, but I need a be so what I'm gonna do. Okay, here's I'm gonna do I'm gonna go all the way up to a G there. That's OK. But then I'm gonna take this g and Mitt moving up to a B. Okay, so now we're not crossed voices. We have a nice line. There were going up there. Okay, Let's see what we've got so far and I'm gonna slower tempo way down. Okay, here we go. Okay. I heard a few things wrong. First of all, here, this court has no e. So let's go. It's to kind of a big leap here to get that e in there. I think this one too. A c That was okay. C c g e C C t. That's OK. Here. Over time. It's all OK. Okay. Something totally wrong in this court. So too, is D f A D f f a. I think it's just the a in the base. Let's try leaving that as a d. That's better. Okay. Um all right. We're getting in the territory of real long video, so let's go to a new, um video and figure out the actual modulation. 23. The Modulation: Okay, so our modulation section So first, I just need a good old C major cord and then at five. So let's go to our second layer here, and let's dio So we need g b d. So it's still be here, and then a five is gonna be G. No, sorry. This is a one chord. I don't want to be there. Um, let's go see. And then five is gonna be gpd. So it's gonna be and then this is gonna be a 17 Really? So see seven. So I need to be flat in there now. I could do this. This is a little risky because I got a little chromatic line right there. That's usually pretty jarring. Be natural to be flat, but I'm going to try it. No. Okay, that makes me nervous. Um, we'll see if it works. And if we're just gonna be kind of perfectionists about this, I should change the's the whole notes. Um, let's Let's just make sure we get this perfectly right, because it's gonna be hilarious if it works. Um, okay, So let's do our left hand here, So we need a one. Let's just go see Ah, let's go. CBC. Now, that is parallel octaves right there. So maybe that's not do that. Um, let's go. C g. C. Okay, um, and then for our tenor voice, tenor voices way up high. So which is good? That gives us a little bit of room. Um, so I take him down to an e. Yeah, De. That's perfect. Ce That's okay. And then see if I do a see here. What have I got? I've got to seize be flattened, G. I'm leaving out the e I really want. That s I'm gonna go up to the E because I really want this to feel like a full court. I don't want to draw too much attention to that b flat. Okay, that's gonna feel so weird, but I think it will be okay. Let's see if we can get to this one and then we'll hear it. If we just hear it like that, we're not really gonna get the full effect of it. Um, it's gonna sound weird. Let's get let's make our way to this one, and then we'll hear it. Okay, so now we're enough. Theoretically, um, let's go here. So five and f is C. So, um so let's go see six in F is D So a is OK and then one is gonna be That's two af and I see what I did here I did and f a c arpeggio going down. That should help a little bit. That's a subtle thing, but that should help us a little bit. Establish, um, a tonic because we really have a tonic or sorry, a dominant pre dominant tonic area here. So hopefully that will Ah, this arpeggio going down of our tonic chord Well, give us a little extra juice too. Make that court feel right. Let's fill in this six court again. Let's just go back up to a neigh there since we're here. Okay, up saying not to So here I really want this Teoh hit home. So let's go see do tonic And then I really want a dominant our route position chord here, Uh, one there So our six is Desire could do that. That gives us a nice de toe f 61 I could do something different there d f the a that would parallel. I think it's ok. Ah, but here for this six. Let's do something a little difference of D. F. A. Let's go to a now that makes an effort A that makes a parallel October. There's we don't want to do that so f f d f a We could jump up to an F right d f a f that works, OK, no, let's just fill in our tender and then we'll hear this. Um, see if our modulation worked. So five is C E g. So we have an e g and A C. So let's double our We could double our See if that makes sense. Kind of does. Sure, Now we have ah d f A. We have a d a in a ds. We really need it. F they're jump up to that f It's pretty OK, And then we need an f a c have NFC and efforts We really needed a here. That's gonna be really jumpy, but I'm gonna roll with it for now and then a d f a. We have a d f a. We have everything. So I could go to a D, I guess. Yeah, that's ok. All right. So we got a jumpy tenor line, but we can live with it. Okay, so let's hear it all the way through s so far, we're going to stop on this one, so we're going to see if this feels like one. Did this do the trick? This might be totally humiliating to me. I don't know, but here we go. Ah, I don't know. The jury is still out to me. The problem? Waas this five felt like one. So what can we do about that? While