Introduction to Rigging in Maya 2022 | Nexttut | Skillshare

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Introduction to Rigging in Maya 2022

teacher avatar Nexttut, A Specialist in CG Tutorials

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Project Setup


    • 3.

      Groups and Hierarchy


    • 4.



    • 5.



    • 6.

      Robot Arm Joint Setup


    • 7.

      Robot Arm Skinning


    • 8.

      Robot Arm Controllers


    • 9.

      Robot Arm Clean Up


    • 10.

      Robot Arm Animation Test


    • 11.

      Bow Joint Setup


    • 12.

      Bow Skinning


    • 13.

      Bow Controller Setup


    • 14.

      Zombie Hand Retopology


    • 15.

      Zombie Hand Joint Setup


    • 16.

      Zombie Hand Skinning


    • 17.

      Zombie Hand Controller Setup


    • 18.

      Zombie Hand Animation Test


    • 19.

      Xahnbi Joint Setup


    • 20.

      Finishing Xahnbi Joint Setup


    • 21.

      Xahnbi Skinning


    • 22.

      Xahnbi Controller Setup


    • 23.

      Finishing Xahnbi Controller


    • 24.

      Xahnbi Animation Test


    • 25.

      Traps Rig


    • 26.

      Traps Rigs Bear Trap


    • 27.

      Soldier Leg Joints


    • 28.

      Soldier Torso Joints


    • 29.

      Soldier Head Joints


    • 30.

      Soldier Leg Setup


    • 31.

      Finishing Soldier Leg Setup


    • 32.

      Soldier Rotation Connections


    • 33.

      Soldier Foot Rotation Recap


    • 34.

      Soldier Spine


    • 35.

      Finishing Soldier Spine


    • 36.

      Soldier FK IK Arms


    • 37.

      Working on Soldier FK IK Arms


    • 38.

      Completing Soldier FK IK Arms


    • 39.

      Soldier Arm Clean Up


    • 40.

      Soldier Head Setup


    • 41.

      Soldier Clean Up


    • 42.

      Soldier Skinning


    • 43.

      Finishing Soldier Skinning


    • 44.

      Soldier Animation Test


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About This Class

Is this Class Right for Me: Hey Guys! Do you want to learn the secrets and techniques to rig your own 3D Assets? Would you like to understand the how's and whys of the rigging process? This class is for those who wants to rig their characters and props but don't have any rigging knowledge at all.

If that is the case then I welcome you to Introduction to rigging in Maya 2022 class. Throughout this class we will be exploring all the basic principles of rigging while learning the proper techniques to create efficient and flexible rigs. We will start with simple exercises to understand the main tools and concepts and we will then jump onto more advanced rigs.

In this class you will learn

  • Rigging Basics

  • Rigging Mechanical Objects

  • Rigging Characters and Creatures

  • Rigging Props

Instructor: My name is Abraham Leal, I am 3D Artist and producer and I have 8 years of experience in the industry. Currently I lead my own studio Critical Hit where we design and produce projects for the entertainment Industry.

Project Based Class: In this class we will work on multiple projects.

This class is aimed towards students with basic knowledge in Maya, however the tools that we will be covering are easy to grasp and easy to follow. We will be using Maya 2022 so make sure to have your software up to date. Join me and you will be rigging inside of Maya in no time.

Meet Your Teacher

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A Specialist in CG Tutorials


Welcome to Nexttut Education, We only create courses with highly talented professionals who has at least 5+ years off experience working in the film and game industry.

The single goal of Nexttut Education is to help students to become a production ready artist and get jobs wherever they want. We are committed to create high quality professional courses for 3d students. If you are a student learning from any local institution or a 3d artist who has just started working in the industry or an artist who has some years of experience, you have come to the right place.

We love you and your feedback. Please give us feedback on how we can make better courses for you and how we can help you in any ways.

