Introduction to Designing Imaginary Architecture | Elwira Pawlikowska | Skillshare

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Introduction to Designing Imaginary Architecture

teacher avatar Elwira Pawlikowska, Illustrator / Designer at Grim Dream

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      00 Introduction


    • 2.

      01 Frequently Made Mistakes


    • 3.

      02 Inspirations and Creative Process


    • 4.

      03 Wooden Huts


    • 5.

      04 Wooden Huts - CASE STUDY


    • 6.

      05 Town Houses


    • 7.

      06 Town Houses - CASE STUDY


    • 8.

      07 Castles - General Structure


    • 9.

      08 Castles - Obstacles


    • 10.

      09 Castles - Details


    • 11.

      10 Castles - Case Study


    • 12.

      11 Cathedrals - General Structure


    • 13.

      12 Cathedrals - Details


    • 14.

      13 Cathedrals - Arches, Doors, Windows


    • 15.

      14 Cathedrals - Case Study


    • 16.

      15 Summary


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About This Class

In this class, an architect by education and a concept designer by profession Elwira Pawlikowska will guide you how to create your very own, imaginary buildings based on centuries of architectural thought. In about 45 minutes, with the help of intricate hand drawings and the whole mass of interesting (and sometimes surprising) facts you’ll gain a better understanding of building structures and elements and learn how to avoid common “traps” in creating building concept designs.

Materials in this class are focused on historical/fantasy domains, but the knowledge provided here can be used in a much broader context.

This course is aimed at aspiring and more advanced game designers, illustrators and all of you interested in creating your own worlds.

Even if you are a “passive” enthusiast of historical or fantasy architecture and hand drawings, you are more than welcome, to take a look at these videos

Meet Your Teacher

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Elwira Pawlikowska

Illustrator / Designer at Grim Dream


Hi there! I'm Elwira - an illustrator and concept designer. After getting master's degree in Architecture I started GRIM DREAM - a brand focused on hand-drawn illustrations in an old school, vintage style. I cooperate with game companies, book publishers, and musicians.

I find my inspirations in works of Old Masters, fantasy books, heavy, melodic music and long walks in the woods. My favorite themes are related to steampunk, middle ages, and architecture in general.

In 2017 I got silver "A' Design Award" for concept designs of Rampage System.

Here, on Skillshare, I'm sharing my knowledge and experience I gained during my university studies and my professional career related to designing and drawing architectural objects.

