Maya 2017 - Create realistic images using Arnold renderer | Bhaumik Patel | Skillshare
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Maya 2017 - Create realistic images using Arnold renderer

teacher avatar Bhaumik Patel

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      TRAILER

      1:02

    • 2.

      Introduction

      1:50

    • 3.

      Load the start scene

      3:26

    • 4.

      Learn the Arnold renderview

      12:53

    • 5.

      Light settings

      16:31

    • 6.

      Light types

      5:23

    • 7.

      Setup keylight

      4:35

    • 8.

      Setup fill light using a skydome

      3:58

    • 9.

      07 smoothing objects EXPORT

      13:39

    • 10.

      Aistandard shader overview

      6:55

    • 11.

      Configure a glass shader

      6:23

    • 12.

      Setup an environment

      12:47

    • 13.

      Configure a wine shader

      6:40

    • 14.

      Configure a cheese shader

      15:00

    • 15.

      Configure a grape shader

      14:38

    • 16.

      Configure a cheese wedge shader

      14:49

    • 17.

      Configure a cloth shader

      9:55

    • 18.

      Adjust the lighting

      4:39

    • 19.

      Configure a knife shader

      8:47

    • 20.

      Configure a handle shader

      7:52

    • 21.

      Configure a cheese board shaderT

      4:33

    • 22.

      Setup depth of field

      12:45

    • 23.

      Final render settings

      10:49

    • 24.

      Further information

      2:50

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About This Class

Autodesk Maya 2017 now comes with the industry standard Arnold renderer. Arnold is used by many visual effects and animations studios to produce stunning imagery for films and TV. 

3 reasons learn this powerful renderer:

  1. Make yourself more attractive to potential employers.
  2. Take your work to the next level of realism.
  3. Easier to learn than nearly all other renderers.

This course is designed for anyone who wants to learn to use Arnold to create great images from beginner level. You will learn to light and shade a scene from start to finish, covering fundamentals along the way. This course will take you through a practical project rather than going over endless settings with a sphere. 

You must use Maya 2017 NOT Maya 2018 which comes with a different version of Arnold . Also you must be familiar with the basics of Maya including selecting objects, navigating the viewport and basic rendering. 

Sign up today and start learning the same software as the professionals and take your work to the next level!

Meet Your Teacher

Hi! I'm Bhaumik, a visual effects artist and instructor with 16 years of experience in computer graphics. Four of those years were spent creating and teaching courses at Escape Studios. I spent the early part of my career in the games industry as an animator and rigger. Later I moved into the visual effects industry working on commercials, TV, VR and Film visual effects.

