Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 12 - Secondary Dominants | J. Anthony Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 12 - Secondary Dominants

teacher avatar J. Anthony Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction & Overview


    • 2.

      Tools you will need for this class


    • 3.



    • 4.

      The Full MuseScore File


    • 5.

      Bach: Invention In D Minor


    • 6.

      Identifying Sequences


    • 7.

      Sequence Definitions


    • 8.

      Melodic Sequences


    • 9.

      Diatonic And Chromatic Sequences


    • 10.

      What Are Harmonic Sequences?


    • 11.

      Harmonic Sequence Rules


    • 12.

      Root Position Descending Fifth Sequence


    • 13.

      Root Positing And First Inversion Alternating


    • 14.

      First Inversion And Root Position Alternating


    • 15.

      Back to Bach!


    • 16.

      Ascending Fifth Sequence


    • 17.

      The Problem With Descending Thirds


    • 18.

      The Solution To Descending Thirds


    • 19.

      Descending Seconds


    • 20.

      Spotting Sequences


    • 21.

      Chromatic Chords


    • 22.

      The Big Picture


    • 23.

      Rules Of V/V


    • 24.

      Writing V7/V Chords


    • 25.

      Tonicization And Modulation


    • 26.

      Remembering Diminished Chords


    • 27.

      Leading Tone Of Five


    • 28.

      Inversions And Variations


    • 29.

      V of Anything


    • 30.

      V of vi Example


    • 31.



    • 32.

      Leading Tone Of Anything


    • 33.



    • 34.

      Long Pieces


    • 35.

      Movement 2: Part 1


    • 36.

      Movement 2: Part 2


    • 37.



    • 38.

      Embellished Resolutions


    • 39.

      Irregular Resolutions


    • 40.

      Second Semester Is Over!


    • 41.

      What Next?


    • 42.

      Thanks & bye!


    • 43.

      SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2)


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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These online classes I'm making use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes online in a new format in order to reach more students, and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 12: Sequences and Secondary Dominants. It finishes what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

In this class, we will cover:

  • Analyzing Bach
  • Identifying Sequences
  • Melodic Sequences
  • Harmonic Sequences
  • Diatonic and Chromatic Sequences
  • The Descending Fifth Sequence
  • Alternating Inversions in Sequences
  • Ascending Fifth Sequences
  • Descending Third Sequences
  • Secondary Dominants
  • Chromatic Chords
  • Tonicization and Modulation
  • Secondary Leading Tone Chords
  • Leading Tones To Five
  • Tonicizing Other Scale Degrees
  • Leading Tone of Anything
  • Analyzing Beethoven
  • Resolving Secondary Dominants
  • Embellished Resolutions
  • Irregular Resolutions
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

"Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

"Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

"I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

"I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

"I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

"Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

"Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

"The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

J. Anthony Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


Dr. J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen tea... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction & Overview: Hey, everybody Welcome, Teoh Music Theory, Part 12. Hello, everybody. Welcome to music theory Part 12 eso in this class. Very exciting. We're going Teoh, finish what is typically in my second semester of college music theories were going to get through everything that you do in your second semester in the U. S. System of music theory. In college, there are four semesters, usually total. So Ah, we're not at the end. We're actually only at the halfway point. This is a huge, huge topic. Um, I mean, people get Ph. D is in music theory, right? So the typical music music major in the American system has to have four semesters of music theory and this wraps up semester number two. So in this class, we're gonna be talking about sequences. We're gonna start off talking about sequences, spend a lot of time on sequences. Ah, that's kind of like patterns. And what we're going to start to see here is the way we analyze music theory less literally , right, we're getting less literal. And what that means is not chord, chord, chord and putting a label on every single chord. But looking at bigger patterns of chords groups of chords and maybe coming up with an analysis that makes more sense for how the whole thing is working. Um, in kind of bigger chunks. It's kind of like we've been reading words up till now. And now we're going to start reading sentences, right? Like, that's kind of how sequences work, not to be confused with, like, sentences and things that we talked about in phrasing and then after phrasing, we're going to talk about secondary dominance. This is something that we've talked a tiny bit about here and there and some of the other classes. But in this one, we're going to get deep into it and really explain what they are and how to use them. Secondary dominance is a broad term for a couple different things, and we're gonna go over all of those in the second half of this class. So, uh, hope you ready to dive in? Uh, this is a good class. It's gonna be a lot of fun. I'm pretty happy with it. So let's dive in and get started. - Uh , you know, it can be a sequence consisting of just the melody, Uh, where three only melodic thing That's happening here are The only sequential thing that's happening here is the melody. That's all we have here because we have this accompaniment in it. Okay, so it's not just the melody sequence. That's what we're looking at here. And that's gonna be the first big harmonic sequence that we're gonna look at. This has been called the strongest progression in tonal music. Meaning So we're saying, OK, congratulations. A you are now tonic. And then by the next chord, were saying no. Okay, we're taking that back. That's Tanase ization. Very brief change. However, what we're starting to get into is modulation. Modulation is what's going on here. What's my cord is the triads. I'm on an e. Major chord on Makes good sense. Uh, because a minor here, the five of that is E major. So we're just on a five of six here, Okay? One thing you can do is just spot that leading tone. G. Sharkey's in nature to be flat. I'm gonna put that in there. Just that we see it a little more explicitly, so it would be flat. So that gets us ah, half diminished chord built on two because it's built on e. So in the key of, um 2. Tools you will need for this class: All right, here we go. 3 12 Um, for starters, the same deal that the same way we always start, which is the tools you will need for this class. And once again, these haven't changed. Um, so I'm just gonna zip through this really fast. Um, if you're just joining us for the first time, get yourself a copy of this program that I'm using here called Muse Score. It's M u S E S c o R e. It's free. It runs on Mac and PC. And I think Lennox, I'm gonna be using this throughout the whole class, so, um, you will have an advantage. If you can use this program along with me, you'll be able to play some stuff. Listen to it back here. How, ah, the changes were making to the music affect the way it actually sounds. Which is important, Um, and free. You don't have to get it, so if you don't want to do it, that's totally fine. Um, and you could do it. Everyone, um also Ah, lot of people ask me if they can use an ipad or if they're on some kind of tablet. Um, there is a bunch of notation programs for tablet. There's one called notion. Um, there's a reader, I think, for ah, new score files and let you read files, but not at it. I think I think I'm right on that. Um, either way, you can use whatever you want. Any kind of notation program will totally work. You don't have to use music, or that's just what I'm gonna be using. And then the other thing you need, of course, is some good old staff paper. Um, this is staff paper. Um, this is good staff paper. This is fancy staff paper. Um, uh, I recommend you get some. I really enjoy good staff paper. I'm kind of a nerd about it. But if you don't want to invest in some good staff paper, I'm going to give you a piece of staff paper right after this video. So in the next section will be a pdf, um, that you can download just a blank piece of staff paper. Um, download that printed out, print out, maybe like four or five copies. Keep it, Andy, while you're taking this class so you can take some notes, um, much easier to scribble down notes on staff paper when we're talking about music than just normal lined paper, So print out a couple of copies of that. Keep it handy. Um, get yourself a good pencil with a good erasure. This is a pen, but point. Um, and that should be everything you need. Okay, so, uh, up next Ah, staff, paper download, and then we'll talk about a couple other things. 3. Review!: Okay, let's talk a review. So what we're gonna talk about here is if it's been a minute between your last theory instruction and this one what? How could you best prepare yourself to really get everything out of this class that you, ah, want to get out of this class how to do the best that this class you can. What should you be up? Speed up? Um, in the last couple of videos are the last couple of classes I said he just review worksheets. That is always true. Those are all really good ways to um, make sure that you're comfortable with material, however, give you something a little different this time. So, uh, in this class, we're gonna be talking about two big things, um, diatonic sequences and, uh, secondary dominance. So for the diatonic sequences stuff, probably your best bet is going to be to jump all the way back to class eight when we talked about harmonic expansion, cause this is gonna pull us a little farther away and build on some of that stuff. Um, it's gonna build on everything like everything in this class builds on everything, but, um especially that class So go zip back to class eight. If you're not, if you're feeling a little like I don't know if I can handle this, go back there, review that stuff, make sure you're feeling pretty comfortable with all that material. And then you should be good for the first half of this class. The diatonic sequences stuff, then for the secondary dominance. Look back. A class nine class nine, we talked about new progressions, key changes, things like that. That's ah, lot of what we're going to do when we talk about secondary dominance is gonna build off what we started doing in class nine. So class eight and nine are gonna be ones that you want to be pretty comfortable with. Um, going forward to get the most out of this class 12 we're going to do in a ton of big stuff in this class. So, um, make sure you're comfortable with those things. If you're not, take a quick gander through those. Maybe do the worksheets. Maybe, Um, just watch a couple of the videos, make sure you just kind of go through and make sure you're comfortable with all that stuff . Ah, and as long as you are you? Then you should be pretty good to jump right in to class 12 which is this one. So, um, I think about that. Decide what you want to do. And then, uh, I'm gonna assume that you decided to stay here and keep going forward, because that's what I'm gonna do. So, uh, that being said, let's press on. 4. The Full MuseScore File: okay, Before, um, we dive into the nitty gritty of the class. I just want to remind you of this last thing that I that I'm doing now, which is giving you the full example file. So, um, I'm going to be making a file as we go through the class. Um, and that will have all our examples on it. It was kind of one after the other. All the things we're going through so you can download this file if you want and follow along. That'll let you kind of hear and modify. Ah, all the examples that you're hearing me walk through and so you can kind of kick it around and see what happens when you change stuff. Um, I'll give that to you as a music or file and as a pdf file in the next segment. So, um, this is it. This is this is it that we're looking at right now. It's totally empty. But when you see it in the next segment, I'm going to use the magic of television to have made it. Ah, and then I'll jump back and put it in the next segment. Right. So you get how that works. Um, so download it and then you can follow a lot. This is what the last one looked like. Here's 3 11 Um, you know, so you can see kind of all my examples that we were working on in the class. Okay, so that's what this next file is. So right after this, there's gonna be a file to files, actually music or file in a pdf file through the same thing. Um, download, whichever you like, and then, um, we'll dive into the class right now. 5. Bach: Invention In D Minor: Okay sequences, So sequences are a very important part of classical music. Um, of music theory. And spotting them is something that will really impact the way we analyze something. Um, you can think of a sequence is a bit like a snowball going down a hill. Um, if the snowball is rolling down the hill rapidly, that affects how we analyze it, because we might not say it's, um, moving forward stepwise anymore. It's just cruising down the hill at a quick cliff. That was a weird analogy. So let's just listen to some music and then we'll talk about it. So, um, let's start with listening. Teoh Some Bach Payback is really big on sequences, so we might listen to a lot of Bach. Who knows? So before I tell you what to look for, let's just listen to the peace and let's just kind of get this in our head. Um, slight sidebar. I love Bach. Um, I can listen to Bach music all day long, and there's nothing more rewarding than learning how to play. Ah, Bach piece. It'll do magical things to your brain, so if you're if you're an instrumentalist, if you play something you don't spend a ah month or a year or five years learning how to play some Bach music because it's it's the most rewarding music you can play. It's just a challenge for your brain all the time. So, uh, invention and D minor. Let's hear it. - Okay . Nice piece, huh? Um, complicated a lot of things going on there. Now, if you're thinking, Oh, we're gonna have to analyze every eighth note here or every 16th note here, you might be right. Um, we could do that, but, uh, there are some other things we could look at that might tell us other things that might tell us bigger picture stuff, right? Ah, and that's what a sequence is. It's a way to kind of look at some bigger picture things that are happening rather than just looking at every 16th note. And, you know, the notes that air sounding out every 16,000 trying to derive accord from that, um, what is really musically happening here? Um, there's one gesture in this piece that's happening over and over and over again. Right. Um, it's this that we hear that a bunch throughout this piece, right? Um not all of it is the sequence. So let's go to a new video now and let's actually dive into what a sequences. 6. Identifying Sequences: Okay, so let's follow this little pattern. Here it is again. Um, now, let's look for that again. Okay? The next time we get it, it's right here. Right? Same thing way. Have some other stuff happening at the same time in the right hand. And now we're in. The riff is in the left hand. Let's just call it a riff for a minute. Okay, so this is not necessarily a sequence. Not yet. Because let's just let's just look at its first note. It starts on D, right And here starts on D again. It's an active down. So, whatever. You know, we've seen this before Play of melody. And then you played again and active, lower or active higher, right? That there's nothing special about that. So this is just an octave transposition of the way it first waas, right? Nothing fancy. Here it is again. Back in the right hand. Let's hear it. Okay, we hear it again in the right hand. Basically, we've switched hands here. Um where is it? It is. It starts on a d starts on a day. Here. Start Tana de there. Right. So now what we have going on So far is we have this little to bar riff, and he plays it once he plays it again. An octave lower with some accompaniment in the right hand flips hands, plays it again in the right hand. Ah, inactive higher. Um, Well, two octaves higher than our previous one, but one octave higher than the original one. And some more accompaniment. Right? Okay, so we've had this riff. It's happened three times. Now, let's look, go to here. Okay. What's happening now? Let's listen to four bars. Okay? So this might have triggered something in your memory you might have said. Oh, that kind of thing. That sounds very Bach. That sounds very classical. That sounds very, um almost expected. That's the kind of thing that this kind of music sounds like. Right. Um, it's this. Let's go from all the way back up here, right? You could almost like if you were trying to write a piece in the style of Bach. You would want to do something like that, right? It's so, um, expected almost in to do that kind of thing. So what is that kind of thing? Well, let's look at it. So here's that riff again. Right? So it starts off like that, but here we have a little other note. But if we follow the scale down, we could say it should have started on C. He changed the first note, but the riff is still the same. Goes up, drops down, drop jumps back up and then goes back down. Right, So we can kind of assume this starts on. See, the pattern starts NC, right? He changed one note. No big deal. Um, but it started on D up here. So now we're transposing it. OK, so now we've got this same pattern, but its down Ah, whole step because we're starting on c. Okay. And if we look at even, like where it drops down here, it drops down to a C sharp. Here. It started on C, but now it drops down to a B. Okay, Now let's look at the next one. If we follow the pattern down, you could see again. He used a different note to start it. But if we would have kept going down, it would have started on a beat, right? B flat, actually. Why be flat? Cosby flats in the key signature. So Now we're starting the pattern on. Be so up here. We were starting in a D. Now we're starting on C now. We're starting in on B. Right here we have. This is not the pattern. This is different. But this is what are we starting out here? If we go down, we're starting it here on F If we followed the pattern down toe where it it started originally up there. Okay, so we have a pattern. We have it transposed down a whole whole step. Here. We have a transposed down another hole. Step. Ah, toe. Where? Here. It starts in B flat, and here we have a transpose down fourth, so it starts on F. So this is a sequence. Okay. A sequence is the like, Total super textbook definition of a sequence is a music pattern restated at different pitch levels. Okay, so what does that tell us about the piece? For one, this is the snowball rolling thing, right? We've started this sequence going right here, At least for this much. It's going to start rolling down Hills just can start dropping half steps. This one does a bigger drop, but that's okay. Let's just hear that. That's what's going down again. So here it starts on F here. It starts on E would be the missing note. Here. Here. It starts on what would be B flat here? It starts on here. We don't have it. This is where it breaks for a bar, which is okay. And then it starts over again on F again, and then it keeps going. Weaken. Track this little riff throughout this whole piece, right? Like it's always doing something right here. It's changing here. It's changing where we keep modifying this thing. Um, and that's a sequence. A sequence is we We have a riff, and we we start using it over and over, transposing it, modifying it, doing stuff like that to it. Um, now, earlier, when I said, Ah, sequence can change how we analyze something. We'll get more into the weeds on that in just a minute. But basically what that means