Feel free to contact me: elwir... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. 00 Introduction: Innovative. Hi, I'm Adelaide, a public school. I'm an architect by education, but I worked as a freelance illustrator and concept designer. In this class, I will share with you tips and knowledge crucial, enjoying imaginary architecture. It's really hard, if not impossible, to draw a feasible building if we don't know how to live in such environment could look like or if we don't understand its structure and technical solutions, we will focus on historical fantasy style means realms, usually inspired by medieval and primitive L times. However, many of those steps can be useful in a broader context. We will take a look at various building types from primitive wooden heads, the Gothic cathedrals. Besides discussing individual types of buildings, I'll draw your attention to the epic fails in architectural drawings, which you should definitely avoid, but which occurs surprisingly often even in a commercial games and book illustrations. I hope to see you in this class. I'll do my best to answer your questions regarding this course and to give you some tips and personal feedback on your drawings and designs. 2. 01 Frequently Made Mistakes: I didn't want to waste their time. So I will go straight to the point of this lesson, which is avoiding frequently made mistakes in drawing imaginary architecture. It is said that we learn best from our own mistakes. However, I suppose that it's a little bit faster The learn from mistakes of other people. That's why I've made for you, especially list of such mistakes. Number one, wrong proportions. We've probably all seen these oddities on a few illustrations or designs. Absurdly narrow buildings with doors that are too low. Windows placed on the wire tie or whole stories for dwarves. The easiest way to avoid that is drawing a mess silhouette. Let's call him an exclamation guy, right next to the building. Let's say that the exclamation guy is 175, almost six feet high. This means that most of the buildings will have a story including the ceiling and floor, about twice higher than the guy. Some of them may be a little bit lower, like in the case of an uptick, but without exaggeration. And some of them, like taverns, not mentioning temples, should be much higher. In general, doors should be a little bit higher than our guy. With just a few exceptions, which I will discuss in the next lessons. Standard window seals should be placed just above the middle high of the exclamation guy. Sometimes even without a human reference, we can see that there are some issues with the building size. Elements like windows, doors, or materials like bricks, roof tiles, or wooden beams, should give us some idea of the size of the building. If you want to draw a really huge fantasy building, something truly overwhelming, It's totally fine to bend the proportions in this direction. Actually, many 19th century artists who even aware and fantasy artists were applying these trig and the results were just amazing. Take for example, a Scottish painter, David Roberts. For generating buildings are quite a heavy. And usually they are meant to serve really long. So individual elements have to be able to create a durable construction. We should especially remember this when drawing historical architecture. As materials used, there were quite simple. What stone eventually breaks. There were no fancy or relatively thin materials, such as laminated timber or reinforced concrete. Each architectural element has its thickness. And the building elements in ancient and medieval times, we're usually substantial and clearly visible. Construction arrows. I will not bore you with all the info about flexural strength or load transfer mechanisms. In the next lessons, I will try to make you aware of structures which would be just infeasible under given conditions? Anyway, don't feel blocked from drawing in fear of making mistakes. Just draw conclusions from them. And yeah, be glad to have land something like neon. To make you even happier. I will tell you that there are many other ways to make mistakes in designing imaginary architecture. But don't worry, in the next few lessons you will get to now how to avoid even those mistakes and what's even more important, you will get some inspiration. 3. 02 Inspirations and Creative Process: Before we move to the specific types of buildings, I just have to say a few words about inspiration and references. I was acquainted with the history of architecture in a hard way, namely through studying at the Faculty of Architecture and learning by heart, plants, cross sections, and elevations of the whole mass of historical buildings. Of course, this effort is not required from an illustrator or concept designer. However, it won't hurt to read a book or two about the history of art and architecture. Even if you are planning to focus entirely on fantasy environments. If you would like, for example, to create an urban village, It's good to understand slender and spiky Gothic constructions and Art Nouveau details. You've probably noticed many historical references in movies like Lord of the Rings. If you haven't, you may be focused on a specific period of time. Though, it's good to know what the influence had previous styles on this dial, you are so interested in. A general overview of the history of architecture can be more helpful than you may expect. It would also allow understanding why some elements are structures look the way they did. And what was the purpose in creating specific architectonic details or urban solutions. Even though I have quite a lot references in my head, I also have a collection of them on my computer where they are placed in many clearly named folders. Some artists also print the reference photos and place them in binders or