See full profile

Level: Beginner

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Transcripts

1. TRAILER: Hi, I'm Boning Patel. I'm a visual effects artist and instructor with 16 years of experience in film, television and computer games. In this course, we learn how to use the Arnold renderers, which is now provided with Maya 2017. You learn how to create realistic images and learn the fundamentals off the Arnold Dhirendra. Some of the major topics will be covering is lighting techniques. Using various lights will create materials using arnold traders, including glass, metal and wood, and will be texturally and displacement. Mapping will also be applying focus effects using our camera, and then we'll also make a final image using the render settings to create a nice, crisp final image. This course is for anyone who wants to learn Arnold Virendra, which is a fantastic skill to learn to make you more employable and to take your work to the next level. So sign up today and start creating great images or, if you prefer, try out some of the free previews and see what you think 2. Introduction: everyone welcome to this course on on or Brenda. So you might be wondering what is on a renderers, and why would I use it? Well, the main reason to use Arnold is because it is used in most of the big visual effects houses and animation companies to create their final images that things like Star Wars and many others will use Arnold render to render their final images. There are multiple other renderers out there, and of course they do used in things like Render Man, for example. But Arnold has become more popular in recent years is because it's much easier to use in terms off the user set up. So for the artist is much easier to use because it does everything properly. So it does everything using Ray tracing and path tracing and Monte Carlo sampling on. Basically, that means that as a user, if you put in a like, for example, it's gonna bounce that light around by default is not gonna fake that on. You don't have to set any settings for that, so it's doing everything properly, so it's much easier to use on. The computer will do all the work for you so at the end, it does take a little bit longer to render, but the computer is doing all the work, so you just have to leave it on the farm or wherever you're going to render it, and it will render the final image. So there's the two main reasons to use Arnold. It's used by lots of big companies that it's very good to use a skill to get a job. And also it's very easy to use in terms of set up times. So the user doesn't have to spend lots of time setting up pre parties, things like shadows or cash files, which we previously had to do for different renders. You don't have to do that. It doesn't use as much disk Baesa's well, because it's calculating everything. So you don't have Teoh create lots of pre passes, so let's get on with it and start off with the using. Arnold 3. Load the start scene: in this. Listen, we'll take a look at where Arnold is located. In the interface on. We'll have a look at the end of you. I'm inside my in 2017 and you can see there's an Arnold menu here. If you don't have this on the shelf, then you haven't got the plugging loaded. It should be loaded by default. But just in case, let's just have a look at Worry is just go to settings and preferences. Blufgan Manager And we could just come down to the Arnold section M two a bundle and just make sure that that is ticked, these two and it should be the default render. So if you're going to your render settings here but in here, Andi, just change this to Donald, then should be ready to roll. So let's have a look at where this stuff is located. So we've had a look at this menu here, and we've got this shelf here as well. We've also got if we create a polygon, for example, you can see in the shape note. We've also got on Arnold section and will take a detailed look at this stuff later. You consider some parameters there for you, too. Adjust commonly for things like displacement and smoothing things like that. And then Arnold comes with a couple of editors. So we've got the render view. You can see my render view there, but this is different to the regular Myer interview, and it's got a few advantages. And we've also got a light lister here as well, which is inside the utility section, and we've got a light manager here as well. Let's open that up my manager that and you'll see a list of light on your scene, and you can create new lights as well. So that's pretty cool. It's very similar to the new, the new my light manager. I open that up. You can see this is the Mayan light manager. The honored one is a little bit more simplified, which is actually quite handy because it's got the honor of parameters here, which you commonly want to change. We'll take a look at these later on. I'm just gonna close up so this open up our scene and we're going to make sure that we've downloaded It s so I've done. I did earlier, and it's a zip file here. That double click that and I've got this project. I'm just gonna copy this project. Just great to find up. Let's copy this project to somewhere where you can find it. So I'm just going to put it into my documents folder. So I'm just gonna go to my Meyer folder inside my documents folder, my R and inside there's got projects by default. You put your default project there, and I'm just gonna paste in there, okay? And then I'm gonna just set that project as usual. Just get to file on set project, and he opens up into projects by default. Robert to picnic and set. Okay. And we'll just open up the start scene. I'm just gonna open this up. Picnic stopped inside the steps. Fold. I'll be saving files as we go through, so you can start wherever we want to, in case you fall behind or whatever, But for now, that's open up the start scene, and you can see we've got out seeing here. Got a bunch of different objects here in groups. They go on and we've got a camera just shot camp. And this is the point of view that we're gonna be rendering from there. Ready to roll now they're in this lesson. We have a look at where our bodies in the interface on. We loaded up our start seeing. 4. Learn the Arnold renderview: in this lesson will take a look at the Arnold Grand of you. So I'm going to just starting up the regular interview here by pressing this button on It is all my software. So let's just give it a quick render on the shot camp. So this is what it looks like and I'll just keep that and you could see that all of our models are showing up on. You can see that there's a default light and it's lighting up the sea. So that's not the case with Arnold. So let's just change this to Arnold. And then what we'll do is change the test resolution to 50%. So that is a little bit quicker. Surrender make this a bit bigger and I just get our end up. Okay, so now you can see that Allah has rendered the scene and it's completely black, and that's because there's no lights in the sea, so it doesn't have a default light. So we just need to create one of those. So I'm just gonna go to Arnold Lights and will create an area like mother s common lights for Arnold, give you the most realistic results and That's just minimize this for a second and it's in the scene. So I'll just move this up on a scale it. You can see this. I'll just rotate this and you can see there's a line on. Let's just make sure that this faces downwards here and I just move it up a little bit on May be discouraged perspective and come forward. Okay. Normally, you can't see where the lights are. That's just position it roughly above the objects on. I'm gonna go to back to the shop camp, and then what we'll do is use the I PR view here. So I'm gonna go toe, I pl and we'll just increase the exposure. Yes, I'm just gonna increase this. And as I increase, this should start to see something. And the reason that it's so dark is because Arnold has exponential fall off by on by default. In other words, the lights fall off in a realistic way so they don't just go on forever. They've automatically got quadratic fall off on them. So that's what the lights look realistic and not Arnold already. So that's a good thing about the light, Denard. But I'm just gonna increase this bit more, just so you can see this. I'll talk more about these parameters a bit later in a native lesson. But you can see that Arnold by default, will create bounce lighting. So the light is coming down, hitting the floor and then coming back up. So if you look at this great, you can see you're getting bounce lighting and I haven't even done anything yet. This is just the default settings. That's really simple workflow. And it just does everything properly. It does great tracing. So it's gonna give you some really nice results. So I'm just gonna stop this I p r So this is the bread of you, and I'm just gonna close up their interview, and that's open up the Arnold render view. So I'm just gonna click on this button here and again. We're gonna have to set our test resolution here because it's completely separate 50% on. Then we'll just go to you window and was a real size. Let's make this a bit smaller here. Okay, so now you can see our view. You might notice that it looks a little bit different to the standard Meyer one And that's because the color management is on by default, but it's not showing in the view port. So if you go to this little icon here and this type in gamma 2.2, you should get the same result as you had before. Okay, a little bit annoying that it's not on by default, but you get So let's just carry on along the top here. So we've got our Iove easy up. So if we had things like speculative and reflection and things like that, we'll have a look at areas later. But we got to have those air passes. We actually see how they look in this view here, which is really useful for diagnosing. And we'll use that in later lessons. We could pick camera, which is great. Then we've got the color. You can pick individual channel of red, green and blue or the Alfa and then travels back to the full color. Okay, there, we've got the region. So if I click on that, I can actually pick a region and drag it around, and you can see it's gonna update that by default, it's ah, I PR view. So in other words, it is changing. You can see it's updating automatically. So therefore, if I change the intensity down here, you can see that it's actually updating, which is great. If you don't want that to happen, you can go over to this little button here and rest stop. And then it's going to stop the I p r. And you could just make the changes that you want and then you can press play. This is very common in big scenes where you don't want it to start to calculate stuff before you've made your changes. So you might change a few different lights and traders and bits and bobs, and then you can press play in and see what it looks like. Okay, Also, this render region is useful for biggest scenes as well. So you could say we're doing the shading on on the great Weaken. Just focus on the grapes, and then the update will be a lot quicker on just the grapes so you can grab the corners here to make this bigger and smaller. I was gonna turn that crap off. We've also got exposure here, and this is just for the view port. So you can see that it's gonna increased exposure. And that's the same thing. It's slip sliding this slider here, okay? And it compresses to reset that 20 This button here is to translate the scene. So if you want to keep your seeing the way it is, it's translated into Arnold. And if you want to keep it, the way is you can press this button to turn it off. So if I move my camera in this scene and it's not gonna update before I turn it on, it will update, OK, so you can move your camera around and you can see it's gonna update, which is really cool. I can, under my view, changes here. So let's go to view and we just click on this under view change, okay? So, back to the way we were, The other cool thing you can do is you can click on the objects and select them, which is really handy. Why is it handy? Well, normally you're gonna be rendering, and then you turn on the I p. R. And then you want to adjust something on the shader. So you click on that, and then you could just go to the Shader, Be this over a little bit. So you can see. And then you could, you know, just the shader and see update. So that's pretty cool. So you can then click on. Just click on these objects and you can see that the update. Now, if I were to tell on three D manipulation, you hear a tick box, I can actually move the camera in here, So if I just use my regular viewing controls, I can actually just move my camera right inside the arm of the interview. Juridical. So they're trying to minimize your use of the view port so you can actually just go in and select things. Adjust the shade er's and do what you need to do. And if you need to adjust your lights, invented the light, mr. And then adjust those great too. The light manager here. And you can adjust the intensity, for example, and typically you'll have a bunch of area lights here on a few different types of lights, and you can adjust those balance them second close up. Now just under the view again can use the square brackets to undo a short cut for this under view prince of moving along here. The other thing you could do is you can put in the background here as the background so you can change the color, for example, and then changes to an image. So it was a background image. I'm going to load in an image from my source images, fold ups that you set your project. You should get this already. I'm just gonna grab it from another. So we're going to source images, background, and then I'm gonna take stuff about sapper blood. I pin, and now you could see that it shows up there and you can either apply the color management or not. If I turned up, you could see that's not gonna get gamma corrected tonight on is gonna get corrected, and then you can use a scale to adjust the position of this. We can also do that for foreground, so this is great for special effects. So you can use this to note in your background and you can use the plate and put it in that . Then you can tell us on. And maybe if you've got some foreground, let's say you've got a key character or something, even grab it still and just throw it in there to see what it's looking like. That's pretty handy. That's just a quick tour, so you can quickly see how it's looking in the scene. It's not supposed to be for the finished result. That's quite nice. So I'm just going to turn that off in respect color So you girls will make a snapshot, which is really important when you're doing renders. So if I click on this button here, I can actually take a snapshot off this render, and that's what we're gonna do quite a lot off so we can go back through our renders and see them and compare them, so that's really handy. You can also right click on that, and they set as a and then you can set another one is B and compare between them will do this a bit later, and you could delete them and rename them, so she wanted to save these images. You can save him here, could save the original. We can save the color corrected version. So if you don't do the color corrected version, this gamma won't be applied to say I would recommend. If you just want it to look like it's looks here, we just saved the color corrected version. You can also save the multilayered xar, which means they will say these air Weise and we'll take a look at this a bit later. So if you've got things like speculator and reflection and all that sort of stuff in here, then it's gonna say that out in the X are these will just save as J. Pecs, you can load your own images in and compare them as well. And you can say that if you turn this tick box on, it's going to save these snapshots as you go. If I go to window, you can got some framing controls here. You can frame all, or you can actually have the real size, which is the actual pixels. That's probably why I recommend you can turn this on as a toolbar so you can turn on show through the manipulation as toolbar, and you can show Deepak is a toolbar. So I'm gonna turn that on, actually, because these are quite handy features, So this one here allows you to move the view port. As I showed you and then this one here is the debug one. So it's inside. Render Deepak shading. What it will do is aside these utility shade er's on give you some diagnostic information. So if you were to select one of these and so basic this graph this view here, doesn't it to press this button here just to see the actual view? So we're on the basics reader, So this is the basic shade up, and you could see it's just shader with without any lights on it. It's just got some The normal is facing us if we go, which is great to see the This is great to see the geometry and it's really fast. So if you want to actually see what's in, you're seeing the framing of your scene that shader is the best one to use. The new conclusion. This will just give you a nice conclusion. Render of your scene wife rain but the normals and this is great to see as good for diagnostics to CEO. Is that thing inside out? Or is it? Sometimes you get some weird results when you're rendering, and you can see if it's seeing it as inside out or if he's got a little kink in it or whatever. So it's pretty handy. Then you got object, which is judging the different object. I ds. We've got a few more here they can isolate, selected second click on this different objects and isolate them. Go back to a regular. Okay, In view. You've got enabled a Avi's and this is for speed. If you want to turn this off on you didn't wonder. Have those every Sometimes it can slow things down a little bit so you can turn these off if you don't. If you're just rendering your scene and you don't want those to surrender, you contend those off. You could show different channels. Here. You can change your test resolution, as we did before. You can work with your snapshots Here. You can also darken out of regions. If I turn this on, if I change my region, it's going to make the rest of it dark around there so you can see where the region is. Sometimes you're working really high resolutions, and it's difficult to see where your region renderings because you might have a little tiny thing like this. So it's quite handy as well. Could turn that back on it. You want to, and then you've got some of the update options here, which is some of the similar options up here. Okay, so in this lesson, we have look at the Arnold Brenda view and we had to look at some of the court features that are unique to the honor interview. 5. Light settings: in this lesson will take a detailed look at the light parameters. So we're going to grab the area like that we just created in the previous lesson. So I'm going to open on the outline, just in case you didn't know the my 2017 has got this new button, which will bring up the outline er, even if it's open somewhere else. That's really handy. Really good future. They just open this up and then weaken crab the area like there. And then that's just open up a grand of you on. Let's just make that a bit bigger. Just maximize this. Close this on. Let's just see the real size here, Okay, so maybe I'll and let's have a look at these parameters. So working our way down here. So the first parameter we've got his color and you can obviously changing color here and you'll see the results there as well. And you could map that with an image on. It's going to show you what you've mapped. Let's try trendiness to ramp on trend it too rainbow. It's going to update the sea. Sometimes if you changed the texture or updated the texture, you have to go to render, update, see or control you or apple. You on. Now you can see that the ramp is showing their here. I'm just gonna disconnect that. I'm just gonna go back to the every light him break that connection. Okay, that this reset this by changing it to black and then bring up the white on again. We'll have to re export the scene. Update 14. OK, so moving on down, we've got intensity on. Did she just works in the same way as regular my light. You could just increase it to increase the intensity on lower it two degrees. The intensity Now you could map this as well, with something with exposure is slightly different, so exposure is exponential. So it's It's basically every time you increase it by one, it's going to double the light. So it's measured in f stops, just like in real photography. And so it's designed to help you interact with riel cinematographers. So, for example, when I was working on gravity, the cinematographer, the director of photography, would come in. Andi would say, Oh, what could be increased that by half a stop whatever. And you could just increase this by half Stop and then you would get the result that you want. So it's just a nice way of interacting with the real world units. Basically, there's no difference between these two, except this number will be smaller to increase the intensity. So you can see this is on 13 roughly on this on 1.1, and this is how it looks. So let's just keep a snapshot, and then I'm going to show you if I change this to 13 then this to one, because it's really dark. So that just shows you that this this will be a lot lower number. So it might be handy if you don't like to have large numbers on your intensity. Sometimes that can reach like 10,000 or whatever. It doesn't really bother me. And the advantage of also using intensity is that if you look in the view, port was gonna minimize this for a second. If you look in the view port here on turn on lights, you can actually see the intensity there. If I were to use exposure by changes to one changes to 13 you can see it doesn't actually show in the view port. Okay, It will render correctly, but it doesn't show in the view port. So if you do like to use the view port for liking a scene and just seeing a quick preview of it because the new View port 2.0, is pretty cool. So just know, despair in mind that the exposure doesn't work like that. So I'm just going to change that to one, and I'll just increase this. And now I can see in the view port, which is quite handy. So I'll just increased that to maybe more on that. Maybe we'll see what that looks like. Never interview. Okay, Still not brighten up. Change it to 500 1000 bit better. 