Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 11 - Melody & Motives | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 11 - Melody & Motives

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction & Overview


    • 2.



    • 3.



    • 4.

      The Full Muse Score File


    • 5.

      Why Do We Care About Phrasing


    • 6.

      Defining A Phrase


    • 7.

      Phrasing In Hey Jude


    • 8.

      Finding Phrases


    • 9.

      Phrase Notation


    • 10.

      Definition Of A Motive


    • 11.

      Eleanor Rigby


    • 12.

      Finding Motives in Eleanor Rigby


    • 13.

      Labeling Motives


    • 14.

      Motive Alternations


    • 15.

      Setting Up A Motive


    • 16.

      Contour Rhythm Transposition Interval


    • 17.

      Motive Inversion


    • 18.

      Motive Augmentation And Diminution


    • 19.

      Extension And Truncation


    • 20.

      Motive Fragmentation


    • 21.

      Harmonizing Altered Motives


    • 22.

      Musical Sentences


    • 23.

      Finding Musical Sentences


    • 24.

      Sentences, Phrases, And Motives


    • 25.

      The Musical Period


    • 26.



    • 27.



    • 28.



    • 29.

      Performing Phrases


    • 30.

      Finding Hypermeter


    • 31.

      Phrase Rhythm


    • 32.

      Phrase And Motive


    • 33.



    • 34.

      Sentences And Periods


    • 35.

      What Next?


    • 36.

      Thanks & Bye!


    • 37.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 11: Melody, Motives, and Phrases. It continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

In this class, we will cover:

  • Tools of Music Theory
  • Why phrases are important
  • Identifying Phrases
  • Finding Motives
  • Labeling Motives and Phrases
  • Melody Augmentation
  • Melody Diminution
  • Melody Inversion
  • Melody Extension and Truncation
  • Countour, Rhythm, Transposition, and Interval Alterations
  • Harmonizing altered melodies
  • Musical Sentences
  • Musical Periods
  • Antecedents
  • Consequents
  • Performing Phrases
  • Hypermeter
  • Phrase Rhythm
  • ...and much, much more!

And of course, once you sign up for Part 11: Melody, Motives, and Phrases you automatically get huge discounts to all the upcoming parts of this class.

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is an adjunct professor of composition at the University of St. Thomas, and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

"Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quick, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

"Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

"I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

"I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

"I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

"Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

"Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

"The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction & Overview: everyone. Welcome to music theory. Part 11. You come a long, long way in your journey. Toe learning music theory. If you've been taking this from the beginning, we just jumped in here then. Hi. Welcome to the class. Uh, in the class, we're gonna be talking about phrasing and motives. So what that means is to kind of summarize the entire class in one little thing. We've been looking primarily at music vertically, like all the notes that happen at any given point. What? What can we call those? What's going on at any given point? Now we're going to start to look at music horizontally, right? So that means melody shape of the melody. Also, cords do have a say in what's happening when we're talking about phrasing and motives also . So it's not just horizontally, horizontally and vertically. So we will be looking more at melody than we have looked at in Looked at that in any other class so far, we're also going to be looking at how composers typically have structured melodies to make it the most memorable. In your head we do things like motives. We have something called a sentence of musical sentence we have something called a musical period. Um, it's very grammatical. What we do with grammatical Yeah, grammatical What we dio with music to construct the most memorable and singable kind of melody. Um, and we're gonna look at how composers have done that in the past. In this class, we're gonna look at Ah, little bit of Mozart. We're also gonna look at quite a bit of Beatles. We've looked at some beetles in the past. Um, it's really easy to spot these things in more popular musics, but we're going to spend some time on that, and then we'll switch over to working with some Mozart and some more classical music things . Um, it could be a lot of fun if you've been wondering about melodies and structure and all that stuff. Um, this is where we start diving into it. So here we go. - Because what is the point of the phrase? The point of the phrases to have a little bit of information that we can reuse that will be memorable, right? What we want to do and what composers have tried to do for centuries, is when we have a melody and we're talking about augmenting that melody or using augmentation. What we're talking about is pulling it apart a little bit. Um, it's a rhythmic thing rather than a harmonic that Remember what I was saying earlier about how a lot of this has to do with storytelling, right? Getting the narrative idea of a piece of music across? Well, it gets even slightly more literal than so by phrase rhythm. What we're talking about is, uh, the phrase and the the rhythmic chunks of the phrase. So in the case of what we have here, the hyper rhythm and the phrase rhythm and when we're looking at a melody, there's there's a real formula to a melody. Um, it consists of phrases, sentences, periods, sometimes double periods. Um, there's and there's a couple more elements as well. Periods. There's a couple more that we'll talk about in the near future. There's contrast ing periods. There's parallel periods. There's other things that will encounter. But for now, let's just sit tight on this idea of what a period is, Um and be happy with that. So take some time and ah, read a melody or to you know, it has some fun with it. 2. Tools: All right, everyone, here is the lecture you've heard 11 times now. But I have to say it at the beginning of every class or else, um, people complain in the classes and get approved because it's missing some information. So we're gonna talk about in this lecture of the tools that we're gonna use Ah, in this class. And if you've been in the other classes, you can skip right over this one. There's nothing new in it. Um, the tools you will need are always the same. And they are actually, there's gonna be one tiny little thing new. Maybe I should have said that before. It's not a new tool. Just something I thought I'd show you. Um, Muse, Score. That's the application that I'm gonna be using. The program that you're seeing here on the screen is a free program for Mac and Windows. Um, it's a notation program. It'll let us put in notes and move them around, induce the fun stuff and most importantly, hear them back so we can play things in. We can record it and weaken, have it play for us so we can hear what we've done. It's basically a Ah, text editor like Microsoft Word. But for music, Um, there are a number of products out there that do this. This one is free. So I like using in this class because anyone could get their hands on it as long as they have a computer, which presumably you do because you're watching this class on something. Um, yeah, um, you score dot or did you confined it for just about any platform you want. I've also recently published a class, uh, on how to use this program in more death. So you can check out that class here, or, um, you won't need to get really in the weeds with this program for this class. We're just gonna be putting in notes and moving him around. But if you want to get deeper into the class, there is another class that have recently published research. Ah, this website for muse score and you will find it. Um, the other tools that you will need is a ah, good old piece of staff paper. So staff paper is like, uh, plain paper. Except instead of lines going across its got groups of five lines going across. Right? Um, just like we see here. This is the staff and staff paper. So, um, I like to have a couple of sheets of this handy so you can just scribble down some notes, Um, on what we're talking about, it's like you might take notes on any class, but in this particular class, the notes you take might be music. And so it would. It saves you a little bit of time to have some music notes. Right. Um, the one new thing I was going to show you is I happened. Have sitting right here. Some music notes. When I write music, I like to write by hand. Um, so good old pencil and paper. And then I put it into a program like music or after it's done. So this is Ah, piece. I've recently written a string quartet and I'm currently plugging it into a notation program like music or and Ah, yeah, So just proof. You know, I write music by hand. This is ah, quite long piece of music. But sooner or later, I'll get through all of it, putting it into the computer so that other people can read it. They don't have to read my sloppy handwriting. Um, that's the main reason I'm putting things in, which is another good benefit to using these kinds of programs. Okay, So in order to get you some staff paper, you can order some nice staff paper on Amazon or whatever you want to do, or you can just use any old plane staff paper on. And I'm gonna give you that in the next lecture. So the next lecture there's gonna be a pdf. You can download that. It's gonna be a blank piece of staff paper, download it, print out maybe five copies or so, Um, just so that you have some blank staff paper that you can work with. Okay, So those are all the tools you're gonna need for this class. So in the next lecture, it's gonna be pdf download it, print out, maybe five copies or so, uh, and then we move on. Cool. 3. Review!: Okay, Now that we have tools out of the way, let's talk about ah, the review stuff that I always put it the beginning of, uh, these music theory classes just to kind of warn you what we're talking, what we're going to be diving into in this class. Ah, and things you might want to review in previous classes. Uh, just to make sure you're totally up to speed on what's coming in this class. So for the review for this class, I'm kind of at a loss. I'm not sure what to tell you. And here's why. What's happening in this class is kind of an aside, right? This is this is non canonical, as we sometimes say. I mean, it is it is canonical. It's totally, uh, you know, in the, um, flow of learning music theory. But, um, were not going to be talking about more advanced harmonies here. Were taken a little bit of us detour for a minute here, um, to talk about something that we've largely haven't talked about yet and that is phrasing and motives. So but we're really going to be looking at in this class is kind of the structure of a melody. Um, a lot of this comes down to melody. We're gonna need to know harmony, that's for sure. Because, uh, where we are in a melody and how a melody is working is very much informed by the harmony that's happening. So we definitely need to know harmony. Um, that is the courts. But, um, we haven't spent much time on this kind of thing, So there's nothing really in the previous sections of this class that I could tell you to go review. Um, so in place of telling you what you could go back and review to make sure you're totally up to speed on this class. What I'm going to tell you is go back and review anything that you don't feel really comfortable with. Okay, just take the moment to just go back and say, You know, there's a couple things in there that we talked about. I kind of don't perfectly get go review those things. Um, you might not even this class, but you're gonna need him in the future in future classes as we keep going. So, um, you might as well get him down now. Right? Um but this class can kind of stand alone on its own. Two feet sort of speak as a class about phrasing and motive. So there's not a ton we need to go back and review as long as you're comfortable with basic harmony. Some of the advanced harmony. I don't think we'll get too deep into different types of harmony and even the types of harmony we saw in the previous class in theory. 10. I don't even think we'll get that deep in this class, but maybe, but we will in the next class, so keep that in the back of your head. But this one, it's a little bit of a break, Um, so we can talk about melody, which we haven't talked a lot about lately. That being said, just be sure you're comfortable with everything we've covered so far. Let's move on 4. The Full Muse Score File: Okay. Last thing before we get into the weeds of this deaf, the full of news corps file. This is the same as what I've done in the last, I don't know, maybe four theory classes, maybe five. Um, I'm gonna be making all our examples in what I'm calling a master amuse score file. So that's gonna be one file that I'm gonna put all the examples in And then so that if you are using music or which you don't have to do, um, But if you are using you score or ah, I'll put it in as a pdf. Also, you can look at this piece of meat. This that's not really a piece of music. This list of examples sort of and follow along with me. So I'll be making this as I make the class. I'm making the, um, the master music or file, so to speak. Uh, so it is coming up next, so I'll go back after the whole classes done and put it in, uh, as a download in the next lecture so you can download it. Follow along if you want. You don't have to. This is totally secondary. I started doing this about five classes ago. People seem to really like it, so I'm gonna keep including it. So that's what this file is. If you don't want to use it, you don't have to use it. It's just something extra. Um, Okay, so the next thing is gonna be that file. Download it. Uh, open it up and then, Ah, we will dive right into phrasing. 5. Why Do We Care About Phrasing: let's start by talking about what is a phrase. Now what we're gonna be talking about in this class is a lot of melody. Like I said in Ah, couple videos go, and when we're looking at a melody, there's there's a real formula to a melody. Um, it consists of phrases, sentences, periods, sometimes double periods. There's and there's a couple more elements as well. So it's important to keep in mind that this is what classically makes a melody. You can if your writing a melody, you can vary from this all the time. But in music theory, we look at melody from the perspective of, um, this kind of template of a melody. Okay, so does it do what it's expected to do? And if it doesn't, what does it do instead? Right. That's kind of how we look at melody in music theory. We also look at how it outlines the cord, whether all the notes are in the cord. Some of the notes are in the core. There's a lot of non chord tones. What kind of non chord tones are they? We've looked at all of that, basically what we've looked at primarily up till now is vertical, right? We've looked at what's happening on a vertical level at any given moment, right up and down. Um, like, what board is this right? Thes air? Things we've looked at and we can figure out that court now. Now what we need to look at is we need to still consider the vertical. But we also need to consider the horizontal Look what's happening this way. And we've seen this, right. We've seen this invoice city invoice leading. We definitely consider the horizontal elements of what's happening. But this is a little bit different than that. In this case. Ah, we have kind of a melody and accompaniment, right? We're going to use Hey, Jude as an example here. We'll look at a couple of Beatles songs, um, in this section, But, um, would we have a melody and accompaniment? We kind of look for this template that we expect, right? And the Beatles do it really well, so it shouldn't be too hard to find these things, Uh, in most Beatle songs, they do like to however, throw some curve balls in every now and then. Uh, so we'll encounter some of these curveballs and ah, deal with them, probably later in the class. But for now, it's gonna look at kind of simple ones to try to figure out this template. Right? So the first piece of this template is the phrase. So we're gonna focus on that for a little bit first, Um, let's go to a new video and let's just set up some definitions of what the phrase is. 6. Defining A Phrase: Okay, So the definition of a phrase is Ah, a small bit of music. Ah, that has a cave ins. Okay, so it's gotta have a cadence in it. So And by small bits, that's really kind of all relative, right? It could be two bars. It could be 24 bars. Right? Um, it could be an hour. Probably not. Not really. Um, you wouldn't