make marks in there plenty of many books. If you are planning to use doors from one reference photo, windows from another one, and the roof from the third one doesn't do it. I can clearly explain why, but just don't. Your environment should be your design and not a copy paste collage, which could be made by a cleverly in computer program. My creative process looks like that. Maybe you would find a method more convenient for you. Brainstorming. I can look at hundreds of various images more or less related to the subject. For example, when not so long ago, I was designing door. When doors I broke even through our most with Caltech motifs. The most striking images are saved in my folders. So I could go through them once more. Thumbnail sketches. Some designers make about 50 camp nail sketches before they go to the next more detailed stage. However, I make about three or four of them. At this stage, I only look at references. Detailed pencil or in-vitro link, which is based only on my company and sketches. I don't look at references to avoid the copy-paste effect. Though the general idea of this petal and atmosphere remains lots of tucking and only a few drawings. In the next lessons, it will change. 4. 03 Wooden Huts: Let's start exploring primitive L and medieval architecture. This lesson concerns simple and poor, would enhance sounds boring. Maybe, that such primitive hats can be infected. Very picturesque subject. And they appear in many fantasy video games, books, and movies. Usually the whole adventure begins in just such environment. So let's begin. Actually, many early medieval hats were just simple pit houses or earth lodges. But we will focus on a little bit more sophisticated dwellings. Walls were usually built from massive blocks connected to each other in quite fancy ways. Gaps in the walls well sealed with most and clay. Probably the first one is associated with the most primitive solution. It may be a good idea to exercise drawing all these joints before drawing the whole building. Another ancient wooden wall construction was a Boston plank structure. In the areas of today's Poland. Similar constructions were present even in eighth century before Christ. On the white ground beams, growth poles were set. These polls were connected with specifically cut horizontal beams. Part of walls could be also with from tweaks. Quite popular option in the case of baking houses. What could be done covered with doubt? How about roofs? They were a large part of the whole body of the building. There are a few ways to design them. And in my humble opinion, this one is most impressive. On forked polls. Partially buried in the ground along the horizontal beam was placed. The next step was placing structural beams in the direction of the roof. More slender beams were placed perpendicularly to the structural beams. And finally, the whole structure was covered with straw. From the outside, we could see protruding beams. This construction was first known in Slavic tribes, but in the 11th century it became very popular also in Scandinavia. This means, however, that if you are planning to draw an air leaking house from, let's say, the 19th century. It's probably not the best idea to choose this structure. The other option is a roof construction based on gable walls. Long horizontal beams are placed at spaced intervals. Above them. There is obviously roof covering, which can be simply made of grass or wooden planks placed in the roofs direction along horizontal beam with a fancy sculpting on the top of the roof will add some extra character. Here is a very popular, even nowadays, rafter construction. Well today it's maybe a little bit more refined. This bottom beams are logs were placed at more or less regular intervals and they were connecting Cloud bearing calls. Here I presented quite a simple way of transferring clouds. Though in the case of churches are wealthy city houses, the construction could be more sophisticated like this one, for example. Remember, the larger number of protruding structural elements, the more interesting the hat looks. An important note. Don't be afraid to emphasize the mass of the elements is they were massive. Doors in huts built in Dark Ages and later in the Middle Ages were really low. Despite the popular view. The reason for that was not the high of people leaving them. Actually, an average high of a man in medieval Europe was about five feet, seven inches, which means that these people were nearly as high as people living today. The real reason for low doors was a need to keep houses as close as possible. If there was a window opening, it was really small. The window could be closed with wooden shutters, are covered with animal blood or skin. However, very often, there are no windows at all. And the only source of light were tiny gaps in walls and a small coal. So yes, strangely dark there. Another oddity was a high doorstep. In so-called pagan times, ashes of family members were buried under the doorstep. Their spirits guarded the house. Greeting over the doorstep could make them angry or even bring evil powers from the outside world to the house. That's where even today people avoid groupthink over the doorstep, at least in many parts of Europe. In the next lesson, I will discuss an illustration based on the knowledge handed in this video. 5. 