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Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: Hey guys, would you like to learn the tips and tricks to read your own 3D assets? Would you like to understand the hows and whys of the reading process? If that is the case, then I welcome you to next is introduction to reading in Maya 2020. To throughout this course, we will be exploring all the basic principles to create a very flexible and optimize for it. We will start with very simple exercises that we'll support the basics of reading. And then we will move on to more complicated things like a character and eat again asking for. In this course, you will learn all about Maya heirarchy, proper use trains, using joins, steaming, and rig optimisation. This course is aimed towards students who have an intermediate level inside of Maya, however, we will be covering everything from strikes. So if you want to throw the shot, we're going to be covering all of the tools from the very basics, all the way to vet a very advanced stuff. We won't be using Maya 2022. So make sure you have your software up-to-date. Join me in this very course, and you will be reading inside of Maya in no time. 2. Project Setup: Hi guys, welcome to the first chapter in this new series. Today we're gonna start with a very fast setting up the project. So let's just jumped into it. I'm hearing Maya and as always, any time you're going to start a project, you want to make sure that all of your things are organized. Therefore, I'm going to go into File. I'm going to say Project window, and I'm going to create a new project. I'm going to call this next rigging. Now this one, I personally have several hard drives where I saved my stuff and I'm going to save this one right here on the, on the rigging folder. So what this will do is it will create the folder that will have all of the scenes, source images, sounds, I don't think that we might use throughout the series. It's going to be contained inside of this folder. And if I ever need to move it, of course, I'm just going to move the whole folder with everything inside of the foot and we're going to be just fine. That's the first thing I want you guys to do. Just make sure that your folder and your project is properly set up. Now, the next thing that we're gonna do, something that I usually don't do in other courses. We usually work with the stock software and no customization. But since most of you already have a little bit of background and my m, I'm going to be creating a new shelf here. So I'm going to press this button right here, this little like cogwheel. And I'm going to go here in say in your shelf, I'm going to call this entity has in the next reading, shelves cannot have spaces, so that's why I'm using a score. Okay, and we're going to have our rigging shelf here. So we're going to be adding tools as we go on. But I want to add some basic tools right now I'm going to go into Edit. I'm going to say Delete by Type and I'm going to press Control Shift and click on the button, which is going to be the little history. I'm also going to be adding, delete NANDA former history, which is going to be important. You're going to see that it says NH. So that's the former. Just keep that in mind. We're going to be using it later. I'm then gonna go into modify and we're going to click on center pivot, and we're going to click on Freeze Transformations. Those two elements are also going to be important for our, our work throughout the series. Now you might be wondering, well, I consider a little bit different from what we're used to, right? Like this guys have the blue icons. It's just visual. These are like the old icons and for some reason when you add them from the shelf, you get this. But if you want to have like this one's very quick way to do it, just go into Edit shelves, look for where this thing is located. Which I'm really big on the on the Icons folder. So yeah, we should be able to locate where this guy S. And again, if you go here and you right-click Edit, you can go to the shelf and change the button. That should be fine. We're going to be using planes quite a bit. So I'm also gonna go Create Polygon Primitives and we're going to add a plane right here. So there we go. And from tools we're not going to be using like traditional modeling tools. We're going to use edit, Sorry, create. We're also going to be creating the locators. So I'm going to Control Shift and click a locator. We're going to be using joints. So I'm going to go into the reading tab. I'm going to go into skeleton and I'm going to add the Create Joints option right there. We are going to be using the formers, a lot of the formers or sorry, constraints, a lot of constraints. So if you want to, this is not mandatory, but if you want to, we could add like the parent point, orient, scale, and pull vector constraints into our shelf. That way we don't have to go over here to do it every single time. Again, it's up to you. If not all of this are going to be here. By the way, if you're using Maya 2020 to remember that now we have the control f function, which is the Finder. It's a great tool because if I'm ever just like explaining something and I say go for alcohol, like the polygon draw tool or quadro tool. You can just go here quadro and it was going to point you directly to it. Okay, so Rambler Control F and you're going to be able to jump into the finder, which is this one right here. And that's all the constrains a scathing, I don't really mind. Like I don't think we're gonna be doing a skinning at first, so we can leave those out for now. There's one very, very important we're going to be looking at it in Chapter 2, which is the local rotation axis. And that thing is instead of Display Transform, Display Local rotation next is probably one of the most important ones. So I'm just gonna click there, and that's going to be the LRA. So just keep that in mind. Then you're going to click here. You're gonna save, save all shelves so that this shelf, East safe, and there we go. Now. Sorry, it's allergy season