is for this section here, we might call this one right for in D minor. Right? Then we might call this one f a. D. So we might call this whole bar one, and we might call this whole bar five. Okay, Let's just say this is 15 We might say then that these two bars are 15 sequence that continues to here because there's a leap here. So we might say it continues here. We might give it a different name here. Um, you might say it stops and restarts here, but basically, instead of analyzing these four measures, a more accurate thing might be to say We have a sequence that goes here and it drops down the hole. Step here, it drops down a whole step here, right? That's that gives a better picture of what's really happening. Rather than saying it's a 15 here, it's a to six. Here. It's a 37 here, you know, like that's not really a picture of what's really happening. It's this pattern that just keeps moving in chunks. So that is what a sequence is. Cool 7. Sequence Definitions: Okay, let's get a couple definitions in the in our in our vocabulary here, um, so sequence. We know the definition of sequence, but let me clarify that just a little bit more. Say that, Um a sequence has a basic idea, right? We're just gonna call this the basic idea from here to here, right? It's usually something it can be like. It can be a short is like one beat. You know, it's that's maybe perhaps rare, but it can be shorter than thin. This two bars is a fairly long, um, sequence, however, were in 38 here, so that's not really long. Bars are pretty small in this piece. Um, but, you know, you can see him that are two bars, maybe up to four bars, Um, and a small as a beach. But something that's in the range of two beats or one bar eyes, Probably the most common, and a sequence has to be repeated. It has to be repeated, uh, at least once or more times, right away at a consistent interval. So what that means is that it has to drop, like in our example here. Ah, the consistent interval is ah whole step because we're going. It starts on D. It starts on. See, it starts on B flat. So it's dropping by a whole step each time, right? It changes here a little bit. Um, so that is a sequence, because it's a pattern that repeats and drops by a consistent amount. If it was always changing by a different amount, like it was going down by a whole step and then up by, ah, minor, third and then, um, down by a perfect fifth or something like that, then it would be hard to call it a sequence because it would be jumping around. What we really like to see in sequences is this kind of big riff stepping around either stepping up or stepping down, but in some kind of stepwise motion, it doesn't have to be stepwise. I shouldn't say that, um, it can be a leap, you know, it could be ah, transposition of Ah, minor. Sixth. Every time you know, you go minor. Six down than minor. Six down the minor, six down. That's fine. Um, but these big blocks of stuff moving. Okay, So another ah, definition we need is a level of transposition That's kind of exactly what it sounds like. That is, um, the degree to which it's transposing so in this case, it would be a major. Second would be the level of transposition or a whole step, depending on you can call it either one. We can have melodic sequences and we can't can have harmonic sequences. Um, and this is when things get really interesting. What we have here is a melodic sequence, right, because it's it's melodic. It's a melody of sorts, right? It's individual notes going in a pattern but in a harmonic sequence would be like a core progression that's moving in this kind of step. So you might have like, ah, core progression that is, see G A. And then we see that same core progression immediately again. But it's like a whole step down. So it's B flat. F g writes the same core progression, but a whole step down and then you have it again. Ah, whole step down. So you have a flat e flat f Ah, if I did that right in my head, um, so that would be a harmonic progression. We'll see those two. Those are, um things start to get really interesting when you start doing that. So talk a little bit more about this idea of harmonic and melodic sequences. Let's go to a new video and, uh, I have a little bit deeper into that. 8. Melodic Sequences: okay. One kind of important ah element of a sequence of melodic sequence that I want to get out is this linear Intrav Alec pattern, which is way more complicated sounding than it really needs to be. Um, here's is going up in a melodic sequence. Three things gonna happen. One of three things can happen. Right? Um, we can call it just the melody. You know, it can be a sequence consisting of just the melody. Ah, where three only melodic thing that's happening here are the only sequential thing that's happening here is the melody. That's all we have here because we have this accompaniment in it. Okay, so it's not just the melody. Um, there's so there's something more going on here because there is an accompaniment to it. So we have this thing called Lanier Interval IQ pattern, which basically means there's an accompaniment to the sequence and the accompaniment does not have to mirror the sequence. Um, harmonically, it has to kind of make sense all just just gonna sound bad, but you can see here, for example, we're going up arpeggios here on here. We do a different pattern. And then here here we do the same pattern as the previous one. Right? But they're different than the 1st 1 So there's kind of a break in the accompaniment here. That's OK. That falls into this L I P Lanier, interval it pattern thing. It just means that we have a sequence, and the accompaniment can change. It doesn't need to also be a sequence, right. The third thing that can happen is the accompaniment can also be in a sequence. Right. So if this was exactly the same but transposed Teoh fit the sequence, then we would just call it a whole whole sequence. Everything is in sequence. The whole all the music in the pieces, uh, moving along in these big blocks. So in this case, it's this l i p linear interval it pattern thing. Um, meaning that the accompaniment is not perfectly mirroring, um itself in the sequence. It's not the same every time. There's some changes to it. Ah, and that's okay. That's totally okay. 9. Diatonic And Chromatic Sequences: Okay, One last thing about kind of general definitions of sequences before we get a little bit deeper into the weeds. Um, we have diatonic sequences, and we have chromatic sequence is Okay, so diatonic sequence means that Ah, we're going to move by step. But kind of the interval that we end up with is gonna be is gonna conform to our ah scale. There are key, for example. So here we're starting on d were in the key of Dean Minor. So we have a B flat. We moved down by ah, whole step. So we started on C here. That's fine. Ah, here. We moved down by a whole step, So we start on B flat. That's diatonic because that's falling into the key, right? It's also chromatic kind of, in this case because it's moving down by a whole step. Let's say we move down one more. Um, if we moved down from B flat to the next hole, step down. If we moved to an a flat, which would continue the sequence Chromatic lee, that would be a chromatic sequence. Ah, we would be falling out of key, but we will be sticking to the whole step down situation, right? So far, we've got a whole step down every time. If the next one was ah whole step down, it would be out of key. And we would call that a chromatic sequence because we followed the whole step truly. And it pulled us how to keep if the next time we went from the B flat and instead we just went Teoh an a natural that would keep us in key. But it would still move us down stepwise throughout the whole thing. We would be going stepwise down the scale, which would only be 1/2 step for our next hypothetical one. Um, and that would put us on a natural only be 1/2 step but would keep us in key. So we would call that a diatonic sequence. Right? So diatonic sequences might fall by step sticking to the key. So some of those might be a whole step. Some of them might be 1/2 step. Chromatic sequences always follow go by a set pattern. So whole step down whole stepped down, whole, stepped down, whole stepped down, host up, down, which is gonna get you way outside of the key Really fast. Right? Um, in this short example of right here to here, we don't know yet. Um, because it's fallen into the key. Um, there are spots when we're going to get outside of the key. Um, and we have some elements that are outside of the key, like we have to see natural. We have a c sharp. Um, that's okay. That's just harmonic moving things around. But probably if we look forward, we're starting on f Ah. Well, I think we're mostly diatonic on this, Um, some being natural. So probably down in here, we're getting a little chromatic, but, um, just remember that distinction, right? So if you're gonna move by strictly by whole stepped down, regardless of the key, you are in a chromatic sequence. But if you're gonna let the key kind of if you're gonna conform to the key, then you're in Ah, diatonic sequence. That's the difference between the two. Okay, let's move on to some harmonic sequences and using these suckers 10. What Are Harmonic Sequences?: Okay, so let's talk about harmonic sequences now. Now we've looked at melodic sequences where we have basically like a repeating riff that we transposed in different ways. Right? Harmonic sequences are a little bit different, and the line is a little more blurry than I'm making it sound right now. So there's, um. Sometimes harmonic sequences are also melodic sequences, so we have a core progression that's moving in a sequence, Um, and that usually not usually but very often that has, ah, a melodic component or some kind of musical gesture with it as well, right? It's very rare that we're just playing block chords in a sequence without some kind of melodic motive to go with it, right? So keep that in mind as we learn these harmonic sequences, because out of context, it just looks like a bunch of block chords moving. But there's always actual music to be made with them. So what we're talking about with ah harmonic sequence is something like this. This is the 1st 1 we're gonna look at. Um, okay, let's just do that space that out a little bit more with some dash is just so we can see what we're doing here. Okay, so what do we have here? Um, first of all, do we have every chord in the diatonic chord progression? Here's one. Here's to Here's three. Here's four. Here's five here, six and here seven and we also have a 2nd 1 So we do. We don't need that. Um, when we do a sequence, it doesn't have to go through every single court. This is just a really common one. Um, that you do Sometimes he go through every chord to go from one all the way back toe one. So at first glance, this might look like a pretty random pattern, right? But, ah, this is a pattern called a descending fifth sequence. Okay, Um, it's a pattern we see all the time. And there's a bunch of different ones. Ah, bunch of different patterns. There's a descending fifth. You could have a descending fourth. You can have a descending second. You can have an ascending second. You can have an ascending fifth if you want. Um, there's a lot of different ways to do it. But what we're seeing here is, um, think about it like this. Um, let's put some notes on this just to make this a little clear just for like, the first few. So if we're on one, let's say, want to see if we go, um, down 1/5 from C. So down 1/5 that's a interval of 1/4 remember? So that's gonna put us on enough. And that's gonna be our four record. Okay. And then if we go down another fifth, that's gonna put us are on a B. If we go down another fifth, that's gonna put us on an E. If we go down another fifth, it's gonna put us on a If we go down another fifth, that's gonna put us on a d. If we go down another fifth, that's gonna put us on a G. And if we go down another fifth, we're gonna end up back on C. That is a descending fifth sequence, right? Um, we just stepped through everything. There's a couple tricks to this. Ah, in a couple different ways to do it. So that's kind of an overview of what we're looking at here. Let's get into the nitty gritty and start putting some notes on this. Ah, so we can see it in action 11. Harmonic Sequence Rules: Okay, The descending fifth sequence. That's what we're looking at here. And that's gonna be the first, um, big harmonic sequence that we're gonna look at. This has been called the strongest progression in tonal music. Meaning? Well, what does that mean? The strongest progression in total music. Um, here's Here's how I interpret that. Remember, um, a couple different times, we've talked about tendency chords, right? Five likes to go toe one, right. We know that We know that from cadences, we know that from all kinds of different stuff five likes to go to what? So, um, we like our baseline to descend by fifths to go 51 right? That's a good feeling to us. So that's basically what's happening here, over and over and over. Where we get 515151515151 five, one. Right, So it's whole bunch of five ones s. Oh, that feels very rewarding to us. This is a core progression we like to hear. And we can do these in other ways. Like I just said to weaken, Do it Ah, descending to if we want and we'll talk about that later. It has a bit more of problems to it and is not as strong. Right, because going a descending to would be 17654321 Right. And that doesn't have the same pool as that. 51515151 does. Okay, So a couple things to think about when we're looking at these kinds of sequences, um, we tend to think of them and in pairs, so pairs of cords. So instead of looking at this whole thing, break it down into groups of two. So we have a 14 and you don't have to do this. This is just kind of ah, handy way to think we have a 14 have a 73 we have a 62 and we have a 51 Okay, um, when you do that, you can I kind of see a descending second core progression, right, Cause look, 14 and then 73 If you look at the first chord of the sequence, where you going to see is 1765 Right. If you look at the second quarter sequence, you can see 4321 So, um as we. When we look at these in four part harmony, we're gonna be keeping track of all these resolutions and making sure that are 51 resolutions. All the implied 51 resolutions which is like here to here, here to hear, hear, to hear, hear, to hear are all lining up. But thinking of them in pairs like that. Ah will help simplify that a little bit. I'll explain that more in just a second when we start putting notes on this stuff. One other thing to think about, though, that I just want to put in your head is that when we are in a sequence, some of the rules that we already know become attack bit more relaxed in particular, rules surrounding this diminished chord, we're going to kind of slide right through it. And so we might find that, for example, we learned a long time ago that we tend to not like the diminished chord to be in route position, right. If, in a sequence like this, the diminished court ends up falling into root position because of just the way we're sliding through all of these cords, that could be OK. Um, you get a little bit of flexibility when you're in a sequence because you don't want to interrupt the pattern right? If the patterns working, the patterns working and that not putting diminished court and root position rule gets a little gets a little softer, Um, the same thing in terms of once we have seventh chords here. Ah, and we're trying to figure out Well, actually, even without seventh chords, once we're trying to figure out what to double in four part, the doubling rules get a little laid back. Also, because we're going to kind of fall into this pattern, it's almost It's like skiing, you know, like like if you're skiing down a hill, that's a cross country skiing. Um, you want to stay in the groove, right? Like you stay in these grooves and that makes everything smoother. If you go outside the groove, it starts to get a little bumpier, right? So you want your skis to stay in that groove and just go nice and smooth down the hill? That's what we're doing here. So if it means that we're gonna hit a little bump, um, with our rules, for how we're dealing with some double ings then, you know, we just kind of want to stay in the groove and keep it going down, um, down to our sequence. So just remember that those rules get a little more relaxed and what I was about to say about seventh chords. Um, that is also true. So when we if the seventh ends up in the base because of the pattern that we've emerged, um, on occasion, that can be OK. Um, if it's part of the sequence and some moving, that's when I don't think we'll encounter. But if it was to happen, that could be okay. Okay. So just a couple general guidelines about, um, how this is gonna work now for real. Now, let's put some notes on this thing so we can see this in action. 