have a single phrase that lasts an hour, right? That would be just insane. Because what is the point of the phrase? The point of the phrases to have a little bit of information that we can reuse that, uh, will be memorable, right? What we want to do and what composers have tried to do for centuries, is use this phrase, Let's say, like, a four bar little blip, right, And then maybe use it again. Maybe do something different, and then use the four bar phrase again. So when it comes the second time, it's familiar to us. And and we as humans like familiar things, like we like to hear something like off heard that before, like that makes us comfortable and makes us enjoy something more. Um, that's not to say we don't like new experiences by any means. It just means that when we're making a phrase you can you can pull the listener in by giving them things they've heard before, either in whole or in part. So we might get a fragment of a phrase, right? Ah, second time. So you hear a little bit of it, and then you get taken somewhere else. That's a narrative technique, right? You can tell a story by doing that, but pulling someone and then letting go and pulling someone composure have been doing this for years. So a small bit of information with the cadence that is a definition of a phrase. So that means we're gonna have to look at the harmony right cause we need to know if there's a cadence there. We also sometimes talk about goals when we're talking about phrases so you can hear a melodic line, a melody and feel like it's heading. It's it's heading somewhere, right, like it has a goal that it's trying to get to, and that goal is usually the case ins, so I don't really like to think about phrases in terms of goals. Um, it's something that you'll see in a lot of theory books. But to me, it just feels like I don't know. It's hard to explain. It feels like, Ah, it doesn't disservice to the melody by saying It's always trying to get somewhere. I think it's a little like a weird philosophical thing about about like maybe the melody is just happy where it is. But, um, that's, you know, maybe another can of worms, so I'm not. But I'm not going to use the word goals a lot. Um, but if it helps you and it doesn't bother you in the weird way that bothers me, um, you can think about a phrase always like, kind of aiming for this goal, right? We're always it's always trying to get to the next cadence. Right? Um, so the definition of ah phrase is the smallest musical piece of information we have that has a cadence on it. Okay, so if we see something big, we might say, like if we see someone has an hour long and say, Oh, there's not occasions for an hour. You might want to look a little closer, right, because we're looking for the smallest piece of information that has a cadence. So that being said, Let's look at Hey Jude and let's go through here and see if we confined. Ah, as many phrases as we can There's probably a lot in here. 7. Phrasing In Hey Jude: Okay, if you're not familiar with this song, This is a Beatle song. Um called. Hey, Jude, Let's just hear the song, Um, all the way through and then we'll go through it and ah, start to identify freighters. Here we are. 8. Finding Phrases: Now, remember, this is just a piano arrangement of this is a full, you know, band that plays this usually. So I encourage you to, you know, Google the song. Listen to the actual recording so you can hear that there's words and drums and, you know, guitars in the whole thing. Um, but this gives us a good, you know, just kind of melody and accompaniment thing to look at. So, uh, let's find the first phrase You might think that. Well, let me just play to be the first verse. Okay, so remember, verses something different. Um, but let's just play the first verse, and then we'll see if we can if it is also a phrase. Okay, then it starts over right there. So it does that same thing, basically, twice. Ah, and then something different, right? Yeah. It starts doing something different down here. So that what we just heard from here to here? Well, actually, from here to here, Was that a phrase? Right. Um, the question that we would raise is did have a cadence that have a cadence at the end. Certainly sounded like it. Um, so we're in the key of F And what cord do we have here? See, e g. So that's five in the key of F and then f a c. That's one. Okay, so we had a 51 That's certainly a cadence, right? Um, so, yeah, we could call this a cadence, but was there one earlier? Um, is this maybe two phrases? Right? Let's hear it again. See if you can spot another cadence earlier. I'm all right there. Um, that was our first phrase. Okay, so check it out. Our cords right here. It's one of the key of f f A. C. You have one. I'm not gonna worry about inversions right now. Way have E G C s. We have five way. Have G B flat C. What is that? Probably C E g B flat. Right? It's probably a 57 Um, it's missing the third, but that's OK. We get it kinda right there, But 57 to 1. So 57 to 1 is certainly a kittens. Okay, So and four bars is the kind of pop song. Perfect length for a phrase. So I'm gonna call this the first phrase. Let me. Okay, Some use a phrase one goes to here se end phrase one. Okay, so phrase one goes from here to here. Okay, that's raised one. That's our first phrase. Now we have another phrase here. Okay, let's call that phrase to and let's say, phrase to end right here on Let's be consistent and put that in caps cause it's a caps kind of day and phrase to now. You might have thought, What about right here? If we're really looking for the smallest thing, Does this count as a phrase? Just these two bars? Um, well, let's look at what chords we have f B flat d So be flat. D f that's a four chord and f a c. It's a 41 chord. So yeah, we have a kind of Keynes called the Playgirl cadence and it could be that the problem from me and this is probably subjective. Okay, so if you say yes, this too. This is a phrase. Then you could defend that you might be right. Um, to me, and this is a matter of opinion, remember? That's not quite a phrase, because we don't we just don't get enough stuff. How can I quantify that into a rule. Um, I think it's probably because we only have two chords. And in some, if those two chords were, like 51 it would work. But in this case, just being 41 isn't a real strong kids to begin with. And it's so short. Um, we don't have any notes right here. We only have 123 for five different notes in this thing. So I'm not gonna call that a phrase. I'm going to stick to this four bar phrase pattern that it seems to have, uh, developed. So let's keep going right here. Way We've heard this before. This is phrase one again, right? This is the same material. The accompaniment is different, right? We've changed the accompaniment around, but we don't care about the accompaniment. Right now. We care about the harmony. But most importantly, we care about the melody. Right? That's the same is up here. So this is just phrase one again. So it's called that phrase one. Let's see if it ends in the same spot. Certainly looks like it. And then phrase to let's see if that's the same. So this is what it was the first time. Okay, here it is the second time. Yep. I would call that the same. Um, it is exactly the same. Do you do there this and phrase to Okay, now, what about here? Let's start here. Okay? Now we definitely have something totally different, right? This we haven't heard this before, so this is new. This is either a phase three phrase three or something. That's not a phrase. It's just ah, in between the phrases. So let's hear this section and we're gonna listen for cadence. Okay? Did I hear a cadence here? Now we're getting a little chromatic here, so this is gonna be hard to tell, but let's assume we're still in F because this landed on enough, right? There's a bunch of efs. We haven't a there, so that tells us it's probably still f. Let's see what came before it e All right, e natural. So what is? Let's see if we can find any chord here. We have a see kind of a lot of C quick little d kind of a longish B flat, so e and C could point us to a five chord. Right? See, e g. Um, this b flat gives us the seventh, so that makes a lot of sense, right? That accounts for most of the notes here. So this could be a sort of 57 chord going to one. So that sounds like a pretty strong cadence, right? Our melody also kind of comes to a nice end there before it looks like it's about to start over. Right? Same is back here, so I think this is the end of phase phrase three. Now, the question is, where did phrase three start that start here? Yeah, um, it could have started here. It could have also started. Here is what I was thinking. Um, and this could have been just a transitionary, um, bar, But on second hearing, I think this is the beginning of it. So I think this is faced three phrase eyes Keep saying phase for a raise. Three. Okay. And then we get it again. Is it the same way that way. So here's the cadence. And then right here, it starts moving into something else. Okay, so let's definitely call this ah phrase. Three again, actually, is what this is. It's the same. So over here we had phrase one phrase to and then phrase one and phrase to here. We have phrase three and then phrase three again Right about there. Then right here we go off into something else. Let's just listen to this quickly. Oh, all right. And then we go into phrase one again. Do we want to call this a phrase? It doesn't really. Keynes, right? It stays on five right here. The big old five on and then it resolves here. So that's weird. This is just a weird extra three bars that I don't think make a phrase because the cadence never complete. But what I think is happening, it's right here. We're gonna get phrase one again, and then we're going to get the end of phrase one right here. We're gonna get phrase to again. We're gonna get the end of phrase to what did the end of phrase to look like? Uh, okay, it's right here the end of phrase to cause there's our cadence from here to here. And then we go into this another weird thing. Okay? And then this thing is the words here are na na na na na na na So it's just like this. None on Ah, this anthem kind of thing so we can call that whole thing. Ah, since it's totally new phrase four. Okay. And that goes pretty much to the end of the song, actually, All the way to the end of the sun. Um, well, no, I take that back. It goes to hear, but it repeats a bunch. No caps. Um, it ends here, but then we do it again, and then the repeat gives it to us again in the actual song that goes on for kind of a while. Okay, so we have this other weird, extra kind of nebulous bar and 1/2 here that will just call transition. Not everything is a phrase that's okay. Um great. So we've identified four phrases in this entire song, right? But they repeat a lot. They have a pattern to them. Okay, um, next video, I'm gonna give you this file exactly as is with my phrase markings in it. So you can play around with it if you want 9. Phrase Notation: Okay, let's talk about how we deal with these phrases. We do have kind of a special way of writing down what's going on. So when a phrase is that was gonna go over here, don't throw some text here and use this blank space here. So instead of calling things phrase one phrase to face three, we label them with letters. So we say, Hey, oops. A Mm. So in this song, what we have zoom in a little bit. Here is a be it seems that to a meat So let's look back here. We have phrase one we would call a phrase to you Call B And then we have phrase one and phrase to again. Okay, so a b a be a b a b and then phrase three. We would call c and we get that twice. So we would call that. See? Oops. See, um And then phrase one and phrase to again. It's good of a new line here, huh? Phrase one and phrase to again and then phrase four, which we would call de because it's new, and then that takes us to the end. Okay, so we're halfway there, so we call these, uh, by letter names. Now, we can also do another thing where we kind of give there measures. So we say, measure one through measure. It's called this measure 1123 four through measure for okay and then be would be measure four through probably eight. This is measure for wealthy one, 34 starts and measure four. So it's calling measure 4567 eight. It ends there. So four through eight. Oops, four through eight, etcetera. So we can do that all the way through. Um, now there's another notation that we should learn that we haven't encountered in this song . And that is what if this a zoom in? What if this a was different than this? A. In other words, here's that a phrase. And here it is again. What if this time it was pretty much the same phrase, but there was some stuff that was different, you know, Maybe this thing that they went up here up, inactive. Um, maybe this note was up just, you know, not so different as we would give it a new letter. So if it was super different, we would give it a new letter, right, But if it's the same, we would give it the same letter or if it's somewhere in between, where it's pretty much the same, but not exactly the same. We would do a apostrophe that means prime. Usually, Um, do we call this a prime? Is how you would say that Or check this out? Um, let's say this one repeats, and it's slightly different yet then you would call it a prime prime to right or a prime prime prime triple prime. You know, you can add as many primes you want just to show that it's not the same as it previously Waas, but it's close enough to still call it a ah, then you would call it a. But it's modified, so you add a little apostrophe. In this case, it's not. In this case, it's the same exactly the same. So we'll call it a So this is mostly how we know Tate phrasing stuff. We can also do it with this by just saying this is a but that's hard to read because you got this floating lower case A. And we don't always like to see that. Another thing we might do is label are cadences here? So you might say, here, here's our kittens from here to here. What kind of cadence is that? It's a 51 kittens, but we have C E G B flat a C in the base. So it's not a perfect authentic cadence because it doesn't go 51 in the Baesa's Well, this would be an imperfecta authentic cadence, so we could add another notation here if we wanted to be super fancy and call this imperfecta authentic cadence. We would put that right there. So