04 Wooden Huts - CASE STUDY: Here is the first case study in this course, an example of an illustration based on the infant from the previous video dedicated to simple medieval origin hats. I titled it Islamicate. As it presents, a had built in the construction used widely by Slavic tribes, but later also known in other parts of Europe. The one with forked polls supporting the main roof beam. Let's imagine a hunter and think mythical creatures living in a deep primeval forests. He lives somewhere in the swamps in a hat proudly decorated with some of his trophies. Remember when I was talking about very small doors and no, or very small windows? Well, I remembered about it anyway. Behind the hat, there is also a shed where our hunter can keep supplies and process the animals. Of course, you wouldn't be able to hand all these incredible creatures without the help of the upper fourth. In this case, they got paren, depicted understand, surrounded by smaller stones with magic symbols. That's the general idea I came up with. During drawing this illustration. I usually come up with ideas of what should be drawn during the process of drawing, not before that. So if you didn't know what to draw, just grab a pen and paper and start with the horizon line. And some basic composition. Maybe the Enlightenment will come. Some just a final thought. Wouldn't elements, other components made of natural almost roof materials don't have to be geometrically perfect, especially in the case of a quite primitive architecture. The touched roof also requires regular repairs. So we can see some level of deterioration here. And that's all for now. But in the next video, you will get to know more about medieval townhouses. 6. 05 Town Houses: In this lesson, I will tell a little bit about tenement houses flanking narrow, crowded, and while they're the streets in medieval towns, when it comes to medieval city houses, there are two very characteristic construction techniques and both looked exactly the same after plastering. In both cases, the construction was made of wooden beams and Poles were fulfilling, could be made of bricks, in the case of Prussian walls, or a combination of clay, sand, straw, and animal dung. In the case of wattle and daub technique, we can see massive beams on the foundation and on the top of poles. Horizontal beams can be added also right under and over windows. Polls were placed quite densely. Everyone 1.5 meter corner will strengthened with diagonal beams. In the case of medieval buildings, more is more. So we can also add this quite cute short beams creating eggs under and over the windows. We can play a little with different materials using a logical gradation of materials burden. And so for example, the bottom part of walls could be made of stones. Higher. We could design Prussian walls. And finally allowed an attic. Don't worry if our medieval house looks a little bit grotesque and chaotic because of some additions, are randomly placed windows. Such shortcomings fit Medieval Ages very well. Roofs were rather sloping, 45 or even more degrees. They were covered with ceramic tiles, slate or wooden shingle. Fancy chimneys can also be a nice visual addition to the roof. Many rooms needed their own fireplace hitting. So chimneys where usually grouped, like in this example. I drew this from imagination, but they really could be so extravagant. In the case of rich houses, of course, a chimney that up like a cathedral tower, went up. However, in some cases, roofs were equipped. Only river lover, quite popular and very good-looking Cruyff elements were also roof windows. You've probably noticed an odd shape of medieval townhouses. It happened quite often that each next story was more and more protruding. Then the one below. Why? The streets were very narrow as it was important to fit as many buildings as possible in a relatively small area surrounded by city walls. This technique called jetting, allowed to obtain some extra living space. Remember, judging should be supported by densely laid horizontal beams. Ground floors of townhouses were often used as commercial spaces. Market styles, barrels, or other elements suggesting the type of business are very welcome, especially in fantasy illustrations. Is they help to imagine life in New York City. And don't forget about catchy sign boards. It's estimated that only about 10 percent of people in Europe could read around 14, 14th century. Now a few words about Windows. It's very important to remember that they were usually, I'm glazed. Seems obvious but still here and there's some illustrators forget about it. Protection from cold and rain was provided by wooden shutters. Sometimes seen, animal bladders and parchment were installed in Windows. After soaking them in oil, they were more or less transparent. In the late Middle Ages, the most wealthy people finally afford glazed windows. However, glass elements were small, thick and strangely similar to bottoms of bottles. In this lesson, I've been talking about depression while in the context of medieval times. But this construction was very popular even later. Also, it's really important from my point of view as its reads steampunk styles, so well. Next, I will show a case study for this lesson. 7. 06 Town Houses - CASE STUDY: Here is an industrial town of either fantasy Twist. Actually medieval craftsmen really loved fantastical motifs. Gargoyles, dragons, cameras, or other evil creatures were very popular in middle ages, as they were meant to scare away evil spirits and eventually warn people from going to the Dark Side. Welcome to the tiny market in a decaying town. The town news to be wealthy and they'll some closer unspecified, the events related to the drug and guilt occurred. Headquarter of the drug on guilt is located in the middle of the scene. I let myself to equip this house. We've glazed windows characteristic for Late Middle Ages. Normally they appeared only in wealthy merchant houses, Gloucester's castle, but they should feed the dragons guilt as well, right? For a change, the window on the right is Anna glazed and the poor people residing there can only shut the shatters to protect themselves from cold and rain. On the right side, we can see the tiny little door storage space under the stairs. So an adult man or have to firmly bow his head to get there. But that's how spaces understands often work. And lastly, some foreground objects typical for the medieval environment. Rainwater barrels, signs, simple trolleys, and Arrhenius rats breading the best lens. Three tips to make your project more convincing. I think elements indicating that someone is or was using the building. Possibilities are many. Rainwater barrels, trolleys, drying clothes, even garbage. Avoiding generative designs. Designs should be clear and understandable, but not trivial. Original, tiny little details, and avoiding exaggerated regularity in a building's facade can be helpful. Signs of the acceleration. They only add charm and filling of credibility. So the lack of a roof tile here and there are some dropping cluster is a good idea. 8. 