12. Root Position Descending Fifth Sequence: Okay, so let's start out by not putting everything into four part harmony quite yet. Let's just get it so that, um we have our basic chords down, so I'm gonna put our route in the base and all the other chords in the trouble from the right hand. Okay, so and let's do it in C major just to keep things simple. Okay, so we start off with a C. I need you to cords per bar here, so and let's just put our root note in first. So we have a c on, then four and seven, three, six to 51 All right, Now, let me adjust this so that those cords are lined up just because I want to We'll probably fall out of alignment in a minute, but Okay, there we have it. 14736251 Let's hear what this baseline sounds like. It's probably it might be familiar to you. Okay, maybe not, um, just out of contacts like that. It didn't sound extremely familiar, but let's finish off our corpse. So let's start with just, um, putting some triads in here. Uh, I want to do full notes. half notes. I mean, okay. F be, um do this e minor. A minor. Awfully low here. So let's go up and then d minor g major and see Major. Okay, so now I have just try, Adds Ah, and let's hear what that sounds like. Okay, this octave leap, I think kind of threw us. So let's keep the pattern going here. Just pull that down. Okay? Let's hear that one more time now that this pattern is the same going all the way down. Okay, meet. Okay. So now that we have the basic core progression, let's make our voice leaning a little bit better. The first thing that we confined is that, um, every court has a common tone. So let's make our common tones work. So cc here we have f f. So let's move this up. Oops, Let's keep that there. But let's move this up to a B F. Comment on airs. B b Keep that one the same he sees here. We have a and a smooth this ups there, and now we have tea, so D and D and G let's try that. So now interesting are the general shape of our car progression is moving up. Right? That's here. Okay, A little bit smoother. Right now, there's a ton of different ways we could organize our notes in the right hand world than non bass notes. Right? What we really care about right now is whether or not we're in route position, which we are, right. All of these cords are in route position because the roots are in the base. What happens up here for now isn't as important as what's happening in the base. Okay, We could do the same thing in minor. I just want to point that out really quick. Um, everything would work exactly the same if we slapped a minor key signature on here. Um, everything would be just perfect. It would be in minor, but that's just fine. This totally works in minor. Okay, so let's next. Look, at some ways, we can do this. That's not just in route position. 13. Root Positing And First Inversion Alternating: Okay, so I'm gonna copy this whole thing. Put it over here. Okay? And let's copy this too. Put it there. Okay. So let's look at it again. With this time, instead of doing root position all the way down, let's alternate between root position and first inversion. So we're gonna have one. Cor, that's in route position here, and then we're gonna have a cord that's in first inversion. So what is the first inversion going to be on an F chord that's going and a in the base. Okay, um, then root position. And then first inversion that's gonna put a G in the base root position. First inversion on a do. Jordan's gonna put an F in the base and then route position. And because this is the final 51 let's keep that in route position also. Okay, so let me line up our text a little bit. Here's we have our court names on there. That looks good. Okay, so now you can see what we have here. Let's compare these two here. We have a big 51 feel here. It's gonna be a little more subtle. Okay, Let's hear it. Okay. So another really common way to do it. What we're doing here is just alternating root position and first inversion 14. First Inversion And Root Position Alternating: Okay. There is yet one more way. That is common with copy our 1st 1 over again. And let's take this. And that is to go the opposite. So first inversion on and then route position on the second court. Our first chord is going to be in route position for our first court is going to be in first inversion. Our second chord is gonna be in route position. Um, that makes a nice leading tone on the five chord upto one case. We have first inversion here and then route position. Find those back up. It's good to that one. Okay. Nice, huh? Let's hear all three of these. And to see if you can kind of hear the The main difference is you know what they are. This is all root position. This is route and then inversion. This is inversion and then route. Okay, Um, a somewhat subtle difference here, but, um, get comfortable spotting these in all different ways. A descending fifth core progression is not always as obvious as this one. You might see it in the piece that looks more like one of these two, right? And you might see it where it's just in a shorter fragment, which is what we're gonna look at next. So let's go back to our Bach example and see if we can find one of these. 15. Back to Bach!: Okay. Back to Bach. Back to back, as Arnold Schwarzenegger would say. Um, okay. I want to get us back into this sequence that we had here. Right. Um, let me just play this first things first. Like, I don't know, two lines or so to get it back in our head. And they're gonna see if we can find what the harmonic sequences here. Okay, that was blazing fast. Um, let's slow that down. Just a touch. I don't know. Okay, so let's look at these four bars, okay? I'm just gonna copy these out and take him over to our theory. Example. It's gonna put him here. Okay, Here are those two bars. I would probably change my meter first. Right, cause we're in 38 or in 38 Okay, let's change our time signature to be in 38 Okay, Now makes a little bit more sense. Okay? And let's add kind of add another, uh, system to this. So I'm gonna go to instruments here. Just add another piano right hand if I can. There we go. Ok, um So here's why. I wanted another staff here. Um, because I didn't do a reduction of this. So here's what that means. So I want one note to fill the hole bar, so we use it. Oops. Dotted. Quarter note. Right. That's 3/8 notes. So what Cord is happen? There's one chord per measure here, and the baseline will probably completed close to telling us what it is. So remember were in the key of D minor here. I should probably put that key signature on, huh? Pressure? So let's throw that key signature on there. Okay? When key of D minor. So my first chord, probably as a d minor And does the music support that we have a d a D in an f so pretty good clue? Um f D e f g s o pretty much every other note is in D minor and then we run up the scale de miners. Pretty good bet here. So here we have G a B flat. Okay, So what court comes be? While two of these three notes would be in a G minor chord G and B flat, the strong beat here is gonna be the downbeat. So that helps us with the G. Here's B flat, G. De so I think G minors a pretty good candidate. Okay, let's keep going. What we have here C, c and e. It's a pretty good indication for a C chord. Um, see, E e g. Let's call that a C chord in the last court here. If this pattern holds its going to be an f chord, call this one a G chord based on that first note. But let's see F ah G a a f c. Think it f cords. Pretty good guess. Okay, Now let's see if you know if if you ever think like we're doing a reduction like this in your thing I don't know, see doesn't make a lot of sense for this to you. If you think that here's a good way to test listen to this all at once. If these chords sound horribly out of place, then they're the wrong court. They sound like they totally fit. Then the problem. Right court. Let's hear it. It's not. Make it an insane tempo, Theo. Okay, so these sound pretty darn comfortable to me, right? So d minor in this key is one Ah, g minor is four and the C major is going to be seven. It's gonna be a major seven, cause we're in a minor key. It's OK. And this F is going to be a major three. Okay, 1473 Does that look familiar to us Over here? One for 73 That is a descending fifth sequence. That's what we've got here in these chords right now. When we looked at it melodically, we looked at two bars at a time. We looked at what this was doing and then what this was doing right. That kind of gets us back into that pairs of cords thing, right? Because what we're kind of seeing here is one transposed down a whole step in the same way that one transposed down a whole step is seven, right? So if we looked at the in between cord, we'd see that it is also transposed down a whole step four down to three. Right? So when you put it together, you confined this descending fifth sequence in the pattern because what he's doing is he has a descending fifth here that he's transposing down a whole step which is going to make ah longer descending fifth sequence. Some make sense. Descending fifth sequence right there and let's see what he did with the roots here. He has D g C f. So he's in route position all the way through. We can call that route. Position has essentially the lowest note. And the strongest beat note in the base happened to be the same in this case. And they're both the route. Um, so we can call this route position to sending fifth sequence in this segment. If he doesn't go all the way through the core progression, he doesn't finish it with these other four chords. But that's okay. You don't have to, um, four chords is enough for us to call it a descending fifth sequence. 16. Ascending Fifth Sequence: Okay, so we know. Descending fifth sequences now, right? So let's look at a couple others. The descending fifth is by far the most common sequence that we encounter. But there are others, right? Um, let's start with a fairly uncommon one. This is one that you might expect to see a lot, because if we have the sending fifths a lot, then it makes sense that we would see us ending. Fits a lot, but we really don't, um it works. There's no reason you couldn't do it. It just doesn't sound all that great. And it's just not a very typical court progression. So let's hear it. And let's find out why. Um, so let's just use these two states appear and let's do it in half notes. Okay, so what would what would it be? So oops, I'm still in 38 Change my meter back to 44 Okay, so see, and then let's do C g E. Let's make a big C major court here. So now for doing us sending fifths and we're going 1 to 5. Okay, so let's do a five six chord so that we go down to a B because the court is gonna be G B, D and O. I still have that key signature on there. I heard a minor chord there, and then I realized that we're not actually in C Major. Let's change that. And take that note up, Teoh. A natural. Okay, so ignore that natural. There we go. They're okay. 15 56 actually. Okay, so you get why, that's a 56 We have a five chord, right? Um G and we're putting the third in the base. That's sick. So we're gonna do the alternating route sixth thing here. So now we need 1/5 above five. Which is what if you think about it. Well, I get my note. Sandy here. It's actually a two chord go up to D and then D f in air what we want. It's gonna look for path of least resistance up here. That works. Now, if I go up 1/5 from two, I'm gonna end up on the sixth. It is an a minor chord, and I'm going to do a six, uh, first inversion. So a 66 a z se. So that's going to put ah see in the base like that. And then I need an A C e. That's two C e k that if I go up to six from there from the six are sorry. Go up 1/5 from the sixth, giving me a headache. Um, I get to a three chord. So that's an e. Go here and then e g b looks pretty fine. And then I go up 1/6 from our sorry gosh. Ah, fifth from the third. We end up on the seventh. Okay, so that's going to put me on a be And if I want to do 1/6 uh, inversion I need a d in the base. So now we need a d d f Okay. And we're on that diminished chord so diminished six here. So now if I go up 1/5 from here, I get to four. So let's go up to in F f A. C. And now I get to ah one. Now, in order for this to really work, we have to cheat a little bit. So I'm gonna do root position on these last two chords. Okay, Now what typically happens when you do an ascending fifth, which is not typical, Um, is often we leave off the f chord because what we have here is ah, 41 cadence at the end of the sequence, which is not a super strong cadence to Playgirl cadence. It's fine. But it's not a real strong cadence. This, uh, seven chord. So our be diminished. Going up to tonic would be a much stronger resolution than the 41 Um, so if we left off this F chord, it would make a much stronger resolution. But just for the sake of consistency, let's leave it in. Okay, let's hear it. But it sounds fine. Um, for whatever reason, it's fairly uncommon. Um, does not sound nearly as good as the descending fifth sequence. 17. The Problem With Descending Thirds: Okay, let's look at descending thirds. Now, This is, um, a tricky one. Because while it's it's kind of common, um, you hear it a lot. I hear it a lot as a theatre. Music core progression. I don't know why that is. Maybe it just jumps out to me, but, um, in theater music, I hear it a lot. For some reason, Um, let's do this one in D. Um, and we're going. What we're gonna do is first we're going to we're just gonna do it. And then we're going to see a big problem that emerges from it. And then we're gonna look at what this solution is like, how people get around that problem. So here we go. Uh, and let's do this in, um, four part harmony, Shall we, Um OK, so we're gonna do it in D. So, um, my route cords to do a descending third when we go one down to six. Down, 24 down toe to. Okay, let's just go that far. Okay, So there's my route motion. So we're going to all of these in route position. Um, okay. So for one chord, we have d Ah. Let's put in. Oops. Let's put in a Oh, my gosh, I do these backwards again. I hate doing this. Okay, Um, think what? I can do that and say you go there. Good. A So I need d f a So di let's to f sharp and G That's oh, did it again De and sharp. Okay, Now I need a six chord. So in the key of d r six chord is be minor. So be I need a d So let's keep that d the same. I need an f b d f sharp. I should say so. It's keep got the same. And now here I need of be So my most logical thing here is to go from that a up to a b. Oops. Okay, not bad. Now let's go to it. Our third chord. It's gonna be a four chord, which in the key of D is G so G b D. So let's leave this be right there. That will be nice. That's the that D right there. And then let's put a G here path of least resistance. Right? OK, now let's get down to our to so to his e. So e G B is what we need. So let's leave that G right there. Let's leave that be right there. Except let's put it in the right voice. Um, e g b. So let's move this up to an E would be the path of least resistance. Okay, so, uh, let's label that. So this is going to be one six for to, Okay, Descending thirds, right? Let's hear it. Okay. Not bad. So, um, where has our problem come from? Why do I say this has a big, big problem? So the problem here is that two things as a problem one is that, um it doesn't sound all that awesome. It's just not a real strong core progression. Moving in thirds, right. It doesn't really give us a big sense of motion. There's so many notes in common here that were a little bit spinning. Our wheels were kind of stuck in the same place on we've kind of, you know, we've gone through four chords. We've only ended up one court away, right? So there's just not a lot of really strong motion in it. Another problem is that because of it, because it has a lot of similar motion or similar notes between chords. There's a really strong tendency to make big, parallel octaves and fifths. Um, you could do it quite easily. I think I avoided it throughout this. Have some parallel. Six is here. Um, but no big parallel octaves, air fists. But, um, if I wanted to craft this anymore, I might run into those pretty quick. So there's a solution. Um, there's something that people do to give it a little stronger motion to help avoid any parallels. Um, and let's do that in the next video. 