7000. So you could see the equivalent is something like this, which is like 7000 on this was This is my previous natural that I took, and that's with intensity of one on exposure of 13. So you see the difference there. Just turn this off. Okay, so this is what we quite a moment for moving on down. We've got color temperature on that's just changes a color based on the kelvin scale. So the lower is the hot of the light will be. You're getting into the temperature of something like candlelight there. And then as you go up, you're going into skylights. So blue light from the sky. So this is this is measured in Kelvin's. So if you want to enter that, you can just turn that off and we've got the regular Meyer controls for illuminates by default. This is to do it like linking. If I turn this off. If you look in the view port, you can see it goes completely black that that means that the lights will not be affected by it. And if I would to update this scene, it should update that effect. Update full scene. You can see it's black Now on. All that does is unlinked the light from everything. And then, if you want, link the specific objects you want, you can select the light and the objects that you want to link, for example, like that. And then you can go to rendering right linking or lighting and trading, excuse me and then make light links. So now that those Lightnings have made should be able to see those in the view port and the rent. Excuse me. You go. Okay. So light linking works in the regular my away So I'm just gonna turn that back on so it affects everything and then we've got emit diffuse in the Met speculum. So weaken no effect the speculator or not affected. Diffuse as you can see, if I turn it off, it's gonna go through in the dark. And that just works in the regular My away All lights are quadratic by default, so they fall off at a quadratic rate, the realistic rate using the inverse square law. I would recommend that you don't change that. That's what makes nice, realistic renders where you get nice shading going from light to dark on if you don't. If you have this constant, you're just gonna have a flat color, which is not very good. So we'll just changes to quadratic. Obviously, if you did change it to Constant, you would need to turn this intensity down a lot because it doesn't fall off. So let's take a look at the shape here on. You can change the shape of your life so you can see it here. We just go to perspective so maybe you can see this a bit better. So there's are like them. You can see it's a square and this is called a quad. We can change that to a disc which looks like that, and then you can change it to a sudden end up, which looks like that. Okay. And you can scale this to whatever you want to. On the shape of this will appear in the reflection off your object. So these these glasses here will have the reflection off this shape in white inside them. So the most common ones that I use our disk so you can use these for little point little spotlights, for example, in the interior scenes. And they will show up his little round things there, right around white dots in the reflections on. Then you've got the quad here, which is great for windows and things like that where you you'll need a square or a rectangular surface. This resolution, basically, is to do with the texture that you put in here on its to do with important sampling so important. Sampling is the way the computer deals with images that you apply to your lighting and what it will do. It would split that image up and look for the brightest parts and sample those mawr, whereas three dark party, right? Sample them as much because they won't contribute to the render. So this is the resolution that you're gonna use to control that. So if you had an image in here, I'm just gonna update this. Let's just go to update foreseen so it gets back to regular. So let's move down to samples. This is one of the most important parameters on light. This is going to affect the quality of the light, the quantity quality of the shadows more specifically, and also it's gonna affect the render time. So the higher this number is, the slower it's going to be, and this is an override. So you've got global setting for samples which will look, look at in detail later. But this is where you go to increase the equality. So if you look at these shadows here, you can see that they're grainy. If I turn on region, render and then pick this area to say it goes a little bit quicker, I could increase this and you can see that that grain would disappear. OK, so that's how you increase the quality. Now, I would encourage you to work at a low samples when you're just tweaking the scene so that it works nice and quickly and you can see the entire scene. If you increase is too much too early, it's gonna be pretty slow to update. So I'm just gonna put that back down to one, because if it zero, it will be black. Change it to one, and then we go back to normal. So let's talk about normalizing this little tick box here. So what this means is that if I scaled up my light, I'm gonna get the same amount of light and it's not gonna change, so the intensity won't change. So let's just have a look at this. I'm just gonna closes for a second, and I'm just going to use a regular render so I'll just render this the way it is now. So I'm just read, press this button here. I just render it the way it is. Now, if you're not getting the right view, just make sure you right click on this Is that shot Come Onda. We just keep this. Okay on, then. If we scale this down, you can see in the view port it's actually getting less light. But if we look in here and render it, you can see the anything that changes is the shadow. So if you look at the shadow here and the lighting, the wraparound lighting, you can see it's a lot softer before here and over here. And you could see that the shadows a sharp up. Okay, so that's one thing that I want you to notice about area lights in the first place. The bigger they are the softy result. You get the softer shadows, you get on the nicer lighting. And obviously, if you're going to be going for a nice soft effect, then you're gonna make it nice and big and have these soft shadows that model these objects nicely. So you get nice wraparound lighting. And if you don't want that you want harsher lighting for kind of certain scenes that you might want that for. You want to make this smaller, but you can see that the intensity doesn't change. So this intensity does not change on this is the same brightness. If I were to turn this off. It means that the scale would have an effect. So the small I aps the smaller I have this, the darker is going to get as well, so you won't just affect the shadows. It's gonna make this darker as well. So this is how it looked before, and if I render it now, you can see it looks brighter. But that's because normalized was off before. So if I look at this for keep this and scary up, it's gonna look even more brighter. So let's have a look because he is completely white, so scale now has an effect. So the bigger the light is the mawr light, it will give off. The smaller the light is, the less light it will give off. Now that does sound intuitive. But when you're working, generally you're just working visually, and the reason this normalizes on by default is because it's more intuitive. So normally you would just adjust the intensity to have a nice result, and then you might scale this up and down to get a nice soft shadow on it. So rather than messing around with the size to increase the intensity, you just use the intensity that personally, I just leave this on by default. But I just wanted you to know what it does. Okay? And then I got cast shadows, so let's just have a quick look at that. And as you can imagine, if you turn that off, you're not gonna get any shadows here. Just give that quick, Brenda. In fact, maybe just open up the Arnold render view it's a bit quicker and turn it back on at the scene. Yeah, okay. And then you can pick the color as well, so you can make that blue if you want to. In certain circumstances, if you're making a stylized render, for example, you can update that the guy. Okay, I'm just gonna leave that on black for now. The next setting is effect Volumetrics. Andi. As the name implies, it means that it's going to light up any volumes that you got in your scene. So the volumes are in order to get haze and fog and that nice kind of God lighting that you get from Steven Spielberg's rooms, for example, on you want the light to light that up. So if you don't want that effect. You can turn it off because a lot of the time you you put in quite few lights to have some feel like around the edge. Let's say this is a bit too dark. You might put a light here just to fill that in, but you don't necessarily want that to light up the folk on like up the haze, so you could just turn this off. And volumetric lighting is quite expensive in terms of render time. So if you turn that off and just leave it to the minimum number of lights than it's gonna go a bit quicker as well. And then this is whether it costs shadows in that volumetric light. So you get those nice as I say, God raise. And if you don't want those, you can turn those off and it's gonna be a lot quicker to render. Okay, sometimes you just want a bit of haze in the background, and you don't want it to calculate all the shadows because it takes ages to do that so you can just turn that off. So you've got separate slider for volume samples, and again, that's for samples. Inside things like fall you can turn it up and down to get rid of the graininess inside the fog. So you got individual sliders for the different shading, so we've got diffuse. So if I was to turn this down, we just press play. Here we go. But understand, you could see that affects the diffuse. There is no speculation. The scene there is no shade is in the scene that I've got speculum, so this won't have any effect. But if I had something like a blin in here, it would turn down the effect of the highlight. And then this is the subsurface. Scattering in direction works. If I turn this off, there's no bounce lighting. Now that is just the harsh direct light, and you can see it looks similar to the view port because there's no bounce lighting. And then if you turn out in direct, you could see the bounce lighting there. This is good for diagnostics as well. Or if you're trying to tweak your lighting and you don't want too much bounce like you could just turn it down a little bit and then you can see we've got less feel like they're so you could see that got less feel like you can tweak that, which is quite handy. And then this is whether it effects any volumes, just like we were saying there so we can turn it up and down and see how it affects the fog . So this setting here is the number of bounces, and you can change the number of bounces. I never really do that. But for example, if I changes to one by changes zero, you shouldn't have any bounce liking. So you see the effect of what it does for, say, two. Gonna have a little bit more. Let's see if there's any difference between one and two. Normally, this have has a bigger effect in terms of indoor scenes, because you want indoor seems to bounce the light around a bit more. So these are the parameters for the lights on. These are the same parameters that are in alot different light types, and we'll just have a look at those light types in the next lesson. 6. Light types: in this lesson. We look at the different light types inside Arnold, so I'm just going to hide my area like here. Shh! On. Then I'm going to look at the lights here, so just tell this menu off and it's decided inside on lights. And so you've got the standard, my light. So I'm not gonna go over these directional light, which the lights rays of parallels. And that's good for the Sun Point lights, which is the most inefficient because it's like having six lights, which come from every direction. And then you've got the spotlight, which is the Swiss Army knife on. That's pretty useful. And then you've got the quad light, which is an area like So I don't really use that. I used the the Arnold area lights, so these are the my lights. So let's have a look at the art of one. So I'm gonna just open up the render view here, and you could see its black because we just hid in our light and then I'll create a SkyDome light, and now you can see you've got SkyDome in there, which is basically a giant light around the scene. Let's just make this the bigger half. It's like a sphere and it's moving around. It's around the scene, and it's giving out light on. This is what it looks like so we can map that we can change the color of that, for example, to blue. And you can see it changes that we can change the intensity just like a regular light, and we can change the resolution. So this resolution is is related to the HDR map that you would apply to this color that would talk more about this later because we're gonna use this in our scene. But I just wanted to introduce you to that, and so I will talk more about this a bit later. But all these other parameters are very similar to just the area like that resource, and we'll take a look at this format a bit later as well. So just get rid of this and let's just go into the next light, which is the mesh light on with the mesh light. You want to select something before you create it, so it's basically gonna turn a piece of mesh into a light. So if I just turn this lighting back off. Just turn that off. And then let's just create a tours here. Just increase the size of that moving up here. So this is gonna be my light, and I can use anything I want to. And then I could go to on odes. Lights on, used to mesh light. So now this is gonna give off light, and we just need to update this scene as usual, and we need to increase the intensity just like we said before. So I'm just going to go to the parameters for this. So the parameters are located in the mesh light inside the shape. Note. If you go to Arnold, you could see inside the shape node. It's changed to mesh light in the Arnold section. So I'm on the shape, Arnold. He says, mesh light. Okay. And then you've got color intent. Itics etcetera. So if I increase the exposure here should start to see something go too much. So they go. So inside your reflections, you'll see this shape in the reflections as well. So that's pretty handy. So it's great for things like fluorescent lighting and things like that, or specific objects. Like if you've got character that's giving off flames, and you want a specific shape of that character to cost light very handy for that sort of stuff as well. So that's great. You can also have it visible. So if I turn this on, you can see that you can see in the actual Rendah and then these other parameters will say Okay, so I'll just get rid of this and then we'll go on to lights Boca Metric Light. So with the for geometric like what you do is provide it with a file a dot i e s prat file . And that's basically a profile for a light. It will define the fall off of light, which is really cool. So these are actual lights in real life. So it's great for architectural rendering, for example, so you can see by the icon here. This is what we should expect. I'll just bring up chrome here and I just typed in I s profiles on you can see this is the sort of thing that you get and you can download these free. There's those that you can download for free. So if you just type in I s profiles, you can just download these. You've got some from Andrea Wenjing from Brenda Man from Derrick Johnson on Derrick Jensen here. So you've got plenty that you could download and experiment with. So you just put them in there and you will get that kind of fall off of light. Obviously, in this scene, it's an outdoor scenes. We won't be using it with this particular scene. Just a quick note with the fota metric light. It does have this extra parameter called radius on radius is to soften out the shadows. So because it doesn't actually have a size, you can actually change the size of it by genuine radius so you can soften out the shadows . Just scale this up so you could see what it looks like. This is what it looks like. You okay, so I'm just going to get rid of that. So in this lesson, we looked at the different light types inside Arnold 7. Setup keylight: So in this lesson, we'll talk a little bit more about lighting, and we're going to adjust our main light. So if you look at this image is what we're trying to create on the background is from Vietnam's From Supper Valley on, you could say it's a bit hazy. It's a bit of, ah, hazy days, no direct sunshine. It's not like harsh shadows. There's got quite soft shadows. It's difficult to see it here, but you could see in the render here and the reason we're doing that. We wanted to look nice and soft and pretty. So we're going to have the key light coming from this slide here because I want to define these as the main area you're looking at because it's brighter on. If you want to do, you can change us around and move it to whatever you want to. And so what we're gonna do is we're gonna create very light for the main light, which we've already created. But we're going to just adjust lap and then what we'll do is the fill light will be from the sky, and we're going to create a SkyDome light in order to create the feel light. Okay, so let's just adjust our main light for the first bit. So this is our light here, and you can see it's coming down from the top. And this is what it looks like. Here is what we had. And so, you see, this shell is a pretty soft here, but what I'm going to do is just come around a little bit to decide. And this doesn't have to be the final lighting. You can adjust it a bit more later on. I would encourage you to do that experiment. I just want to point out that if we, for example, select this go to panel, look through selected this is how I generally move my right lights around. So I kind of just used my regular viewing controls to just come around and then just have a look. Okay, so if I moved to the front of this where the camera is roughly, that's a bit further round here, you can see that's a pretty boring render because the light is coming straight off the camera. You can't see any shadows on. You could barely see any shadows. Excuse me, and it's not very interesting. Okay, so the more you come around to this side of these things So the more we come around this side, we're gonna define the shape of these a bit better, and you can see that they're rounded because we've got that rounded shape there. Okay, so we're gonna come to side. Andi, let's just have a look at taking this back a bit. Be a little bit further higher, okay? And I might just didn't adjust the intensity a bit later and balances out, but this is what we're gonna have so far. That, for example, might bring this down a little bit. Andi, when we create our feel light, that should become a little bit brighter anyway. Okay, So if you want to, you can scale your light up or scale it down. I'm just gonna go back to my perspective here. So there's my is my light. Here's bit of a bug here where you've got two lights here. This is exactly the same one that should go away. If we maybe change views or something that looks like it's a bit of a body. Looks like I've got to area lights here by looking through it. So I'm just going to delete the 1st 1 which is the 1st 1 that created. And I've got the original one here. So it's just increased in intensity there. So that happened because I looked through it. Andi, that's why normally do. But in this guise is duplicated it for some reason. So you can adjust the position of this now, and that's just maybe look it up a bit. Let's see where we are. Here. Maybe, maybe behind a little bit. So we get a few more shadows on here on increase the intensity score exposure set to one. Okay, I never leave it at that for now, so I've got it in this position here. My scale is on 11. So I got pretty soft shadows, as you can see here. And my intensity is on 10,000 and my exposures on one there. Great. So this is the sort result I'm getting. So I would encourage you to experiment with different positions for your light and get the sort of shading that you want. So in this lesson, we'll look at some lighting tips on we set up our main light alky light 8. Setup fill light using a skydome: in this lesson will set up our fill light using the SkyDome light. So let's create one. This is what we've got at the moment. We're gonna go to Arnold Lights and create a SkyDome light. And now you can see it's super bright there. And what we'll do is just map this with an image on DSO. The type of image that this is expecting is something called a latte long by default. Okay, so I just look this up on a So this is an example. This middle one is an example of a Latin long image. You can see it's got a 360 degree view off the scene there, it wraps around a sphere. Okay, You've also got this like probe, which is those probes that you see people walking around on film sets with the mirrored ball, and they might have taken a picture to get the lighting set up of the scene. So this doesn't cover 360 degrees. And there's two versions of this which is the angular version on just the regular Mirapaul . So the regular mirror ball is basically just the picture of the mirror ball and without anything done to it, You just crop it to the size of the ball. On the other version is the angular, which would be adjusted in the program on you'd adjust it so that this distortion comes in a little bit so that the number of picks was taken up by the middle section is slightly less so that the outside gets a little bit more resolution. Okay, so that you get better rendering. We don't really use this very often. This is the one that we use the most. This Latin on where you get the whole environment, that Okay, so in this case, what we're gonna do is just We're just going to use an image and ah, again, we're going to use the same image that we're using for the background, and we're gonna use it for the for the wraparound. So I'm just going to click on this and click on file and we'll just grab this from the source images folder. I'll just go to source images we're gonna go to background on, go to background, low on to stay open. And so now you can see that we're getting some lighting which is green from the image. Okay, so it's wrapped its way around here, but just 30 perspective. Here. See, this is where it is. And if you rotate the light, you're gonna change your lighting. Okay, so that's what I'm getting. And you can see the beginnings of green tint from the sky on this is the the image coming around here. Okay, you're gonna just the intensity. So if I go to the limelight on coming here, you can adjust the intensity on the resolution. The resolution is based on your image. And if you want more detail from it in terms of delighting, you can increase this resolution. I don't normally have to do that unless I'm in an interior scene with lots of little lights . They don't generally do that, But if I change that to 2000 you can see the difference that it's slightly it was. Sample it with better accuracy, the image with better accuracy with the important sampling so you can increase the intensity here. You can see it's gonna get brighter. I'm just gonna leave it on one. I think for now, once we get all shades on, we can adjust the amount of light coming out of these lights. Okay? So you can see we've got mirrorball there and angular these different types of images you can put it put in there. They don't have to be hdr. As you can see, we've got a J pig in here. Andi, they still work. But the HDL work better because it's going to shoot out more light from the bright parts of the image and high dynamic range images have more information in the bright part. So something like the sky in this image here, if this was the HDR image, would get off, give off a lot of brightness in the scene here. So you've got a key light here, which is the area light. And then we've got our feel like here, which is the dome light. So I'm going to save my scene. He has to make sure I don't lose my work. Make sure you do the same 9. 