there's a pretty simple explanation, um, we can add a seven to it. Um, f a c Oh, sorry. C E g b flat. So I have to seize. So I could take one of these down to a B flat. That would help that not feel like one. Let's try it one more time. Did that feel like one are quite of on the fence? Kind of. Sort of Did. Um uh, let's be sure we're calling this 57 now. Um, it was a little awkward. Uhm, I'm not convinced that this is one yet, but maybe if we finish it out by the time we get to hear, it will feel like one. Okay, so let's go to a new video and let's finish it out 24. The Cadence: Okay. So in this last part, what I really want is as many 51 cane says as I can get. Maybe even some five sevens in there. I really wanted to feel like home. So I've got this big five section right here. This whole bar devoted to five. So this will be great. So let's try to get some seventh in there. So let's do so we could go see, So I want see e g b flat. So I'm gonna go g b flat t B flat. I'm gonna make every other Korda seven of 57 Okay? And now I want something really kind of moving around in here so it doesn't feel like I'm banging the same court three times in a row four times in a row. So let's take you up to AF here. Sorry. Um, let's take this upto f and then see if I can go see groups. Oops. So let's go up to e here. But that makes parallel octaves, so I don't want to do that. See, e g. I want to get this one kind of high so that I can she works so that I can arpeggio it down again now that Okay, so I've arpeggio It'd down in this line, which works pretty well. Problem is, the next note in the arpeggio would be that b flat. But then I'm gonna have doubled my seventh here, so I don't want to do that. Let's do a C again. So that way we don't double the seventh. Okay, Now let's go to our base, see if we can hit this home. Um, so see, E g. Let's start on a C here. See, I could just Well, I don't want to do too much banging on C, because that I'm gonna make see feel like tonic. Right? And that's the opposite of what we want. Um, it's trying to get away from See a little bit. Let's try. Well, see, that doesn't work either. This is tricky, because I really want to make see feel like five. But I run the danger of C feeling like, um, one, but I think these sevens will keep it away from feeling like one. Um, let's do this, though. What's sneak 1/7 in right there to avoid from these parallel actives. Uh, okay. So let's see if that works. and then we'll go with our six here, so d so d f a. Let's do an A Let's do another A. And then our five is C E g. Definitely need 1/7 year. So let's do a B flat, and then our four is B flat. So let's leave another B flat there and then our one it's going to be f a c. Okay, almost done. This can be so tedious, but I hope this is interesting. Were we can end. Um, it's gonna be pretty funny. And I generally only do things if there uh funny. Okay. Ah, six. So D f a. So I have ah de in an A. So I really needed f or another d de would go well, right here. So let's go, d do you lets us sit this same court twice? Technically, that makes parallel octaves right there. Yeah, well, I don't want to do that. Then TF a Okay, let's go down to in a year. Um, okay. And then see, So if they see we're sorry. See, e g. Let's go down to us. Let's go up to a C B flat. F you when I hit that f that did not feel like tonic. But we'll see what happens. Um oh, we're so close to being done with this. This is gonna be a good payoff. I think it might work. Okay, Just gotta do our last tender line here, so d f a I have d d a. I needed f. So let's go away up here again. F f T f a. That's okay. Technically, we have parallel fits right here because they're fourths, but, um, that's okay. Ah. See, E, that works out. Well, c e g b flat. This is it's all gonna come down to this court, this seven chord. Um, then this four is gonna kind of ruin it for us a little bit. Um, so, B flat d af let's go upto f and then another f f a c. That works. Okay, we did it. Maybe, Um, sorry. I'm such a nerd about this. Um, okay, wait. That half doesn't go there. That goes there. Yes. All right. Let's hear it. Here we go. All right? I don't know. I don't know if if I feel like that's tonic, I've kind of feel like that's something that's not I kind of feel like That's four. I don't think we really got it. Um, because it is for an original key. What could we have done? Teoh hit it harder home. It's this man. Like what if we did this? What if we cheated? I'm gonna do one more thing. What if we got rid of those two notes and we said here, uh, it's doing the right voicing. So basically, I'm gonna make a 57 here and here, and this d is going to be a, um uh, passing tone. Okay, so I'm not gonna make that four. I'm just gonna hit this 5757 one and let this Devi in being out of ah, now out of key. But out of the court, Let's try it. Let's try it with that. Oh, kind of. It's better. It just feels just really confused