18. The Solution To Descending Thirds: Okay, So here's the solution. We're gonna insert another parallel or another descending third sequence in between each note. We're just gonna kind of fold them together. So we're gonna dio is this? Hopefully won't get too ugly as I insert this cord. Good. That's what I wanted to happen. Um, doing our baseline first? I suppose so. I'm gonna add another note in between here. Uh, I'm gonna start 1/5 away, so I'm gonna go up 1/5 too. In a chord. Okay. So a c sharp e is what I need. Someone added 1/5 year. Just trust me on this for a minute. So here's an a switch. Voices. Let's put another a there and this D I need a c sharp and that f probably go E right, way go. Okay. So how did I do with parallels there? Here we have an f d going to an e c. That's okay. Same big step. Ok, that's fine. So now, uh, let's label that. So now we have a five, and Okay, so I'm still on a descending third sequence. I'm just gonna add a note in between. Right. So, fifth, I'm gonna lower. I'm just gonna put this one a little bit lower so we can see that it's a little bit separate. OK, now I'm going to go to, uh, my second chord, my six. And I'm gonna add a descending third from this five. So I'm gonna fold to descending through together. Right? So from this five, it would be a three, so that would be an f. Okay, So f a C is what I need here. So here, I'm on an f. That's just fine. Let's go to my other voices. See you. C sharp F a Sorry f sharp. A C sharp is where we are. Okay. Right. Um so f sharp minor. This b is going to become a would be the most logical. So now I've got to check two chords, right? Well, let's label this first, because this is now a three chord. So let's check my interactions between these two middle chords going up 1/2 step there. Up a whole step there. Um, more parallel sixes. What about this? A Okay, it's probably fit. Sorry, um, to be f so here we have a parallel fifth. Okay, so I can't do that, but this a to B here. I have a parallel active, right. So I got a bunch of problems here. This is why it's a little dangerous of a core progression. Okay, so let's suggest this. So I got a five chord in the key of D C and A And if I adjust this middle on enough to just a lot of stuff, Okay, so let's move this a upto a So this goes a and then down to f I need some stuff moving down is what I need. So then this a can't move down toe f up to D. So now we've got no parallel octaves there. I think we're okay here. Okay, Now, let's go to the next chord. So I got a lot of stuff moving down, so we know this voice is safe. Things d two c d t a. So that's ok. Be toe f. So Bt D is fine. That's OK. All right. We did it. So I think we're in the clear there. So let's move on to our next chord. So next is a four chord, and we can check our parallels here while it's in our head. Eso we have f and A So that's just 1/3 if we reduce it. So that's gonna be okay After G is a pile active here, and this is 1/5. So let's move. This are four chords in the key of D is a G chord. So through this down to a D and that down to a B. So now we have after G. That's okay. I still have parallel. Don't know. I don't apparel office, cause this moves down to 1/6. Okay, great. I did it. Um, Now I need to insert this court, though. So let's go down here. And what's 1/3 down from three. That's gonna be a one. Oops. Okay, one so d d f sharp. A So I'm just gonna darts. We're going sticking with d there. Let's switch my voices, go to there and be Could go to could stand a b d. I know it can't when we're talking about, um and a would be dangerous cause here's B to a so it's gonna make parallel octaves. Let's go up to D. Let's see how we did here. So the's air moving down. But that's a third g two b two de toe A. That's 1/5 D two d b up to D. That's okay, right? We're okay there. Um, that's labeled that we're almost done. Actually, we are done. We can stop it there. Um or typically, what you would find in this kind of progression is throw a 51 at the end of this. So Well, let's just do that because you're going to find something fun at the end of this. Trust me. There's a There's a payoff after all of this. So, um, now we're basically gonna break the pattern. The sequence. We're gonna go five one. Okay, so five in de loops is all right. Just do there. Ah, a So here. I need an A c e. So let's leave that as an e. Let's go here. I need to go to a C C. Sharp. And let's see if I go g up to a to have anyone else doing that. Have a B two g. That's okay. I think that is okay. I think it's OK. Okay. Uh, now we just need a one. So, de, uh, this could go up to a D. That would be just fine. And then up here. Stay on a and I don't like the f sharp on the top. See, C sharp toe f sharp. I don't like, so let's go, Teoh de. - Okay , so d a f sharp D. Okay, so now we have Let's label this kind of outside of the sequence, we have five one. Okay, so what do we have here? We have descending third sequence and inserted between it. We have another descending third sequence, and then we have, uh, cadence at the end, unauthenticated at the end. So let's hear it. Ah, let's slow it down just a little bit. Um, Did you did it battle? That's your Okay. Um, we did it. That sounds pretty good. And maybe a touch familiar. Maybe just a little bit. Let me, um a just a couple of our top voice notes just to try to get you to recognize this. This might not I'm probably breaking all kinds of voice leading rules here, but I just want to get the top voice melody in a place that you'll recognize it. Okay, Let's hear it again. All the notes. I just changed our in the court. I probably made some voice living mistakes, but, um, you'll see why it's pocket bells. Cannon, right? Canon in D by packable. We've looked at this piece before. Um, and we probably labeled all of these cords as the cords that they are. But now we can label them as something a little bit different right now, we can say this is a descending third sequence in the key of deep right from here to here. Well, actually two here we would say 51 at the end. But when you analyze this, you might do this, not analyze that. But you might just put a big line between the one and the five and right D sc three descending third From here to here, it's an extension of tonic. Okay, Um, fun, right? Ah, we finally decoded this. Ah, Pocket bill sequence nifty. Okay, let's we want to talk about seconds. 19. Descending Seconds: Okay, um, I'm gonna put these back up here for anyone who's following long. Let's talk about descending seconds. So these also have a problem than you might think. Descending seconds. Isn't that just moving our core down the diatonic chord progression? Yeah. Totally. Is, um, let's go back to see Major and let's do this. Let's not do this in four parts. Let's do this. And like, this modified three part Sure we'll go all the way. What the heck? Okay. Oops. Ah, I'm already gonna gonna do a problem. Okay? Started, doctor. Fire. Okay, so you could probably get a sense from it just from me in putting those notes, but, uh, you know, it's cool. It's not particularly brilliant. Um, well, let's hear it. Um uh, okay, fine. Um, what problems can arise from this? Well, the most obvious one. Well, it's actually kind of the same two as the as in descending thirds. Ah, One problem is that it's just not a real strong core progression. Um, another problem and which a bigger problem in this case in this particular one is that we have massive parallel. Everything's happening right. We've got parallel octaves and fifths all over the place. Um, and I'm not in four part harmony here, but you can see that, You know, here's pretty little fits. Here's, uh, here's parallel octaves, right. And between every single core because we're just moving this core down in stepwise fashion . Um, it's gonna be parallel all the way through, so that's a big problem. So, uh, what can we do? Well, there's a simple solution to this, and it is doing 63 inversion all the way across. Now, let me do it. That here as well. Yeah. The quarter and 63 have also put the right hand in kind of this not very easily playable 63 fashion. If this was in, um, four part harmony, this would more or less solve our problem. Would still have a couple of parallel octaves. Um, like we have here between our roots, back to pocket bills can write like it's kind of stuck in your head now. Um, but this would make it, uh, acceptable. We couldn't live with it as long as we're moving six threes, because then we don't have parallel fifths with in court. Right? So you can kind of get away without a little bit. And then I left the tonic chord at the end, uh, as root position just to get us that nice resolution. 20. Spotting Sequences: Okay, so that doesn't for sequences? Yes, There are more sequences. You can dio ascending seconds, although it's even more clunky than descending seconds. Um, and you can do these with sevenths on them as well. Um, but for now, I want to leave, uh, sequences behind. Um, the last thing I want to say about sequences is get used to spotting them in a piece of music. When you see cords moving in a pattern, you can start to identify them as the big clump of chords that they are. Instead of saying this is, you know, it's back a little bit here, um, amounts go even back to a descending fifth. You know, instead of saying this is 14736251 you can say this is a descending fifth sequence, you know, for these 1st 3 bars or whatever. So, um, you can start to identify things in bigger clumps, which is what we're trying to do with music theory. Now, instead of analyzing every single corn and every single note where we're trying to get good at taking a little bit of a step backwards and seeing big picture stuff because the big picture stuff is how people are really hearing music. They're not hearing every individual note necessarily. I mean, are But they're not thinking well, I was a mighty fine six chord that the composer put there. That's not what they're thinking. Well, they're thinking is that had a really nice sound. How did they get that sound? And the sound in a sequence like this isn't because of that well placed six chord. It's because of this sequence. Right? So that's what we're trying to identify here. Okay, so keep an eye out for those when you're working, um, on music and when you're analyzing something, that being said now, we're gonna move on to a very fun topic that we've danced around for a while. We've talked a little bit about secondary dominance, um, leading tone cords. But now we're really going to get into him full steam. Here we go. 21. Chromatic Chords: Okay, let's move into talking about this secondary dominance thing. Now, this is kind of like, um, one of those things that I think people hear a lot about. So maybe you've heard about secondary dominance before? Um, it is kind of a hallmark of theory in that Well, ah, Hallmark is the wrong word. It's a, um the benchmark, it's ah, it's a big topic that we kind of used to kind of signify the end of second semester music theory. Really? Um, where is kind of modes are kind of around the end of first semester music theory, uhm, and secondary dominance around the end of second semester music theory. So what we're talking about here is ah, we're starting to delve into chromatic harmony. So we know what chromatic means, right? Chromatic means not in key. Um, So what we're going to see with secondary down it is some chords that are out of the key, and, ah, we have to find a way to explain those. Ah, and have them make sense. So, um, I have a really simple example of one up here. Okay, so let's get sunscreen. Okay. So what we have here is we have an f sharp right here. Okay. Now, before explaining what it means, let's think about when we've seen Chromatic chords before because we have seen chromatic things in music up till now, right? Like this is not totally new. We've seen cords that didn't quite make sense. Um, my first reaction and your first reaction probably would be that when you see an accidental like this in a piece, you might think, Oh, that could be a clue that we're in a minor key. And that's adding a leading tone. Right, That's our raise. Seventh, that is, um, kind of a first gut reaction to where you see when you see an accidental in a piece of in otherwise diatonic piece of music, Right? So let's check. Does that make sense? So we're probably in the key of C major here, and, uh, so that wouldn't work. But let's assume we're in the key of a Viner. Maybe maybe we're in the key of a minor. If we were in the key of a minor, are leading Tony B g sharp, right? So if we were in the key of a minor and we wanted to give ourselves that leading tone. We would raise the seventh in the key to give us a G sharp, and that would push us towards a, um, and give us some major five chords and all that stuff that we've looked at in the past, right? So we would expect a G sharp here for that to be true. And we don't have what we have in F sharp, so it's probably not that right, But that is a case in which we've seen, um, some chromatic chords pop up is raising that seventh to make the major five chord in a minor key. But in this case, that doesn't work it up. We're in C major. We have in f sharp in it. What is that? That's a raised sixth doesn't really make sense with anything else we've done before. So, um, let's dive in and try to explain this, using something totally new and that would be secondary dominant. Let's go to a new video and get into it 22. The Big Picture: Okay, so let's start with just like the big picture. Like, I'm just going to show you how this works, and then we'll get into, like, the nitty gritty rules behind it. So let's start by just labeling what we've got here. So I've got a one were in C major case. We've got C what we have here G d g b So we have a five chord, right? Nothing fishy about that. Okay, what do we have here? You have a d d f sharp, a c. So that's a D major chord with 1/7. So that's a dominant chord. It's a 57 chord, right? That's the only place we really see that, Um, but it's on a two chord, so it's a major to cord with a seven doesn't make much sense. Let's just leave that just like that. For now, we're gonna come back, and this is what secondary dominance are all about. Figuring out what this quarter. But let's come back to in a minute. Okay, let's go hear. What court is this? This is a 57 past. We have G d f G B sore back to F natural to make a G seven chord, and then we're back. So what? Oops. Okay, so we have 15 Something weird. 57 What? Okay, so let's dive into this Something weird. What we have here is 1/7 chord, right? A perfectly functioning, dominant seventh chord. But what is the dominant seventh chord? Do dominant sevenths like this Dominant seventh leads to one, right? It always leads to 1571 Like we've heard that 1000 times. Right? 571 Um, but this is a to seven. So where does to seven go? Um, 27 goes to five. Check it out. Um, this is called a secondary. Dominant because this is not a to seven chord. This is Ah, 57 chord. Hold on. I'm I'm not done yet. Oops. And text in muse score is just a pain in the book, okay? And you're straight line here. Okay, Let's make that a little bit longer. No, it's okay. This is what we would call this court. Here's what we're saying. We're calling it 57 of five. Meaning if just for this brief little moment, if we were in the key of the five, if we're in the key of G. In this case, this would be a 57 So this would be a 57 chord in the key of G. So, um, what we're gonna do here is we're going to say this is functioning like 57 and it's pushing us to are what would be our tonic if we were in that key, which is five. So we write it as a number over accord over another court it So it's almost always 57 of something. And in most cases that most common when you see is five of 557 up five. So, in order for this to work in the simplest way, our next chord ought to be this which it is. We have a seven, which is I'm gonna lead us to one. So this is briefly diverting us out of the key of C major into the key of G and giving us the five of the key of G and then swinging us back to the key of G. That seven here is swinging us all the way back to the key of C. Okay, so we're going see G still in the key of C, but then 57 to 5. Kind of firming up that Oh, maybe we've moved to the key of G, uh, one in the key of G maybe. Or this could be heard as five. But with the seventh, it's gonna be heard as seven of the key of C an hour back to see. It's a diversion, a brief little diversion sending us over to another key just for a cord or two. And then we come back. Let's hear it. Okay, so we're hearing is 15 notice that this cord has to resolve correctly. So f sharp up to G, which any kind of cheats they're a little bit see down to be, um and I've given it a kind of a route motion to really kind of help with it. Let's hear that again. Let's slow it down just a little bit. Right. So that is called a secondary dominant. It's a dominant of another key is really kind of what it is. Okay, so that's the big concept here, right? A brief diversion out of key to explain a chromatic court. Um, so that's what happened. Now let's go a little bit deeper into the nitty gritty of it, Shall we? We shall 23. Rules Of V/V: Okay, Um, it's going to a couple rules here. So in order for something to be a secondary dominant, well, let's focus on something to be a secondary dominant of five K, specifically. Five. Um, for now. Okay, we'll talk about other secondary dominance later because there are other ones, but the most common is 57 of five or just five of five, which let's talk about the averages. Second, we could have just five of five without the seventh on it. It's It's much less strong, though, right, because without the seventh, we don't get such a strong pull to the five, which would be here. Um, but we still get it because the to cord would be major. So be a major to court. So, um, let's talk about why to, Right? Why is it that a major to cord leads to five? Well, because think about it. If we count up way, look at the relationship between 1 to 5, right, so C to d e toe f to G right? That's five scale degrees, including C and G. So C D E F G five, right. If I count from G up five scale degrees right. So if I'm treating G as one that I'm cutting g to G two a b c D. That gets me up to D, which in the key of C is too right. So whenever you see a major to cord, um, you can look at it and see if it is a secondary dominant chord. A major to cord in a piece is a good sign that you might be dealing with, Ah, five of five situation. Something to keep out for. Um, so if something is gonna be the five of five has to be built on to it has it doesn't have to be in route position necessarily. Um, you can do this without being in route position, but it has to be