07 smoothing objects EXPORT: in this lesson will take a look at how to smooth our objects and the parameters to do that . So you can see that these grapes here a little bit chunky and we need to smooth this life a swell and the the cloth as well and anything else would like to smooth. So the way to do that is you can use to stand in my way. You can select this impress three it we will update somebody's just have a look at that Mr Region here. So you can see these guys have smoothed and these guys aren't the 1st 1 here. See, it's not Smith, but press three it is Smith. Okay, so that's with the Maya way. And that means that your objects are gonna be smoothed in the view port as well. And that's generally not used in production because you basically want to have control over some of these parameters in terms of smoothing. And also you don't want your seem to be really heavy so that you've got a whole city. For example, when you want to smooth most objects, then you don't want that to be seen inside the view port because it slows down the scene. So what we need to do is we're going to just add a little what is gonna just a little parameter in the shape note and that will tell Arnold to smooth this at render time? Let's just do on one of thes cheese pieces, because it's nice and easy to see. So I'm just going to bring up my on over interview here as well on the side, and you can see I'm already in the shape. Note here to this. Make sure you're in the shape note, and then you're gonna come down here in the Arnold section and subdivision. Okay, so if you change this to none, this is what it looks like just a little bit smaller. Here they get none. Looks like this. And then if I can turn this on cut more clock, it's going to smooth that out. And what that's going to do is going to subdivide this. So it's going to split each face in half and and that's set by this. So if you want it to be split further, you can increase this and make it even smoother. Okay? It's gonna become tighter. That is gonna have more polygons. Obviously, the more polygon you have this lottery is to render. It doesn't affect it too much in this case because it's quite small object. But it is better in mind. So you just want the minimum that you need to get the nice smoothing effect that you want. OK, sounds good, looks back and one on we're going to use a diagnostic mode. We're just going to you change this to debunk shading and will change us to white frame, which is really cool. So now you can actually see it's just turn it off for a second. You can actually see the polygons and what you're getting. OK, so you can see here that this object is smoothed, so it's got more polygons and you can see that here compared to this one. So it's quite handy to see what's going on here. So if you look at this, you can see it's split each face and 1/2 and then it's smooth the shape of that. So if I were to change this to linear, you can see ads, the polygons, but it doesn't actually smooth them. Okay, it will smooth the normals so you can see this normal edge does not appear hard anymore. Whereas before, when it was like this, it appears hard. Okay, so that's the type on Most of the time you're going to be using cattle, Clark course, because you want it to be smooth so we don't want to smoothies. So let's just move the the grapes here. So I'm just going to you press one on this great objects today. It's not smooth. And then we'll do it the honoured way. So I'm selecting the grapes, just changes to Cam Oclock. And there we go. Greatest made once. So I could do this again to this grape object here. But if you're doing multiple objects that so you've got 10 different objects, this is a bit of a pain to do each one separately. Now you could use the attributes spreadsheet, which is in Windows General editors, attributes, spreadsheets, attributes, spreadsheet. Sorry, we knows generators down here. I've been using the attribute it to them attributes Reggie. So in here you would look for the parameter. You could type it in here, and then you could adjust it. But instead, what we use him is an override set. Okay, so that's just simply ah, Maya set on. What that's going to do is override a bunch of objects at the same time. So we just select this, just gonna select this guy and this guy, and I'm just gonna create to set so go to create set, and then you can go to the options if you want to and rename that I'm not good bother right now something say apply. And now we have our set, and it's just got there two objects inside there. Okay, so now we just need to tell that set the thing that we want to change. So if you select it, you can see there's an arnold section in the set there, and then you can add parameters off the things that you'd like to overwrite. So if you could add, you've got a bunch of different attributes here that you can overwrite, including Arnold ones. So it's sometimes difficult to know which one needs override to. The easiest way of doing that is to actually just come in here, open up the script, ready to hear, just press this button here and then all you do is you just come down here and just changes to none, for example, and you can see that the attributes changing his subdivision type or subjective type. Okay, I subbed if type and so we just need to add that to our set. Okay, So I'll just close it up and grab this guy add and then come down to a I sub d type there, you Ariel we can add and then close this up. So now you can see inside the extra attributes section we now have that control. And if I would just open up their end of you here changes to oclock we do need to add a subdivision number as well. So let's add as well just gonna add this to so subdivision situations. There we go. Let me update the scene. So I just think this dick porcine I got sometimes you need to give it a much So there you go. So you can see if I changes to none. And then there is a need you could see as an effect. Okay, so now you can control multiple objects at the same time. And you could have controlled the amount times it gets subdivided as well. So is going to turn that on on. Let's just change it to something like to You see the difference there? Okay, so now let's go ahead on. And so that's how you smooth multiple objects of the same time using override sets. So let's just have a look at the life here, going to smooth as well. We'll just change that to Cam Oclock on. May be just changes to to and that See what that looks like. Yeah, I'm gonna change it from the debug trading to disabled and I could see the difference that so I'll just change it back to debug and we'll have a look at some of these other parameters here. Such changes too wide for him again you could actually bring up. That mind has disappeared because I crashed in between so I shall show de Buck shading. Aiken changes quite easily, too. Trading and then white frame whatever I want to. Okay, so if we go to the tablecloth here on just playing around with it, so we say none, you can see it's not divided on. Then. If I changes to cap oclock, you can see it's divided on, you could change the alterations here. It just changes to zero. Just so you get the same result. So this is what you get. It orations to smoothing it twice. So you're getting the admiral polygons, and you can see that typically, if you're using something like a ground plane, you generally want to have more polygons at the front, and then you don't necessarily need to have lots of Taliban's of the back, so it will save you render time and memory if you do that, especially if you've got displacement applied to your ground that so on would provides ways of optimizing this and it does this through adaptive metric. This is thing here. Okay, so you could actually set in here when it should subdivide. So I'm just gonna changes to three. You get quite dense mesh there. And then as you slide this adaptive era up, you can see that it removes polygon so you can see it's gonna subdivided here, and then it's going to subdivide it less at the back there. Okay, it's quite sensitive. So if we just maybe bring this down a little bit, I see it is a bit better But again, I've got a 1.72 on. Now you can see these ones. Okay, These politicians getting the maximum amount of smoothing and then these are the back are getting lists. OK, so you gotta be careful with this because what this could do is if your cameras moving this can look like it's popping because it changes while you're moving the camera. So in order to stop that, you can actually use another camera Different. Cameron could type in name here, and that camera can be kind of in the same position. May be the start position or the imposition. And then you can just put that name in here. Okay, so it will use that for dicing. Dicing is when it splits this polygon up into sub polygons so intended instead of using the main camera or use another camera on because that camera is not moving, these polygons will not pop. Okay, so that's quite handy there. So that's what that does on this adaptive metric is in two different forms. You've got edge, length and flatness. Eso excellent is what you use when you do displacements. So this is measured in pixel, so you say this change is excellent and you make it bigger. Go. Finally you can see now it's getting adaptive, Lee less there and mawr there. Okay, this is the one I use most of the time on this diagnostic views really hand in terms of seeing what you're getting. So the whole point of this is to get a nice render. That looks nice, but it doesn't take ages to render because it can take ages if you add lots of polygons. The last two parameters here are for newbies moving, and you've got different ways. You can deal with your Yuki's, whether you smooth them or whether you keep the borders and when you just move them, let linearly these air the same parameters that rin your regular my us moving. Then you've got smooth tangents and this is a really handy little tick box. If you've got Anzi, Tropic highlights things like brushed metal, for example and you've got long, thin highlights. Sometimes they can appear a little bit Step e. If you turn this on, they're gonna be nice and smooth. Okay, that's quite nice. Little tip there because sometimes you're doing product renders on you can't get rid of this kind of stepping in their new increased the settings on the on the anti alias thing, but you still can't get rid of it. This is this is the thing to turn on. This does use more memory, but it's worth it if you want to get rid of that. Stepping, of course, in this case, is pretty small sex scene, so I'm not going to use adaptive. I'm just going to change that right down. Then we're gonna get the full full effect, Eugenia to water if you want to. By the way, auto setting will use edge length of his displaced and flatness if it's not OK. So in this lesson, reviews and override set to smooth our grapes and we've got our life. You also smooth that on with smooth the table close on. That was using the onward parameters here. We've also actually got to smooth the the stems here as well. So let's just quickly do that. Describe the stem here and just at a camp oclock to that maybe chained up to and there we go. Let's save our scene there 10. Aistandard shader overview: in this lesson will taken overview off the AI standard material. So I'm just going to assign a ai standard material to this object here. The glass, I'm gonna say, Sign favorite material. Sorry. Assign new to and then go to Arnold. And then I are standard, So I'm just gonna name that glass as well uses for the glass in a bit. And so let's have a look at these sections here. So normally, when you're creating a surface you're normally gonna create at least minimum off three maps , one of them is gonna be color or diffuse. One of them is going to be the highlights or the speculum. Do you like that into here? And then one of them would be the bump. Matt bore normal back, and that would be in here. Okay, so those are the main sections. It's pretty intuitive. Intends it Understanding where to plug in your textures. I'm just going to go to art and one of you to start up here. So here we go. What it is a few section, and as you can imagine, change of color. Here you can, but in the color it's going to change. What we could not that with a texture by clicking here as well. And then we've got slider for the amount of that so we can turn up and down and tune it in this section, using the white as well. Okay, there's no difference between these two, except this is expecting a color, which is three numbers or three channels. And this is expecting one number. Okay, so you plug your texture into here, then moving on down, we're gonna go to speculate, and you could see that if I turn this up, I'm going to start to get highlights. And let me just turn my weight down here so that we can see this spectacular bit better. And you can see we've got highlight there now. And you can control that by using the weight. That's the amount on you can put a texture on it. Using this section here for the roughness will control obviously how blurred this reflection is. So if I were to change it to one, it's completely bury or rough. If I change it to zero, we've got completely sharp reflection, like a mirror. Okay, so if you're painting this, you would paint something in the region, in the middle of regions here. So you could have something between something like that on something like that, depending on what material? Trying to create moving on down here. Reflection not going over all the settings, just giving you an overview here, just so you get a better understanding of what's going on. So let me just change is 20 I'm dreading respected at 20 so you can see the effect of the reflection. So if I changes to one, you can see now that we get reflection. So these two are both considered to be speculator, Really? But reflection is basically just a sharp reflection, so you can't use roughness to smooth it on. You can use that to add reflections for things like glass, but sample. And then we could with a color as well. And we've got refraction where we could tell the material to be see through. So if I change this, the one you can see that it's going to be Caesar on it depends on your ray depths as well. What you've got in there. I've just changed my in recent days, so let me just change us back actually to. So this should be what? You What do you see? Yeah. Sorry. So that should be what it looks like. We talk about Ray depths in just a bit, so you can see through the object if we turn this up. If you look up here, you can see that it's a little bit see through. And you can map that rich texture If you want the light to bend and refract, you could put in a number here on this The amount refraction, this the index of refraction or the a R. It's one of the main problem is that and then we've got a bump mapping we can apply pump mapping, subsurface scattering where you can increase the amount of light and through the object, just changes to read so you could see what's doing. And you can choose how far that goes through using this radius parameter, and you can turn it up and down using the weight. Okay, this is one layer of scattering. It's just simple scattering, but it does make it nice and easy to apply a little bit of translucency to your object using subsurface scattering. Okay, just gonna change at 20 Then we've got a mission which will basically and we just turn down the a fraction here on reflection to make this a bit more simple on. Then what emission emission is basically giving off light so you could see the scale is set to zero. So if I change us too higher than zero, you see it's gonna give us light. And if you increase this number high enough, you actually give off light like an actual mesh lights. If I changes to something higher, so just HSV then just money to 1000. You could see it starts to give off light there. Okay, this is not the best way off. Making a object light is it's not the most efficient way in terms of Arnold. So you would use a mesh like to do that, just showing you that it's actually possible to use. It starts to turn itself into a light there and give off light. Okay, so that's the admission and what course sticks and whether to turn these things on. This is for the light patterns that you get at the bottom of the swim to import, for example. So this is you can turn this stuff on here, then we've got advanced where you can change the bounce factor. So but I wanted to choose how much light bounces off this. I can change us to zero, and it's not gonna bounce has meant much light off. It's difficult to see in this situation. It's just changed it back to one here. And then we harbor texture in, which is the same as the Maya. Harder texture. Just got some controlled about what channel you want to show in the view port with a heavy names, which is to do with arbitrary output values, which will cover in another lesson. But this is where we can pick what channel or what a V We want to different parts of the trading calculation to be. In case of these, you can split up all the things that make up this shade up in terms of what we just covered and put them into a separate file and then composite them together in their in your for example. So this is where you control where those parts is go just missed out. Matt here with Matthew Gun Jews, What your outfit looks like and you can. I was right that using this section here. So in this lesson, with a basic overview off the AI standard material just so we can get ourselves familiarize with where we would plug in things and we had a look at the basic parameters off that shade up. 11. Configure a glass shader: in this lesson will create the Shader for our wine classes. Okay, so we're going to use the AI standard that we just created. So let's bring that image backup. Let's just have a look at what we're trying to recreate with class. We've got reflection on the edges and we've got refraction in the middle There. Refraction is the bending of the light so you can see the background. But you can see it's kind of distorted because the light is passing through and it's going to bend the light, and then we don't really have any diffuse there. You can see there's no color there, so those are the main visual qualities We've got reflection refraction on No diffuse. So let's put that into our shader. I'm just going to go over to my friend of you here. Just make sure that that's on and then I'm going to go to diffuse on. Let's change that to zero so it's completely black, and then we're going to go to your recollection and we'll changes to one so that we've got full reflections. Let's turn on for now as well, which is basically going to say you're going to have more reflection on the edges unless in the faces they're facing towards you and you see this effect in most materials, the faces that are glancing will have a bigger reflection than the ones which are facing towards you. If you want a little bit more reflection, you can use the reflect INTs at normal slider on. You've been turned up to have a bit more so now that we've set the reflection, let's have a look at the refraction so that the light passes through the object in the refraction section. Let's change the weight to one, and now if you look at the base of the object, you can see through it. If you look at the base of our one glass, you can see that there's a black shadow there, and that's because Honored still thinks that the object is opaque. So we have to tell Arnold that this object is not opaque, so we select our object. Let's go to the shape code of our object Arnold section and we're going toe UnTech opaque was shadow. You can now see that the shudder has gone away there, so this is the setting you need to set. If you got a see through object, let's do the same thing with the other one. Cross going to sign the same shader. Sign existing material glass. So now that we set that up, let's adjust the more parameters. So let's go to the refraction section. At the moment, the light isn't actually bending. It looks like plastic glasses because the light isn't actually bending at the moment. So we need to change the index of refraction. So we're telling, Honored to bend the light. So we're going to send it. We're going to set an IR of 1.4, which is what glasses. You can get these off the Internet, and I can see we get that nice bending of the light in the refraction section. We can also set for Nell News I R R. That will set the reflection level based on the index of refraction that you've just set. So the higher the number that is, the more reflection you'll get. Let's have a look so you can see there that we've got more reflections in the faces that are facing towards us. So the higher the index of refraction is, the more reflection you get with the faces that are facing towards us. Okay, I'm just going to set that back to 1.4. So that's the correct physical setting. You don't have to have that on. You can control reflection manually in the reflection section, and you can turn off for Nell and just set that manually. But we're just going to set the correct physical settings for now. So you may have noticed that the top of the object doesn't look like the light. It doesn't look like it's see through, and that's because we don't have enough raised to pass through this object. So we need to adjust our render setting so we have enough raised to pass through the entire object. So this model is made up of two objects. One is the Weinman object, and the 2nd 1 is the glass object. The rays have to pass through each of these faces so you could see that there will be a face on the outside and on the inside of the wine glass, and then also on the outside faces of the wine and the other side of the wine as well. So, for a light rate passed through is gonna have to go through 12 34 56 faces in order to get to the other side, including the wine. So you have to have enough raise so that it can penetrate through all the different faces that is going to go. Let's just take a look at this in the scene is gonna change to the default material, and you can see that this object is one object to the one glass, and we've got the wine as well there, and it's got thickness to it. So it's got to faces on either side of the one glass. Notice that for the wine the faces are facing inwards. And that's how it should be in order for it to look correct. Let me just don't do that. So let's set our ray depth. We're going to go to render settings. So we're going to the ah nerds renderers Tab Ray debts. We're going to change the refraction depth to I'm just going to change it to six as we discussed, and now you can see that the object looks a bit better and it looks like you can see through the object all we need now is an environment so that this looks really cool so we can actually see through to the background because at the moment is just black and we need an environment around it so that it reflects, so it's got more to reflect. So in this lesson we set up our glass trader by setting up the reflection and refraction settings, and we also said the OPEC tick box on the radio. 12. Setup an environment: in this lesson. We're going to set up an environment for our scene. So let's have a look at our render so far because he is kind of working. We've got glass there, but we haven't actually got anything in the background to see. So it's difficult to see the glass and it's got nothing around it to reflect apart from these objects. So an environment will help this a lot. So what we're gonna do? First of all, we'll just lift these glasses up a little bit because it looks like they're intersecting the ground and it doesn't look like you can see the bottom of the glass. So let's just try moving this up a little bit. I was going to hide this on. We'll go to the hierarchy, selection this button here so that we could select the group rather than just the object. This is a group here, and I'll just make up, and now you can see that we get some extra detail there because it's actually above the ground. See if we could get more. Yeah, that's better now that now they don't look like they're floating. Just check out us all the way out. Yep, it is. All right, So now let's set up the background. So what we'll do is we'll set up an image plane for this in the regular my away. So I'm just going to make sure I'm in my camera here. Click on this button here and we'll just pick background background low on would say open. And I'm just going to fit this, but come down. I'm going to fit this in the vertical direction. So if you just watch the image here we go vertical and then fit the Resolution gate. It should fit to the height rather than the wits, and that's better. Okay, so now you can see we've got our Let's just update this. We've got our texture there in the background. At the moment, you can see that it's no actually showing throughout class. And the reason for that is that by default, the image plane does not appear in reflections or fractions, so that's pretty simple to fix. You just go down to render stats. Still inside the image plane here, Brenda Stats on. We're just gonna go to visible in reflections visible in Reflections on Just up Daisy Never go that's much better if you want to get this back. This image playing back just make sure that you click on this button here the properties for the camera and you could see the image plane is attached, so it's easy to get to that. So in this image here, you can see that it looks a little bit washed out, and that's because of the color management. So when I chose that as a texture, Arnold automatically created a T X file. We'll talk more about T X files a bit later, but basically that's Arnold's format for textures as an optimized format for textures. So if I just picked that texture directly to this TX version, you can see it's been color corrected. So it's been gamma corrected, Andi. So therefore, is gonna look correct here. So if I just say update so that's a bit better now. So we get a bit more contrast is not washed out. That's the correct color space. Okay, so we've got our background there, but what we've got here is black, and the reason we've got black around there is because the scene is actually empty. Apart from the image plane so if we just go to the perspective, just have a look at this. So as you can see, we've got we just got our skydome light. Now you've got to remember that the SkyDome light does not appear in reflections in the AI standard Shader So it does appear in speculative but no in reflections. So let me just show you what I mean. I'm just going to push this a little bit back so we don't get any strange things happening . So if I go to the image plane again and just change the depth here too 200 just to put you back in a bit, that's better. I stopped a this Okay, It's a little bit blacker now because it's further away as well. And so what we could do was going to show you is Thea Textually shader. So if I click on this, I can select the glass on, then go to the shader. So if you look inside the speculum section, not a reflection let me just turn off reflections here and just change the weight to zero. So now we don't have any reflections. If you turn on speculum and just come down and the known for now we have the same sort effect. You can see that what we get is so what we get is the reflections appearing in the glass now and that's from the SkyDome light. So describe them light. So if you're using speculum, if you've got speculator on that does appear in the SkyDome light. Also, you'll see your your light. If it's interview, we just see where it is. Here. I'm just gonna change my roughness too sharp reflection. So it's not blood, that's better. So what you can see here is the area light in the reflection. So this is the reason that we're not using speculum. OK, so just to be clear, speculator is the same as reflection. Except you can control the roughness so you can control the blurriness of the reflections. And so as part of that, it shows lights in the reflection so you can see this light is in the reflection the area light on that doesn't look very natural. On also, the SkyDome light is in the reflection, which is what we want. But this area light is showing in the reflection as well, which is not really what we want. So that's the reason that I'm going to use reflection instead. And it will allow me to show you the environment traders. OK, so we're going to turn this off and then what we'll do is go down to reflections on that back on. Okay, so now you can see that with reflection. You know, you can't see that SkyDome light and you can't see the area light. Okay, so let's go and add some environment traders. I'm going to just go to the render settings, press this button here in the Arnold tab. We're going to go down to environment. On in his background section, you can add different shavers. This atmosphere is where you add Fox, by the way. So if you click on