that's the full shebang. I'm not too worried about notated cadences outside of the music like this, But if you see this, this is what we're talking about talking about phrase structure. Okay, that being said, let's move on. Let's talk about motives a little bit 10. Definition Of A Motive: Okay, Now that we've looked at phrases, let's look at something else called motives. No. Maybe you've heard this word before motives. Um, if you took my film scoring class, we talked about motives quite a bit. Um, a motive is like a phrase very, very similar to a phrase Except, um, one key thing that's different. The key thing that's different is that a motive does not require a cadence to be a motive. So a phrase has to be has to have a cadence. And a motive is smaller. In general, we get a little more liberal about the use of the word motive. We kind of call a lot of different things. Motives, um, motives are tend to be shorter. You can have just a really short motive. Um, you could have a longer motive, but a longer motor is gonna be like a couple bars. Um, the other rule about motives is that they are repeated. They have to be repeated to fall technically into the definition of a motive, but they don't have to be repeated Exactly. They could be messed with a little bit. So let's say you have, um, a motive, and it happens exactly as is a second time. That's great. That qualifies as a motive. But let's say you have a motive that happens a second time, but in a different key That's great. Still qualifies of the motive. Let's say you have a second time, but it's, you know, is upside down. That's as long as it's recognizable. That's okay. I think the rule is has to be recognizable. So the definition of a motive is a small little musical idea that happens at least a second time, if not more, but at least a second time. Uh, in the same piece of music. Ah, and it does not need to have a cadence. Okay, Um, so it's kind of like a phrase, Except you could have motives that exist inside of a phrase. You could not have phrases that existed inside of a motive. Ah, maybe you could, but it would be really weird. Um, it's very unlikely for that to happen. Um, okay, so I want to take a switch, gears, tow Eleanor Rigby. Maybe we'll jump back to hey, Jude in just a minute. But I think I'm just saying kind of Beatles mood lately, So, um checking out some Beatles songs. So let's go to a new video and let's look at Eleanor Rigby. Four Motives. 11. Eleanor Rigby: Okay, So this is Eleanor Rigby. Um, you might be familiar with this song. And in fact, I think we've looked at this song, um, in ah, one of the prior theory classes, if I remember, right. I've been making these so long now that I'm starting to forget what we've looked at and what we haven't looked at. So, um, if we have looked at it before, we looked at the harmony and if anything, we may have looked at it when we were talking about modes for the first time. Um, cause it is using a mode. See that big old C sharp right there? That kind of gives us a big clue, but we're gonna talk about modes right now. We're gonna talk about motives, but let's just hear the signing to get it in our head a little bit, and then we'll dive in and try to find the motives way 12. Finding Motives in Eleanor Rigby: Okay, So remember what I said about taking the term liberal or ah, motive a little more liberally. Um, just by looking at the score, you can kind of see motives all over the place. Let's look at right here. Don't At that. We could call this a motive. Right? This little opening thing, right, it's just a line. Like we can see the line. It goes up and down, right? It's got this off beat thing that happens on the other end of it doesn't happen again. Yeah, happens right here. Does it happen? Any other times? It happens over here. Happens right here. You know, it happens a bunch. So it's just this little arc. We can just kind of spot him, right? What about this little thing, right? Ah, we have that again. Should be right here. Yep. Right here. Way. Have it again down here. Right. And it really doesn't matter what the left hand's doing in this case. I don't care so much about the the vertical, necessarily. Although I guess maybe a little bit. But right here we don't. We could never call this a phrase, right. What is the thing that keeps us from being a phrase. It's the cadence, right? There's no cadence. Here's a one chord, so we couldn't call it a phrase. It's too small of its ah, too small of a little nugget of music to call it a phrase. Um, it doesn't have a full, uh, structure to it, necessarily. But, uh, it's something right? So let's call it a motive. It's a motive that we can use again and again. Even if we changed the notes in this case, we have the short little staccato thing that's repeating an upper note. Right, Lower note. Lower note. Upper note. Lower note. Right. So we keep going back to this note, we can kind of extrapolate that and say, That's a motive of going down, up, down, up, down, up, up from the previous one down or up, town up that's dot Out, out, out, out, Out of that thing we could say that that is a motive. And even if the notes were a little different later in the song, we could still call it this motive. Right. Um how about this one right here? This is a good example, because what I have here what I think we we have here is a phrase from here to here, right? We have a nice melody and we have a nice cadence. Here, let me Let's hear that again And keep that in mind. Can we call this four bars a phrase? Yeah, I think we can. We have a cadence here. It's kind of a weird kid because we've got this chromatic thing happening going down. But if we were in a pinch and let's figure out what court we have here, we have an e minor case. So in e minor, this cord could be see e g C c E g. So in e minor, that is Ah, six. We have a 61 here. That's not a very strong cadence, but ah, in this four bar phrase, what's happening is this note is chromatic Lee going down down by half, step down by 1/2 stop hoops. So we have this descending chromatic line which I'm pretty comfortable to call, um a ah leading to a nice cadence. It feels like a nice cadence here. It's not a perfect authentic cadence, but it's got some resolution to it right here, right? And the melody is well, ends on e minor, the tonic. So, yeah, I'm pretty comfortable calling this four bars a phrase, but inside of it inside of this four bar phrase, I have at least one motive. There's one the words here are all the lonely people. And then where do they come from? So on all the lonely people, I have a phrase Where do they come from? Also a phrase. Or maybe it's the same phrase. Check it out. Let's just take that much. And I think they're pretty different there. 40 different. I thought maybe we could do like a, uh it goes, uh, note down note kind of here doesn't really do it. Okay, so let's call these two different motives. Um, they're They're pretty similar, though, right? They have a lot of characteristics in common. They both. And on this kind of g t e thing. Okay, um but maybe that's about it. So two different motives inside that one phrase Okay, so and remember, motive has to be used again. So here is that motive way. Get it again later. These are harder to spot in, like, full, like orchestral, classical music, but fairly easy to spot in a pop song. So that's why I like using songs like this, too. Uh, show them okay. Labeling motives is a kind of a whole different little science, and it's it's kind of fun. So let's go Teoh a new video and talk about how we label these suckers. 13. Labeling Motives: There's a couple of different methodologies for labelling motives, but my favorite one that I'm going to use is to kind of give it a name we don't use, like, motive a motive, Be motive. See, so much because I can get confusing with labeling the, um phrases. So what we do is we say we give it just a way. Get to call it whatever we want. Um, so for this one, they have some text, so I just need to give it Ah, any kind of name that's unique to it. So here, I'm gonna call it the all the hoops Lonely people motive. So you just say there's something something motive. So this is Let's even do it like that The all the lonely people motive. Okay, so that's the all the lonely people motive, and now we can kind of track it by saying, Here is again the all the lonely people motive, um, here is Get over here somewhere, I think. Right here. Yep. Here's the all the lonely people motive again. Um, this one we could call the where do they come from? Motive. Um, find another one. This one. There's not words here um, actually, there is now there's not There's not words on this short thing. Um, So let's call this the, um, short eighth note motive. So, you know, I'm just coming up with names that describe it. Sort of. So here we have this short little eighth notes, right? So I'm gonna call it the shortest. No motive, not not brain surgery. Right? Um I mean, it's gotta been short eighth notes. So that's what got you call whatever you want. Um, so now I can kind of identify this as a shortage, No motive, and I can look for it Other places in the piece of music, right? So you give names, you call it, you know, the scale motive, the Aston Automotive, the, um, up and down motive. You know, it's good. Not everything has lyrics. So this won't work all the time. But something like this to give it a unique name that we can then track it with, um, just by looking for other instances of that again, like here is him. So that's how we label these things. It's pretty easy, actually. 14. Motive Alternations: Okay, so now we know what motives are, but let's talk about them a little deeper here. Let's talk about what composers actually do with motives and why we care about motives at all. They're just these little fragments of musical, you know, material, I guess. You know, they're just kind of Ah, an idea. Um, the reason that we care about them is that, ah, when composers are working on a piece, what they want to do is go back to that piece that we talked about earlier when we were talking about phrases and that is memory. They want to try to trigger something in your brain. Um, something familiar. And that's part of, you know, storytelling with music. You know, you plant a seed, you come back, you move it around, you look at it in different ways, and motives are a great way to do that. Um, because we can transform them. And as we transform them, we tell the story a little bit more. For example, let's say I have the story. Um, Jack and Jill felt that their ah, Jack and Jill ah went down the hill. How it goes, Check. And Joe went down a hill? Yeah. Jack and Jill went down a hill. OK, that's my entire story. Okay, so let's pretend that's my motive, right? There's a lot more to the story, but that's just a little nugget of the story. So we're just gonna work with that for now. So pretend that's a musical motive. Jack and Joe went down there. Now what if I did that same thing, that same musical motive, but in a minor key, right? I transpose it to a minor key. So you hear Jack and Jill went down the hill and a nice major key. Then you hear Jack and Jill went down the hill and a very minor key. What does that tell you now? Like something more complex is happening with the story. Right. So these are one of many of the techniques that we have for telling a story with music. So what we're gonna do in this section is look at the different ways we can transform Ah, theme and all of these ways that we're going to talk about here, uh, we'll come back. We're going to see over, you know that next century or two. How composers used transformation of idea. Ah, using a relatively small amount of of of ways to transform, um, composers have been using these transformation tools for centuries. Um, even up until modern music. I still use them all the time. So ah, these are great tools to use to help tell a story. And when you're analyzing a piece of music or playing a piece of music, uh, knowing these tools can really help you play it in a way or analyze it in a way that really kind of showcases the story that's being told by being able to spot the motive, even though it's upside down, backwards and transposed to try tone or something, you know what I mean? So, um, without further ado, let's dive in and talk about the main ways that we transport or that we modify a motive. 15. Setting Up A Motive: Okay, So I'm gonna go back to I'm gonna go to our, you know, our kind of master file here for the first time. Um, so the first time we're gonna use this file in this class because we've been using, um, those other pieces of music go to continue his view, Zoom in on that a little bit, and I'm just gonna make a melody that will be familiar. Okay, that's all. Okay. Hopefully you recognize this? Mary had a little lamb the 1st 2 bars, and this is probably, um, the smallest little motive that we get. Right, Because what happens next in this song? Mary had a little lamb we get. Ah, let's continue playing out this song just so we can identify the motive. Okay, So what have we got here? Mary had a little lamb. Little lamb. Little lamb. Ah, we could call this a phrase, right. We could call this a motive. Um, we could call this a motive and then again here at a different key. Even that could be based on this motive of the three notes, right. The three note motive will call that, um and then we have the whole thing again. Mary had a little, um, but it's slightly different this time, right? It's Mary had a little lamb who's gotta delete these last two notes, and then we got Okay, so the second time, it's different Here. Right? Are three note little motive of here has an extra note on it. And then here it has an extra note on it as well, but OK, so that's our whole melody. Right? Let's just hear it. Okay. Lovely right. My amazing, brilliant composition. Um, let's treat just this 1st 2 bars as our motive. We could even treat just this one bar as a motive, right? That could be our first motive that, you know, it goes down and up. So a down, up kind of motive, it's just annoy idea is all really a motive is, um, I'm gonna keep that second bar on there just for fun. We'll see what happens cause we're gonna do a whole bunch of stuff to this little motive here. So, um, what we're going to do is we're gonna look at a bunch of different ways to modify this. And remember, for every modification, we can do as much as you can imagine to this melody or to this motive, as long as it's still recognizable. Once you can't recognize it as being related to the first thing at all, then you've gone too far. Okay, that's the basic rule. Um, so, uh, the first, the 1st 4 things are kind of our standard stuff. Contour, rhythm, transposition and intervals. After that, we're gonna look at some more advanced stuff. So let's go into a new video and run through those 1st 4 and then we'll go into the more advanced stuff. 