built on two, um, scale degree to, and it has to really be a major record. You don't need the seventh, but it has to be a major. An order for two really work. Um, So what that means is that we have to raise the third of the cord in order to make it a major chord. If we're in a minor key, we're gonna have to raised the third, and you're also gonna have to raise the six. This is gonna be flat in a minor key. Um, so you have to do to accidentally in a minor key, because even in a minor key, you need this. Five of five to be major. Um, if you don't raise that six, you're gonna and just raise the third you're gonna end up with. Ah, something strange a flat. You're gonna put, like, a weird six chord. Um, so don't do that. You have to raise both to get those that happen. Okay, so just a couple of rules for you here. Um, the resolution has to work also, so we have to resolve this seventh chord as though this cord is tonic. So the leading tone has to go. Teutonic the seventh, the quartile seven, so to speak, has to fall down to the third. Um, so we're treating G as tonic here. Okay, let's go into a new video and talk about just how you would write these. There's kind of a easy trick. Relatively easy trick for writing these 24. Writing V7/V Chords: Yeah, it's like a new one. Let's go over here and let's Dio let's go to a different key just to keep us on our toes. It's go to key of D. Okay, So when Keedy and let's start with a one chord So let's do it in just the same kind of voices are doing now. One Okay, now let's go to five of five. Ok, um, here's how I like to do it. Okay, This is how I learned how to do this. And it's just a handy thing to dio first, if you want to make that five of five chord, skip it, go to the next chord and write the five chord So the five of D is a So we're gonna right? It's do that just because I know my voice leading is probably gonna want to do that. Okay, so now let's go backwards. So now we know that this is going to be based on two. So in the key of D, that's gonna be an e chord. Okay, so let's keep it in route position just for now. And then I'm gonna need a e g sharp. Be OK, So now I've got all kinds of parallelism here If I was in four part harmony. I don't care about that too much when I'm not in four part harmony, but this is not a brilliant sounding chord. So let's take that be put it down here. And then let's add our seventh if we want to. Uh, which would be a deep Put that there. Sure. Okay, Now, let's make sure resolves correctly. So my seventh is to resolve down to my third, so I need to go there. Really? It's getting a that chord. And then my g sharp need to resolve upto a Okay, so that works. Okay, so now I have it. Right. Um I have a leading tone chord, a chord with a leading tone upto a right. That's what that G sharp gives us. It gives us by making the two chord major. It gives us the leading tone today. Um, tonight, Maybe that's here right now. What did it sound like there? It sounded like we just went through a really quick modulation to the key of a because when that ended, we felt like a was tonic, right? You be perfectly happy with the song that ended right here on a right, it could end there. That's the end. Because this cord, this 57 of five has such power. It just really pushes us. And it says we are now in this key. We are now in the key of a We're now in the key of five. Um, you know, and secondary dominance could just be really strong like that. They can really push us to feeling like this is now tonic. If we put that put 1/7 on this, let's let's do it. So a our seventh is going to be G if I put a G on it, and that's G natural, remember? Because we had a g sharp here. I don't need to put a natural here because there's a bar line in between. But I'm gonna put on there anyway, just to help us to remember that g natural again. Okay, so now it's not gonna feel so comfortable ending here. I don't really want to end there because I wanted to come all the way back to see we're sorry to be we've kind of gone halfway back to do that with just ending here. We've only gone kind of halfway back to our initial key. Now we've gone all the way right. You got to hear And you think and you thought I don't think that next Gord is gonna sound like tonic. And then it did right one more time. So we kind of just went in a circle here. We just really quick and just four chords. We changed keys when we changed back. Now, be careful on calling this a change of key. I kind of bit my tongue when I said that. Just there, Um, this isn't a change of key. This is way too brief to be a change of key. If we've really changed the key, then we will have stayed in the new key for a little bit. This we call, we could just call it a secondary dominant, which is not a key change. Or we could call it a tonic civilization, Which is a word I think we've encountered before. A very, very, very brief change of key. That basically just means one chord or two chords are in a new key and them are right back temporarily made this tonic. But by adding this seventh, we've immediately pulled ourselves out of it. Um, so if we wanted to analyze this way, do it one and then we would call this. We would not call it, too. Ah, Major to seven. That is not something we would use. We would call it 57 of five, and this we would call. Actually, we would call that 57 and then this We would call What? So even though literally, yes, this is a major to cord, with a dominant seventh on it. That is technically true. That is what it is. But that's not what it's doing. That's a terrible way to analyze it, because it's not doing that at all. Um, what it's doing is 57 of five, pushing us up to 57 and then it's going back down to one. Okay, so we want to call this what it's doing, not literally what it is, right, literally. What it is is a major to cord, but some what it's doing, what it's doing, sending us to 57 and that's what that says. Cool. Okay, let's move on 25. Tonicization And Modulation: okay. I want to talk just briefly about that word. I just use Tanase ization on also at another word to it, which is modulation. So what we're doing here is a tanase ization. Tanase ization, like I just said, means a very, very brief Ah, move out of our key were kind of deputizing a new key to be tonic briefly, like, just for a few chords. So we're saying OK, congratulations A you are now tonic and then by the next chord were saying no Okay, we're taking that back. That's Tanase ization. Very brief change. However, what we're starting to get into is modulation. A modulation is a big topic and we're going to spend a lot of time on it. And it's kind of the majority not majority, but a big part of third semester. Um, music theory is modulation, and Tanase ization can be a part of modulation and secondary dominance. Concertante Lee help with modulation. They are not modulation in and of themselves. In other words, if we were really going to modulate to a new key, which means we're gonna transition from D major to a major and we were going to stay in a major for a significant amount of time. That would be a modulation, and we might use secondary dominance to do it. That's a pretty good way to get there, right, because these can help serve as what we call pivot cords. Pivot cords are just accord That helps you get to another key. There's a little bit more to pivot cords that we'll talk about when we get deeper into modulation. But the pivot core hurt the secondary. Dominant dominant can be a type of pivot cord, as you saw here when it got us really quickly to the five chord. But we're not actually modulating keys yet. We're not moving to a new key, just tanase ization. Just a very brief moment in a new key. So I just wanted to make that really clear before we move on. Um, so I think I've done that. Let's move on 26. Remembering Diminished Chords: Okay, so now we know what ah, secondary dominance are. But we really only know the tip of the iceberg. There's a lot of other places this could go. We've learned what five of five can do, right? But there are other things we can do is well, when we've seen five of five. Where my cursor go through this, Um, what we're really seeing here is this leading tone pushing us up to five, right, Creating that tanase ization of the five chord. Okay, I've added something new here. Let's see if let's just hear this, um, and see if you can figure out what's going on. Okay, What's going on with this cord? Is it a five of five? Not quite. This is a different kind of secondary dominant, and it's not a secondary dominant at all. It's a very close cousin to a secondary dominant, um, and we call it a leading tone court, a secondary leading tone. Now we've seen leading tone cords before. Um, right, that's like a diminished chord heading up to tonic, right. So B D f. A for 1/2 diminished or B d f a flat for a full diminished that leads to see e. G. Right of seven 77 diminished seven. That is 1/7 chord to tonic. We've seen that before, right? I think we had a whole class called diminished court. Um, but what we're going to do now is use those to pivot up to the five chord. So let's go to a new video and let's talk about how this one works. 27. Leading Tone Of Five: Okay, so let's hear this one more time. Okay? So just looking at this, we see two different accidental Z in the same court. There's only one time we've seen that right? And that is on a fully diminished chord. Um, it's really the only time you'll see it. Um, so that's what's going on here. What we have here is let's let's to our labels. So again we have one. We have, ah, five were back in the key of C, not a seven on that five. And then we have here. We have a diminished chord. Uh, but let's see what it is. It's built on an F sharp f sharp, a c e flat fully diminished. So what would we call that? Ah, we're in the key of C. So f sharp is a raised for. So if you were being literal, you might call it are raised for. That's how you make a court on the race for with Roman numerals raised for, uh, fully diminished seven. What? Or something That would be a literal interpretation of it. Um, but that doesn't make any sense. So let's call it something better. Let's say that diminished seven chord exists here as a leading tone, right? But it's not a leading tone heading to tonic because F Sharp is our leading tone here. If we're treating it as the root, which we could treat almost anything actually, any of these pitches as the root. But in this case, F sharp is the root, and it's pushing up to G. So this is again in of five kind of situation here. So we're gonna call this a seven fully diminished seven of five. And then, of course, it goes to five after that, which is what we have to have on one. Okay, so what we have here is 15 seven diminished seven of five and then five. And then what? So another kind of tanase ization? This is a kind of secondary dominant, but this one is a secondary leading tone chord. Okay, let's hear it over time. Notice how tonic like this five chord feels right. You could be pretty happy with the piece ended right there. You could convince me that that's the tonic if you really tried. Um, until we get back there, that's what I really want to hear is a tonic still because this is to temporary to be a key change like we've already talked about. So, uh, leading tone to five. There's a couple different ways we can do this. Leading tone to five. Let's talk about a couple of variations on it next. 28. Inversions And Variations: okay, are variations on this have to do with inversions. So there are some common ways to do this leading tone, uh, fully diminished seven chord and some uncommon ways. The most common are ah, this way first to the fully diminished seven chord. Less common is as 1/2 diminished seventh chord. So that would be that raising that seventh up to a natural that's less common. Um, so they have the same amount of pull. Let's hear it. Yeah. I mean, it has similar poll, but much less common. Um, another uncommon way is to not have the seventh at all. Ah, this just really doesn't have the right kind of pole to it at all. We really need that seventh in there. And we saw that with the ah secondary dominance as well. That seventh really pulls us to the five. That makes five feel like tonic. Um, but it doesn't without the seventh. It just doesn't have the same kind of pole that's here. There's some there, but it's not the same, right, So that's less common. Um, putting it in 65 inversion that would be having an A in the base gives us that right, Uh, also fairly common to do it this way. That gives us a nice A and then falling down toe land on G. Not bad. Also, we could put a C in the base, which is putting the seventh chord in the 43 inversion. Let's hear that that one's mighty ugly, right? It's that, right? Nope. Because I put an E in the bass smooth. Okay, let's put the sea in the base. This time, it's still fairly ugly. But what we have here is right This pattern repeating that can be useful to us in the right context. That would sound pretty good. So most inversions are totally okay. Including root position gives us that nice leading tone at one or 25 in this case. But in order for this to really work as a leading tone to five, we really need ah, fully diminished chord, fully diminished seventh chord, I should say Yeah. Okay, cool. So with that, uh, let's move on 29. V of Anything: Okay, so we know. Five of five. Secondary dominant, right? We also know seven of five fully diminished secondary leading toe. Right. Um, there's more. There's more to it. So we have this kind of big thing that we call secondary dominant chords, which leads us to well, which includes leading tone. Dominant are leading tone cords as well. Um, secondary dominance just kind of are the big name that we give to all of these, But so far, we have secondary dominance. We have leading tone dominance. And now we're gonna look at, ah, secondary dominance of anything. Right. So here's the deal. Uh, anything Any chord, any diatonic chord can be Tana sized with its own dominant. Okay, let me explain that one more time. So we don't have to always have five of five. We could also have five of to. Right. Um, we cantante a size two by using ah, five chord of it, which in the key of C, that would be an a major chord. Right? So a minor is six in the key of C, right? And it's minor. That's what naturally occurs. But if we make it major and especially if we throw 1/7 on it. That's gonna feel like a 57 a dominant of to right. It's gonna push us towards, too, so we can use that and composers have for a long time. So if we are in C Major and we see a big A major seven chord, we might think there's problem. This is probably a secondary dominant of two of D and if, ah, and if we want to confirm that, that's true. Look for a D chord right after it, or very very near it, and that will confirm it. So let's look at a couple different ways that we can do this. There's a couple tricks to spotting these, and there's a couple tricks to writing these that we're gonna go over in this section. Um, yeah, so let's dive in 30. V of vi Example: Okay, lets start off just by looking at an example Here. So here I am in C Major. Now you're thinking I see a sharp there. You've got three chords and one's got a sharp You're not in C major, my friend. Um, you would be wrong. Um, I am in c major here, but, um, I'm I have a Thomas ization going. Now, let me clarify what I just said there. If you just were given these three chords and nothing else totally out of context, it would be hard to definitively say yes. You are in C major. Actually, um, that'd be pretty hard to do. The reason I'm saying definitively we are in C major is because I'm telling you definitively trust me, we're in C Major for this example. Pretend Warren C major, but totally out of context. Ah, it's true that it would be hard, if not impossible to say we were in C major. But for the purpose of this example, trust me. We're in C major. Okay, So our job is to figure out what this court is and explain it. Ah, accurately. Okay, let's hear it. Okay. Well, this this chord with the G sharp in It is really pushing us to this cord, so probably a secondary dominant. So let's analyze it. So we've got let's call that one because we're on a C major. See, e g. Right? See, Major. Now let's skip this court for a minute and let's go here. What do we have here? A C E A. We haven't a major, so that's six, right? Let's call that six. Now What's going on here? What's my cord? Ah E G B is the triad. So I'm on an e. Major chord on makes good sense because a minor here, the five of that is E major. So we're just on a five of six here, Okay? One thing you can do is just spot that leading tone G sharp. When you see a raised pitch, it's It's not its very likely to be, um, a leading tone. So go up 1/2 step. Probably where we're going, right? Um, that's not always true, but it's pretty common. Okay, so what would we call that? We would call that. Well, there's no seventh in that chord, so we're gonna call it just a five of six 56 That's it. So what we have here is one. And then a big old ah five chord that leads us right to six. Right? Five of six. Now what is it? Literally? It is literally a major three chord, right? Like we could call it a major three chord. But that doesn't really tell us anything. That doesn't really tell us what it's doing. What it's doing is acting like five of six pushing us to six, right? Let's make it push a little bit harder. Let's add that seventh in there s o E major seventh could be a d. Because this is 1/7 corps of 57 chord. A dominant core, not a leading tone court. Okay, let's hear it now. Right now really pushes there even harder. Um, now, if I want to label this correctly, I would call this. Ah, five for three would be my inversion. So 543 of six is my actual definition. Because I have this based on I don't have the room in the base here. Right. Have the fifth in the base. So 543 of six. It's a lot of numbers, right? Um but it works, you know, it's cool. Sound really pushes us to a So, um, that's how these work. You can do this with any court. Just about. Okay, let's go into some exceptions in the next video. 