07 Castles - General Structure: Medieval fortified castles were almost impossible to destroy, especially with me develop weapons. Such a castle could be defended for several months. And the common reason for capitulation was simply a lack of food and freshwater. But how such structure was built, each element was carefully thought out from the location of the fortress to every tiny opening in the wall. Fortified castles were usually built in Hartley accessible places. On the rocks, hills, river escarpment, wetlands are islands. Common materials were roughly speaking stone, mostly limestone in the highlands, and brick in the lowlands, where it was often hard to get limestone. Many elements were also made of wood. Of course, fantasy world offers much more options. Crystal castles, ice castles underwater, or castles sculpted in rocks, and so on and so on. Especially in the case of high land castles, the shape of defending quals could be very irregular as it dependent on the environment. However, lowland castles, unless those placed on irregularly shaped islands where quite often built on a rectangular plan. There could be one or more circles of defending calls. In the latter case, each next more inner wall was protecting more important buildings. And so the landlords castle or tower was placed within the inner walls. While external walls surrounded inhabitants and areas supplying the castle. The structure should be very compact. As a smaller circuit of walls is obviously easier to defend. Most activities in the castle were concentrated in the courtyard. There were stars, kitchens, EC50, a chapel, and the Lord's tower, also known as the keep. If possible. There was also a very important during seizures. Buildings were placed right next to the defending calls as displace was so-called blind spot for attackers. However, sometimes the landlords Tower wasn't attached to the defendant calls. Now, let's focus on the whole list of obstacles hindering attackers from conquering the castle. 9. 08 Castles - Obstacles: Not all of these obstacles appeared in every castle, but they are very characteristic and interesting, I suppose. Mode filled with water, savage and other waste, and the dry mode with snail spikes and other popular medieval gadgets. A drawbridge, a short-term bridge connecting and entry gate with a permanent bridge made of stone or bricks. Sometimes also before the permanent bridge or in the middle of it. There was a defending tower and then triggered a place of the most concentrated attack and defense. And gate swings could be, for example, set in a tower. With my calculations. I'll talk about them and other details in the next video. Massive defending walls. Walls were wider in the bottom. Not only for structural reasons, is bottom levels of stones carry more burden, but also the hinder digging a tunnel. Defending towers were usually placed on the bends of the wall. The round one where the most effective, as it was especially difficult to crush them with a battering ram. And they enabled targeting an enemy in all directions. If attackers managed to cross the gate or dig a tunnel, they could meet the wind in cramps, which prevented them from transporting battering ram and additionally disorientated the invaders. Another surprise could be stairs with very diverse size of steps, which made the attackers stumble and fall. And finally, number seven, keep. It was the main central tower hardest to concur. It housed rooms of the Lord and footwear house and armory. And the bottom level with dungeons where prisoners were kept. At times of peace, castles were also judge shall centers. Entrance to the tower could be placed a few meters above the ground level. In the case of attack, wooden stairs or letters could be easily destroyed to complicate the takeover a little bit. There are also other ways to disrupt invaders mission. If you have your own ideas for designing and the invaders hinders, go ahead. Now you have an essential knowledge about the structure of milligal fortified castles. In the next video, we will take a look at castles details until a few words about common mistakes. Enjoying medieval castles. 10. 09 Castles - Details: In this video, we will focus on tiny little details that had a great influence on the level of defense. But from our aesthetic point of view, they added a lot of charm to the huge mass of medieval castles. Decade. It was quite a sophisticated element. On the left and the right, there were openings with chains used for moving a drawbridge up and down. Another nice feature was awarded or ion part colors installed tried before the gate lives. It could be moved up and down on ropes or chains. And finally, the gate leaves. They could be studied, which not only looked great and green, but also made it more difficult to crush them with an ax. Battlements reminding tiff and enabling our just to cover behind the teeth and the AME between them. Here is a funny common mistake. To low battlements acting as balcony railing and not like a cover with shooting possibilities. Another lovely details were stoned my regulation or wooden