that, you can add simple fog, which doesnt have shadows. Or you can have volumetric scattering, which were allowed to have the dramatic shadows and the fog raise that you get in water, for example. So in this example, we're gonna go to background going to click on this. So these are the options that we've got for the background. I'm going to start off with the most complicated won this race, which and so I'm just gonna click that click on that. And what this will allow you to do is choose what type of ray gets, what type of shade up. So, for example, anything Let the camera sees. So this what this is, you can change the color to where you want here. Okay, Because this hasn't got any diffuse. It's not gonna make any difference. But in a reflection, for example, if we wanted that reflection to be read, you can see that we've made our reflection red. Okay, so we've got different shader for the reflection raise and a different shader for the shadow and reflection and so on. So basically, what this allows you to do is put a shader in for refraction and reflection so you can have a dome in here. SkyDome in these sections for the refraction, perfection, and then the camera. You can just use this image plane here where you can put in a shader. Okay, so this is quite useful for optimizing your scenes of For example, if you got a complicated shade on a character and you didn't want that shaded to calculate with sub surface scattering and things like that. You could put a simple version of that shader into reflection, for example. So when it appears in a reflection, it's going to calculate the simple version that could save you a lot of time. So anyway, so we're gonna use this at this time, Just wanted to show you that that's available to you. I'm just going to click on this again on just Delete, and then we'll just grab the squash ada this physical sky shaded by the way. If I just quickly show you that click on that, you can see it's kind of a sky, and it's basically a procedural sky so you can choose what time type of day it is. By choosing the elevation in the zoo method, you've got different options for intensity and stuff. So it's pretty much the same as most renders these days with what procedural sky. Obviously, it doesn't have any clouds or anything in there, but you can use that as your environment. Okay, I was gonna break that connection delete, and we're gonna choose the sky shade up. So the sky shredder is basically the same as a SkyDome light, so you can see it says format. You can pick the format and then you can map this with a color. Except it's not actually a light. It will give off light if you watch. This is actually lighter. It does give off light, but it's no I actual j pic. So we're gonna choose No, J Peg. Okay, so now we should have that in the reflections. Reflections. So this is this is the dome here, and you can see if you isolate the display here. If I click on this, isolate bottom. This is the sky shader, and you can see it just looks like a big dome just the same as the other one. Except basically it's got slightly different parameters. So you do actually see this in a render If I were to turn off the if I were to turn off the image plane, then you concede is a bit better. So if I press this button to turn it off and refresh so now turned off my image plain. You can see that in the background. There's actually an image there. So that's the difference between a skydome light and this Shea does that you can actually see in the render your your shader. So this is to basically render the environment and put an image like a hate your image that you might have or some sort of texture that you might have. So I'm just going to select this and I'll just show you some of the parameters in here. So you've got intensity and you've got render stats so I wouldn't use this as a light because it's not optimized. It doesn't use important sampling. There hasn't got those specials parameters that we looked at in the SkyDome in terms of resolution on samples. So you can't actually adjust the quality of this even though it's giving off light. So what we want to do is, actually we don't want to show this in a render in this case, we're not using it as an environment. So we're just gonna turn off primary visibility so we can't actually see it. We don't want it to call shadows, and we don't want it to be visible in diffuse. So watch the lighting here. You don't actually want it to give off light because that's basically making it a lot brighter. Okay, if you actually liked the result, you can keep it. It's got bit more green. So I might just keep you on actually, but if you wanted to turn that off, you can do velocity. This is for glossy reflections on We want it to be visible in reflections So watch this. So now we can have reflections on Reflections We don't want really reflections because what we're gonna do is just use our image plane anyway, so that doesn't matter. So I'm just gonna turn on our image pain again. This button on. Just refresh. Dizzy you get. So now our glass should look a lot better. Now we've got some reflections all the way around. What about some refraction? So you could see the background through there and it looks a lot better. This may be a little bit too high, so might just adjust that down of it. Just a nice like that. And it's grab this guy. I just made it down a bit. Sister region here. Okay, so in this lesson, we adjusted our glass shader so that we've got reflection and reflections in our class. I'm going to save my scene. There 13. Configure a wine shader: in this lesson will set up the wine cheddar for our glass here. So that's duplicate hourglass Shader, and we're gonna apply it to the wine mine objects inside here. So we're gonna go to the hype shade and then just going to grab this glass on, just go to at it. Do creates shading network. And then we've got this one here. That's class one and just click here. And I'm just gonna rename that too. Wine shada. Okay, so now what we'll do is just apply it to the wine objects. So I'm just going to open up the glass groups here. I'm just right. Click here and say, assigned material and just find the other glass besides that as well. Okay, right now just turned this off here so I could select the wine if I need to. So let's have a look at this. I'm going to go to the end of you. So now it looks like there's some water in there or something. So the parameters that we need to change is basically seven con selected from there. That's just do it from here. Okay, So the problem is that we need to change our the in the refraction section. So if we go down here to the refraction section, we need to change the Iowa. So the Iot off the index of refraction of wine is slightly lower. I'm just gonna change us down, too. And then I'm going to change the color. I'm gonna make this a red wine. In fact, before I do this, let's just change this and you'll see what I mean. This tense, the entire thing, entire refraction. It multiplies entire refraction by color. And so you could do it. Just tense it that. But if you want a more complex effect, what you could do is change the transmitted color, and the transmitted sculler will basically there tint the refraction mawr as it goes deeper into the object. So it gives you a more subtle kind of effective, really nice. So it depends on the scale of the scene. So sometimes there's no difference here. In this case, it's not really much different, to be honest. Okay, it looks like this object here is to separate objects. And before I give you this senile, tell them into one object. So just look at this one for now. Andi so weaken. Basically, if we were to scale this up, you'd see the effect a bit better. So just temporarily. I'm just going to scale this up just so you can see this effect for the transmiten, it's I just update the scene. Let's just check the shade A. Here it's a bit more subtle. That's better. So you can see that the edges here are less tinted than the middle there. Okay, so as the rate travels through, it gets more tinted. The surface gets more tented because it's denser, so that's really cool. Effect. Let's see if this works. If we just scale this down, it might just be that we had the red too large value, so just changed the scale. But just undo and I tried tragically shade up. Yep, on does make it less saturated. Thanks. So that could be something like Rose A spending what you came for. Maybe I'll just make it a deeper red. In this case, I'm just going to maybe 10 to a bit more. Let's go for a deeper color. Just looking at this one. Okay, so that's the difference between color and transmit since. So that's how one, Shada. Um, let me just make that may be a bit more right, Okay. And a bit brighter. Okay, So you may have noticed that this down here doesn't look red. So does not like the light is passing through the the wind. That And if you remember, we had that perimeter called paid. And we need to tell Arnold that this wine object is opaque. So let's just go ahead and do that. I'm just going to select this object and go to the shape Note Arnold and 10 myself. Let's update the scene here. A ticket to see in this case because the shadow is actually no over here. The shadow is over here. So let me try and show you by moving the light here. If I We looked through this light. Okay. I can see because the light is going down. But you can see there's a red then going on there. And that's basically the the wine. Okay, so I'm just gonna change my position back. So, in this lesson, we set up our wine trader 14. Configure a cheese shader: in this lesson, We're going to create our G shader. So we're going to apply the shader to these cheese chunks here, click on this to create a region. So we go nice and quickly on I'm just going to region that maybe even a little bit okay? And then I'm going to assign a shade. Also select the cheese Cubes group here. I mean, the rendering menu. It's gonna go to lighting and trading, assigned new material and then go to Jada and you want a I skin ai skin, Not the standard. We want the ai skin. Okay, so this shader is a special Strader on It's basically calculates subsurface scattering. So let me just let's play here and you can see that it looks a little bit like skin. Let's look at some of these attributes. So whenever you apply shader, I would just try and build it up one step at a time. So let me just go and turn this weight off here. This first section sub surface scattering. Let me just turn that off is gonna change of weight to zero. And there you can see what's left, which is just the highlights. So that's the speculum. So inside speculum, you've got a weight of no 0.8 on a roughness of no 0.5. So that means it's a glossy reflection. Changes to what? Zero, For example, you get a nice mirror look or you train just all the way to one. You're gonna get more diffuse highlights. OK, so I think your 10.5 is pretty good for cheese depends on the cheese, but is a little bit shiny. So I'm just going to turn that down for now so we can tune the other aspects of our shade up. So I'm just going to actually before I turned that down to me to show you what I o r does index of refraction and just like the glass traitor here. If we were to turn this up, watch this stuff, you can see that it has less of a funnel effect. So in other words, the faces facing away from us are reflective, but also the face is facing towards us are reflective as well, so they've got a bit of a shine to them. OK, so if you wanted more highlights facing you, then you could change that. I'm just going to leave it on the default for now, Okay? And let's just change this. Speculate. Wait to zero. For now, there is another layer of speculate here called sheen layer, and that's because it's for skin. It's allows you to have two different layers of speculum, one for the the sort of highlights you see on the edge off your your face. So the glancing angle of your face on one form or tight speculum highlights. So that's why it's got two layers here. These are the same parameters, but you can have different Iowa's for these on different weights. Okay, so we're not gonna be using this in this particular cheese layer. We just turn it on. It's just the same same thing. It's basically just got roughness in the I R. So just turn that down. Incidentally, this is where you would put your speculum app, but if you had one, so let's go up to S S s. It's a pretty simple shader. It's got three layers off off subsurface scattering and sub surface scattering Will will basically take array on, scatter it through the material depending on the radius. So the radius here is a multiplier. And what you do, it's just changes to one is to change this and it's going to multiply the raid. I on all these different sections. So we've got three layers of scattering and got three different colors. So you got shallow and you've gotta wait for that on a radius, got mid, scatter, and then you've got deep scatter, okay? And you can see it's a different radius there. This is slightly deeper, and then this is slightly deeper as well. So basically, it's gonna come in, and it's going to go through the material so you'll actually see like going through. So the bigger this number is here, the more you'll see it goes through the material. Okay, so what we're gonna do the default was one there? Okay, so let me just turn these down one at a time just so you can see what they're set to. So I'm just gonna remember what these weights are. Just so I know there's no 0.5, no 0.25 and one. I'm just going to change these 20 And then you could see the contribution that they have safe changes to one. You can see That's what the deep scatter looks like. And then we've got point 25 Let's just changes to zero. You see, that's what that looks like. And then we've got 0.5, okay? And that's how much like a the top layer. Okay, so you can imagine this is kind of a radiant, and the colors that you want should be kind of matching ingredient here. So it is gonna put in some yellow colors for the for the cheese here on, we're gonna increase the radius. So we're just going to increase this to maybe two. So we get a little bit more like passing through, and then what we'll do is we're going to change these colors. So I'm just going to change this one. This 1st 1 the shallow scatter. It has the most effect on the look off the cheese. So let's go to here and we're gonna saturate this spit, okay? And then we'll turns this one to a bit more orange. I just changed saturation. Then it's changed. Wait back up to 2.5. I went too far. Excuse me. And then let's move down to this Red here. Tend to wait back up 2.5 for one. And let's make this slightly letter read. Just make it slightly orange. Bring the weight down a little bit. And this bitter one, I'm just gonna want it to be a bit more orange. So I was going to change Wait up a little bit and let's just changing overweight down a bit . There we go. Okay. Right. So what I'm going to do is turn the reflections on. So just just to reiterate what we did, this is the overall weight to turn that down a little bit. So we say just all of them return the radius up, so you get a bit more subsurface scattering. So if we were to changes to one, this is the default. And if we did, if we didn't have any radius, you can see this is what it would look like with a regular shader. Not very interesting. So let's just changes back up here. Okay? So I'm gonna move my way down, so we change the color of these. Andi changed the weight of that as well. So if we go down to speculum, let's turn us back on two points life. So we get a little bit of highlight there. It's now a little bit of highlights just maybe increased a bit and maybe increase this and of as well, in case of a little bit of highlight on our geez there, if you can't see what you're doing and you want to see it is a bit better, you could just temporarily turn this weight down. So we've got it on no 0.58 I'm just going to change that to zero just so you can see the contribution that you're having. So you can see what that reflection looks like. Another way of doing that is actually using what's called a ovie. So a V is an arbitrary output value. And that means that basically, during this shading calculation, Arnold is calculating different aspects of the render just like these sections here. So we've got S S s speculative sheen. So what we could do is weaken output those as a separate image, and it doesn't really cost that much to render because Arnold is already calculated it it's only going to put that into a texture. So that's just enable a couple of these just so we can see up here. So what we do is just go to the render settings Arnold Aerovias, And then we come down to the shader that we've used. So we've used in AI skin trader and it gives us the available air V's for that shader. Okay, so AI Standard has got more. A skin has got these particular these areas that we could use so we can It's just ideas assess speculum, and then we'll just have a look at it. So you could just change it to speculate on now you can see Well, you're speculator. Click Pretty handy is the subsurface country, And then this is everything together. Okay, so there we go. Now, you may notice that this is very grainy and this is because this is using a different type of race. So if I just industrial size here, So if we just go to render settings, this is a good opportunity to show you these rays here and how the different rays affect this so that the shading that's going into this particular shade of the AI skin trader is going to be the s s s raise. Okay, so not just the success rate of obviously, but the stuff that you're seeing through this material is the S S s rates. So if I were to increase the number of race here, you should see grain disappear here. So normally you don't want to increase individual sliders unless you really need to, because you want to increase the overall camera a and then see if there's anything else that's outstanding, and then you can increase that accordingly. But I'm just going to increase this just to show you here. So if I just increase this bit, you see, it's gonna take a little bit longer to Rendah. That's gonna be nice and smooth. There you go. That looks nice. So I'm just going to change it back to two for now, Okay, so you can work a little bit quicker. You can see it is a bit slower. So the other thing I'm going to do, just give this a subtle Moyes on the speculum. You could do this in the color as well. He wanted to, but I'm just going to show you how to do that. And then if you want to, you can add noise to the yellow colors. If you wanted to as well. So let's select one of these guys go to the skin Shada and we go to speculum and we're going to map this with a procedural texture. Who would go clicking here? And we're gonna use on Arnold one so we can use these three D textures as well. And if we had painted the texture, we could just added texture if you wanted to. But I'm going to just show you this texture this ai noise texture, which is a procedure texture from modeled. So if I click on that, it's basically a three D texture. So you can set the scale here using these three numbers here. So let's just see what that does. I can show you a nice feature of Arnold render view here, which is basically, you can isolate where the texture you've selected. You can see that by itself so you can see the effect it's having. So if I were to go to this deep up menu here and say isolate selected now because I'm selecting this node, I can see the pattern that I'm selecting. OK, so if we wanted to scale this up, for example, we could take two. You can see it's a little bit more frequent. You could increase things like the octaves. So you get more detail, okay? And then the distortion. Okay, I'm just want slightly bigger patterns. Obscura. Leave it something like that. Okay. And then you've got the coordinates space here as well. If you if you said it the world space, it would swim through this material. So in other words, if I moved the remove, these objects or the texture would stay the same. But where we want it on object. So it sticks to the material, their sticks to the object. Okay, so let's have a look at what that looks like on our actual shading. And I'm just going to look at these speculum so you can see it's just broken up there. Let me just turn up these settings a little bit, just so you can see this a bit better when we have a look at it in the final Renda. So let's just change this to cool those of better quality and you can see there's less subsurface scattering there so we could turn up the the amount that we that we had. So I'll just select the Shader and just change the weights up a little bit. So this is speculative. Speculum has changed. Wait up a little bit. It's and that's a bit more. Most of all on defy changes to speculator. You could see that speculum there. Let me just change the white up a little bit there. Yeah, I think I can overblow that a little bit with amplitude of to do, select and change this to isolate selected You see what that does is just give it a bit more contrast. So you change this amplitude too. It's a bit more contrast e which looks a bit better, I think couldn't be more noticeable. Okay, so in this lesson we set up our cheese shader using the ai skin trader. We also had a look at a of ease and using them for diagnostics. And then we also used the isolate selected feature in the interview on the AI noise texture to break up the speculum 15. Configure a grape shader: in this lesson, we're going to create the shade of for our grapes. So it's a sign the shade of physical. So I'm going to just select these two grapes, actually what slipped separate objects? Because we don't want to assign it to the stems and then move. Great. You even dream menu and signing new material. Shada. And maybe you want to add these to the favorite so it's easier to assign D so you can right click and say Add to favorites. So you got the AI skin in the favorites and then the A I stand it and maybe just at utility and Shadow catcher as well. So now you'll appear here so you can right click and just choose one of these materials if you want to. So I'll just pick a I skin and this rename this to grapes trader. Okay, let's take a look at this. Open up. The interview on this is gonna be a little bit slow to update because it's quite a few objects and they're gonna be bouncing lights off each other and reflecting and all sorts of things. So I'm going to just make sure that we've got the selection on this region and then just pick a region here. I may make that smaller as we go through, because it will be a little bit slower to update and just in the same for the same reason. If we go to the render settings Arnold Grender, just make sure you reset your camera settings back to four. Maybe even lower would see how it goes. Okay, so there you go. There's there's our default grapes. Obviously, they don't know very good there, So we need to change this. So the thing that we're looking for is a lot of translucency. So we want to see, like going straight through our lighters appears very going straight through, and you want to look like it's lighting up this. We also want reflections on this because the grapes of quite reflective and if they're wet , they're gonna be fairly reflectively. You're more reflective, so if they're not wet there, still reflective, they're still got some speculative them. So we're expecting that on the outer layer of the off the grapes, and then they've got a little bit of translucency on the edges as well. So So what we're gonna do is we're gonna come in here and let's just change the radio. Supposed to be able to you adjust the amount of light going through. So we're going to start to make snapshots of these so that we can compare because it's gonna be a lot a lot easier. So that's just maybe we'll just keep this original one, and then I'm just going to change the colors, first of all, to something a little bit more interesting. So let's change this color. And I've been trained it to a kind of green here. So the outer layer, this is gonna be the skin that's gonna be the greenest. So I'm just going to make that a little bit darker, and then I'm gonna make this mid layer. This is the one that's gonna be really poppy, really kind of yellowy green. Very bright. So you want to make sure you've got a really bright color bright green color there, and then this one here is gonna be just gonna pick kind of a kind of bright color here. Okay. And then we're going Teoh, just turn this weight down. Overall, hundreds turned us down. Necessary king to see this a bit better. And let's just turn off the speculative announcing weaken. Just work on the defuse for now. Okay, so that's what we're getting. So you can see they look a little bit like olives at the moment because the light isn't passing through as much. So let's keep this image. We're going, Teoh, just click on this button here we keep this image, and then let's go ahead and change the radius. So I'm just gonna change it to five. So it's a good idea to make sure that you got your diabetes applied. He hasn't speculator and s S s. If you haven't already done that from the previous lesson, you could just go to the render settings air Weise. They are skin and then just picked them from here and click on this button, and it should be in this section. Okay, this is gonna be really useful for us to see what we're getting from each particular shading component. Okay, so you can see that's a lot better. And if I just keep this and compare, you can see how the light is passing through the object, and it's kind of lighting up this stuff so This is really nice. So let's see if we push this even more what that looks like. So it make sure you press this button to keep it, and then I'm going to go on and let's just changes to 10. And we got a tennis off here. No, it's got updates. Okay, so let's compare. Keep this snapshot. Look at this. Okay? So you could see its passing even more like through. So I kind of like this one better the previous version, because we're getting a little bit of shadow on the edges, which is quite nice and defining the shape of the grapes. And this one, I do like the translucency of this stuff. So maybe something in between maybe would be better. This one. We're losing a little bit of definition. We're gonna get some of that back with me, apply speculum. So we were just going to look a lot around, Not more rounded when we when we apply some reflections, I think I might just put that onto eight and then see what that looks like. So that's just on this off. OK, so I think that's a good halfway house between this and this. And so I think that's probably right. Just keep this image is so I can compare nice and is me. Okay, so now what I'm going to do is I'm gonna actually turn off the shallow scatter. So if you look here, it looks a little bit too solid. So it looks still looks like a and something like a Oliver. Something on that. So it's a bit too solid on the actual front there. So I'm just gonna change the way here to zero, and then we'll see what that looks like. Okay, So now you can see we're getting a bit of a softer edge on on those grapes there, and it's not blowing out as well. It's not going to bright. So now what we'll do is we'll apply the speculative this so that's just come down to speculate. And I'm gonna just put this up to something like 0.6 ish, and we'll just see what we're getting. So at the moment, we've got a rough speculate. So no 0.5. So it's gonna be a little bit blurred, and we should see some reflections. So there we go, looking a lot more like grapes Now you can see that the great to look a lot more rounded. I'm loving what's going on around here. And so let's just keep this, okay? Answer if we compare it between the previous version. Okay, so what we can do now is we can actually vary that speculum. So if we were to look, let's just turn this off for a second. If we look at the speculum, you can see it's perfectly smooth, so there's no break up. There's no variation in there. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna do exactly what we did with this one is Basically we're going to apply a noise map, and we're gonna apply this to the roughness. So if we apply this to the roughness, if you think about this number, the white of this number is, the more blurry the reflection is gonna be and the lower this number is, the darker this number is, the more reflective, the more shining it's going to be. So less blood. Okay, so we're gonna vary that across the surface, so it would look really nice. So what we did in this one was we just turned up and down so we just turned the amount of it up and down. But what we're going to do with this one, he's actually make it a little bit sharper or a little bit more blurry, so that supply this and see what it looks like. And you can see how useful it is to have that separate to the SS, because it's really clear to see what's going on. And you can also see that in the speculum. This is not very grainy. If you look at the SS, that's where the grain is coming from. OK, that's really useful for debugging your shader and seeing what you're getting. So let's go ahead and map this color with a noise again. So it is gonna go to texture a noise. I'm going to change the scale of that 25 just getting out of it. I'm going to select it by clicking this button, and I'm gonna go to shading isolate, selected and now we can see what we're getting gonna just turn yet octaves up a little bit . So it's a bit more frequent. Try three like that and I'm gonna change this. Lack your narrative e on. If we turn this up. You can see you get more frequent kind of more detail within their, so I'm just going to change it up a little bit, just maybe to something like 3.2. And then we're gonna do what we did with these cheese cubes is basically gonna overblow this at the moment. Let's just see what we look like, what it looks like at the moment with this supplied. So we just got to shading. There shouldn't be much variation because it's all there's not much difference between the white and the black, so you're probably going to see it. But it's not that strong an effect going. So let's have a look speculator, and you can see that there's some variation, but it's very difficult to tell that it's something's happening. You can see a little bit there, but it's not much different to the one we had before, So what we need to do is make it a little bit more contrast. D I'll just keep that render by pressing this camera, but and then we'll go ahead and just change this amplitude like it did before, to to And then we should get a bit more contrast. And the other thing we'll do is we're going to just apply the same texture to the roughness . So at the moment, all we're doing is just making it darker and brighter. But we need to apply this to roughness, which is why I was talking about earlier. So this is what it looks like if you apply it to just the speculum color, so you can see that it's getting darker and brighter. But let's see what the difference is if we apply this to the roughness as well. Okay, so we're gonna apply this to the roughness roughness parameter. So I'm just going Teoh, go to the I'm shade. I bring this up here, press this button and then he just makes bigger. Just go to the great Shader. Yeah, and miss, just we're off this. I'm going to just take this air noise on middle mouse button that into the speculum roughness here. So speculator, hotness, middle mouse button drag into their and you can see that the connection that so that's just make this out of the way. Okay, so you can see the difference there and we'll just look at the speck into here. So there we go so you can see that some bits of shiny some bits of like, sharp shyness. They were a little points of light here, and some of them have just got broad highlights in certain areas. OK, so that's makes it look much more interesting. So what we can do now is actually have a little bit more, um, speculator. In terms of at the moment, the edges are quite bright, but the middle's isn't as bright. And that's that Iowa function. So we could do with a bit more Chinas with a bit more speculum, So I'm just going to turn that up a little bit. So we just selecting great idea. It's of great shader. And then if we turn this up, we should see more speculum. You can actually turn this to speculate and then watch it as you do this. So that's changes up a bit, getting a lot brighter, and we get some nice highlights in these sections here. It's really nice when it's dark and you, anything you see is subsurface scattering and then some reflection. It looks quite realistic. I think you could see this little area here looks like it's wet because it's got really shot. Highlight. Let's have a look. Okay, so this is what we're getting and you can see it looks really nice and juicy. I think I'm just going to adjust the edges of this a little bit more. So what I mean is that I think it looks a bit too solid. So in terms of this still looks a little bit like a, um, like an olive. It's a little bit too solid. So what we can do is just turn this mid scattered down on DSO. It should make it look a little bit more kind of see through. So I'm just going to keep this. I think it's just a subtle change, but it's looking pretty good, but I think it's just a subtle change that we need. So I'm just going to change us down to maybe 15 and then we'll see what that looks like. These renders are taking quite long now, so I'm pausing in between just so it's nice and quick to for you to see okay, so this is what it looks like and let's keep that as well. So let's see if that made any difference. So this is with the mid scatter on no 0.25 So it looks like this and this is without it. So you could see it just looks a little bit more See through on the edges here. Quite subtle. But you can sort of see it. And the good thing to do is is basically to look at reference and sort of see what you're trying to get. Its very subtle the effects that you're trying to sort of achieve, so best to look at reference. And that's what I'm doing. I've got a picture to the side, and that's the kind of thing that I'm trying to recreate. If you want to see this with better quality, you could turn up your camera settings here. So in Arnold, just change this up a bit and see if you see what it looks like when it's at the better quality. I'm not gonna do that right now. So in this lesson we set up our grape shader with an AI skin trader, and we adjusted various parameters on here, and we mapped the speculative color and a speculator roughness with a noise texture to break up the speculum. I'm gonna make sure you save that 16. Configure a cheese wedge shader: in this lesson will set up in the shader for this cheese which So what we're going to do is we're going to duplicate this cheese trader. Then apply this to the wedge on. We're going to apply a displacement to this to give the the indication of the cheese detail . Okay, so let's have a look at duplicating this festival. Just open up the give me the shade on. Just take the cheese, which we haven't named properly. So this is the ai skin one. Just gonna name that teach cheese Shada. Okay? And then we'll do create that. So I'm just gonna say, edit the great shading network. Make sure you do shading network so that you get all of these noise nodes and everything. If you don't do shading network, you won't. You won't get that. Okay, so let's go ahead and rename this guy this new one, so she shade 01 That's just rename that to cheese wedge. So we notice she's rich. I got and mess just a Politis. So I'm just going to go over here and just middle mouse. Button it onto that. Let's just see what that looks like. I'm gonna keep this up just minimizes for now. He looks like that in apply or maybe an updated. So that's try updating the scene. It's gonna do region hacks. We don't need to see all of this stuff so it doesn't look like it supplied. Say, I'll just right click on this. Oops, A sign. Existing material. She's wedge, they go. OK, so that's pretty boring. It's just got the standard trader on their cheese shader. So we need to have some detail in there. So we're gonna apply a displacement to this on. You do that in the regular my away in terms of applying the displacement. So everything that you know, out displacement admire is the same in Arnold. I'm just going to show you some of the parameters used to control the detail. OK, so let's go ahead and go to the hop shade and grab this cheese word. Schrader, graph it. I'll just close this to make it a bit bigger. Okay, Okay, so you just go to the trading group here and then in the displacement material, he just clicked there on what we're going to use is a three D texture on. It was going to use the marble texture So this marble texture will give us that that those that detail of the cheese going inwards. So this is black areas will go in words. I'm just going to click on that. And we're just gonna go into the marble texture and just make the vein black rather than red. Okay. And then let's just have a look at what this looks like. So we've got the We just close this high, Appreciate here. I think it's doing something funny. It's better. All right. Okay, so by default, this is displacing the object and you can see that it's basically it's got quite a lot of polygon din there already. So this this has got quite a lot polygons, so it's kind of trying to do its best to form that shape. Also, you might have noticed that is coming outwards on. That's kind of what you would expect by default. Aled displacements with the procedural traders go outwards. So they're positive. So in order to make them positive and negative, you need to offset that value by the amount off the Alfa Gay. Okay, so let me just show you what I mean so inside the marble, if you look at the color balance, this Alfa value is how big the displacement is going to be. If you zoom in here, you can see the out. Alfa is connected to displacement. So this black and white image is basically what's controlling that displacement. So what we need to do is adjust the amount that goes in and out on. Do we need to just the offset. So this is going out by one unit. So if we bring that back by half a unit, that means that we can go in and out. Okay, so if I just that if we wanted to be exactly, you know, going in and out the exact same amount. But let's just see what it looks like in the view port at the moment. It looks terrible. So that's just I think we should be able to do it in here in the channel box here. The Alfa offset is here on a scratch, changed up to maybe minus point it not only to, by press pause, here, it may may help. Yeah, they're good is trying to update this, and it's trying out there this at the same time, so it's not really having much luck. Okay, so that's giving you some sort of detail there. So what I'm going to do is add more detail by allowing the cheese to kind of subdivide. So I'm going to add those subdivision parameters. So if I just select this guy the cheese wedge, click on it Hamiti get to the attributes. Okay. I need to move this out the way. So it gets. That's complicated. So I got my attribute it up. I'm going to go to the shape note here, and we'll go to the honor parameters come down on this. Subdivisions. I'm just gonna change this to camera clock, and we'll just add a another situation that so this is gonna basically divide subdivide this polygon mesh twice. And so those extra polygons are gonna be displaced into the shape here. Okay, so that's pretty frequent at the moment. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to scale this up, so I'm going to scale up the texture. So remember, three D textures are basically controlled by a placement notes. So this place three D note and the biggest this note is the bigger, the texture will be. So we're just going to take that and we'll just scale this to maybe 33 times money to update the scene here. That's better. My baby Too big. So he changes down to to up to the scene because of the shape of this is trending a bit too much. Let me just show you some parameters that you have on the shape note here. So the shade us If I click on this on, go back to this area here, you can see we've got some displacement attributes. So this is the same as the Alfa game. So height is the same as Alfred gained. So if I wanted less displacement, I could say half that, for example, and I'm gonna get less displacement there, Mr. Stop, Play the scene to make sure that that is the case. Here we go, so you can see that it's not going in as much. And if you wanted to, you could actually change zero value. So this is the offset so we can bring it in or out. So let's say we wanted to bring this out a little bit. We could say take all those values and push them out by many point to. And then we could see what that looks like. So the difference here is this is per objects, so you can have one displacement shader, and then you can adjust maybe the height per object. So, for example, if you had a displacement for a rock, for example, you could have three different rocks and you can have a different height for each rock so that it looks slightly different. So that's quite handy. Okay, so that's coming out a little bit. And then we've also got bounds padding. Brown's padding is basically telling Arnold to look further out further out than the object for rendering. So sometimes when you display something, you displace it like way out here and honored will not be looking for that will not be looking for the object there because it's the bounding box is just around here, so it's just going to render it around there so you can actually pad that bounding box and add to it. So if you ever see the displacement getting cut off, you can try changing this value. Let's have a look at what happens if we just change this to one. Remember that uses more memory. So you have to be careful with it. I don't think it's cutting off anything here, so it's not gonna make any difference. So this stuff here looks like it's kind of intersecting itself. That's what is going black. So the faces air going through themselves. So let me just try and fix that. I'm going Teoh, maybe bring these out a bit more, Mr. See if this is working about 10. Just out toe one. It should be back to the way it was before. So update full seen it should come out. I said it. They go. Let's try minus quite one. Just trying to get rid of that black black thing that was there. That's better. Okay, so let's have a look at this, the whole thing. So I'm just going to change my marquee here. Just make it a bit bigger. Well, that's rendering. Let me just show you this auto bump. If you take that on. If you've got a high frequency displacement maps, something with lots of noise in it, where you can do is you can turn this on Andi, basically, Arnold will not add polygons to describe that surface of what it will do instead is it will use a bump map. So the bits that are higher frequency, like these little dots, will create a bump map for that rather than making a displacement. Obviously, a bump map does not cost shadows or, you know, receive shadows. So you gotta be careful with this. It's just for higher frequency things. Sometimes it could save you time. I don't often use this very much between this a bit more because I've just changed my iterations to three. So I get a bit more detail there. If you want to play with the shader, the texture. It's a good idea if you want to get a different look so you can see this is quite broken up . But you can get a different look by adjusting the marble texture. So if I go down to the but just select this guy and let's just get to the hyper shade and it's easier to see so this marble texture here analyze that, and so what we can do. This is a color that we're getting. What we can do is we could make the rain thinner. So this in vain wits if you just slide that down and watch that you can see it gets dinner , okay? And then let me just keeping that so you can see. So then you can also change the diffusion. So this kind of extra noise here of them, if you can see that extra grey noise just a very subtle grey noise is not white. You can actually minimize that. So, well, this stuff will go away. So you as you slide this down, that stuff's gonna disappear. Let me just make it a bit more noticeable. There we go. So then you would just get these little channels going through, okay? So you can change the the way the vein wicks, diffusion and the contrast here as well. So if you wanted to be less detail as well, so you can just increase that, then you're gonna get harsher kind of detail that Okay, so it depends on what you're going for. I'm going to keep the image. Let's just compare. Think I'm gonna put a little bit of diffusion in there, so I'm gonna add a bit to just change this first again on Let's just put. Not too much. Just a little bit of detail there. That's it. And I was I might want to just scale this up again. Maybe Might just changes back to three under Wayne. Plane wits down a bit. Maybe make that a little bit tighter. We got something like that. Okay, So you can use this procedural texture to kind of adjust the look off these kind of veins here, you could scale up and down using the placement node. You can change these values and you can control how much displacement you want using easier the Alfa gain here. So in the color balance, EU got off again. Or you can go to the object and come into the shape node. And you could just change the height here as well. And you can offset it using this zero value as well. Just so you know, the displacement Shader also has those values in there as well. So if you want to do changes in the displacement trader, the Arnold section has bounced padding and zero scale of value as well. So you can basically offset your results using this zero scale of value as well. Okay, so I'm just going to save the seen there in this lesson. We set up our cheese word shader on. We put a marble texture three D texture into the displacement map. 17. Configure a cloth shader: in this lesson. We're going to create the Shader for our tablecloth on. We're going to talk about textures. So let's just assign this festival. I'm going to select this guy good to rendering on a sign, a favorite material. And you could see I've got my eye material is here now because we added them earlier and I'm gonna just add a standard material to that. And then in the diffuse, I'm going to map the color, read a texture. So it is gonna grab a file texture. Open up on inside the textures folder. You can see you've got a bunch of textures that we've created and that is going to come down to cloth color and just opened up. Let's take a look. Minimize this. Okay, so there's a texture. And so what it does is when you first apply a texture. What honored will do is create a TX map for you. So a T X map is a special optimized version of your texture and has got to special aspects to it. The 1st 1 is that the textures will be tiled so they'll be tiled into, but to show you the render setting here it's good to the texture section, so they'll be auto tiled into 64 by 64 pixel tiles. So that means that it can access those 64 by 64 pixel tiles really easily. So if there is a part of the texture in the view that say this part, it's not gonna load up this part as well. It's only gonna load up the textiles that it needs. So that means that textures are fast to load. But they also use less memory. Because if I had a texture for this entire table and I'm only seeing this part of it, it's only gonna load that part of it. Okay, so this is from Render Man basically render man used to use the's T X files. It still does use these T X files on DSO. It's very memory efficient and also is also good for speed as well. The other aspect about two TX map is that it is Mitt mapped, so it means it's got multiple versions of the texture which are smaller and smaller and smaller, so that if you're texture is seen in a little dot like this Bigas, because this tree, then it's gonna load the smallest version of that texture, and that really saved a lot of time in terms of anti alias ing. So otherwise, it would have to The computer would have to figure out how this texture looks when it's that small. Okay, so that's called Mitt Mapping. So all that stuff basically done for you, you can see this little auto convert textures to TX is picked on by default. So when you press render is going to create a T X file for you, that's going to be tiled on Mitt mapped. So they're going to look the same, but it's gonna be optimized in terms of memory and performance on Dante leasing. Okay, so in each of your file textures, your file nodes Excuse me? You've gone Arnold section and inside they've got you can pick a type of filtering. Okay, so you've got the best type to the west type, so I just don't believe that onto the default. And then you've also got auto generate TX textures on an individual basis. So if you don't want to recreate this texture, let's say your present, Wender, and then you deleted it by accident and you don't want to regenerate this, you could just tell us off. It won't create that. And then you've got this bias. So the higher this number is, the more likely Arnold is to use the low resolution version off that texture. OK, so, for example, let's see if it works here. So if I keep this render here and then that's changes to to, you can see that it's using a really low version of the texture. Now you could see this is a A. It's starting to look kind of mix into one color because it basically it's a low resolution version off that texture. Let me try for But now you can see it's really blurry on. It's a much more blurred version, so it's really handy. So this is how you manually choose. You know what version you want, just say zero back to normal, to get a nice, sharp vision. Okay, so that's the controls for that. And so let's just go back to the Rennes settings here, so these tick boxes are generally you don't have to touch them. I'll just show you what they are. You can actually turn off except unmet mapped So if you want to check whether your textures Armitt mapped or not, you can turn this off and honorable given error, or it won't render the texture. If it's not Mitt mapped. Okay, so so you can check it