is over here and have a runny nose. So if you ever encounter an issue where you need to Reset Maja to the factory presets. You're going to navigate to documents maya, the version of Maya that you're working with. And you're going to delete all of these things. And when you open Maya again, it will recreate all of this things from scratch. And you should be able to fix pretty much all of the errors that you usually get. The only problem with this is that the preference folder, you have things such as the shelves that are going to be deleted. So if you're gonna do that and make sure to go here, look for the one that you want to save or the ones that you want to save, save them somewhere else, do the reset, and then just bring them back in and you should be you should be good again. So yeah, that's something that we're going to be using quite a bit. And that's it guys. That's pretty much it just for this quick setup, it's just a first making sure that everything is correct, everything is right. I am going to be working with the gray background. So you compress all the B on your keyboard to change the background here, there's one more thing, one more thing. And unfortunately this is something that you're going to have to be changing quite awhile or quite a bit. Bones in the newest my aversion have an issue where if you get really, really close or really, really far, sometimes they disappear, especially when there's geometry. Let me add like a cube here. And I'm going to turn on X-ray. So there's sometimes I've had this issue if that happens to you, which it's not happening right now. But if for some reason your bones disappear when you get really close, make sure you go into renderer Buber to 0. And here on the transparency algorithm you're gonna say alpha cut. Okay, I'm just hit Close and that's it. And that should save. And there we go. So we're ready to start working on some rigging. So prepare yourself, get ready and I'll see you back on the next one. 3. Groups and Hierarchy: Hey guys, welcome to the next part of this chapter. Today we're gonna talk about groups and heirarchy. So let's get to it. In order for us to understand how rigging words, we need to take a little bit of a dive into the history of 3D. It's gonna be really, really fast. So we don't really know that in the 3D production pipeline, which is a very common. I think if you've taken our intro to Maya course, you've probably seen this picture in the 3D production pipeline. We have something called the production part, which is this one right here. And usually we're going to have modeling, texturing, rigging, animation effects, and rendering. Rigging, as you can see here, is pretty similar to a puppeteer adding all of the leg lines and what's the word like? Courts and stuff to the, to the character, to the puppet so that you can move it. And the recent way we do that with characters is a characters are really, really complicated in regards to all of the amount of things that they can do. So adding all of these controllers gives the animators way more control over the way they're going to be animating the characters. I know it's very redundant, but that's the, that's the gift of it. So by adding all of these controllers, we're going to be able to pose, move, animate the characters that we want. And creating this controllers is a very technical process. One of the reasons why rigging is so or has such a bad reputation, I think, is because most of us are artists, like the visual part of things, right? So we'd like to model, we love to sculpt, we'd like to texture. And when they talked TO tunnels about like programming scripting and all of this technical parts of the 3D world. That's not something that we're really used to. However, my main goal throughout this course is I want to take away the fear of reading from you guys. So you can see that rigging, It's actually not that complicated. Once you properly understand what's going on. From my experience, I spent 10 years of experience that I have probably the first six years of my career. I did not touch rigging for anything like there was no way you could make me or work on rigging. And then due to necessity, I had to learn it and I've been using it ever since. So reading works through something called a heirarchy. We're going to be creating connections that will transfer attributes, that will control attributes from one thing to another. And there's three main things that you need to remember about this thing. We have three main like heirarchy groups. We have geometry. We have curves, which we also called controllers. And we have joints. Okay? Those are like the three main groups of things that we're gonna be working with. And the way they are connected, it's actually a very simple geometry, is controlled by joints. And joints are controlled by groups or controllers. Controllers. So hopefully you can see now that controllers are going to be like the masters of this thing. Because whether it happens to the controller is going to be transferred to the joint and the joint, whether it happens to the joint is going to be transferred to the geometry. So this is kind of like cyclical thing. We're going to be looking at. It's going to be really, really important. But before we jump into controllers, groups are joints and geometry. We need to talk about groups. And groups are one of those things that everyone knows how to use, or at least everyone has used before if you're already familiar with Maya. But sometimes there are a couple of concepts of people don't understand. So a group, if I press Control G and I group this character or this little sphere right here. This sphere is now something called a, has something called a parent. This group is the parent of the sphere, and wherever it is grouped does the sphere will follow. So if I move the group, as you can see, I'm selecting the Grubhub. I move it up and down, left and right, front and back. I scale it or I rotate all of the group. The group will get transformations on its transformation notes. This fear will copy those transformations