31. Exceptions: Okay. So you can have a secondary dominant leading to any other diatonic chord. With two exceptions to exceptions, things you can't do. So can you have a five of two? Yes. You could totally have a five to that works. Can you have a 53? Yes. You could totally have a five of three that works. Five before? Yes. Five of five. Yes. Five of six. Yes, Five of seven. No, um, five of seven doesn't work. Why? Because seven is a diminished chord. Now, we don't have any problem making ah, secondary down when it's leading to minor chords like we just saw here in our five of six example. Right? We've pushed it to a minor chord. That's just fine. So we conducive five of a major chord. Five of a minor chord that all works five of a diminished chord. Doesn't work because we can't be in a key of a diminished chord. It's just not gonna feel like tonic, right? That's the whole point of a tennis ization. Is that we make the cord that were landing on. I feel like tonic, right? If it doesn't feel like tonic than it didn't work. So you wouldn't have a five of seven. Um, because in a major key in a minor key, you could, because seven is major. Right? Um, so in a minor key, you can do five of seven, but you can't do a five of a diminished chord. Just doesn't work the same. The other one you could never have would be five of one, right? That doesn't work because we already have five of one that's totally in the key. Um, in the key of g r In the key of C like we have here, you just have a G to see and it just be a 51 It's not a five of anything. It's 51 so you would never see Ah, five of one. That doesn't make sense, because it's already there were already in that key. We haven't Tana sized anything. Um, so 51 you'll never see. And five of a diminished chord. So let me clarify that diminished chord. We would never have five of seven in a major key and or five of two in a minor key, right? Um, because it's the diminished court. It's not the scale degree. You will never have five of a diminished chord. Let me just do that. Um Okay, so those are two exceptions. Ah, the diminished chord. And what is already tonic Great. 32. Leading Tone Of Anything: Now this works the same for leading tone cords. And this is one of my all time favorite music theory tricks. If you want to get to another key, I just throw a big big leading telling on there and you're gonna be into the next key. Uh, let's do this again. But let's turn into a leading tone court. So we have one. Now, if I want this to be a leading tone chord toe A, I need a g sharp, but g sharp is gonna be my route now, So let's get rid of these other notes. So, um g sharp. Now, remember, I need a fully diminished court, so I need minor thirds all the way up. So I need a g sharp. I need a B Put it. Be there. I need be to d is a minor third eso I need a d and then I need a d two f. So that makes a fully diminished chord right there. So it's gonna work best in my base. A B would be good. Abby works. Okay, so that puts Ah, that gives me a 65 inversion, which is cool. Okay with that. So that means we're going to G O. This is going to be seven groups diminished 65 getting pretty complex now of six. We get my line in there like that a little bit longer, cause we have a huge named cord. And then here we have a six port. So one, 27 fully diminished. 65 of 626 Okay, here we go. Sounds pretty good, right? Sounds like a pretty natural modulation. Now, the reason it probably sounds pretty good is this is a relatively easy one going to six. Right? Let's try it. Going to to That's gonna be a little bit tougher, right? It's Let's take his first chord. It's got to here. So one now I'm gonna put out here. I'm gonna put a d chord. Here's to oops D f a. Okay to be a little bit tougher modulation or Thomas ization. I should say we're gonna make to feel like tonic, okay? And we're going to use a leading tone to do it. But check this out. See, C sharp two d, just chromatic right up through there was gonna bulldoze right up into D. Um C Sharp is our leading tone So if we're gonna do a leading tone chord, that's gonna be our route. Right? So any minor thirds all the way up c sharp too. Ah e Okay. To G to be flat. Let's put that down there. Okay, That's going to be our leading tone. Fully diminished chord up to D. This one should sign a little rougher. That means that this court is going to sound edgy and and dissonant, but it's gonna resolve well to the next court. Not bad. Um, I don't think my resolutions were great here. Uh, so my seventh is here. That should go down. There we go. No, I got try. It's But let's hear that again. It was a little bit better. We heard this seventh. Fall down to that A felt a little more comfortable. Okay? And let's let's put our numbers on there. So we have one. And to and then here we have seven fully diminished but root position. Oh, actually, just go like this to seven. Fully diminished of to clean this up, Getting a little I like to keep things a little tidy. Here we go. Seven fully diminished too, right? And then into two great. Okay, now let's dive into an example. I have a fun example lined up. Ah, so let's go into it next. 33. Listening: Okay, let's look at Beethoven. Sonata number 15 Opus 28. Now, Beethoven has a lot of dense harmony. Um, so I don't think we've looked at it very much Beethoven yet. Um, there's actually just one little couple bar phrase that I want us to analyze here. Um, but I hate just like taking a big, elaborate piece of music and just looking at one or two bars. You really ought to hear the whole thing. So let's hear the whole piece. Um, it's too bad I can't play you a full recording. I wish I could, but copyright stuff. Ah, like a recording played by a human. It always sounds better, but, um, the music or playback will have to do. This is a little bit of a longer piece, so get comfortable, comfortable. And let's just hear it. Um, listen to the harmony, But really consider this video Maybe a break and just enjoy this great piece of music. Here we go way thing, way, - thing , - way through way, way, I think. - Way , - way 34. Long Pieces: Okay. Holy smokes. That was a long piece. Um, I told you it was long, Uh, pieces of this length are not uncommon, especially in this era, but even still, kind of There's a lot of modern music that you don't get really kind of, You know, they could be virtuosic pieces that could be pieces that, you know, when you go out to a concert and someone's gonna perform one of them, you expect it to be half the program or even the whole program. In some cases, there's some pieces that are quite long. Um, I remember when I was an undergrad, I had to play a sonata like this. It wasn't Beethoven, it was by different composer. But, um, you know, it was a good half hour peace. Um, and I was playing it on guitar like it was a classical guitar piece and, you know, is 1/2 hour of music. And my teacher made me perform my recital from memory. So I had to play a piece of this length. Ah, and about this complexity from memory. And it's not uncommon for people to play pieces like this from memory that are this long and you know this dense in harmony. So, um, if you aspire to be a professional performer, that's what you have to look forward to. But, um, if you're just trying to get your head around music theory, which is why you're in the class I hope that in that you heard a lot of interesting harmonic movement, right? There are whole sections where we heard, you know, there he's just kind of staying in one key and then sections where he's moving to another key and sections where we just heard Thomas's ations happening right and left, You know, like we're in a key, but no. Maybe we're going over here. Nope. And then we come back and then we're going over here and the nope. Then we come back. All these town authorizations happening all over the place. Okay, so I just want to talk about that a little bit. Um, now, let's go into the short little blip that I want us to analyze 35. Movement 2: Part 1: Okay, So, jumping all the way up to here. I think this is the start of the second movement. It's not labeled in here, but I think this is three movements, and this is the start of the second moment. Um, but let's hear just these four bars right here. That's what I want to look at. And if you're thinking men Jay, did you just make us listen to 1/2 hour piece for four bars? Yeah, that's what I did. That's exactly what I did. But, um, it's Beethoven, so I hope you enjoyed it. Um, okay, let's take this four bars and go over to our example file. Let's put it in right here. Okay, Let's zoom out a little bit on that. Oops. Came across its two bars because I'm in 24 here, so let's do it accurately. Um, let's see if I just put it too far, will it to four. Will it Rebar correctly? I think it did. Yeah, I think that's correct. Okay. Okay. I think we got it. Um, so let's look at what we've got. Um, We're in the key of d minor here, so I'm just gonna know, take that. Now, How do I know we're in the key of D minor? If you look out what else is going around here? It tells us the key for this piece moves all over the place, Right? Like we're always modulating in this particular section were firmly in d minor. So trust me on that. So we're gonna analyze it from the perspective of D minor. No, let's First, let's actually do this down here. Let's use this extra staff that we've got and let's just put in our cords as half notes for now. I think we're gonna need to move quarter notes by the end of this little four bar thing. But that's OK, so here we have f A d and D. So we have the f k d minor. Um oh, I didn't bring the key signature over B flat. There is one flat in our key signature to make sure we get that. Okay. Ah, OK, so now key of D minor is especially there. Okay, so here we have de a d so all d minor for this first court. I keep forgetting that we're in Ah, 24 So, yeah, we're gonna need to use quarter notes here. Okay, Now what do we have here? We haven't a e a c sharp c sharp. A So a c sharp e is what we have here. Okay, so let's look at that. A c sharp e Oops. He Okay, so what we have in these 1st 2 bars in the key of D minor, we have one. Okay, Cool way. Have Here we have this accidental right, and we know that when we see these accidental, maybe think leading tone. Um, So what does that lead us to its a c sharp. It leads us to D, which is our key. So this is just a major five, right? This is nothing we haven't seen before. This is a five in the key of D minor. This is Ah, Major five, where we should get a minor five. But that's totally not out of the ordinary. Right to get a major five in a minor key. So we could just call that five. Um, there's see sharpen the base. Let's not worry about inversions for right now. Um, okay. Now let's go into our next court. D d G. Okay. Oops. So we have Let's look at the left hand first d d a. D. Here we have a d g. Now, is that g resolving down to that F if that is our corn tone, and that's a non cord tone than we have one again, right? Cause F is the core tone that we expect G throws us off quite a bit. But I think this is a non corn tone leading to that because look at the left hand, it's the same is over here. Right. So let's call that a one. Yeah, What we have here still a d d d f de de a d So still one. Okay, so let's just call that still one, Okay? Nothing weird there. Case. We're gonna call that one. We can rewrite one if we want. We don't have Teoh. Um, no, These last two bars is where it starts to get interesting. So in the interest of not giving you another insanely long video break to a new video and we'll go through these last two bars 36. Movement 2: Part 2: Okay, so Oops, let's go here and let's see what we have here. So we have an e a g and a deep. Okay. And here we have a b de. Okay, let's just look at these first. This 1st 8th note. First, we might go down to eighth notes here. That might be better for us. So these 1st 2 Well, this 1st 8 No. So be e g d. Odd. I think we have some kind of seven chord here, so let's say E g b d right. That would get us, uh, something in the shape of a triad. And what does that get us? E g be de That gets us a diminished chord. Half diminish court. Great. Um, so let's see. Here e g de and that b is flat. Oops. Because of our key signature to be flat. I'm gonna put that in there. Just that we see it a little more explicitly. So it would be flat. So that gets us Ah, half diminished. Chord built on two because it's built on e. So in the key of d A diminished to cord. Not that weird. Right, But about what we expect. Um it's perfectly in key. Even with that, B flat is in the key of D minor. So there's nothing out of key here, so that's just fine. Ah, that's a 2/2 diminished court. Okay, let's move on to our next eighth note. When we see that diminished chord we might start to think, Oh, we're getting into some tricky waters here, and you would be right. Come on. Okay, here we have a f a d. So to put that into triad, we're gonna have a d f a. Another one. This is gonna be like a 164 caused. The A is in the base, so it's called that one. I really should be doing inversions here. 164 Um, next eighth. Note what we have G e b d. Same thing as right here. Ah e g b flat d Another half diminished chord. Okay, another half diminish to cord. So nothing too crazy there. But here, here is where we start to get some fun stuff. Okay, So g sharp f be natural, De So we have to Accidental is going here, right? We have the g sharp, so that could be our leading tone or this being natural. Don't forget that. Remember earlier I said that if you'll see a raised note, it could be our leading tone. If you're in a a key that has a flat in it and then you see a natural, that's a raised note. A natural is a raise note in that case, so this could be leading us to see this could be leading us to G. Let's figure out what court it actually is. First, kind of that literal definition of the cord. Or we could skip it and go to the next chord and see if it makes sense that way. Um, let's do the literal cord first. So if I wanted to put this into a triad, let's see if B D f a flat would work. If I re spell that as a flat bdf a flat works otherwise G b d F works so G sharp works. Let's try that that, uh, fits the way it's already spelled. So it's maybe slightly more likely. So g sharp. Be natural de and okay, what does that give us she shot to be is my third B To be natural to F is a minor, third and D two f is a minor third that there is a fully diminished chord. Okay, so it doesn't quite make sense where it is yet. So let's call it question Mark. Fully diminished. Chord fully diminished. Seven chord. Okay, we're gonna finish that question, mark once we figure out what this is over here. Because if g Sharp is our route, which we think it is, then this ought to be an accord, um, or is likely to be an accord, So let's figure that out first. Whoops. Come back over here. Why do I keep jumping backwards? Music or Okay, there's a maze. So d f a o It's a deke Ord. Have d f a. It's a one chord, right? And then I have This is probably the same with this being a nun court tone. But then here we have five. I think it's a five a c sharp e So another major five. Okay, let's change this. 2/4 notes. So clear. Okay, what? We want to call those now. Let's not deal with this question mark quite yet. Let's go here. This very clearly is a one, and this very clearly is a major five. Okay, So what does that make this? If this was g sharp leading to a, we would have called it five or Sorry, leading tone seven of five. But there's a one in between. Is that okay? Well, we have not covered this yet, so I'm going to tell you right now. Yes, that's okay. Um, so it's we're going to call that leading tone. Let me get my line up here. Leading tone diminished seven of five. And if we want to be super duper correct here, what we should call it is five natural to give it the appearance of being a major five. But just having capital five works. So leading tone seven of five, and then we get a one. It helps that this is a 164 right. It has one in the base. It has five in the base. So that makes it very five. Like, it's that, um, that 164 thing that we looked at a long time ago. So it feels very, very five. Um, and then we have five. So this leading tone seven chord is really kind of resolving over to here, right? We have a little bit of a leap over this 164 and that's OK. It's not always that the resolution to your secondary dominant or secondary leading tone has to come immediately. Sometimes there's a little cadence to it, and that's okay. All