by doing that. Also accept Untitled. You can check it by doing that as well. This is a cache size for the textures, so if you've got more textures, you can increases if you want to. And this is the limit on the number of open textures by default on order handles that. But you can type in a number if you want to, and you can blow the texture for diffuse and glossy raise. Okay, if you don't auto convert, then you couldn't. You've got the option to use existing textures. So, for example, if you've got J. Peg in there, it's going to look for a T X version off that on. Then it's going to use that instead, so you can If you don't turn that on that, it's just going to use the regular J pigs that it's got in applied or whatever. Tiff for one of it. The fastball that got applied the xar so I'll just tennis on. So for the most part, you don't have to worry about this. When it does convert the texture, it should convert the color space as well, so it should update and apply the color space as well. There's a little utility in here. We go to Arnold Utilities on TX Manager. This shows you a list of the textures in your C so you can see we've got the background low . Got the cloth that we just added on. We've got the background low for the image plane that reapplied earlier. Okay, so by default, it creates it creates these t X files using this program called Make TX on these Air. The options for that make TX it's Ah, if you want to know more about this, you can go into the help and it's called The command in There. Don't really need to mess with it too much because it's got this nice interface. See, you can create textures if you want to, by using this this interface. So let's say we wanted to delete the color that we just created, so be sure to not delete this stuff. For all its rendering. Otherwise, is gonna crash that press stop here and just close this up on then. Working. Regan. Say, if you wanted to recreate these, for example, you could It's next what you wanted and say Delete TX and then you can recreate them. The T X is here, but this one can't delete it causes using it. So I'll just grab these two and say create. So again, these parameters are in the help. If you want to have a look, this is to do with the color corrections. If you don't want them to be gamma corrected, you can remove this flag if you want to. The default setting should work fine. So I'm just going to create I'm just showing you how to do this, OK, America. But I'm just showing you how to do this just so you know how to do it manually. And you can even pick a folder and then put were textures in a folder and then click create before you even start rendering so that you don't have to do it afterwards. Okay, so if we were to open up, render view, you can see that we have our textures there, So let's have a look at the Shader. So I'm just going to just this a little bit. I go in here and come down to this section here. We haven't actually named it cloth shader, so that's just named that. Okay. And what we'll do is put some bump in here as well. So I'm just going to go to bump mapping another file on what is going to pick the problem Update have seen him. Okay, Ordinarily, we would adjust the amount of bump. But I'm not gonna do that right now because I've already baked into the texture. So it should be correct in terms of the amount. If you wanted to, you could come in, come in here and say what is up or down to increase the amount of bump there. Okay, so you could also have a bit of speculum on this. So let's just see what that looks like. I'm not sure if it's gonna You too shiny. Let's just have a look. I go to speculum and let's just grab a region like this on. We could go to turned us up a little bit. Where is it? Isolates elected Onda slick. Select the close here. Okay. So because we've got, like, coming from all around, we're getting quite a strong highlight. There's that. I leave it like that for now. In this lesson, we set up our shader for the tablecloth, and we had a detailed look at T X maps and what they are. 18. Adjust the lighting: in this lesson, we're going to adjust our lighting to make it look a bit more dramatic. So this is a lighting we've got at the moment, and it's a bit too flat. So there's not enough shadows going on. And there's not enough speculum so that the highlights on these on this cheese, for example, when maybe when we do the the knife, there's not enough highlight there. So what we're going to do is take our key light and move it to the back of our object. And we're going to turn down our feel like remember, I feel like is these two dome lights here? Well, the one dome light and the one environment map that we've got. So what I'm gonna do is just make sure I've kept an image here by pressing this button here , and then I'm going to go and just a just a lighting position. So if we just go to shaded mode and turn on light here, you can see where it is. So let's just go into the perspective here, zoom out a little bit and cameras on this side. There it is, and there's our every like that. So I'm just going to use the move. Talk on. I'm gonna move it, You hear? It's rotated around, Okay? Something like that. And I'll go back to my shot. Come here. So naked sees behind the objects, and what we need to do is turn down our feel, like so let's just see what the effect has. It's just updating here. It's that you can see that was before, and this is after. And now you could see there some nice highlight going on here. And so I'm just going to adjust the position slightly. I had a look at this earlier, so I've got saved a position. So I'm gonna take this and just apply my preset here. That's just rotated a little bit tennis off. Okay, so this is what we've got. And now I'm going to do is turn down my feel like so while do is turn off this environment here. So this environment is giving out light at the moment, we rather have our light to give off light. So this skydome give off light. This one was just for the reflections and refraction. So if we just turn off visible would diffuse you could see that it's gonna get darker. And now we'll just turn up the intensity off our lights so that it looks a bit better. So just let this update. Okay? So I know you could see that there's darker areas underneath here. Well, just keep that. And now I'm going to turn my intensity. So if I turn, go to the area light here and just change the exposure here. And let's just have a look at how that looks, that we just need toe boost this a bit. Maybe change to five, and that's a lot better. Okay, so now you can see that we've got some red light coming through the wine here, and that's passing onto this area here. We've got some highlights here. And when we get our metal going on here where we adjust our shader, we're gonna get some highlights here as well, and that will look a little bit better. We've got some highlights coming along around here as well, so that's pretty cool. So we can adjust this this highlight amount here to say that it doesn't get blown out. Maybe we could turn this down a little bit. Maybe just down to maybe 4.5. See how that looks. Could do a region if you want. I want to see the overall scene, so I'm just going to leave it for now, Okay? I'm happy with that. 4.5. Pretty decent. And, well, maybe turn this down a little bit. The highlights on this cubes on these cheese cubes on so it doesn't get blown out. But if we just compare between the before on the after, you could see what I mean. It's basically this is basically lit completely, and this one is from behind, so it just looks a bit more interesting. You've got some backlighting going onto its highlighting, that sort of subsurface scattering here. We've got some speculate going on. So that's what that's what I'm gonna have. If you don't want that, you don't have to have that. You can do it any way you want to. If you want to turn up your feel lighter, it's a bit brighter on on this slide. That's totally up to you. I just wanted those shadows there just to give a bit more contact Onda and to define the objects a bit more. So I'm going to save it there. So in this lesson, we change the position of our key light. So the objects of backlit 19. Configure a knife shader: in this lesson. We're going to create the shader for our knife blade. So you see, I've got render here, which is basically at 75%. So if I go to view test resolution 75% just make sure you're on that. And I've just done a region around here to go back to the actual side here so we can see this a bit bigger. Just make sure you can do that. Otherwise it's gonna be a bit blurry. So what we'll do, first of all, is a sign of shade, as usual. So first thing I'll do is use my selection sets here. I've created some sets here for you. So we have to do is click on it. So we're going to click on the metal and then used the down arrow on your keyboard. And if you just look in the view port here, you can see that the faces Airil selected there because it's got the screws here and the metal that goes all the way around Thehuffingtonpost and the metal here as well. So if selected, all of that in one go. So now we can go to the rendering menu. You could also right click. But I'm just gonna go to the rendering menu and lighting and shading and signed favorite material on We're going to say a sign AI standard. You could also click on a sign new material and go to Arnold here, shade up and say standard if you wanted to as well. It doesn't make any difference. And then we're going to name the Shader. This is our new shade up has called this knife blade. Okay, so we know it's the knife blade, and then let's go here and let's just see what's going on here. CVS updating. I just update the scene. Good to render update for seen. Okay, so now we have our shared resigned, and we can adjust it, so just make this smaller here. Okay? So we're just looking at this little, but here first thing we're gonna do with metal is we need to turn down the diffuse, so it's mostly made up of shyness. So, speculators, the thing that you want, so at the moment, this just looks very mapped at the moment. So what we need to do is just turn this down to us or the dark gray like this. And we're also going to turn the weight way, way down to something like that. Maybe one point, no 0.118 and then we're gonna just close up that section. Now we're gonna go to the speculum. So let's turn this up from a going to turn this up, too. A nice right value. Something like 0.3. You see, it's very bright because it's got a lot to reflect. Remember, there's the area like here. So it's picking that up here. And I'm just gonna bring this down to a kind of a gray color here, too, so you can see this bit better. I'll just wait for that update. Okay, so you can see here. You've got a bit of shining that's going on on. What you can do is make that more blurry or less blurry to make it look a little bit more like chrome or less less like chrome and a bit more used. So, for example, if I take this roughness and slide it down to all the way to the bottom, you can see we've got very shop reflection. Not very interesting, especially with flat objects. It's very hard to light flat objects because they don't pick up the light. So you get sort of areas which are quite harsh, so you won't have this rounded look like here. So let's just broaden that reflection out and make it a bit more used. So I'm just going to change my roughness to something like a little bit higher to you. Maybe one, 16 17 ish, something like that. Okay, so that would just bring that highlight over the edge there and just make it a little bit wider, okay? And just explain what this micro facet distribution does. So this is two different techniques on They will have a different look in terms of the brightness off the brightest area. So have a look at this. You can see that it's sort spills over to this section, and it's kind of coming over. If I was to changes to Beckman, which is a different method, you can see it's gonna be a lot tighter and not sharper. Okay, So generally you just keep you on gxe. But sometimes you can use Beckman for some product renders where you want some really nice , sharp, tight reflections. So that's what I use that fourth. But GDX generally is the one to use, so we just leave that on. We were described for Nell when we did the glass here, so I'm not going to do that. So we've got the basic values in here. So all we need is a bit of a break up now. So the scratches and things that you see are based on the speculum, so we can vary the color of this speculative and have different values. So it's a little bit brighter or a little bit darker, so it looks like scratches in the shyness. Okay, so you can either map the color Well, you connect the roughness, okay? And sometimes you can map both. So in this case, we're gonna do color because it's a bit more noticeable. But roughness is a good one to use as well when you've got something like a really shiny surface. But some of it is scuffed aan den. You can have a darker value like a dark gray in those areas, so that it looks rougher in those areas. So I'm just going to map my color with a file texture, and we're just going to pick a file here. So what we'll do is it should open up into the your source images, textures folder, if not just going to textures. And we want knife metal speculum. Make sure you use the tiff, not the ttx far because you may have a T X file there because of my renders. But don't use that. Otherwise it's gonna come out too dark. And if you look at this file, let's just open this and then press view. So if you look at this file, you could see it's got lots of scratches, and it's fairly contrast. E. If you wanted it to be even more contrast to you can take it into your favorite editing program like Photo Shop and just increase the contrast, and that will give you a more kind of and used Look, I'm just gonna close that for now. Here we go. So now we can see the roughness and stuff, so let's just make sure this is on the actual size. There's a bit bigger, so hopefully you can see the scratches there. I'm just going to turn down the reflections just a tad, maybe maybe have a little play with that, all the diffuse. Maybe bring that down a little bit. If you want more contrast, you can turn that down, and now you can see these scratches a bit better. Zoom in a bit, and those will show up a bit better when we've got higher quality rendering. Okay, so so with metal, you want to map the speculum on the roughness for the most effect. Obviously, you do map color sometimes as well, and you can vary the color as well. If you want to, you can put the same map into color. So forward to just click on this. You can file and just put the same map into a knife. Spectacular metal speculum. And I just make sure I update this. Just do update full scene update foreseen. It's going to really re export that. So let's just see what that comes out like. Okay, that's a bit more contrast. E. So I've done. There's just mapped the color, the diffuse color with the same map. Okay, so depends on what what effect you're going for. But that's that's how we create the metal material. Just make sure you've got quite a dark, diffuse got high contrast speculum app, and then you can map your roughness if you want to. And you're wait to control how much reflections you've got. Of course, if you want less, you can just turn that down. Or if you want more, you can turn up and it's gonna multiply that value and make it a bit brighter if you want. You want to bright a kind of reflection on that. I'm just gonna bring it down to something like point for maybe. 20. Configure a handle shader: in this lesson will create the shader for the knife handle. So this is going to be would so again will select our selection Set Teoh the knife handle selection. Just click on it and use your down arrow key and you'll see that the faces are selected And then we're going to go to lighting and trading again. A sign favorite material on. We're gonna go to a I standard. We just call that knife handle. Okay, So the thing about would is you need a good texture for the color, and it's gonna be quite high contrast, so it's gonna have lots of darks and lights in it. Andi, we're going. Teoh is gonna be quite similar to the to a metal, except we're gonna have quite a lot of contrast in the color as well. So first thing we'll do is let's just open up a friend of you. Okay? I just need to change my camera again to do okay on. I'm just gonna make sure that we've still got this on test resolution of 75 so that we get a nice big render and then Mr a region just click on that button. There and just pick that region. So now you can see that that shader has been assigned. As you can see, it's slightly different color and that's zoom in. You can see the if it's on 100% here we get. Okay, so that's a just a shade. Now, if we go to diffuse and we're going to map the color first of all, we're gonna map this color with a file again and then come up to the image name and we'll just click on the knife, would to color tiff a knife would color tiff. And this is what it looks like. You could see it's pretty high contrast and I'm just gonna say open. Okay, so that's what that looks like. And then what I'll do is I'm going to The weight is perfectly fine. So that's actually not bad as ah kind of Ah, quite quite a rough, rustic wood. But I wouldn't mind some speculate on their some a little bit of shyness. Just Teoh bring out the details and make it look a bit better. So what I'm going to do is come down to speculum and then we're going Teoh, adjust this so first thing we'll do is just turn it up a little bit and then you'll see some shining that's coming in there. So if you're just to see that, let the update. Okay, so that's what it looks like with just the way it turned up A little bit on the roughness is on 0.4 six, so you can see it's quite rough. So if I was to turn it down, you get a shopper reflection here. You're sharp highlight. So you can see that's what it looks like. A sharper highlight there. If we wanted it to be wider, we could turn that up. OK, so that's the with of the highlight. Yes. I'm just gonna update the scene here. Do you update? Foreseen Doesn't like the color of the texture is being shown properly, so just update that should be darker than that. That's better. Sometimes the color management doesn't work, so you do have to update the render. So you do update full scene, and then when you're dealing with textures, that will update the textures. So now we've got a richer color there. So what you can see now if we just go to the speculum and just turned us down to zero. Just that's the color that you should have. So when we had a little bit of speculum on there, you could see it makes it a little bit brighter. Okay, so what we're gonna do is once we have a bit of spectra on there, you can see that it makes it kind of looked very shiny. Um, and you know, a perfect sore thing. So we need to break up that shyness with another map. We're going to map the weight with a texture on. The reason we're not mapping the color is because I don't want this to be colored. You look more like metal with its It's a colored reflection. I just want the reflection to be the regular color that comes in as. But I just want to break it up so that it's darker in some places and lighter and others. So if I map the weight that doesn't have a color, it's only one number, so it can only be darker or lighter. It can't be a color. So if I map this with a file, I'm going to use the same file, um, which is the metal, the sort of the knife would color. So this same one is high contrast. So what I'll do is that's not gonna look correct. So what we can do is come down in the texture. And if we come on, take this little check box, which has Al for his luminous. And the moment the computer is just seeing is looking for an Alfa Channel. And this file does not have an outfit channel, So it's just gone completely white. So what we need to do is turn on Alfred Luminant and it's going to take this image and used illuminates of this image and use that as the Alfa Channel. So if we turn that on now, we should see it a little bit better. And if we update this again, it's just update 14. And we need to turn the color down way down. Okay, so now we should see some break up in the texture. Just turn the roughness up a little bit and maybe the color down a little bit. So use the color, Teoh, choose how much reflections has got. So if you don't want many, you can just just turn it up a little bit, too. So it's got a little bit of something there. Okay, I don't think that's working. That's just turned off against her. Tell me if that's better. OK, so we look at the difference between that. You can see those reflections all along here and that where you can see there's only a few reflections in certain places. That's what we want again. So just to clarify, inhale, we've mapped the color. Remember, to this texture, which is called knife would color. And in that texture we come down to Alfred Luminous. We turn that on so that we use the black and white value. So we turned us into a black and white image. And we use that as the, um, wait map. Okay, So if I come back here and just turn this up a little bit, you'll see that the reflections only appear in certain places and you can see that they're scratches and things on the on the knife now all the way along here, so that makes it look a little bit more used. Also there the speculum highlights defined the shape of the object. As you can see, that just makes you look a bit nicer. You could even turned up a bit more if you wanted to. And it's still still gonna be broken up because it's got a nice texture on their because he is still broken up there. So it might just turn it down a little bit. Okay, so I'm happy with that. So just to summarize, we've mapped the diffuse with the color, texture, the wood color, texture, and we've haven't changed the weight of it. And then in a speculum, we've kept the roughness on a rough value of no point for two, okay? And then we've mapped the weight with color. So the way we turned the reflections up and down is to use the color, and we just slide that on down. You can tint if you wanted to. I'm not going to do that right now. I wouldn't have the natural color off the reflections on there. 