without being affected on its own. So this is something that we call a world or RA and orientation. I think the proper noun as the axis orientation. So for instance, this character right here, did this fear. It has its own world. If I press W and then click on the sphere, I can change the orientation to object. And you're going to see that this fear, even though it has no rotations and no translation, it remembers that he's like up and down is this way, he's front and back is this way. And his left and right this, this way, which is not line to the Maya world. The group, however, since we wrote it in this whole phase, now also shares the same rotation as a sphere, which is not the same as that world. Now if I grab this group right here and I freeze the transformation, what's going to happen is I'm going to erase all of this transformations. And now this is the new world that this group is following. But the sphere, since it's a son of this parent, will inherit that thing as well and need for God, as you can see here, it for God that its orientation was a different one. So every single object will have its local orientation, local rotation, and they will have a rotation based on whatever the parent object is. Now going back a little bit and I know this is a little bit of theory and might be a little bit confusing. We're gonna do some exercises to make sure that this, It's very clear. But going back a little bit, every single object that we have inside of Maya has something called a transformation note, which is this thing right here. Okay? So if I grab this guy right here and I go into Windows and note editor, denote that that is something that we're going to be using quite a bit as well. And I select this cube and I map out the input and output connections, you're going to see that we have a poly cube note that's giving it the cute properties, a cube shape that's giving it the mesh properties and initial shading group. And actually, where's the where's the shading group? That's really weird. Let me delete history and let's try again. That's where usually I'm not sure why it's not showing or renumber. Usually we would get the transformation note in here. Should be this one. That's weird. Anyway. Every single object that you can manipulate here inside of Maya will have something called a transformation that, which is this one right here. And the transformation though, will allow us to move, rotate, and scale the object in the 3D world, a group, if I press Control G without selecting anything, we create this null one, which is an empty group. The group is pretty much just a transformational and this little icon, the red arrow with a plane. That's the icon for a transformation note, so this group right here has a transformation look, but it has nothing inside of it. One of the reasons why groups are not super efficient for certain things is we can't select them. Say like there is no shape on the, on the, on the world that we can select. We can of course elected, we're here, but we can't select it directly on Maya, so that's just one of the things. Now, Regan goes very hand in hand with animation, of course, like we wouldn't need rigging if we were not going to animate things. So throughout this series we will be doing some very basic animation exercises. If you have very little experience, don't worry, these are just super simple animation things just to test out the race. So let's start with our first exercise. Well, I'm going to create here is a little bit of a solar system. So I'm going to start with a sphere here, which is going to be my son. I'm going to duplicate it, move it around. This is going to be the Earth. I'm going to duplicate it again, move it around, and this is going to be my mood. Okay? So we have three little spheres here, rigging, and I'm going to repeat this three types of the UK's do not forget rigging an organization or organization in reading ease, essential organization in reading is essential. Organization in rigging is essential. I needed to repeat that because I need to be super, super clear about this. You need to be super organized when you are reading a very simple mistake, something that's named wrongly, something that's not properly aligned, something that's not in the right place. All of those things will break your rig and it will make learning reading very difficult. So you need to be very, very persistent and very, very disciplined in the way we do this. Thanks. Okay, think about this as following a cooking recipe. You won't be able to have a lot of changes on the things that we're gonna be doing. Okay? So the first thing I'm gonna do to clean this thing is I'm going to delete the history freeze transformation center built on. Let's go to our thing here. So we have our elements and we're going to rename very important. So I'm going to call this sum underscore GO, because this is a geometry, we will have other things that are going to be named sun. And that's why we need to add that little flag there to make sure that we understand that, that the geometry, this is going to be earth underscore GO and this is going to be Moon underscore GO. Now, just to make this thing a little bit nicer, you're gonna find this on your under source images, but I'm going to get some textures. So I'm gonna get a Sun texture. And the cool thing is this guy right here, this is perfectly fine. Even though it's rectangular, it's just compressed to what we neither inside of Maya. So let's go here. Of course we always go to a project source images. Let's call this sun texture. And it looks for Earth texture. They get any, any one of this is fine. Let's call this, oh, wait, this is, I don't know why sites nowadays like upload things in this like very weird format. Slab web, P, BMP or I don't know whether this, and let's go for moon texture real quick. There we go. So the cool thing about this is all of the planets, heavy texture. You can pretty much build the whole solar system with this. And I'm just going to go here. I'm going to assign 0. Careful here, see how by accident, I