hoarding. They could be placed straight over the gate and in many other places on the wall as well. These facilities were very helpful in discouraging attackers who managed to get right to the wall or gape through floor openings, defenders could throw stones, are heated sand, which penetrated attackers armors in a very effective way. Pouring boiling water or molten lead was also a common practice. Very narrow, narrow slits placed in defensive towers and walls from the interior site. They were wider, which enabled more or less comfortable aiming. And so we came to another common mistake to large windows in defending parts of a castle. It would be a perfect target for attackers. Even if sometimes we can see castles with large windows. These were built or rebuilt much later when the cousins lost their defensive function due to the common use of gunpowder. Speaking of errors, avoid also tiny little targets with a capacitance of a small dog house. Another not so great idea, our parrots looking as if they were suspended in the air, connected with the rest of the castle. Only with an arrow and fragile bridge, which considering that it would be made with stones or bricks, should break under its own ways. By the way. 11. 10 Castles - Case Study: Now when we discuss the structure and the function of milligal strong called, it's time to take a look at the case study. The swamp fortress. The fortified castle has been located in a place hard to acquire. In the middle of an enchanted swam with hostile all seeing trees and other mysterious creatures. The Buffett's hidden just below the water surface, and it's slightly marked with touches, which can be easily taken off in the case of an upcoming attack. The next hinder is a wall made of sharpened wooden poles. The architecture itself is quite standard. The castle is built mostly of stone blocks with only minor wooden elements, like hoarding. Walls could be really enormous, even 50 meters high. And if you need to create a higher wall for the needs of your fantasy world, Go for it. It's just important to remember that the structure has to make an impression. Something really massive and durable, not slender and fragile. Each corner of the wall is provided with the tower. However, each of these towers has a slightly different shape to achieve a diversified form of the whole fortress. Of course, there is also, again, with all the necessary fancy stuff. And behind the walls you can see the main power, so-called the keeper of the tower of the last defense. And that's it. In the next lesson, I'll be talking about the most amazing medieval buildings, namely Gothic cathedrals. 12. 11 Cathedrals - General Structure: And so we've reached the climax of medieval architecture, namely the Gothic cathedrals. Why is this subject so important? Well, silhouettes of Gothic cathedrals dominated above other buildings and or insignificant elements of medieval town of use. The complex structures and intricate details can be a source of inspiration, even for those who need to design fantastic castles or other types of buildings. Moreover, neo-Gothic choppers and cathedrals can be found in many horror and fantasy books and games set in 18th and 19th century. At that time, the Gothic style had its revival in the form of neo-Gothic architecture, which was of an even more impressive than its archetype. Gothic constructions can look confusing at first, but it's a logical continuation of a quite simple and compact trauma lifestyle from the beginning of medieval era. All these corbels, buttresses and algaes look almost surrealistic, but they weren't necessarily from a construction point of view. Let me explain. A complex vault with ribs was more durable than previously used. Simple wall buttresses were supporting quotes, flying buttresses, and the way that external walls even better and transfer the load to the ground. Also clustered columns were more effective than the simple columns in transferring burden. Gothic constructions were often results of trials and errors. And errors happened quite often. Tremendous building catastrophe occurred from time to time. I stumbled upon an estimation stating that at least 17% of all material cathedrals experienced catastrophic collapses. Many elements were also redesigned during the building process. When it was clear that the originally designed construction wouldn't be hardly enough. One of the ways to make the unstable structure stable was adding strainer arches to the previously designed arches to help them resist the inward pressure. Oh, they look like typical Evan details, by the way. Another characteristic feature of Gothic architecture was of course, a very steep roof. The inclination angle should significantly exceed 45 degrees. All these efforts together were made just for one purpose. To build higher and higher. The total height of a Gothic cathedral could successfully exceed 100 meters. The highest one reached about 150. If for the purpose of your fantasy environment, you would need to create even higher objects this class, go ahead. As long as you remember about the system of supports. 13. 