in the sections. But ah, the point of all of this is that this is a great little experiment for you to try. It's a great way to test writing some modulations to test some of these concepts. The play around with it and kind of have a really nerdy amount of fun. So I encourage you pick a melody, Try to find a way to get into a new key. Uh, it's a It's just kind of fun. 25. New Developments In Form: Okay. So some time ago, way back in an earlier class, we talked a little bit about form, and when we talked about it, we talked about There's a sections and there's be sections. And then later, Um, probably in class 11. I think we talked about the concept of a period, a sentence and things like that. Ah, and those relate to formas Well, So what we need to do now is put all those together and we're going to add one more new thing to our discussion of form. And that is key centres and keys because we know that pieces can modulate right, and we know how pieces can modulate. So what we need to do now is look at the large picture of what modulations due to a piece of music. So we say something is in Ah, maybe there's an A section in a B section, but then the B section repeats in a new key, right? So when we talk about form and the reason we talk about form is to look at large ideas about the piece, not the granular, just focus in on each individual note, but taking a step back and looking at the big picture and really understanding the peace on a bigger level. So let's talk about form as it relates to multiple sections and how their keys relate to each other. OK, so we're gonna go back to this first Moz art piece that we used. That was all the way back here. This one. Okay, the sonata in D major, but I have the whole entire piece for us now. Okay, So let's dive in and take a look at how this works. 26. Listening: Okay, so we're gonna look at this sonata in D Major. We're gonna only really focus on the third movement. But I thought just as maybe a little bit of a break. Let's hear the whole thing. Right. Um, it's a beautiful piece. It's nice. So sit back, relax, and let's just hear this piece. I'm gonna give you in the next segment, the score. So if you want to jump to the next one, get to score, you can follow along. And then, um, listen. Okay, here we go. Way, - way , - way , - way , way. Uh uh, way, way, way, - way , way. Uh, - we owe Yeah. All right. - Uh , - way , way back. 27. Rounded Binary: Okay, So, uh, I hope you enjoyed listening to that. Um, it's around a nice piece. That being said, we're we're really gonna focus in here on the third movement and just the beginning of it. This is the same thing we saw earlier. Except we only looked at about this much of it. And now we're gonna look at probably down to about here. Yeah, Thunder here. So, in terms of form, what are we looking at? We're looking at one section here up to this. Repeat. Okay, then it repeats. So we go back to here and we get that same section again. Okay, Then we're gonna look at another section and it repeats and goes back. Teoh here, and then we get it again. OK, So what is the form? We can call this a few things. Okay. I'm just going to use a separate text document here. Toe kind of Take some notes. All this, uh well, let's just talk first about how we know Tate stuff when we use lower case letters. We taught. We're talking about smaller sections and larger case letters are bigger sections. Okay, so if we say a Oops, A So that. So if we call this a to this repeat, then we have to say that twice, right? A a and then B be okay, so a BB right, This is the definition of binary form. So we call this binary form that means a BB. Now there is another type of form that this also might be Okay, so let's look a little bit closer here. So let's when we look closer. What we see is look at these two little A's here, this dum bum bum doughnut out at, uh, OK, we have that again. Here, Done, done, done, done it at that. So it's very similar, right? So could we say this is a just up to here and then this is a again? Well, not quite, because this is different, right? This 2nd 4 bars is different than the 1st 4 bars, but very much related. Right? Very similar. So what we might say is it's a a prime, right? So we know Tate that by saying a a prime by the little apostrophe means it's a but there's something different about it. So we're zooming in a little bit more focused here because now we're dividing this in half . So now we're saying A is just this 1st 4 bars and a prime is the 2nd 4 bars. Okay, so we can call that whole thing capital A Okay, so let's get rid of this for a minute. Just so it's not confusing. Okay, so these two together make capital a All right. That's the notation that we're using here. So now let's look at the second half we have Is this These 1st 4 bars of the second half are those related to a Let's look at just the shape of it. N N n n n n n in there. Do we see anything like that here kind