16. Contour Rhythm Transposition Interval: Okay, Um, our 1st 4 modifications. 1st 1 is contour. Okay, So, for Contour, what we do is just don't worry about the notice for a second. And just look at the shape of this, right. We go down, up and then flat. Okay? That's the contour of it. It's the shape of the line that's being made. So how could we alter that? I'm gonna copy that and paste it here. So this one, we're gonna change the contour. Maybe we go down and said It's switching directions here. Way go down again. Right. So I just changed the contour. The shape of the line here was going down to here to the sea and then up and then flat here is going down and then flat. So we got rid of that up, right? It's probably still familiar. Let's hear the two side by side. Are you still probably recognize these as cousins of each other? Sort of, um so we'll call that a change in contour. It's age. Let's spell it right. Okay. Contour. Um and let's maybe just to make things even more clear, let's do this. Some double bar lines in between each of these Okay, let's go into the next one. Rhythm, Um, self explanatory. Pretty much we can play with the rhythm a little bit here, So let's right here. Rhythm. And let's do something to the rhythm. Let's take this back to the original notes. So now we're back to our original melody. Um, what if we did this? Let's take out that note for a second. And let's add dot here and then loops there. Okay. Very subtle. But it still works. So now instead of this, I have this right subtle change. But, you know, you could mess around with the rhythm and still maintain that familiarity with the original . All right, let's do another one. Copy this one. Put it there. Change that. And at a double bar line right there. Okay. Transposition. That's pretty easy. One right. Transposition is ah, same contour, same rhythm, different notes. So let's select all of this. And can I go like that? I can. Let's go there. Okay. Transposition, same intervals. I didn't change anything about anything, except I'd moved the entire line up or down. Okay, so now, uh, it should sound very familiar. Okay? And now we have Okay, I put it in another key is another way to say that. Right? Okay, the last one that will look at right now is just the intervals. We're gonna look at this one a little more detail in a minute, as in one of our advanced, uh, things. But, um, what we could do is adjust the intervals slightly. Um, so let's look at what we have from this note to this note is a major second down. Right? Um, So what we could do is change it to a minor second down, right? That's a minor second down. Now it's gonna make a big interval here. And then if we want to be consistent, we could move that up. And now we have a minor second between these two notes. Right? So I just changed a major second to a minor second. I adjusted the interval a little bit, and that's going to give it a pretty different character, right? It's pretty. It's getting that kind of dark, mysterious vibe because of this interval here. This augmented second. Um, but that's cool. See? Now Mary had a little lamb. Is all of a sudden a little I don't know. Something's weird is going on with that lamb, right? It's starting to get starting to get more interesting. Okay, so those are, ah, the 1st 4 ways Contour, rhythm, transposition and intervals. In a way, these are I hate to say these are the obvious ways. Um, but the other ways that we're gonna look at modifying our motive are a little a little more intricate. Um, but they're going to be value going forward, valuable going forward because we're gonna need to use thes types of techniques a lot in the near future. Um, so let's learn them, starting with inversions. 17. Motive Inversion: Okay. Uh, are you talking about inversion now? Um, and this term inversion you are not a stranger to You've seen this before, right? You know that the interval of third inverts to 1/6 a second inverts to 1/7. And you also know that when we invert in interval, its quality changes a major seventh inverts to a minor second and all that good stuff. However, this is a little bit different. We can invert an entire melody. Um, and we often do, so check it out. Uh, calculating these can be a little bit of attic. Um, So what we're gonna do is we're going to switch direction for every note. Um, let me say that again. Every note is going to move in the opposite direction of where it currently moves. So this one goes down a major second, right? So for the inversion, we needed to go up a major second. So instead of e down to d, we're gonna go e upto f sharp. Okay, This one did go down. Ah, from C sorry from D to see. So it went down a major second. Also so way needed to go up a major second from F Sharp to G Sharp. Okay. And now, originally our next note went up a major second, so we needed to go down a major second. So it's gonna go to, I'm sure kept. Now our next Newt went up a major second. So it needs to go down a major second, which puts us right back where we were E e. And these notes stayed the same from one to the other, so they will stay the same in the inversion. Basically, what we're doing here is creating a mirror image of a melody. Okay, instead of going up, it goes down by the same interval dramatically. So even if we go out of key, a true inversion is chromatic, so it's gonna push us into a different key. This looks like it's kind of pushing us into e major, but, um, so let's hear the two side by side. Okay? And now the inversion, you know, it's it's familiar, right? Um, these get are they start to get a little more abstract in terms of what you can recognize with your ear. Like you could spot this in a score as an inversion of that original melody, but, um, Teoh here it gets a little harder, but in the right context, you can, um, and in a more complicated melody, it's actually a little bit easier to hear an inversion. These repeated notes kind of throw us off, but at least they do me my ear a little bit. Um, OK, so that's how we do an inversion. It's just like a mirror image of what we had. Um, we'll see later how composers use inversion to create whole compositions. Sometimes, um, you know, a melody goes, has a certain basically, what we're doing Is this kind of related to contour, right? Instead of modifying the country where I one note were flipping the entire contour So winner went up, it went down anyway. OK, um, so keep in mind how inversion works. Okay, Next, let's talk about augmentation. 18. Motive Augmentation And Diminution: Okay, We're gonna talk about here. Augmentation and diminution. Okay, So, you know, the term augment right? When we augment an interval, what do we do? We make it a little bigger, right? And when we diminish an interval, we make a little smaller, right? So when we have a melody and we're talking about augmenting that melody or using augmentation, what we're talking about is pulling it apart a little bit. Um, it's a rhythmic thing rather than a harmonic thing. So this kind of relates to rhythm. Right? Um, what we're gonna do is for every quarter note, we're gonna make it a bigger rhythmic value. Okay, so I'm gonna have to do this. I'm gonna do this over here. Then I'll go back and delete this one. So what I'm gonna do is oops like this have to be consistent. So I made each of these quarter notes I turned into 1/2. Don't I doubled them. So this half note I have to turn into Ah, whole note. Um, I have to double, right. You have to be consistent with this if you're gonna truly do the augmentation. Okay. So let me get rid of this now. Um, so another way to think about it is what was two bars is now four bars. Gonna be twice as long. It's augmentation. Okay, so just remember that it can be a little confusing that when we talk about augmented stuff in the past, we've talked about, um Ah, harmony. That would be augmented. Right? Um, but when we talk about augmentation in terms of a motive or ah, phrase or a melody, we're talking about a rhythmic device, OK, so just keep that in mind. Um, we're extending it out or making it bigger. I don't think we really need. Well, let's play this just so you can feel it. I want you to keep in mind how these how that familiar piece works, right? Like we always want this to be familiar. So here's the original. Oops. OK, and then here's the ah, augmented one. All right. It's very slow. Um, but that's okay. Um, that could be a useful tool. Especially when there's other music going on as well. Right. Imagine we had a piano accompaniment here, and it was cooking along. It was doing all kinds of fast rhythmic stuff. Um, this wouldn't feel so slow it would just feel stretched out over a longer period. And it might actually be really nice effect. So, um, augmentation is useful. While we're here. Let's talk about diminution. So with diminution gonna have to write this one from scratch to We just do the opposite. So everything that was 1/4 note. I'm gonna make smaller. Okay, so this is only gonna end up being one bar, I'm going back to the original. Remember, the original was quarter notes. Now I'm gonna turn it into a thoughts. And what was 1/2 note will now be 1/4 note. Okay, That is diminution. Simple, right? It's making it a little smaller. Dim in. I spelled it wrong. Dim in Lucian, I think that's right. Thanks. So we can hear that one. Neat. Right. Um, so augmentation and diminution are rhythmic devices. We use stretch or ah, compress, I guess. The rhythm of the peace. All right, let's move on and talk about, um, extension and truncation 19. Extension And Truncation: Okay, let's go back to the beginning and get our original melody again. So extension and, uh, truncation. What we're talking about here is Well, let's take him once one at a time, Right? Extension. Um, we're gonna repeat elements of it within itself. So let's do this. Let's take this to put that out there and take this and put it there. Okay? Extension. I just took a two to bar motive and made it three bars. Right? Um, fairly easy to do. We could do it even more. Watch this. Let's insert. Let's take this and listen. Put that out there. Clear that, and let's dio let's play around with it a little more. Let's repeat these two notes. Okay, so now what I have is the first bar as normal. And then these last two notes I repeat twice more, and then I repeat the whole thing, and then I finish off with the the second bar, right? It's still familiar, right? You can still spot that cause you get the beginning and the end and stuff in the middle. It's like we're just kind of spinning our wheels on different things, so it's still familiar. You'd still identify that as the motive. Just different longer. Um, so let's call this one X attention. Okay, Now let's talk about truncation. So well, limit. Let me say one more thing about extension. There's no hard rule to this. It's basically take the material you've got, right? So if we look at the initial material we've got, which is this and then, you know, noodle around inside it for a minute. Don't add any notes. Don't add any new notes. Just play with the notes you've got. You know, repeat these. Repeat this repute. You know, fine little tiny nuggets in there that you can kind of tease out a little bit. Um, there's a lot of freedom there. Ah, the next one is truncation. This one is nice and easy. If this is our melody and we just go group and truncate that off being chop it off. Uh, that's truncation. It's the opposite of extension. Really? So we get a little bit of it, but not the whole thing. Um, so our melody becomes truncated. It's our melody. Then becomes That's it. Um, this could be a really effective tool because you leave the listener expecting to hear that , right? And they don't get it here. They just get. And then there's this anticipation that mounts from having Teoh, uh, expecting to hear that other those other three notes, so truncate can be really handy. Now, what I like to do also is a combination of both watch this extension and truncate. So I have some not working words there. Truncation extension and Frank Asian. So what I'm doing here is I'm extending the melody by repeating elements of it, and then I'm truncating the end of it off, you know, chopping the end of it off like, I'm not going to give you the end, right? Still pretty familiar to our original. And I just didn't give you the end because I like that anticipation that you're expecting the end. So I'm not gonna give it to you right away. So you can combine this. We'll talk more about combining them in just a minute. Okay, let's move on to one more 20. Motive Fragmentation: Okay, We're gonna talk about one more. This one is fragmentation. Now, in order for this to really work, this takes a little bit more of a delicate hand. So and it's hard to do on just a motive without any accompaniment. Okay, so, um, we're gonna do it anyway, but, um, it sounds better when there's accompaniment. So I'm just gonna put my motive out there and delete this. I just want to able to see it while I put this together because copy and paste isn't really gonna work here. So what we're gonna do with fragmentation is grab little bits and leave some space in between. Um, that's Teoh. Somebody wanted to dio. Here we go. Okay. I think it's funny I could do this all day. Um, okay, let's get rid of that. Okay. So what do I have here? Have just little bits. It's almost like I took the motive and chopped it up into several smaller motives, right? Like I've got these 1st 2 notes than two notes again. And then this this three note thing that we have here since I put it on a different beat and I didn't make this a hole or 1/2 note. I made it according note, because with this kind of, ah, fragmentation thing, I could do whatever I want. It's like another way to think about it is you have the motive, and it's made of glass, and you dropped it on the ground. And now there's, like, all these little pieces of it everywhere, and you can