21. Configure a cheese board shaderT: in this lesson. We're going to create the shader for our cheese board. So I'm gonna select the board on Go Teoh a sign favorite material on new AI standard. So what we'll do with this one called this cheese board, and it's gonna be would So we're going to use a similar settings to what we did before we got a separate texture map that we've created for this one. So diffuse color. We're gonna map that with a file and just click on cheese board color tiff open. Okay, Andi of this, Have a look at the year end of you here. Just make sure the Gammas on 2.2 you shouldn't have to do this is just cause I restarted my mile on. I'm just make sure that they're in the region here. Maybe in this region here. Okay, So the reason the color is so dark is because we're going to add Speculate to this. So let's go to the shade up. And as we've said before, we need to have a nice contrast, the speculum. So what I'm going to do is map the weight again on gonna map that with the fall and it's gonna be the same file again. So cheese board color and what we're going to do is you could see that it hasn't taken onboard de alphas Luminant. So you just have to come down to Alfred Liu minutes and turn the arm. It's just have a look at this area. We need to turn the color down so it's on one to some, the maximum amount. So that's changes down toe something like with three like that. And we're just gonna take the roughness a little bit less rough because we want this to be a bit shiny up. There's not rough is this one. So what we'll do is we'll just make this a bit more kind of shiny. So I'm gonna go around to about two seven because I want this kind of hot spot here. I don't want this area to necessarily be too shiny. Hey, so that's the sort of level that I want and you're gonna justice if you want to. You content it a different color, or you can take their texture into on editing program like Fred Shop intent it a different color if you want to. If you want a different color would. So you can de saturated if you want to to make it look a bit more like this would. I've just done a different color so that it looks different on the other thing that I wanted to change was this board is a bit too sharp, so it is very harsh in terms of the straight lines. So I'm just going to smooth this because it will look a lot nicer if I have got rounded edges on this. So let's just go ahead and let's do it the easy way by selecting and press three on. Then we'll have a look at what that looks like against this is what we've got and you can see that got rounded edges now. So it looks a little bit more organic, so it looks bit nicer. So if you wanted to have less reflections on this, you can do that if you want to. Our minds is fairly new. So this this this sport is not supposed to be too old. Or is this This is supposed to be a bit older so you can adjust that on your cheese board? Shader. So just to reiterate what we did. We mapped a diffuse with a color, and it's gonna be a file texture. And this is it. Here, make sure you update your seed if you have got your render view already open so that the colors are accurate. So just click on that and it will re export your T X files and make sure everything's accurate in terms of the color. So once you've got that, we can map the speculum, wait with the same texture. And in that file, we just go down to Al for his lieutenants and turn that on, and then you'll get the little break up that goes on here. In this texture, I might just make the roughness of bit wide. I just so it goes a bit further, maybe just a little bit further. So that's just like this. A bit rougher to get a bit more reflection. Okay, so that's what we've got. So don't forget to save 22. Setup depth of field: in this lesson. We're going to look at the depth of field for our shot. So this is what we've got at the moment. What we're gonna do is just make this test resolution to 50% to So it's smaller because we're looking at the whole scene now, and we need to go a little bit faster, so just make sure that's really size. Okay? Right. So now what we're gonna do is we'll set up the depth of field. So I'm gonna go to the camera, just Ah, minimize this at the moment spirit down here. So I'm gonna select the camera by clicking on this camera settings button here. Or you could go to view camera settings or Camry camera attribute. Editor, either way is the same thing. So you get to the shot, come and then we're going to do is come down toe, Donald. So in the shape node, we're going to come down to the Arnold folder here. And then this is where you enabled depth of field. Now you could see the main settings air here, and the main one is the focused distance. Of course. So what we need to do is we need to measure the distance between our objects, and we can do that easily using the heads up display. So we just go to display heads up display and just telling on object details have already turned that on because I just practiced it. But if you want to just turn that on and you should get this heads up display, so in this heads up display, you can see the distance from camera attribute here. So if I were to select something you can see it tells me the distance from the camera, which is pretty handy. And then we can just plug that into the in the setting. So whatever you want to be in focus, you can. You can measure that distance. So let's say we wanted these wine glasses to be in focus. We can set the distance to 80 and let's see how that looks. So I'm just gonna click on this little settings button, turn on enabled depth of field and change this distance to 80 festival, and the aptitude size is already set to 5.96 Normally, that would be set to zero. But I think because I was playing around with. It should be on no 00.5. So let's just all have the same sort of setting, which is quite high. So I'll explain what this is in just a second. But let's just see what this looks like. Okay, that's just finished. That took one minute, 26 you could see this is what it looks like. You can see that this part is in focus the wine glasses as we would expect, and then you can see that they're dropping off out of focus as we come towards the camera. So the knife, for example, is pretty blurred out of focus. Okay, so let's just try a different settings. If we want to D knife, for example, to be in focus, we could click on the knife to select it. I'm going to keep this image so it's very important to keep your images because that took quite a long time to render, and you want to make sure you keep those images and know what the settings that you set were. So what we can do is we can click this little snapshot button. Keep that and then you can either right click and rename that to remind you of what it is. So ah, I could rename that to distance of 80 or I could put in a comment here, So I don't think I just renamed that too Distance 80 Just so I know what setting that I set and you can see it keeps the how long the render took. So it took 1 21 minute 26. How big the render waas on Duthie settings for the sampling, which is going to become really important in this. And the next lesson This is how long it takes to render. And these are the settings that you've got for your samples. Okay, so they're on pretty low setting at the moment. So we get this kind of grainy look and in the next lesson will sort hold out. But for now, let's just change the distance to another value. So I'm gonna click on this little orange thing just to get back to the Render and just select my knife and to see it's about 54. So then I'll select my camera and just type in 54 and it should update, and we just wait for that to Renda. Okay, so that's done. So I'm gonna keep that one as well on disk renamed that to distance of 54. And if you compare, could see there's a bit of a focus pull there could see what it looked like if you animated it, for example, you can, of course, set set a key on that and animated if you wanted to, or you can connect it to a distant note and having animated based on the distance so you can have it changing focus. Now you can see that the knife there is in focus and the rest of it is out of focus. So I'm gonna sort of split that and, ah, set a distance of about 60 so that we kind of get a bit of both may be the end of this being sharp, and then this stuff being a little bit sharper, so we'll do now is to go back and just type in 60 here. If you're render times a slow Just don't be afraid of just coming in here and just changing it to 25% because you're just looking at the overall blur and you don't have to have a massive render to see that, and it does take. It can take a long time if you've got a slower computer, so just better in mind also with depth of field. Sometimes you apply in post production. So you were playing in a composite her like nuke or after effects or whatever composited you're using. And it's ah, a lot quicker if you do that, but it's not as accurate, but it can look pretty decent as well. If you're doing close up Brenda's, generally it's pretty better to render it because it's gonna be more accurate, especially with Arnold, because it's so physically Acura, it's better just to render in the camera. It does cost you render time, of course, but it but But the effects are worth it. There. With all these blurring effects like depth of field and motion blur, you always gonna have to increase the camera samples to get rid of this grain. Okay, so it doesn't matter what samples these other numbers off with the different types of samples for shadows and sub surface scattering and indirect lighting and speculum, all sorts of things. But basically you can't get rid of this. Overall graininess without increasing the camera samples. If you've got a blurry effect on, like depth of field or motion, blur, Okay, so just bear that in mind. So it's best to increase that first. And then if there's anything that's overly grainy, then you can increased samples on that particular thing. So, for example, later on, we'll have look at the grapes and they're a bit grainy compared to the rest of the scene so we can increase the subsurface scattering for that. But this is how it looks at the moment. So let's just see this. So this is before in the 2nd 1 and then this is in between, so I'm gonna keep it. So if on 60 so we kind of got the focus in between and what we're gonna do is we're going to reduce the blur. So at the moment, the Blur is quite strong. Let me just rename this to distance of 60. Okay, so I know. And then what we're gonna do is we're gonna reduce the blur so the blow is controlled by the aperture size. So again, select your camera. And in the honored section, you've got the aperture size and the aperture sizes. How big the opening is in the camera, so it's not normally is measured in an f stop, but in this case it's just a number from 0 to 10 being small and one being completely open . Okay, so that's the highest blur value. So no 10.5 is pretty blurry. So what we're gonna do is to see what it looks like. If it's if we change that to maybe a lot of value off no 0.1, it's always good to see the extremes here and see how they how they look. And then you consort, split the difference and kind of work your way up. So this is gonna be a much more subtle effect. Okay, so that's finish rendering. And let's have a look at the district difference. So you've got this and this quite big difference there because it's slightly blood, but not massively on its reduced to blur quite significantly. You see in the highlights there that is changing this piece of cheese, for example. So I think that's a little bit to shop. So what we'll do is ah, that's just rename this Teoh. I'm just going to call it a p for Apertura on. I'm just going to say no 0.1. Okay, You can write whatever you want to remind you. You can also write something in here if you want to, and it will keep keep the settings there if you prefer. By the way, if you want to save these, you can just come up to file on, then save image. You probably want to save the color corrected one with the gamma correction. Or if you want to load it back into Arnold, I would save the original so that it then applies the gamma 2.2. If you save the color corrected one and bring it back in here. Oh, look really light. So probably don't want to do that if you want to save it for a specific purpose, like actually using it. You probably want to save any X are these two will save J pigs, so I don't really want to do that. Okay, so this is how this what we've got now. So I'm going to change it to something in between. Like no 0.25 on dsi. What? That looks like. Okay. And you can see It's no updating, and that's because I'm looking at the snapshot. So if I just turn that off, it's actually doing something. Okay, that's done. Just keep that one's well, So we've got That's the difference between previous one and the one we've just done. So that's better. And you can see that we are getting a nice bit of blurring on the on the back there. That's and that's what I wanted. And we got a little bit on the foreground as well. Okay, so I want the background to be a bit more out of focus so that the foreground is a bit more of the star of the show. So I'm gonna actually just swap out the image to a blurred image that I've created. And you could do that as well, if you want to. It depends on what what effect you want. I'm going to just blow this a bit more, so I'm just gonna grab that image in the image plane. So I'm just gonna select. We've already got our camera selected. So we just go to the image plane, click on the folder and I'm gonna juiced sapper, blurred TX and open that up Cape, and what we want to do is just update the scene. Otherwise it won't actually update that update 14. Okay, so you can see it's a lot more blood. Just go back to the real science ever go, and that will just emphasize the foreground a bit more. Okay, so what Less rendering? Let's just reiterate the the settings here. If I just go to the camera settings and just come down to the shape. Note this depth of field. First of all, we have to turn it on. You have to measure the distance to the the thing you want in focus. And then this is the amount of blur. The higher the number, the more the blur. Thea Aperture Blades is a shape off the bow Keibler that you get the little round circles that you get when things are totally out of focus and at the moment is on set to five, which is, ah, good shape. That's what you generally want for films, but depends on what look you're going for. You might want to square, for example. You can change it to four, and then you can pick whether those sides are the curved or straight. Okay, so by default there straight. So this will be like a Pentagon shape. And these these these curbs will be straight. So if you want them to be curved like a circle, you could just changes to one, and that will be curved. Okay. And this is the rotation of that shape. For example, the Pentagon, if you want it to rotate all this stuff is documented in the help is pretty straightforward to use, but the main settings of the aperture size and the focus distance. Okay, so that's finished rendering. So this compare. So this is what we've just done and this is before you could see just emphasizes the foreground a bit more. So I'm quite happy with that. I'm going to save the scene there in the next lesson will sort out this grain and make our final render settings 23. Final render settings: in this lesson, we're going to set up our render settings are sample so that we get a nice clean render, so the place to go is render setting. So I'm gonna click on this, and we're gonna go to Arnold, render up, and you can see the sample section here, and that's the main section you want to go to in order to sort out the quality. So this might look a little bit complicated here, but it's not as complicated as it looks. Basically, this is trying to help you, and it's trying to tell you how many raise you're going to use. So the main setting that you want to look at here is the bottom one here, which is the total. All of these samples are gonna be added up at the bottom here. Okay, so the more you add in any of this section is gonna add to the entire thing the main samples of the camera anti leasing samples here. So this is on a draft setting. And if we were to set it to something like eight or nine, that's gonna be something like more of a final setting. Maybe 10 12 sometimes depends on what you've got in your scene. If you've got lots of blurry objects or if you've got lots of thin things like for and stuff like that, you might need to increase it. Teoh something higher. So this is basically the main setting, and you can see that the samples have gone up there. So I've increased this to nine, and we're gonna see the see what this looks like in Narendra. So while this is rendering, let me just explain. The goal of these samples is to keep the lowest number of samples to get the best results. Right. So you don't want to have a really long render time. You could just put this on 15 and then you're gonna get really not really render, but it will take ages. Surrender. So you don't really want that? Even if you're working at a big company, you don't really want to waste too much. Render time. You want to optimize this So you keep these all of these sliders on a low level, like two or one on. Then you increase this and see what it looks like. And then you look at the different areas of the render and see if it's Scott grain. Okay, so what you're looking for is areas that are in shadow. Okay, so that will normally have grain. So, for example, these these shadow areas might have grain. And to fix that, you would go to the light and change the samples and increased the samples if it was unduly sof grainy. Okay. So that means that even though you've increased this camera, auntie, listening to a really high number, the shadows are still grainy. You might want to go to the actual light and actually increase the samples on the light. So, for example, we've got an area like here. And if we were to come in here to the settings here and just come down to samples, yeah, we could take We could change this to something higher than one, so we could change it to something like five. And then that's gonna have a few more samples to make it smoother. Okay, so you need to split the scene up into different parts of the render. So you've got shadows and that's for the lights. Then you've got subsurface scattering. So this stuff here with the grapes and the cheese is gonna have subsurface scattering. So if we were to look at our govs that we added earlier So if we changes to S s s, you can see here that the grain is actually in the s s s Okay, so if you're looking the beauty, you could see that there's some grain and it's mostly in the in the s s s okay, so that you would expect that as well. So there's some some areas where you know they get under sampled compared to the rest of the scene. And that's normally subsurface scattering and indirect lighting. Okay, so indirect lighting is everything, not from the camera. So will the bounce light. So in areas like this in the shadow, you'd expect to see more, more grain as well. So if I would go to the render settings here, that would be the diffuse samples again. So if you wanted to increase the lighting quality in the indirect lighting, you would increase this number here. If you want to see that, if you want to see whether that's causing the grain, the best thing to do is to add an A O V, and then you can see whether that screen you're not. So let's just add one here and you'll see what I mean. I'm just going to save this render because it's taking ages on. We're going to start just a section here for our next one. So I'm just gonna go to the movies and you can see you got II standard. Remember most of all materials here II standard, but the grapes and the cheese here is a guy skin shader. So this is the air skin shader, and these are the available Aerovias. For that, we've already got Ness assess for that. So, for example, the AI standard you can choose. I direct diffuse for the direct lighting or the indirect diffuse for the bounce lighting. So let's just add that, and then I'll just show you that in here in direct diffuse. So now you can see all the bounce lighting, and then you'd look at that once it's finished. You look at that and see if it's grainy, and if it's grainy than you, you would increase the diffuse samples here, but only if it's more grainy than the rest of the scene. Okay, most of the time, you want to turn this ups overall on, then only increased certain areas if they need to be increased. Okay, So I'm just going to let this render at a value off nine. And these are all on two. And then I'm gonna show you that Ren di. Okay, so that's finished. Let's have a look on. Just make sure it's on name recites. Okay, so this is the previous one. I'm just gonna delete this snapshot here and keep This is a snapshot. So this is with the setting. So four. And this is with nine. You could see how different lies. Okay, we still got some grain in this in this image. If you're using this as a still, sometimes that doesn't matter, because even photographs have grain. And in fact, they make him look better if he's got in a bit of grain. So that's actually quite nice. But if you want to get rid of the grain, you could see where it's coming from. So let's have a look. For example, if I look at the indirect diffuse and zoom in or the s s s, you could see that the SS has got some grain in it. So it's just a simple of matter Off increasing the samples on the as assess. This is the SS two sub surface scattering. So just just let me just go through each of these. So diffuse would be the indirect review. So not from the light, but the bouncing around light. So all this stuff, which is coming from bounce light, that would be for those samples glossy, would be for any blurry reflection. So including this reflection on this speculum on the board, this reflection on the on the metal and on the handle here. Okay. And some perfection on here, on on the reflection on the on the grapes as well. Okay, So any reflections, any blurred reflections, any speculum that's gonna be the colossi. OK, then you've got the refraction, which is anything bending through the objects, which is this stuff here. You don't normally have to increase that normally because it's sharp. You don't normally have to increase that. If you have a blood refraction, sometimes you have something like frosted glass. Then you would have to increase this a fair bit because you're gonna have a blurry refraction in there. So it's gonna blur the the thing that you see through there on it's gonna need more samples in order to do that. And then you've got s assess, which is, as I mentioned this stuff here and you can increase that. So let's just take that and turn it up. You've got volume in direct. This is Thean Direct lighting inside atmospheric lighting. Okay, so I've turned up on I'm also just going to turn up the camera sample to one more as well, just to increase that overall on DSI. How that looks just to see how long that previous render took. It took eight minutes. So not that long. So increasing this to 10 and you could increase it even more if you wanted to, because it's not too bad. I mean, this is only a 7 20 by 5 50 render. So obviously, if you times that by four, that's what you get for a sort of hedge d baby HD render. Okay, so that's gonna be a little bit more, But let's just see how this looks at Ah camera, A sample of 10 and an SS of three again. So that's rendered this. Keep that render and compare. So this is this is before you could see it says down here nine. And this is with 10 samples and that took 17 minutes. And this is the thing with honored just the last. If you a little bit of grain cost you quite a lot of render time, so you can see it's almost double the render time just to get rid of that Great. And if I zoom in a little bit, you can see here. That was before, and that's afterwards. Okay, If it's a still, maybe you could get away with this anyway. If it's moving, then it's a little bit more noticeable, so he probably would have to increase that. So I'm happy with that. I'm gonna leave it on 10 and three. So we've got 10 samples for camera and 34 SS. Just a note on this camera setting, and we can increase that beyond 10. You just type in whatever you want to. Okay, Obviously, 10 is quite high value. Just be careful with your render settings. It can increase exponentially as you increase. This is increases exponentially, so you can see, for example, the samples increase from ah from 1000 to 1300. And that's just one setting and just moving up by one sample. And depending on what you've got set here, they will increase at a higher rate. Okay, so just be careful. The higher these numbers are there will be multiplied by this number. So that's how this will increase. Okay, so I'm gonna go to file and then save this image. I'm going to save the color corrected version. It's called this final safe. If you want to. You can say that eggs are if you want to take into another program is an ex art that's up to you, and I'm going to save the final file as well. 24. Further information: in this lesson. I'm just going to give you some tips on where to go for further information. So first of all, we got the Arnold menu on in the help we've got the user guide on. That's really good. Okay, so, user guide and this is really good. It's got the tutorials, and it's got some areas where you might want to go. For example, shade er's surface and standard. And this will give you a little the details on the standard material so you can see different sections like diffuse speculative whatever. So, for example, forget to speculate. It would tell you what each setting does, and it's even got suggestions where different materials there for color on what What's going on with those settings? Okay, scope, everything documented there. Okay, so the other place you want to go is Al Shade er's. So if you just type in al sh aiders and that will come up, first thing will come up is the one you want of a click on all traders. Thistles. Basically, a set of shade is that somebody's created and they're really, really good. Basically, what they allow you to do is have a lot more control over your Iove, ease and certain other things. So you've got these extra nodes, which will allow you to color correct your textures and things like that inside the hyper shade, and also you'll be able to have more control over your V's. So, for example, in Arnold, the Defoe Arnold in your movies in the AI standard, you've got direct diffuse. But this diffuse is not split up into different sections, so you can't split up so that you can have just the color, just the texture and just delighting separately, whereas with the al shade as you can. Also, you can spit up your lights into different passes as well, and without setting anything up, you just gotta a section there for the different lights so you can have your different lights as a different ayovi, which is really handy in compositing so you can turn up one light and keep another light lower if you want to. So those are the sort of features that you get with Al Shade, Er's. It's all documented on here on how to install it and everything. It's got some tutorials and things so entirely recommend that you take a look at take a look at those. So that's the end of the course. Thanks for taking this course, and I hope you enjoyed it. It's designed as a walk through, so there's a lot of tutorials out there which tell you the individual buttons and things. But this is designed as a as an entire walk through, so that we create a scene and actually create something rather than just talking about the settings. So I hope it's useful for you. And if you've got any questions on the tutorials, just put them up on the Forum and the different lectures, and I'll be happy to answer them. Thanks very much for watching an hour talk to sit.