right, so we discovered this cord. Let's hear our pattern hopes. Let's not hear it at an insane tempo, All right? You can feel this cord is leading to here, and there's a little diversion here. You can really kind of feel that. Um, So there we have it. There's some. There's some Beethoven. Um, fun. Right? Okay. I'm gonna give you this this whole Beethoven file if you want to play around with it and have fun with it. Someone took a lot of time to put that into music. Or, um so her ray for them 37. Curveballs: Okay, So one of the things that we saw in this piece was this weird thing, right, right here where we got a 77 of five and then kind of what I have led you to believe up till this point is that that means our next court should be five, right? And it's not. It's a 164 and then we get a five. So let's talk about this for a little bit. What's happening here is something called unembellished resolution. So there's a couple different ways we could resolve these. And it doesn't have to be that the cord that were Tanase sizing here, which in this case is five, has to come right away after, probably most of the time it does. But if it doesn't, that doesn't mean that this is wrong. Okay, there's a couple different ways we could do it. Um, two things in particular. There's what's called embellished resolutions, and there's what's called irregular resolutions Irregulars. When the resolution, we expected, never comes, right? Um, it could happen. Eso Let's look at both of these in a little bit more detail in this section, so let's start with some ah, some ways that we encounter embellished resolutions first 38. Embellished Resolutions: Okay, let's go back to one of our previous examples here. Let's take this one relatively simple one in a copy. That and put it out here. Okay. Is that right? Yeah. Um oh, I didn't get the labels. I can't get the labels. That's weird. And you score. You can't copy. We try that. The ah, the text. It also looks weird cause I'm not in the wrong time. Okay, so we're gonna do this for four. Do that, do that, You get same thing. That's okay. Okay. Assuming a little bit. Okay. So, um, let's label what we've got real quick. Um, so we have here one key of C Here we have DVD. We have five here. We have a d f sharp, A c. So to a dominant to cord, which just screams to me, that is a five of five. Okay, five of five. And then here. Well, that's actually 57 to 5. Let's call it a seven. Just so that we're on the same page. And here we have a 57 just as we would expect. And then here we have one. Okay, so let's mess with this a little bit, so we're talking here about, uh, embellished resolutions. So what that means is, what if this 57 of five did not go to five? Right, So let's take this. Copy it, delete it. Let's put it there. Ok, so that is there. And that is there. So let's add some stuff. So what we can do here is we can stay in five a little bit longer. Okay? So we're just gonna kind of embellish this five a little bit. So if you imagine this 57 of five means, like, were in five. So we're in a temporary key change that we call a Thomas ization. So in the key of five, so to speak, what else could we do? So we're in the key of G for this brief moment, and let's think G Ah, a b See. Interesting. What if I did a four record? Okay, watch what is a four chord. Right? So this chord now, this is gonna get weird. This cord could be called four of five. Because it is. It's in the key of five. It is a four. Um, but we can also give it a very easy name in the key that were already in, which is one. But if we call this one notice, though, that this cord works in both keys. Okay, so this is both a four of five and a one chord, so going from five of 5 to 1 can actually be okay. It doesn't resolve this five of five, so we're kind of embellishing it, But where we can still function perfectly happily in this five area by using a one chord, Because the one chord is also in five. Right? See, Major is four in the key of G, and it's one in the key of C. Cool. So we could do that. Um, and we can keep going. What else could we do? Um, it doesn't have to be in here in both keys. We could embellish a little more, and this is going to get a little more risky, but I'm in that kind of mood, so why not? Um, let's do. And trying to find a way to not make a really weird leap here. So what? An f shar a c e flat has a terrible voice leading here, but, um, you can see what I'm doing here. Okay? So What did I make here? Now? Here? I made a leading tone of five chord, and I still haven't resolved that five. Right? All right. And now I've gone to just a regular five, So check this out. 57 to 5 to a one, which is also a four in five, then a diminished seven of five. Ah, so the seventh of five, then finally a five. Okay, so I added two chords before I went to a five. So then I went to a five and then 57 and then a one. Okay, so then I finally got us back. So now I've basically embellished this Thomas ization by right here. I started to take us over to five, and then I played around in five, just a little bit. And then I finally took us to five, resolved it and then started to take us back toe one here. Right, cause it's 57 isn't so much in five because it has its f natural. So that is the start of our leading back toe. One weird. Right? Um, let's hear it. This has got Let me fix this. This voice leading up here, So Okay, three. The that should be better voice eating. Let's see what we got. Way right. It's weird. It's a little bit of a goofy core progression. Um, but it does feel like eventually we get back toe one. We've kind of taken this weird little meandering journey and got back to one. So just because you don't see ah, the resolution of a secondary dominant right after it doesn't mean that it's wrong. It can be embellished, Okay? And in fact, it cannot come at all. That's also possible. And that would be what we call an irregular resolution. Let's talk about that next. 39. Irregular Resolutions: Okay, um, now we're gonna talk about irregular resolutions, and I can summarize this phone by just saying that it doesn't have to ever resolve right. We could just have a five of five and no five that ever comes. Um, that would be pretty weird. Which is why we call it a regular. Um, but it can happen, right? It could totally happen. So let's look at an example. So I have an example here, Um, and this is actually a court progression from ah, Mozart, and I'm gonna input. I'm not gonna input the whole piano part because that would take me all day, so I'm just going to kind of make a reduction here. Okay, so we have so RNC. So we have two bars of C and are voicing here is gonna kind of matter. So let's do that. Okay. So two bars of see nothing strange there. Then we have this. It's kind of a weird voicing, but I think you get it. So what we have here? Ah, c f a. We were four. Right f course. That's four. Then I need to switch over to quarter notes. Now I have one more bit of that. Actually, we don't. I lied. We get that is what we have here. We have a one again. Now, things start getting strange. Now we have C sharp B flat. That already gives us pretty good clue as to what might be happening. Right, Because in what cases do we see a sharp and a flat in the same chord? There's not many cases in which that happens. It's so it's probably a leading tone court, right? Ah, seven diminished seven of something. Let's have one more court and I'm receiving and solve that. Okay, actually, let's keep going and add one more court. Weird. It's getting really weird. Okay, let's see what we've got so far. This is a weird one. So hold onto your hats. Okay, so we've got one. We've got another one. We've got a four. I feel like I'm like, calling out Lotto Lotto numbers or something for and we've got a one. Okay, So what's happening here? Leading tone chord deaths of what? So do we have perfect minor thirds all the way up? Is it a fully diminished S O C. Sharp to e to G tube A flat? Yes. So fully diminished. Ah, fully diminished seventh chord of right. What are we of? Well, one of those notes has to be leading tone. Right? So let's figure out what our next court is and see if anything makes sense. Way have a d a d f sharp. So we're on a two chord, but a major to cord. Okay, so that's okay. Let's call this what it is, which is 17 minutes seven of to cape. So this c sharp is leading to this deep. So even though what we get is a d major here, we're still going to call this d minor, because that's what we would expect. Okay, So were leading 22 here. Diminished seven of two. What we get here is a two chord or is it a two chord? Actually, because we know when we see a major to cord. What does that very often mean? We're actually seeing We just saw this over in our previous example right there, Right. A major to cord very often says that we are actually in the world of five of five. Okay, so we're gonna go leading tone seven of 2 to 5 of five, right this is getting bonkers. Um, what comes next? Be a flat D f natural. Now, remember, F natural is in key, so leave one note out of key here. So what does that make? Its 1/7 quart of some kind rights. We have four different notes. S o B D f a flat. That is a fully diminished seventh chord. But of what if it's based on B, it's actually fully in key. It's a fully diminished seventh chord in C, so it's not of anything because it's of see, it's of tonic. Right now there's a flat is weird. So what we would expect in this key is a, um, a natural, but, uh, and that would give us 1/2 diminished. But they've given us a full diminished here, so and that's okay. It's a curveball. Um, it'll kind of sort of makes sense in a second if we just keep going. So let's keep going. Go to the next chord. What do we have way? Have C g, E and C. OK, so that looks pretty much like a one chord. Right? And then we have f sharp. Oops! F sharp. A see B flat. Hey, we're almost at the end of this pattern. So let's just finish out G g C d. That looks awfully fishy. Second half of that court G f natural be in D, all natural, and then c e. And that's yet. Okay, so let's get our labelling hats on and see if we can figure this out. So, what we have here, see? See? E G one easy. Okay, how about here? We have probably another diminished seven. Right? Because we have a sharp and a flat, and this is one of the rare cases we see that. So let's see f sharp A c e flat. So yeah, fully diminished. Seventh chord, but not the one in key. So it's gonna be in of something, uh, of what? Probably that because that's probably are leading tone. And that is a G de. We don't have a B, though. We have this weird and pop music. We would call this a suspension. Um, but we have a different name for it here cause it has a different purpose. So it's a G something. Right? So we can call this of five. Okay, so this is a G something. It's a suspension. Um, it's a different kind of suspension than in pop music. Ah, but we've seen these before. This is a five. And what we would actually call this is. So the sea is a four, so I'm gonna call that four. Resolving to 343 suspension. You've seen that before. Okay, so 543 suspension here. I should probably This should be in a smaller font, but I can't really do that easily in new score. So 543 suspension. And then we get to what? Okay, so let's look at what we got here. 11 for one. Nothing weird there. Okay, Diminished seven of two. So now we expected to cord and we get a two chord kind of nowhere. That's fine. We sort of get a two chord right here, right? It's a major to cord, but it's gonna work like five of five. And then where do we get our actual five? Not till here. And it's not even a real five. It's got a 43 suspension. You don't actually get a five till here. Then we get a diminished of one. Then we get a diminished of five and then we finally get our five, so we really never get this to. Maybe we get it there. It's a weird, meandering core progression, but why does it work? Well, let's hear it first, right? It works pretty well. It sounds pretty pretty natural. Check this out. Um, there's a couple interesting things happening here. One is this top line, right? It's going chromatic down. G g f sharp f natural E p flat D right de again and then see. So there's this hidden chromatic line in there That kind of makes everything flow downward in this really kind of fun way. Um, there's also sort of a chromatic interline to be flat a a flat G, and then it kind of moves off course. So we get that much of it and then up. So there's these nice inner lines that really kind of glue everything together. Um, so it it helps it really work. Let's here over time, because it was fun, right? It's just almost silly, right? It's very Mozart. Um, so irregular resolutions. We don't always need to get what we expect by the Thomas ization. That's the point. Enjoy 40. Second Semester Is Over!: All right, everyone. You did it. We have officially finished second semester college level music theory. Now, if you're thinking this last bit here, this got pretty hard and it was a bit confusing. Um, that's okay, because you're now at a 300 level college classes what you're about to start, right? You just finished a 200 level college class, and, you know, things get hard. Um, it requires studying. And there's a reason that people get degrees in how to do this. So you have come a very long way. Congratulations. You understand a lot about music theory now, secondary dominant are a big thing. Um, and they become really important as we move into the next part of music theory. Third semester music theory. Remember, there are typically four semesters. Now what we did. So this is class 12. I think we spent maybe four classes on the first semester, and I guess eight classes on the second semester. Second semester is a lot more dense than the first semester. Uh, the fourth semester. I would guess. Or sorry. The third semester will be about as dense as the second semester. So probably eight classes worth of stuff. Um, the fourth semester might be a little bit shorter because things get a little ah, weirder in more fun ways to me. I don't know. I like the weirder stuff. Um, so there's still a lot to go, but you're halfway through what a professional musician is trained on in US college systems . So congratulations to you. Um, you're doing awesome. You're kicking butt, but there's a lot more to go. So keep going. Um, let's jump to a new video and let's talk a little bit about what's gonna come next in the next semester. 41. What Next?: okay. In the next semester, the third semester, the next probably handful of classes that I'm gonna make for you. Um, we get deeper into chromatic harmony. Right? So we started playing around with chromatic harmony here where we had harmonies that don't quite fit into a single key. Um, the biggest reason we use chromatic harmony is for modulation. And we saw that here with our Thomas's ations, right. But what we're going to start to get into now is actually modulating to a new key. So moving into a new key in a way that sounds nice and smooth the way we do that is through Ah, very careful and deliberate modulation using some chromatic chords that get us to a new key . And then we learned to stay there and then eventually modulate back. We're also going to spend some time talking about form. We've talked a little bit about form, but we'll get much deeper into form. Um and then at some point soon, the Holy Grail. So to speak, of music theory, the fugue, we're probably going to spend at least one entire class on writing fugues, how they work and how to do it. it will be an incredible party trick for you to have impressed your friends by writing a few. Um, fugues are hard to write. They have a lot of rules. Um, they're basically a musical jigsaw puzzle, but, uh, they can also be really fun. They're really fun to do on. There's something that you kind of want to know how to do, and we'll get into modes some of the more popular music styles a little bit more into jazz harmony. Um, theme and variations, Sonata form, all kinds of good stuff. So we're gonna get really deep into some of the extended harmonic tricks that composers have used over the years and how that gets us back into pop music and how it's kind of evolved. We've evolved in department, right? So stick around. Please come back for more music theory with that course. Okay, uh, I hope to see you there. 42. Thanks & bye!: All right, everybody. This is the end of music theory. 12. Wow, We've come a long way. So thanks again for being a part of this class. I really get a kick out of making these. I have a good time. I hope you do, too. How? If you've learned something, please don't be shy about posting questions or anything in the, uh, class discussion. I think it kind of benefits everyone when we post questions. And if you see a question that you know how to answer, go for I'll come in and give my answer as well. But as you learned here, sometimes some of these cords, what we call them can be a matter of opinion. So it's always good to have more opinions than just mine. So thanks for everything. Thanks for participating in this class being part of it. Please check out some of my other classes. There are tons of them now, and, um, I will see you in the next last Thanks again. 43. SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2): Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.