added a keyframe here. I don't need that just yet, so I'm just going to click, right-click and I'm going to see break a connection, so there's no connection and everything is clean. I'm going to grab this guy now, right-click, assign a new material. We're going to assign a Lambert. And the Lambert, we also need to rename that I'm going to call this m underscore sun. So that same material on the color, I'm going to plug in a file, and I'm just going to select the texture. I can press number 6 now. And we're going to see the texture very nicely. We're going to do the same thing for the earth. So right-click, assign new material, Lambert, and we're going to rename this. Remember, organization is key, so we're going to rename this earth. So I don't only some material. And we're gonna go here. We're going to load the Earth texture. There we go. And finally, we're gonna go with the moon. So assign new material. Lambert, we're going to say M underscore mood. And we're also going to be adding the nice little material here. So all of this materials you should have on your source image so that you don't have to go looking for them. And there we go. So we have this very nice little setup. Now, if I were to ask you, please, and they made this thing so that the moon rotates around the earth. The earth rotates around the song, the song rotates or whatever, you probably might go. I'll just going to grab this guy and start rotating them and animating and yeah, that would be perfectly fine. However, if we want to work in the proper way, we need to create a small rig is more bring that will control the way things are going to be moving. One of the first rules that I'm going to make you guys follow is we're not going to be animating the geometry. So I'm going to grab all of the channels from the, from the geometries. And I'm going to say Lock selected. So now we can't move it. There's no way we can move these guys because they're locked. So that means that we're going to have to create something else, something new to be able to move and manipulate those guys. And what I'm going to create here is I'm going to create a group. So I'm going to start with here. Let's do a very basic earth rotation on its own axis. I'm going to select this thing right here. I'm going to Control G to group it. And we're gonna get this first group. At this group, we're going to call it earth rotation on their score group. Now, the only problem that I see here is that the pivot point of the group rotation is inside of the song. So if I were to rotate and animate this group, we're going to get this and that's not going to work. So what I need to do is I need to grab this rotation group and I'm going to hate center. Whenever you have an object inside of a group and you're sent to the pivot point dependent will be centered to where the center of the object is, because the object is the most important thing inside of the group. So as you can see now, the Earth is, it has its pivot point in the very center. Now let's animate this real quick. I am going to go to frame 1. I'm going to hit S to animate the group. So you can see we're animating the group, not a Jew. And then we're going to go all the way to frame a 120. I'm going to say I want the earth to turn to ice. So I'm going to say 720. Now, if I hit play where they have a very small issue, where things go very fast and then they kinda slow down and then start again. I want this to be a little bit more like linear. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to grab the group, not the geo do group. I'm gonna go Windows animation Editors, Graph Editor. And in the graph editor, I usually have like tucked in there on the top, but I'm going to go here. I'm gonna go to rotation, select the both little crystals and we're gonna make them linear. So now with the rotation of the Earth is going to be completely linear. And as soon as that finishes, it's just going to continue on the same thing. So it's going to be like a, like a cycle. There we go. We have a very nice rotation on the earth. However, we have a problem. We want to make sure that this or rotation or this earth rotates around the sun. And unfortunately, we don't have enough channels here to animate a new rotation going around the sun. And also the pivot point is not situated in the center of the sun, so we can't really create a new rotation. This is where the hierarchy comes into place. When we have several groups in a hierarchy, in a little chain, we're going to be able to transfer and add up the different attributes that are going to give us more flexibility in our animations. So I'm going to grab the Earth here. I mean, if you control G again, and now we're grouping the group, as you can see here. And we're going to call this earth translation GRP. Okay, So now the next group, which is a parent of the first group which has a parent of the geometry, has it split point on the center of the sun, which is perfect because we can now animate this first group going from frame one to frame a 120 and doing 360 degrees of a church. Now, this group, we're also gonna go to the Graph Editor. We're also going to go into the rotation and we're also going to linearize this thing like this. So now when we hit play, what's going to happen is this first group is going to rotate around the Sun. The second group is going to rotate on the axis of this fear and everything else is just going to follow. And if we did things correctly, we're going to get this. So again, we're able to get this nice little behavior here because we have a hierarchy. We're creating this chain of parents that are going to be controlling different aspects of our animation. And usually when you're doing a Cherokee, you're gonna go from the specific to the general. So big movements are going to be the big curves, that ones that are going to control everything. And then the smaller curves are going to be controlling specific smaller parts of the whole thing. Now, we want to make sure that the moon follows the Earth as well. We don't want the Earth to go on its own, right? So