just kind of glue it together how we want. So this is what I made, right? It's Ah, Do I actually, you know what? I don't think. Well, then, does this see up to D work? Yeah, it's right here. Yeah, that works. Okay, Just wanna make sure that was in the original. I was having a brain lapse for a minute. Um, so this one, you know, helps tohave accompaniment going on with this, But, um, you can really just kind of get weird with just playing with this. And this is I guess a form of extension says, ah, form of augmentation. Ah, it's maybe a form, intervals and transposition. Well, not transposition. Ah, rhythm contour in a way. So it's kind of has everything in it. It's kind of Ah, a word that means kind of everything. Okay, So, um, now we've gone through the main ways that we alter a motive. Um, let's see if we can have a little fun with this with this goofy thing that we made. Um, let's go to a new video, and then we'll see if we can do it. 21. Harmonizing Altered Motives: Okay, So, um, I just put together a quick and dirty little harmony here. Um, not thinking about voice leading or anything like that. I just wanted to throw it all in the left hand so that we could see the melody, um, and make it quick Harmony. All I have here is 1515 I did a little weird turn around here because I thought it would be kind of fun. Um, so I have Ah, 351 it makes this court a little bit different or ah, this measure a little bit different, especially because this five chord is G seven. This is a 57 chord, G seven, and this is not in it. So as a little bit of crunch. But I thought it was kind of fun. It's kind of neat, right? It's not too crunchy. So what I want to do is just add this harmonization to the melody. I love him. Thank now, this one, um we've added an out of key note, so I'm gonna have to change some stuff here. Um, we've added a d sharp. And on my G chord, I have a d natural. Let's just raise that to a D sharp, I guess, And see what happens. It's gonna be pretty crunchy. Uh, but we'll make it work. This one were kind of pointing at E Major. So maybe I'll move this whole thing. T E major, I think that gets me there. Okay, that should work this one out through the core progression twice. Now, this is where this gets interesting, right? Because now I'm not harmonizing each individual note because I didn't trunk or I didn't argument my harmony here. I'm just doing my harmony twice. So these. So this this note, for example, should line up on this chord. But now it's gonna let up on this cord, and this note should line up on that chord. But now it's gonna line up on that court, so things are gonna shift out of phase a little bit. And this is when you can find some really kind of fun and interesting results. Okay, Here. I'm just gonna do it once and again. Things aren't gonna line up correctly. This note should line up here, right? This note should line up here, but it's going twice as fast. Um, so let's just see what happens. Um, something here. I'm just gonna do this twice here. All this. Do it once, and here. I'll just I'll do it. Ah, 1.5 times, I guess. And then on fragmentation, which is the one I really want to check it against. I'll do it. Let's do it three times and let this last one play out. Okay, So what we're going to hear is how that melody changes against the kind of constant core progression with this one being kind of the oddball, these two being the oddball. Um, you can have some kind of on the composition side of things. You can have some kind of really fun and unexpected results. I haven't prepped this. I haven't tried it. So this might sound terrible. And if it does, I'm totally OK with that, because we are in the interest of experimentation right now. Let's hear it and see what happens. Okay, that was kind of Ah, crazy handful of stuff. Um, I realize I should have transposed this one. Also take because in this transposition, we put it upto a So we should take the key. Have a Let's go there. That didn't seem right. Um yeah, that's right. Ah, Newt, That is definitely not right. Oh, we put it in a minor. So we need to get this day minor by it. Getting rid of these Sharps, uh, might leave that. Well, then 257 so we could leave it sharp, but all right, switching the mode there too. It's kind of kind of fun and weird anyway, OK, I'll leave you with that to play around with. Ah, that was a fun experiment. It had mixed results, but that's OK. 22. Musical Sentences: remember what I was saying earlier about how a lot of this has to do with storytelling, right? And getting the narrative idea of a piece of music across. Well, it gets even slightly more literal than that. Um, we have in music things called sentences and periods, right? Like normal punctuation. And they work roughly the same way that a sentence in a period works When you're writing words, right? Ah, the role of a sentence is to say something with a beginning and a middle and an end in a brief way and kind of get a singular idea out. Right? Um, so let's talk about that idea of a musical sentence. No, because it's, uh composed of certain things. So a sentence, as we know has when we're writing words, at least in English, you know, it has knows that it has verbs, and it has, you know, adverbs and adjectives and these other things a musical sentences slightly simpler are slightly more simple. I should use, like, proper English. When I'm talking about words, I can speak good words. Um, Okay, So a sentence structure in music is ah, couple of motives put together in a way that makes up a phrase. So, um, the whole phrase is made up of two or three phrases, and those are put together in a way, in a kind of specific way. So ah, to demonstrate this, I thought I'd use a little motor, right? I'm sick of hearing Mary had a little lamb. I can't do it anymore. Um, we spent enough time with Mary and her lambs. So, um, here's a little Mozart piece. Let's just play it So you have it in your head on, and then we'll walk through what makes a sentence, because it's it's really well outlined in this piece of music, so here's what it sounds like. 23. Finding Musical Sentences: All right, so first, let's identify some phrases here. So, do we have a phrase right at the beginning here? I think so, Um, I'm happy to call this a phrase got at at at at it. Got it at it. Right. Um, so just this first bar I think we can call our Sorry. Not a phrase. A motive. Justice. First bar. We can call a motive. Okay. Probably to here. Right. Um, just that much. Okay, That is a nice little motive. Um, so in a sentence, a musical sentence, we get the motive, we get a motive. I should say so. A motive Right there. Perfect. Right. Perfect. Nice little motive. Second thing we get immediately following the motive. Is the motive again? Usually altered in some way. Okay. So ah, is this the same motive but altered? Let's include that first note. I think so. Because check it out. We have that at at at at at dumb. And then it ends there. And now this note is serving double purpose. Here. It's serving as the last note of the motive and the first note of the next motive. That's totally fine. Could be allowed, but Let's look at, like the contour here, you know, were going up. Down, up, down, Right, You're up, down, up, down or we end on an up here. But that's okay. You know, it's they change the contour just a little bit. Just a hair weave. Also transposed it. We've done a couple of trans positions. Here are a couple of trans formations here. We've changed the contour slightly. We've transposed it. Um, maybe changed a couple intervals, but it's recognizable as the same motive. It's like we're hearing the same motive twice. What? The 2nd 1 has been altered, right? You can hear that. They're very, very, very similar. Right. So, um, back to the sentence. We get motive motive again, usually altered. And then the third thing we get is the motive kind of broken up into pieces. We could say fragmented, but it could also have some new material in here as well. So we have, you know, kind of fragments of the motive, and then we have, um, some new material. Possibly that helps us move to a cadence. Okay, so we're moving to the end of this in a cadence. So this stuff is this stuff. Fragmentation of this motive, maybe. I don't know. That's kind of a stretch. Um, we could say it is. We could say it doesn't. I'd buy it either way. Um, but what we can say is that this is a further development of this. Ah, this motive. Right? So we had this motive we had the support of again. Then we have a little more development, a little bit of playtime, right? And it could be fragmentation. It could be new material. Um, there's some liberty there. We've got two bars of that, and then we lead to a cadence. Right. So let's see, what key are we in? Are we in F? Yep. Looks like we're in F. So at the end of this, we have C B flat. We're sorry, E b flat C. So we have a nice C seven chord right at the end here before we go back to our F 571 right ? Just what we would expect. And then we get the whole thing again. Okay, so this is a musical sentence from here to here. Okay, Maybe including this. See down here. Hard to say, but the formula that we're looking for here is a motive. That same motive again altered a little bit of development and then a cadence at the end. Okay, that is a musical sentence. Now, usually we see it as either four bars, long meaning one bar motive. One bar of an alteration of that motive. Two bars of development and the cadence. So usually we see it is four bars long, or we see it as eight bars long where everything's double to bar motive to bar development of that earth to bar modification of that motive and then four bars playing around in the air development, I should say, not playing around in the decades. So we either see it as four bars or eight bars, Typically could be different. You know, it could be 16 bars, um, could be 12 bars. It's kind of unlikely, But maybe in modern music, um, And, um, that makes a musical sentence. Okay, so here is our sense just like that, right? And now that we played it through and I listened again, I do think we include this first chord because, um, are this the downbeat of the fifth bar? Because, um, I want this cord this 57 chord here to resolve Teoh here. Not necessarily because of this note, but because I want that resolution happen. Okay, so we call that a sentence. It's kind of like a phrase. So Well, that brings up a good question. What's the difference between a phrase and a sentence? Right, Because couldn't we call this whole thing a phrase? Now, remember, the definition of a phrase is the smallest musical material we have with a cadence. So first question will be Do we have a cadence in here somewhere? I think in this case, this is a phrase innocence. We could call it a phrase. Um, that's not always true. However, um, remember, the sentence is a very specific little formula, right? Of these three different elements that have to happen, Um, the phrase is just the definition of a phrase is just a small bit of musical material that has a cadence. Um, so and the definition of a motive is the smallest nugget of musical material that says something, and it does not need a kitten. So those are the kind of three things were bouncing around between here. Okay, um, let's go to another video and see if we can find another one in this b section of the peace 24. Sentences, Phrases, And Motives: Okay, let's hear this B section and see if we can identify a sentence in it. Okay, um, let's find a phrase, right. First thing we need to do is, um Well, nope, sorry. First thing you do is find a motive. I keep getting motive in France. We need to find a motive. So is this first bar a motive by itself? Maybe. I think the motive is these 1st 2 bars, right? I think that is our main motive. Um, and it works. We get it again. Right? Altered. So we get the first bar pretty much as is with no alterations. And then our second bar is we've adjusted the rhythm quite a bit. Um, you know, we've basically stopped it and just, uh, did to courts. Ah, and that's okay, because it's still familiar because we have this first bar here. So we have our first motive and our second motive, and it's altered. So, So far, so good. Right. Um, now, what we're looking at here is a motive. That's two bars instead of one bar. Like it was up here, and that's OK. Remember? It could be. That means our whole sentence has to be eight bars. Um, so now we have that. That means that from here to here is the development of that. We don't need to directly here the motive again, but it needs to be kind of spinning out and playing on that motive a little bit. Is that what we get here way? In my opinion, No, I don't think that's what we get here. I think what we get here. Well, what we do get here is clearly, uh, the first motive. The first, the first whole sentence I should say, um, we get the whole sentence again from above from the A section, and I don't think we can make a case for this material, uh, being familiar to this material, right? Remember, the point of this development is too kind of play around on this idea and kind of keep us in this space. You know, keep us thinking about what was said here, right? That's the whole point of the second half of the sentence. Musically, Um, and while I do think it happens here where this stuff is keeping us in a similar mindset as these 1st 2 bars back here, these four bars the intention here is clearly not toe. Have us think about these these four bars. But to have us think about these four bars, right, Because they're literally those for Mars. So these four bars want us to think about something else. They want us to think about up here, not right here. So I would not call this a sentence. I would call this two phrases or two motives from here to here to motives. You could also call this one phrase, right? It's a phrase. It's not a sentence. But then here I would call it a sentence again our initial sentence from above. Okay, so hopefully that helped shed some light on the differences between a phrase in a sentence in a motive. 