of there? Not really, though. It's a bit different. I'm only thinking about up to here. Okay, so now we're talking about his beat. This is B, but what about this? Done? Done? Done. Done, innit? Innit? Right. Isn't that the same? Is that I doubt it? That's exactly the same, actually. So here we have a get lower case a again, and it is very slightly different because I think that cadence is different. Yeah, I feel care. We have e to d. We have a B to A so it's very slightly different. So actually what we have is a prime prime double prime. We would say that means it's a but it's different and it's even different than that. So it's 1/3 type of A. So now this is relatively far away from a BB. Right now we have something totally different. We have a prime be be prime. If we want to put a big letter on the second half, we could call it be So. B is B and a prime. That's what means be So is this still buying a reform? Because binary form means a BB? No, says Nara binary form. This is something a little different called rounded Byner. Okay, rounded binary. And we should point out that we haven't taken into account or repeats yet, but we will in just a second. In fact, let's do that now. Rounded binary is looks like that or another way to say it would be a repeating ah, be a repeating. Okay, so a that repeats and then be a that repeats And this could also be a prime If we wanted to be. So do we have that. So we have this. So remember, I'm using capital letters here intentionally. So are a section is all the way to hear capital A section and that repeats. So we have this much of it? Yes, Capital a repeats, Then we have a B section Capital B that repeats. We don't really have this, so we just have that. So can we call this rounded binary? Actually, we can, but we need to go one more step. We're gonna put this a in there. But the reason I can put that a in there is in the harmony if we factor the harmony into our form analysis that it makes a bit more set. So let's go to a new video and let's add in the harmonic ideas that are happening in this section. 28. The B Section: Okay. I want to stretch this out a little bit to give us a little bit more room to work here. So remember that. Let's pick this apart a little bit. Okay? So a what we're really looking at. Well, let's actually do this. Let's copy this and put it here. So what we're talking about here is a and a prime. And what we already know we have here is B and a double prime. Okay, that's what we decided is up here A in a prime. Be in a double prime. That means A and B go. So a a prime b prime. So harmonically, let's go to a new line. They were in D major, and what we have if we sliced away everything else. What we really have in this a section is 1 to 5. Meaning it starts on one, and it ends on five. And then what we have in this section is 1 to 5, except it modulates. So it's a mod five. Okay, so here we have one in five. Here. We have one modulating to five. Okay. Very different. Okay. And then here and B, we have one. We have a sequence. We have a couple other things happening, but it ends on one of the original key. Okay, so there's a sequence that ends on one of D. Actually, I take that back. It ends on one of five. So we're in this key now and then this takes us from 1 to 1, but through a modulation. Okay, I know this is getting complicated. Just hang in there for just another second. Okay? So here's what happens. We're in D. Okay. Uh, actually, I think I can make us less complicated if I do this hoops. Okay. Were Indy and this a section we have Ah, 15 Nothing crazy in the A prime section, we have one in D modulating toe a The key of a Okay, so now in this b section were in the key of a We have a sequence of stuff that moves around , but we end up on one in a and then in this, a double prime we have were in the key of a and we modulate back to D, right? So that helps it circle back around eventually. So because there's another modulation here, we should really give this its own label, which means when we take these into account capital letters, we should call this a should. Call this B and we should call this A. Even though these are these together are the same length as this length doesn't really matter in this case. So because there's a modulation happening here, um, it should really be called a. Are actually a prime technically in the capital, which gets us to a rounded binary form. Well, that was complicated, but I think the thing to remember here is that rounded binary is this pattern right, and we can find it in a lot of different music and a lot of different situations. Sometimes it's a little hidden, like in this piece, because we really have to kind of look at what's happening in the harmonic motion to really get that it's a rounded binary 29. Rounded Binary Recap: Okay, I want to explain this one more time, but I wanted to, uh, simplify it a little bit. I think I can explain this in a better