I'm going to select the Moon and I'm going to group it. And I'm going to call this moon translation underscore GRP. The only problem is that this translation group is here on the center of the sun. So even though we could make it so that it goes around the sun in 360 degrees. I actually wanted to go several times around the Earth. And to do that, I need to move this pivot point to the center of the moon, but of the Earth. How do we do that? Well, of course, we're going to press our letter D in the keyword. And then by pressing the letter V, we're going to be able to snap the point like this. So now the point is snap to the center of the Earth. You can see it right there and we can animate this thing. So I'm gonna go here, frame one. And let's say that as, as the thing goes, I want this thing to do three turns around the year, so it's going to be 1080. There we go. So if we hit Play, we're gonna get this. So the Moon is indeed doing three turns around the place where the earth is supposed to be. But the problem is the earth is going on it's own journey around the Sun and we're not following. And the reason again, is due to the heirarchy, depending on which things is parented, where we're gonna get different results. Now I'm gonna go this for this guy and just blend this curve well, quick scrub to the seed crystals and flood occurred so that the rotation is constant. And what we're gonna do is with middle mouse, we're going to drop this inside the translation of the earth. So wherever this translation move, not only our moves, not only is the earth going to follow, the moon is also going to follow, the moon is going to follow at the same distance where the earth is. So if we take a look at the animation, we're going to have this. Got it. So the moon is rotating around the Earth. The Earth is rotating around itself. And the, what's the word the world or the, sorry, the sun is the point at which both of those things are rotating around. Okay, now we're gonna do one final moment because I want this to be a little bit more fancy. I'm going to grab the sudden I'm going to press Control G. And in this group, what I'm gonna do is I'm actually going to select the earth translation group and I'm going to get it in there. So now we have group 1, which is going to be, let's call this sun rotation underscore group. And this is the one that we're going to move now what I wanna do, so I'm actually going to ink, gave it a little bit of an inclination here. I don't want everything to be flat in the same orbit. I want to have this sort of like this, this shape. And we're going to rotate this, Let's say ten degrees. And now the rotation is going to go from here. So a 121 times one as well. So 360. And we're of course going to go to Windows animation Editors, Graph Editor. We're going to grab everything here and just flat. So since this group is a parent of everything else, this ten degrees of rotations that this group has is V01 inherited to everyone else in the, in the little changes only heirarchy that we have here. And when we hit play, you're going to see that we get this very cool looking effect where things are rotating in this plane without me having to modify the rotation, the Z rotation on anything else, right? Because this, the main group that's controlling everything is inheriting or giving this rotation to everyone else in the chain. This is the, probably the most important thing that I want you guys to remember from this particular little exercise, every single thing that's on a chain will be inheriting the information of whatever and whoever is on top of it. So if you do a modification all the way at the top of the hierarchy, everyone else is going to suffer or it's going to be benefited. I think that's a better word. It's going to benefit from that transformation. Okay? So groups are going to be super important because you're going to be able are they're going to allow us to store the same amount of transformation information. And they will allow us to keep the geometry clean. And here are key will be useful to make sure that every single thing in the chain inherits the proper information. Now, if you want to, this is a homework that I gave my students whenever I teach trigging. If you want to, the homework is to try and do this same thing, but with two more plants, you choose the ones that you want it to be Mars, it could be Venus, it could be Jupiter. You can add as many moons or rings or whatever you want. And if you want, you can try having legs slightly different orbits and see if you can get it to where it's a little bit of a challenge, but it's not that difficult. It's just a matter of planning properly. You are properly planning all of your hierarchy here. So that's it for this video, guys. I'll see you back on the next one. We're going to be talking about joints and why they are important. So hang on tight and I'll see you back in the next one. Bye. 4. Joints: Hey guys, welcome back to the next part of this series. Today we're going to continue with joints. We're going to explore what joints are and how we're going to be using them. So it joins are one of those organization things that we're going to be using inside of the rigging world. You can find them on the rigging tab, on the skeleton and create joints. And also here on the rigging tab you have this create joints. And as we did in the first video, we created this button here to easily access joins. Now I'm going to, I'm going to double-click the tool here to show you a couple of things. I'm going to reset this and this are the normal things that the joints will do. As you can see, we will have three degrees of freedom. So they're going to be an object that we're going to be able to rotate in three degrees, x, y, and z. We don't want one that asymmetry is Scaled Composites. That's fine. So all of this is working fine. The thing that's going to be most important is this thing right here. We're going to enter a, again, another part of the theoretical thing about rigging, but it's actually very easy. So we're going to have something