25. The Musical Period: Okay, Next, let's talk about periods, musical periods different than musical periods. When it comes to like the romantic period or the Baroque period. That's like meaning a period of time, right? And we talk about that, um, historically. But what we're talking about now the music theory and that music history. So what we're talking about with musical periods is a another formula to make Ah ah kind of pattern of music a chunk of music now, Musical period is not what comes at the end of a musical sentence that can be confusing. Um, musical periods and musical sentences are separate things. Okay, um, you would think that the cadence that happens at the end of a sentence would be called the period right? That would make sense, but it's not true. Um, not everything makes good sense. Um, let's write ourselves one. This time, let's write ourselves a musical period. I'm gonna add some measures. I don't know. It's just at a bunch of measures to give us some space to work. And let's put a little final bar line there so we can go out here and work. Okay, so, um, first thing to keep in mind is that a musical period is not a musical sentence. It is a separate thing entirely. A musical sentence is a way to take a couple of phrases or while actually to take a couple of motives and group them together into a coherent thing that we call a musical sentence. A musical period is a way to take a couple of motives and put them together in a different way in a way that we call a period. Okay, a period has two pieces to it has something called antecedent and something called the consequence. Okay, And this is what all of this stuff actually is. If you're looking to learn how to write a really good melody, this is your turf. This is what you're looking for. Phrases, motives, periods, sentences, antecedents, consequences, thes air, All, uh, the ingredients that make up our really good melody. So with that being said, let's try to write one. That's, Ah, high expectation we just created for ourselves. But that's okay. Um, so let's start with the antecedent, Actually, so we're gonna do the antecedent will do the consequent, and then we'll talk about how they work together to make a period. So let's dive in and write ourselves in an decedent 26. Anticedents: okay for an antecedent. Um, the first thing I need is I just need a melody. Um, and what I want actually is a phrase of some sort. So let's write a phrase. And it might have Let's do a minor, you know, and we might end up with some motives in it. But I'm really looking for a phrase. Um, let's go. Let's put 1/2 note there and I'm just kind of improvising here. What kind of what I think it's a nice melody. And then let's dio same thing again. No so faster. Okay, so if I want this to be a phrase, it's got a cadence, right? So let's just do Cem uh, really basic chords under it so we don't get too complicated here. So let's call this in a minor. Um, position. I was gonna do this all in the bass clef staff, so let's do well, it's four chords, so a. C e um, what can we do here? Let's see d e. A g big interval here between D and A. So that kind of looks like a d chord that could be both of these could be suspension. So let's call this a four chord dean and a Sure Okay, so we've got a four chord 14 and then we could do a one again. Ah, Now what should we do here? Dio Well, we want this to cadence, right? And we wanted to kind of cadence Here, Let's do this. Let's do 1/2 note and let's do a five. But I want this. Let's see, I've got an A I want to go to e so I could go to be g e g b. Right? So that's Ah, five in the key of a and then one. Okay, so I did a five court here, but not a root position. Five chord. Let's just hear what we've got. Okay. Nice little melody. Right. So, uh, I have a phrase here I have. This is a nice little motive. We could call this to bar thing. A motive. I might even just call this one bar thing motive, because I use it twice. Um, but we can call it a phrase because it's ah, nice, complete thought, and it's got a cadence at the end. Now, we can also call this an antecedent because the definition of an antecedent is ah, phrase with a week cadence. Okay. And that's why I was kind of digging around for a way to give us a week cadence here because this is this is ah, we cadence is gonna be anything that's not a perfect, authentic cadence. And this is an imperfect, authentic kittens. Because my five is not in root position. I don't have that Big 51 step down. Okay? So we can call this an and decedent. Now, calling it an antecedent doesn't really mean much. What it means is that Well, let me put it another way. Um, we wouldn't probably call this an antecedent by itself. We would call it a phrase with a weekends, you know, whatever or afraid. Um, because the rule, for a phrase, is not that it has to have a strong cadence. It just has to have a Kate. Right? So this is a phrase that's all fine. We call it an antecedent when it's followed by a consequence. So let's go to a new video and let's make a consequence 27. Consequents: Okay, So I'm gonna have another phrase that's gonna be really similar. I'm gonna alter it somehow, and it's going to be a consequent consequence is like, Ah, imagine a melody was a coin. It would have an antecedent side and a consequent side. Right. Um, and decedent consequent go together all the time. It's almost like, um, sometimes we talk about these as being an argument, right? This is somebody yelling something. This is the other person yelling something back. It doesn't even need to be an argument. It could just be a conversation. I don't know why we always say argument. Um, but let's write our consequence, because there is, Ah, something that has to happen here. So it's another phrase that's really similar to the first phrase. Right? Um, let's try changing just the end. Oops. I need my left hand also, Um, let's go here and let's go change that to a B d e. And then here. Let's go G sharp. Hang on, stick with me for a minute Here, E and then we'll leave that where it iss Okay, now we need to change this a little bit. I'm gonna change this to a five e c e. I want G in there g sharp, right, cause I'm gonna make ah, 57 chord here, e see e Oops, I have I want to see here. I want to be e b g sharp and another Ian there. Okay, so now I have a five major five chord, and then I'm going to do the same thing here, except I'm gonna add 1/7 to it. Oops. And what do I need? G e g b d going to sneak 1/7 corps in there. So instead of this, you let's turn them into a D. Okay. And I have that d right there also. So this is all kind of his heaven court that's gonna make a perfect authentic kittens with 1/7. We didn't have that here. Right? Um, that means this The consequent has a perfect authentic cadence. That's the rule. Um, an antecedent consequent pair is an antecedent is a phrase with weekends followed by the consequent, which is the phrase with strong kids. Let's hear. All right, that's rather nice. If anyone wants to take that and use it go crazy, you have my permission. Um, so these together aren't and decedent and a consequent 28. Periods: So what do we get when we have an antecedent and consequent together, we get to things. We get an antecedent consequent pair which we just, uh, talked about. But another word for a pair of antecedent and consequent is a period. So the definition of a period is ah, phrase With the weekends off, the phrase again may be modified with the strong kittens. Okay, it definitely has to be modified to have a strong cadence. So the weekends and the strong kittens, a pair of phrases, um, that makes what's called a sent a period. Um, we can then also call it in and decedent and a consequent relationship. Okay, paraphrases and decedent and consequent inside those you know, we might have some motives, but this is entirely concerned with motives. This is concerned with phrases because they because we need those cadences to be in play here For this to work now, you can have different types of periods. There's a couple more that we'll talk about in the near future. There's contrast ing periods. There's parallel periods. There's other things that will encounter. But for now, let's just sit tight on this idea of what a period is, um and be happy with that. So take some time and ah, red ability or to, you know, have some fun with it and try to follow this pattern or, ah, the other pattern that we found in the Mozart here, Um, or any of the patterns we've looked at, actually, because this is good stuff for writing melodies. Cool. All right, Uh, let's move up. 29. Performing Phrases: okay, in this section, we're going to talk about hyper meter. Now, that sounds really fun and futuristic, and, ah, you know, scifi and cool. And it is because everything in music is awesome and cool and futuristic. Uh, even when talking about classical music, I don't know. Um, making weird stretches here. Hyper meter is not about, ah, warp drive and laser guns. It is about looking at the meter, uh, from a much broader lens K. And it has a lot to do with phrases. So before we talk about hyper meter specifically, let's talk about things you consider when you're performing one of these phrases. Let's say let's just pretend that this antecedent consequent that we wrote here is for violin and piano. OK, so this is our very boring piano part, and this is our violin part. Okay, Um, so I'm gonna play this on a violin. Why do I care about phrases and motives and periods and all that's an antecedent and consequent? Why do I care about all that stuff? The reason is I might want this to sound like one long line. Let me, um so I might want this to sound like one long line like that, right? So all of this is connected? Yeah, More likely, I might want it to sound like two lines. The and deceit in the consequence. If so, um, if I wanted to sound like this antecedent and consequent if I really want to bring that out as a performer, I have to identify without these words here that this is an antecedent consequent relationship. And I should put a tiny little breath or a pause or something right there to separate the's just a hair. Right. But I'm not going to do that. If I don't recognize this as an interceding, consequent relationship. What if I wanted to focus just on more motive IQ ideas like motives? Right. Maybe I've got that motive. And then maybe Oops. Maybe that's a motive, right? And then I have that vote of again. Let's call it the a motive or not a movie if it's called the arpeggio motive or something, right? So if that's true and I want to bring out just these little motives, I need to spot them as motive so that I can connect them a little bit and then make a disconnection right in between them. Toe, have them really come out, you know, And I'm not just talking about, like, let me go back, Teoh previous example here where we did this. Right? So we've got we really want Let's say hypothetically that we're playing our violin and we really want to bring out this and decedent consequent. It's not just a matter of putting a break here. It could be the way we we lean into the melody at a little volume right around here and then pull back right here and then start again here to crescendo up into maybe this g sharp and then pulled back, right? It's volume. Um, it could be tone. You know, I could go back on the bridge a little bit just to get a little gnarly. Er, um, around here, we call that Monticello is kind of the term for it. So there's a lot of different ways that I can do this phrasing if I really want to bring out this entity in consequence. But this is why performers have to care about this stuff, right? Um, because you need to see it. Do you need to feel it? And if you don't recognize that this is an antecedent consequent relationship. Then you're not gonna years come blow right through here, right? You're just gonna connect these two notes, like there any other two notes, and then you you miss the narrative that the composer's trying to make right, And that's really important with this music. So this is why you know, performers have to study music theory, among other reasons. But, um, okay, let's get rid of those. Now. That idea goes into the idea of hyper meter. Let's go to a new video and let's specifically define hyper meter. 30. Finding Hypermeter: Okay, so when we're talking about hyper meter and this isn't a word that you're going to come across every day, right? Um this is this is ah, word related to phrases. Ah, and it's pretty deep word. So remember way back when we learned what a measure Waas, right? What a bar waas. We learned that in a bar there was strong beats and weak beats. Right? The downbeat is a strong meat. The off beats or the upbeat are weak beat beat one is stronger than beat too. Um and then and it depends on what meter you're in, right? That tells you what strong and what's weak. Okay, so we got all that. Um, let's do a quick example. Or in let's say we're in the meter of 44 Our strong guest beat is gonna be beat one. Right. Um, our second strongest beat is gonna be beat. Three halfway right are to weaker beats are gonna be two and four, right? Um, because the downbeat is the strongest halfway point is the second strongest, and then the second and fourth beats are the week. OK, it's different in 34 It's different. 