way. Uh, that will help us understand it. Typically in a binary form, not rounded binary binary form. We have this, and the harmonic implications of it are at me. Do be easier if I go squeak down a little bit. Harmonic is one five five one. Okay, so the a section big a has starts and tonic goes to five repeats back. Teutonic goes to five, goes to the B section, starts in five, goes to one repeats starts in five goes toe one. That's typically what we see in buying it. But when we look at surrounded by a very what we typically see is we have another a here and what we have is a section 1 to 5 be five a one. So it's really similar, right? Except this one section kind of gets its own A. Okay, so that's really what you should remember. Those were the differences. Binary rounded, binary cool. Okay, um, that's a little bit more on form. Let's talk about buying area in a minor key because it works a little bit different 30. Binary In A Minor Key: Okay, so in a minor key, what we typically have that's different. And this isn't true. 100% of the time. This is just mostly true. And the rules are this. But typically we have three. Why would that be? We'll make a little bit more sense if I do this. 123 In other words, we have tonic and we're in a minor key. So we have tonic and then we go to the relative major. Uh, then we repeat that, and then we go to the relative major again that we started the relative major, and we go back to the tonic toe end in a minor key. So ah, for example, were in a minor, we end in C major back to a minor. Go to see Major, start in C major back to a minor. Repeat that C major end in a minor and then rounded binary would be use. Go through the same. Now, Sometimes we do in minor. You can use the five instead of three. But when you dio, you would definitely raise that leading tone. So like that And there are cases where we do use five here, but it's gonna be obviously a major five, not the minor five that's in keep. That's really the big difference in a minor key. So nothing too startling, right? Um, just kind of a different way of laying things out. 31. Phrasing In Binary Form: okay. I want to talk quickly about ah, phrase length here. Um, just that we're on the same page on this. So when you're looking at so it's important to note that in binary form, usually the sections are the same length, right in binary and in rounded binary. This and this would be roughly the same length, usually exactly. But it doesn't have to be. There's not a rule that says they have to be the same length. And one thing that you'll find is that, you know, binary form originated as a dance form, so there was a dance to go with it. It was one of these kind of baroque dances. Um, and when it will, is used in that classic dance form than typically It's extremely symmetrical, right? Everything is the same length because there was kind of a dance that went along with it. But later, as binary form got started to be used in concert music and not intended for dance, they, uh, bent the rules a little bit. And so I mean, it's not that it was exactly a rule. Um, but eventually it becomes that the A M B sections may not be the same length, and that's okay. Um, it is rather common to see the B section quite a bit longer. Ah, than the a section. Um, when we're looking at a dance form, the A section is four or eight measure phrases, two of them. So, um, a parallel period. So we remember back to what periods are so too parallel. Periods like that and in the B section would be the same, um, in a normal binary form, but only the classical dance sense. Once we started moving this form out into the concert hall, they stopped being exactly the same. So often they're still the same. But I just wanted to make it clear that it is not a requirement of something to be binary, that both of these are the exact same length, right? Even when we look down at the phrase level, this a and this a prime don't need to be the same length. Um, and this be doesn't need to be the same length. The often are, but it doesn't, uh, it is now required. Cool. So, uh, remember that as a non rule, if you will, the phrase length is not a requirement. 32. Balanced Binary Form: Now there is 1/3 kind of binary form, and it's called balanced binary. Um, it can be a type of either binary form or rounded binary form. And when we call something balanced binary, it has one extra thing in it that, um, we expect to see. And that's that. There's something similar happening here and here. Okay, let's look at it in just binary first. So the end of the A section is going to be in the five, right? The end of the B section is going to be in the one so normally those are not the same musical material. But what we do is in balance, binary. You'll see something like this music repeated here, but transposed to the one. Okay, so if this has music that's built around the five than this has the same music, but it's transposed down to the one that would make it rounded binary where there is the same roughly the same music in both of spots. Same thing here. This music is gonna be in the five in this area and hear the end of this a section it's gonna be in the one. But if we transposed it to be in the five. Then it would lead back to the one making it rounded binary. So, um, and making it balanced. Valtteri. So that's what balanced by binary means. You could have binary form that's balanced, and you could have rounded binary that's balanced. 