12 Cathedrals - Details: Well, I hope that the previous construction lesson hasn't bald you to match for a change. Now we will discuss some fancy elements. Gargoyles served as spouts, conveying quarter away from walls. They were often portrayed as strange creatures, animals, but also as ordinary people, like monks. Grotesques in turn didn't need to serve any practical purpose. They were meant to be some kind of warning for believers, servants and vessels. At the same time, they were meant to scare away evil spirits. So both mere mortals and evil forces should be aware of stone figures. External buttresses could be joined by flying buttresses with external walls. They are decorated. Peaks quite often resembled many shrines. Silicon freely put there some atmospheric sculptures. Not necessarily figures of saints. Be knuckles are these pointed beaks on the top of parrots and the buttresses. They can have quadrilateral, hexagonal or whatever you want base within reason, of course, crocodiles are smaller, repeatable ornaments appearing on spires and integrals. In the real world, they usually resemble fairness beliefs. But for your fantasy architecture that can be formed in dragon heads, clothes or intricate flowers. How could we build people, make such sophisticated details in such quantity using a so-called fakes don't appear to be the key to success. Many Gothic decorations where in fact, repeatable castings of grout and sand made in specially shaped forms. Still sounds like a lot of work for me. Even if making all these details didn't require carving them in stone. Would you like to know more about the Gothic details? In the next part, I will tell about arches, doors, and windows. 14. 13 Cathedrals - Arches, Doors, Windows: Now it's time to get acquainted with the Gothic arches, doors and windows if you want to be true. So the historical style, you may want to follow this part more strictly. However, if you would like to create your own fantasy style, which would be on the inspired by Gothic architecture. Feel free to create the details much more freely. Here are samples of cathedral elements in various fantasy styles. They are based on the same structure and proportions. The tales and materials are clearly different. Let's start with arches. Even if the first picture coming to your mind when you think about the Gothic arch looks like this. It doesn't have to be so simple. You can add some personal touch by Joe and creative decorations or even supporting elements like strainer. I'll just discuss a few videos ago. Which ever archers remember about one important matter, keystones. In the case of round arches. The middle part of it consisted of one day you're able stone of an bigger than the others. Common mistake to stones meeting each other at the highest point of this kind of arch. This part receives the strongest load. So it has to be the most durable. Besides, it's a great opportunity to add some atmospheric details. However, pointed arches works a little bit different. So you may see also arches with 2.5 keystones meeting at the top of the arch. Both Windows and more significant doors in Gothic cathedrals consisted of pointed arches, in contrast to rounded arches used in Roman style earlier in medieval times. Yes, those with significant keystones. Windows is they could be really huge, were often divided with one or more columns, which had a structural explanation. Additionally, this solution created space for pretty awesome round elements. Though options were endless. Gothic windows could be as high as 25 meters. But remember, they were filled with relatively small parts of glass joint with lead. Though the most characteristic type of Gothic windows was not asleep souring window, but a huge round shaped rose window with the central composition of symmetrical divisions. Again, the number of patterns, variations is endless. The color of stained glass wasn't random, and it depended on the words directions. At the same time, ordinary people had to feel their little windows with animal membranes, thin skin or parchment. Getting back to cathedrals, portals were just as much, or maybe even more impressive than Windows. They consisted of disproportionally huge doors, often divided with the magnificent decorated pillar. Those could be made of wood or metal, or a mix of these two. And obviously, they were richly decorated. Over the entrance there was a tympanometry, free leaves or a rose window with stained glass, usually presenting some important seen. Arches could be decorated with figures of saints or floral motifs. But you can really use your imagination here. In the case of many goseq particles, there was also a steep gable called, I actually forgot to mention that sometimes even though in those could be decorated with this kind of table, a horizontal section of pillars could look, for example, like this. Now let's most of the last case study. 15. 14 Cathedrals - Case Study: Time for the last case study in this course, The Magicians palace. I've been showing France of cathedrals quite a few times. So this time I decided to choose a backside view. Probably it's also a better angle to show the structure of this type of building with all the sides buttresses. My imagine the building is not the sacred building, but a magician's palace in Gothic style, with three separate floors. In the case of churches, the main nave was one huge space from the ground up to the rich. Standard roofs. And Gothic cathedrals had no or small windows. But in this case, I chose to design a relatively large windows as the FDIC would be a private residential part of the building. Bottom parts of buttresses look more solid, is they have to carry more load. While the upper parts are more open work is they should be relatively light. Sculptures in medieval times were quite study. But if you are planning to design a fantasy, another historical building, you can add more dynamic sculptures. That's all for now. 16. 15 Summary: In this brief course, I presented some essential examples of building types. And they are elements. Following some rules with and not limit your creativity. Just treat them like guidelines and the source of inspiration. If you remember the general rule sensitive, you will be able to create credible tympanic architecture of houses and whatever is in your mind. I really hope that you found this course helpful or interesting. If cell you can recommend it to your friends and colleagues. Any support of this kind would be highly appreciated. If you have any remarks, you can leave a comment here, alright me an e-mail.