68 They all have their variations of strong week beats. But now that we're looking at phrases, imagine that we are thinking about that same concept of strong and weak beats. But where we were looking at measures Now we're looking at phrases. OK, we've got a much bigger lens that we're looking at here. Okay, so that means that in a phrase, we have strong and weak bars. Okay, so check it out. Is a four a four bar phrase, right. We have to four bar phrases that make up period here. Okay, so in this four bar phrase, what are the strong and weak beats I and this is called hyper meter. Um, it's like meter, but take a big step backwards and look at not just the measure, but the phrase, right. Bigger. Uh, the answer is kind of the same. Um, the 1st 1 is the strongest. The middle one is the second strongest, and the second and fourth are the weaker ones. Now you can play with this quite a bit. It depends on the, um, the particular phrase and motives within it to see how those strong week beats come together. In the most typical, the most typical phrases. We have groups of two things, right? We have this and we have this over here. We have this and we have this right. We have four groups of two here. Um, you don't have to do that. It doesn't have to be that way. This is just the most typical way things are done. So, um, when we talk about hyper meter, what we're talking about is this group of four which can then be broken into a group of two . And in the group of four, the first measure is the strongest measure. The third measures, typically where we put the second strongest material. And this goes back to what we were just talking about. Why do we care about this? Why does this matter at all? Am I really gonna play this measure louder than I play this measure? No, not necessarily. However, it is gonna inform how you interpret this music. Um, you want to play this louder, but you might do other things that draw a little more attention to this. You might lean into it. You might give it. Ah, you might actually give it a little more volume, but you might also change the tone of it. Um, a very typical thing to do in this kind of a situation would be to play this. If I was playing a violin, I would play this and then when I got to hear, I'm like, play this. These two bars. Ah, little bit different tone. Maybe a little more dull Che eyes. The word I'm thinking of, um, it's like when you bow more for word on the street, softer and softer. Um, I think it actually means sweet. Now I think about it, but it's it sounds after, um and then here I might pull it back a little bit to be more of the original tone, right? So I might give a little accent to this, but we look at the hyper meter, right? We look at the whole phrase in the bars within it, and that will help us shape how we're going to interpret this passage kept, so it's a bit abstract. It's a bit hard to understand, and it's weird, but, uh, that's the word you might come across. So I really wanted to point it out and talk about it for a minute. So we have hyper meter. There's a little bit more of a hyper meter. Um, from the cup phrase rhythm, let's go to a new video and talk about that. 31. Phrase Rhythm: okay. Kind of a, um, really similar word. Toe hyper meters phrase rhythm. Now, in a lot of cases, hyper meter and phrase rhythm are talking about the same thing, but not in all cases. So by phrase rhythm, what we're talking about is, uh, the phrase and the the rhythmic chunks of the phrase. So in the case of what we have here, the hyper rhythm and the phrase rhythm are the same. The phrase where them goes in groups of two or groups of four really groups of four is what I should say. Four bars. Because that's the phrase. And that's also what are hyper Meter is indicating, right? It's fine, but with phrase rhythm, there could be some other weird things that happen. You can have things like that phrase. Allusion. Um, overlap. Right? Uh, let's do that. For example. Watch this. See how this note or this phrase ends on A and the next phrase starts on today. So what if this happened? It's get rid of that. And let's change our meter. Okay. What we have now is this phrase ends right there. Okay, That's where it ends. But that's also where the next phrase start so that mucks up our phrase rhythm a little bit , right? Our hyper rhythm is still happening on four bar chunks with probably this one in it, but we could call it in even four bars if we wanted to. So even four bars, right? But our phrase rhythm is going to hear. It's not in bars, so hyper rhythm is in bars. Phrase is the phrase. So now these we would call these alighted phrases or overlapped phrases. Right? Um, the phrase ends and starts on the same note. Okay, so that's what some of the things you can do with phrase rhythm. There are other things that you can do with it, but that's the most obvious one. Let's just hear this for fun. Okay, Is weird, right? Catches you off guard, but you'll find that that happens a lot. Um, composers like to throw these little turns in here all over the place so they could be fun . So if you're thinking to yourself, Okay, wait. So what's the difference between and phrase hyper meter and phrase rhythm? Here it is. Hyper meter is a number of bars. Phrase meter is the pacing of our phrases When one phrase happens and then the next phrase happens, there could be spacing between the phrase right, in which case, it wouldn't be a period. But that's OK. We'll be talking about something different now. Or the phrases could be alighted, these air all playing with the phrase rhythm, right? Um, and it might not affect the hyper meter unnecessarily. Okay, so these two words are if you're confused by these two words, don't lose sleep over it. Um, they're very nuanced. Words are phrases, I guess, um, and and we're not going to encounter them a whole lot. I just wanted to put them in your head, So don't stress out about these words too much. Um, they're interesting and they're good to know, but is especially the one thing you need to take away from this whole section on hyper meter is that performance element of it. Right When we're performing this kind of a thing, we want to think about where the phrases are and how we should interpret them to best tell the story that the composer has laid out for us. That's the thing you need to remember about all of this. Okay, let's move on 32. Phrase And Motive: all right in this section. What I thought I do this time a little different than the other classes, as we've had a lot of new terms in this class. And I thought I would just focus in on those new terms and make sure that we've got him. All right, So I'm gonna go through a couple of videos and just kind of reinforce, uh, some of these vocabulary words that we learned in this class, Um, that we've already learned nothing new in this section. Um, it's just gonna be reinforcing the words that we've learned. So let's start with phrase and motive, Okay? A phrase is a small bit of musical material that has a cadence. Any cadence. Okay, we don't specify what kind of Keynes it has toe have that's unique to the period. Um, and the antecedent consequent relationship, but phrased by itself, is a musical idea with a cadence. Okay, a motive is the smallest musical idea we can have. Okay, so we would call a motive, something like this. Let's call this the are pesci ation motive, Right? Because it's a little arpeggio. Um, or we could call the motive. This It's a little subjective, Remember, But it does not need to have a cadence to be a motive. It does need to have a cadence, to be a phrase. All right. Motives also must be repeated either exactly or with variation. Right. So we have this phrase. I'm sorry, this motive, because that's just a motive, because there's no cadence there. But then we get it again here exactly as is, so we can call that a motive. Um, because it repeats, it repeats again. Here, there's 1st 3 notes, and then the second bar of it is altered. Okay, so we could call this an alteration of that. I could see that. But more importantly, we could call this an alteration of this if we're calling our motive. Just this one bar this last one is is a variation of it. Here's the second to last one. And here's the last one, right. There's a note different. There do notes different there. So, um, a motive does not need a cadence, but it needs to be repeated exactly or altered. Okay, so one of those to it needs to come back. Okay, let's move on to more vocabulary words 33. Manipulations: Okay, Next, let's go over some of these words related Teoh manipulations of a phrase or a motive, But primarily, we talked about this in terms of a motive. Um, so we talked about contour, remember? Contours, this shape of it. It's like when you just step back and look at it. And don't worry about what the exact notes are, but what they look like, this one's going down. Right? So the contour of this is a single slope down the contour. This is a slope up, so we might alter the contour of it. We talked about altering the rhythm, the transposition, uh, or individual intervals of it. Okay, those We've all kind of where we've seen before. You know what rhythm is? We know what transposition is. That means moving the whole thing up or down. And the intervals. That means changing one interval. Kind of like what we did here, where this note is the same. This note is a smaller interval here than it is there or something like that. We also talked about inversion. Now we know what inversions are. We've dealt with those on interval levels where you know, a second becomes 1/7 etcetera. But we're down talking about inversions of melody. Do I still have that up here? Oh, yeah. I still have all these up here. Cool inversion. So remember, in an inversion, a melodic inversion, It means everything goes the opposite direction by the same interval amount. Instead of going down, we go up, right instead of up, we go down, and if the notes are the same, they stay the same. It's a mirror image. Okay, let's talk about augmentation. That means pulling it apart, right? At least when we're talking about, um, rhythmic augmentation. We're talking about pulling it apart, making it last longer. And we typically do it by the same amount all the way across. So if we're gonna double a note the rhythmic value of a note, we double it through the whole melody. Diminution is the opposite, right? We squish it, squish it together. Ah, and you know, cut the rhythmic values in half. They were quarter notes in augmentation. They're half notes and in diminution. Their eighth notes extension is Repeat some stuff inside the motive and play around a little bit. Truncate is chop it off. Don't let it finish extension and truncate would be extended by playing around with the motive a little bit, but never get to the end. Fragmentation. Give us little bits of it enough to trigger our memory. Remember, that's what we're looking for in fragmentation in all of these, really, they We want them to be recognizable to the original. We want the audience to say or the listener to say, I've heard that before, right? Okay, so those are our main, um, manipulations that weaken due to the, um, motive. 34. Sentences And Periods: okay. Sentences and periods. Remember, a sentence is I don't think I still have one up. Look, I don't have one up, but a sentence is when we have, um, three things. We have a motive, followed by a variation of that motive. Or it could be a direct repeat without variation. Ah, followed by an extension on that motive or something. A little contrast into it. So if we have a four bar sentence, it's gonna be one bar of the motive. One bar of the motive altered. And then two bars of the variation to it. If we have an eight bar sentence, is going to be two bars to bars and four bars. Right. Um, that's what makes up a sentence. Now, what makes up a period is not the thing that comes at the end of a sentence. Coal, really Separate sentences and periods are two different things in music. Right? So it makes up a period is you need That's what I have over here. A period means you have two phrases, one of which has a week cadence. So any kind of not perfect cadence followed by a strong kid, so like a perfect 51 cadence with root motion. When we have a period, we also have an anti seen consequent relationship. Because the 1st 1 is considered and seeded in, the 2nd 1 is considered consequence, and that's what makes it period. So remember periods and sentences are very different things. Here, there, two sides of a coin. 35. What Next?: all right. Coming soon. So we're at the end of what we're gonna call theory Part 11 coming soon. In theory, 12 we're gonna start talking about sequence is a sequence is a really interesting And there another thing. Kind of like the antecedent consequent thing that you want to start being able to spot and sequences are when we have something like, uh, let's see if we can find one here. Probably not. In this short of a piece, here's a really tiny one. Like we have a gesture that happens and then happens again at a different key level. But really, what sequences are patterns? They're bigger patterns. So we might see like, um, like a 151 in the key of C. And then we see a 151 in the key of G and then 151 in the key of D. That would be a big sequence, right? So sequences are these big patterns that emerge from the music that we want to learn how to spot sequences could be based on seconds 5th 6/3 kind of any interval. So it's when we've got, like, three or so sometimes more chords in a row that are kind of in this stair stepping thing on seconds fifths. Force, whatever. Um after that, we finally get into secondary dominant. So secondary dominance is one of the things that, um, people really kind of defines, I should say, the second semester of music theory, which we are nearing the end of, um I know that this one I said the first semester music theory ended. I can't remember what class number that was. The second semester has been a lot more classes than that one. It's because second semester is a lot more dense. Um, and I've got a little bit slower. Um, but secondary dominance are are probably the the last big topic we need to cover for second semester music theory. So we're gonna get through that, and then we'll be done. Um, as soon as we get done with that, So look forward to that. I got a couple more things I want to talk to you about before we wrap this class up. So let's go on to the next video and do that 36. Thanks & Bye!: All right, everyone. That's it for musically. Report 11. Thanks for hanging out. And thank you so much for taking these classes. I can't tell you like the number of people that are sending me messages telling me how much they love these classes. Um, it's just awesome. I can't believe it. It's totally weird. And, um, I love it. So thank you for being part of those ah group of weird people like me that really gets into this stuff. Um, and I'm gonna keep going. I'm gonna keep making him, Like I just said, a music theory. Part 12 is coming up soon. And, um, we'll keep going as long as people are taking him. So stay tuned. If you want to get in the super tight loop on what's coming up in some scheduling things or when I'll be releasing other classes Sure. And sign up for my mailing list, which you can do in the next video. So that's actually not a video in the next segment. I'm going to give you a little pdf to download that I'll give you coupons to my other classes and also ah, a link to send it for mailing list. So please do that and you'll get some special information. Um, maybe some other goodies. Who knows? Um, I think that's it. Thanks for being part of this class. Thanks for deciding to hang out with me and spend some time. And I hope to see you in the next class by 37. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. 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