33. Simple Ternary Form: okay up next. Ah, little bit on Turn Eri form. Now if you're thinking this is easy cause binary form because the name of it is binary and probably has two sections as it did turn Eri form probably has three sections, right? Kind of, uh, kind of, but not that's really what we're really looking at with coronary form. The big picture stuff is a B A. So there's still only two different sections, but it's a little bit different. Remember, binary was a BB or a few different variations on that that we looked at, but urinary is a B A. So let's start off talking about simple turn Eri OK, because there's a few different kinds of urinary, just like there's a few different kinds of binary. In simple turn Eri. We're usually looking at a 151 between the three sections, so the first a is in the tonic. The second er, the first be the only be is in the dominant, and the second a is in the tonic again, and this might be prime right? So it might be a little bit different, is all that really means. So let's look at it down at the phrase level. So if we say a stretch this out a little bit and let's go over here and give us a little room at the beginning, OK, so on the phrase level, the A section is a in a prime, and it's going to be all tonic que unless it's to you Oops! In the B section, that B section is probably gonna be be prime, and it's going to be based on the five now. It's probably going to be a full modulation to the five in the B section. Doesn't have to be. It could just be centering around the five, meaning it's not modulated to the five. But it's, um, the core progression kind really hovers around the five. But most cases it's gonna be a full modulation to the five. And then for the a prime section again a a prime bump that out and we're back to the tonic most of the time. Okay, so and this line we have the key structure that we would expect in simple turn every form. In this line, we have the phrase structure that we would expect simple, turn every form and appear we have the the large scale form of Turn Eri form now, other things to note in turn Eri form. Normally, this B section contrasts in some musical way not just in the key. Ah, but in some kind of musical way. So you might have ah, a contrast like like if a is fast, be might be slow if a as thick be might be thin some kind of way to differentiate the two so that the B is fairly obvious is what we really kind of want to happen. That might also be some kind of melody idea that happens in the A section. You get a different melody in the B section, and then you get the first melody back in the A section or the a prime section. Okay, so that's the basics of turning reform. Let's talk about ah, a little more complicated composite turn, Every form 34. Composite Ternary Form: Okay. Composite coronary form a Superfund, if you like puzzles like this. So this is like a Terran eri form within a turn Eri form. Ah, And then there's another coronary form in there too. S o Okay, um, we have basically the same thing. Um, describe this so it's still a b a at kind of the core of it. However, we can break down each a for each section as as a turn eri form. Okay, so check this out. This will make sense in a second. So we have a b a is the main structure of the piece, right? But the a section is an a B a. The B section is an a b a, but I'm gonna call it C D. C because it's a different. Ah, it's different musical material, but it's still something, something else. And then the first something right, So it's still in a be a form. It's still a turn eri form Um but we can't call it a B A because it's totally different music than this. So we have the a section of the turn. Every form phrase wise is an A B A form the B section phrase wise is an a B a form, but we're gonna call it C. D. C. Because it's totally different musically than this. A b a The a prime is another. A be a form very similar to this one might be exactly the same. Might be a little bit different, right? So, um, you can break it down even further and say, within this a there's an anchovy. And within this be there's an Annabi, and within this A. There's an A and B, but let's not get too weird with it. So that's essentially a composite Turner reform. It's actually very, very common. Um, when I write, I am often thinking in this kind of a pattern, Um, I'm not concerned with writing just a be a forms, but ah, with when I'm just starting from scratch, my