called a primary axis, something called a secondary axis. And that's secondary axis. We're going to be orienting to a different position or choice specific position, in this case, a positive y. Now, here's something that I like to do is in the border-radius. I always like to keep my bone radius set to 11 so that they're always the same because otherwise you get different size of bones. And even though that doesn't affect anything, it looks weird. So I personally changed the short bone radius and the long-run radios both to a unit of one. So I'm going to turn on the camera. And for justice, I can usually, usually we don't do this to keep all of the information onscreen, but I'm going to do that because it's actually a very little bit more graphical when I do this. So let me switch to full screen. There we go. Okay guys. So we need to understand that every single time, every single time that we're working in 3D world, there's three axis, right? We have x and y, or x, which is left and right. We have y, which is up and down, and we have C, which is the depth, forward and backwards. The way bones work is we will be orienting. We will be rotating the bones in such a way that the bones are always pointing to the next bone. That Ax is that they're going to be using to point towards is going to be called the primary axis. So let's say that my arm is my x axis, my head is my y-axis, and this arm, my left arm is my c-axis. If I tell you guys, I'm going to be pointing towards that area with my x axis. I just pointed that way, right? Now we know that the three axis are always going to be 90 degrees, right? Because they need to be 90 degrees. We always use this sort of shape on our fingers as well. Very useful. But I'm using my whole body just to show you the whole thing. So if I point my arm to that way, and then I say I'm going to orient my y-axis to the why of the world. I'm just going to keep my head like this. But I could say, Hey, you know what? I want to point my head that way, my x axis that way, but I want to keep my y-axis flipped so I can't do it right now, but that will flip completely. And then my head will be pointing towards the floor and my arm would still be pointing in that direction. Okay. At the c-axis, the last axis, we never, we never pointed axis anywhere because as soon as you orient to axis of a three-degree element, the other axis is just going to go on the right and it's going to try to find the best way to accommodate that self because he needs to keep the nine degrees between all of the axis. Got it. So let's go back. I'm going to show you now on the what's the word on the Miocene. So it's a little bit easier to find. So if I start just clicking on the ground, you're going to see that we create all of these bones. Now you can see that inside the bones There's a little bit of a gizmo there, just the lines showing us how they are pointing towards each other. Now to make sure that we see all of them at the same time, I'm going to grab all of these guys, and I'm going to click on this bundle, which is the one that we created in the first video, the local rotation axis, which by the way, you can find on Display, Transform Display Local rotation axis. It's just going to grab this whole thing, select this thing, and there we go. So now we can see that each bone is following a very specific configuration. Each bone is pointing with each, with its x axis to the next bone. So X, x, X, x X. Now why is that? Why do we need that? Well, if we want to move the whole chain and we want to rotate the whole chain. One thing we can very easily do is we can grab any of the bones. And if we rotate the y-axis, in this case, everything's going to be rotating very nicely. If we wrote it on the x axis, It's as if we were rotating on the, on the direction of the bone. And finally the c-axis. You can see that the c-axis is the crazy one because it's just trying to go wherever it again to make sure it follows the other two axis. And that's a rule that we're going to be following. Always, whenever we choose bones, we want them to be pointing to the next bone. And we want their local rotation axis to remain as clean as possible. So let me show you another example. Let's create like a very single bone chain here. Let's imagine this could be like a tail or it could be like a rope or something. And it's going to select all of the bones here in the outliner and activate the local rotation axis. And you can see that all of the rotation axis are very nicely set up, very nicely laid out because right now they're sharing the same orientation as the world. They're going all towards the x, all towards the sea and also worst away. But we can change this like let's say this is now no longer a rope and it's more like a, like a car, like a finger. If I select all of the bones here and I give them a little bit of rotation on the, on the y-axis to curl them up. Now, all of them are still following the same rule that we have. They're all pointing towards each other. They're just following one and the other. However, now they're not, they're no longer aligned to the world. They are following their own little like local rotation axis. Okay? So very, very important that we understand that each bone will have a rotation axis and we need to make sure that the bones are pointing towards the next bones and that the rest of the axis are as cleanly and S lined up as possible. Now, why our bones important? Why are we using bones instead of using groups? One of the reasons is bones actually exist that they have a shape. You can see that the shape of a bone is different than the shape of a group. And we can select bones so that makes it a little bit easier to work with. And the bones have two more properties that are really, really important. The first of these properties is the fact that they're going to be able to create something called a bind skin. So we're going to be able to create a fake skin that's going to be glued towards this bones. And each bone will be able to control and influence a different part of that skin in different ways. When we get to skinning, we'll take a look at that. But for now it's just important that you understand that bones have the ability to create a Bind Skin. Groups do not. So the skin we're going to find here, we're going to do that later on. The other property, the bones haven't. It's a very, very interesting is the following. If we go to the attribute editor of the bones, you're gonna see that on the Transform options there is this thing called a joint orient, okay? Again, this is something that only joints have not, not, not there's no other shaping Maya that has this joint orient option. And the joint orient is very cool because it allows us to freeze the transformations on the bones to keep a very clean Hebrew clean rotation here, making sure that the rig works very nicely without resetting the orientation to the world. Because remember whenever we have an object like this cube, we can always turn on the local rotation axis for the cube as well. So that's the local religion, ethics face of the cube. If we rotate the cube around, it has like the local religion aphasic axis of the cube is no longer aligned to the world of Maya, right? And if we freeze the transformation, what's going to happen is that that local rotation axis is going to reset and it's going to match the local rotation of the war rotation of Maya again, which for some things it's very useful, but for what we're doing, a hearing or reading, it's not going to help at all. So that's why we're going to need joints. Because when we select the joints here, like all of this joints, we can freeze the transformations. And you can see that now the rotations of the joints are zeroed out, which are very clean and are going to be very useful for the skinning and Reagan process. But there is no, there was no change on the local religion x is they, they kept that they are local rotational axis. And the reason why they kept it is because that information that we have done the rotation is now saved on that joint orient, as you can see down here. So it's kind of like like a safekeeping of the orientation. It's a little place where we can hide the true orientation of the bone without contaminating the normal rotation that we see here. Again, very, very useful. Now, you can see that there are a couple of translations that did not freeze. We don't have any freeze transformation here on the under translations. Why is that? Well, remember that we talked in the past video that every single time you have an object being connected to another object, three normal parent. What's going to happen here is that they're going to be inheriting certain information. So when we see this bone here, the first bone, this information is telling us that this bone is negative two units away from the c-axis and negative two units away from the x-axis. So it's on this position right here. This bone is 3.0578 units away in the x-axis from this guy. So the distance between this bone and this bone is 3.057. Now this one is, well, it's 4.992 units away in the x axis, this axis. So it's taking into account this axis, not the world, not Maya's, this bone which is its parents. So taking into account that the world of the parent, I'm only 4.9 units away from that origin, so that's my new origin. Think of it as a specific origin for each part of the chain. Got it. So so that's the basics of joints here. That's the, that's the main thing that we need to understand. There's a couple of rules that we're going to be doing here. And we're gonna be talking about this once we go into more in-depth examples. But one of the ones that I want to talk about is do not and I repeat, do not move joints. Whenever you're working with joints, if you buy any accident or by any chance, move a joint with translation. What's going to happen is that the local rotation axis of the previous joint is going to break. See that? So now this bone is no longer pointing toward this bone. Is that really, really, really, really, really messes up things. So usually, usually you will not want to move joints like that. If you place your joints and they're not exactly where you want, what you are allowed to do is you can rotate the joints and you can scale them. If we scale on the x-axis, you can see we're pushing the joint away. So if it's too far, too close, we can use the x axis to push the joint away. And we're going to be able to properly place the joint where we need it to be. That way as you can see, the information it's not broken. We still have our old rotational axis and the axes are pointing where they should be pointing. So we're in a good position there. The only thing that you need to do once, if you do that, Where were you scale and rotate things around is of course you're gonna do a freeze transformation afterwards to make sure that the scales and the rotations remained at CO. That's a very common mistake. Sometimes when you have several bones, I'm going to give you an example here. Let me duplicate this chain. And I'm going to press Shift P to M parented. Now, if I were to scale this joint for whatever reason and if I tried to parent this to this one, you're going to see that sometimes didn't happen this case, but sometimes we get a transformation note in-between them because it's trying to compensate for that scale difference. So very important that every time you do this, you phrase the transformation on the bones to make sure that things are working the way we want. Now, the bones can actually inherit things, or we can actually parent things to the bones in a very easy way. So for instance, if I, let's say I want to create like a, like a reptile tail or something like a mechanical tail. So I'm going to do this. And let's just duplicate this cube and keep it a little bit of rotation. Maybe I have like a, like a robot chimp or something. And we got this thing right here. Okay, so we grab 12345. So what we can do is we can go into rigging and then we create the very simple rig going to the middle points of this little tail to connect without using skinning. If we want to connect withou