brain immediately thinks okay, a B A. That's what I'm probably going to dio um, so that means I'm gonna do something, something else and then go back to the first something. And within that something, there's gonna be something in something else, and then the first thing again, right? It's just a good kind of go to Ah starting point for writing a piece. I might not stick to it, but when I start writing a piece, that's what I think about as kind of the easiest place to start and then I build from there . Um and I let the music go wherever it needs to go, because I don't concern myself with sticking to it. But it is, um, a handy place to start composite turn Eri form. 35. Form Summary: Okay, quick summary about form and just a reminder of why we care about form and why we're talking about form in music theory. You might be thinking, You know, when I think about music theory, I really want to be diving into the notes and figuring out what notes are doing what and what harmony is doing. What and that is important. But the form of a peace is also important. You need to really, always be keeping in mind what the big picture of the music is doing, not just each note, but what it was the composer's intention, because when somebody walks away from piece of music, it's not each individual note that sticks with them. It's something more like the form. So the form plays a big role in how we perceive music, and it played. Probably debated Lee an even bigger role back in back in the period of Ah, Mozart and the 18th 19th century 17th 18 19 century. So form is very important, and it is very crucial. Piece of music theory and form is tied into harmony, right? We've seen that how and a section is around one and a B section might be around five. Once we get into more complicated forms later, you'll see how there are other form types that have other harmonies associated with them. Much more complicated ones. So we'll get to those soon. Oh, just reminder. Don't forget about form. 36. What Next? The Fugue!: Okay, we've reached the end of part 13. Holy smokes. Ah, what's coming Next? Um, well, part 14 is gonna come next. I'm going to start working on that one right away. And what's going to be impart 14 Some complicated business. This is going to be one of the trickier ones, too, to make personally, I'm gonna have to do a little more homework than I'm used, Teoh. And it might be hard Ah, for you as well, But it'll be a fun challenge, because what we're gonna be talking about is the fugue, um, the fugue and other types of counterpoint. But probably a good majority of the class will be around writing fugues and analyzing fugues. Now, if you've heard a few before, it's essentially, like a music theory. Math problem, slash logic, puzzle. Um, they're very difficult to write their hard to analyze their what we would classify, especially in the Baroque period as virtuosic composition. So when people write a few like ah bok few, you you can look at it and say, How did he do that? How did he come up with that? It's just mind blowing. Um, so they are hard to write. And when we see a really well written one like the ones block route, we just think this is crazy. So we're gonna look at some of those. It's gonna be fun. Um, could be challenging. It's gonna be fun. I'm not trying to scare you off. I'm trying to lure you in because I know you are into a challenge. Um, So ah, I'm going to start doing some homework on fugues to brush up on that because I do need to brush up on it a little bit, and then I'm gonna start filming it. So stick around. I've got another a couple things for you here in this class before we wrap up. Um, and let's just go on to the next video right now and wrap up there 37. Thanks and Bye!: Okay, you have officially reached the end. Well, not totally officially, because there's a little bit more for you here. Um, the end of music theory, part 13. So we're, I don't know, maybe 1/4 of the way through third semester of the U. S. College music theory system. I would suppose, um, I hope you had fun in this class. It was fun to make as they always are. I hope to see you in some my other classes, to be sure, in practice, this stuff, it's hard If it's confusing, that's okay. Ask questions. I check these questions every day. Um, and I answer all the questions every single day. So ask questions, re watch videos. Um, look at some of the other questions that have been asked and, you know, take your time with it. Take your time with this material. It's not something that your were intending for. You, too, absorb all at once. So that being said, stick around for the very next lecture. I'm going to have some bonus stuff for you. Discounts to the next couple classes, the Facebook group. That's for students only. Um, so jumping on all that stuff. So check that out in the next lecture, and then I will see you in class 14. Yes, 38. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.