GIMP Photo Editing for Photographers a Free Photoshop Alternative | Chris P. | Skillshare
Drawer
Search

Playback Speed


  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

GIMP Photo Editing for Photographers a Free Photoshop Alternative

teacher avatar Chris P., GIMP, Photoshop, Photography + Lightroom

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Everything You're Going To Learn in This Class

      1:03

    • 2.

      How To Install GIMP

      1:00

    • 3.

      How To Add Contrast To Your Images

      7:06

    • 4.

      How To Retouch Your Images

      5:32

    • 5.

      How To Resize & Save Your Images

      7:52

    • 6.

      How To Customize Your Workspace

      8:06

    • 7.

      How To Move & Rotate Your Images

      4:56

    • 8.

      How To Make a Selection in GIMP

      14:14

    • 9.

      How To Fix Colors + the Tones of Your Image

      6:34

    • 10.

      Discover Layers In GIMP vs Photoshop

      10:52

    • 11.

      How To Manage Layers with Attributes

      7:16

    • 12.

      How To Use Adjustment Layers in GIMP

      7:05

    • 13.

      How To Edit RAW Files in GIMP

      9:10

    • 14.

      How To Import RAW Files

      9:54

    • 15.

      How To Edit RAW Files

      17:47

    • 16.

      How To Export Your Photos

      10:07

    • 17.

      How To Use the Levels Tool

      9:05

    • 18.

      How To Use the Curves Tool

      5:27

    • 19.

      How To Darken and Brighten Your Image

      14:07

    • 20.

      How To Select a Subject

      7:57

    • 21.

      How To Use a Layer Mask

      4:15

    • 22.

      How To Sharpen Your Images Properly

      6:57

    • 23.

      How To Change the Sky

      10:03

    • 24.

      How To Create a Matte Effect

      4:04

    • 25.

      How To Create a Retro Effect

      10:15

    • 26.

      How To Create an HDR Image

      10:42

    • 27.

      How To Cut Hair Out

      5:51

    • 28.

      How To Change Colors of Clothing

      4:23

    • 29.

      How To Change the Color of Eyes

      4:49

    • 30.

      How To Fix an Overexposed Image

      17:07

    • 31.

      How To Whiten Teeth

      1:42

    • 32.

      How To Create a Custom Vignette

      6:53

    • 33.

      How To Create a Double Exposure Composite

      15:31

    • 34.

      How To Create a Glow Effect

      11:04

    • 35.

      How To Create a Majestic Animal Composite

      22:37

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.

176

Students

1

Project

About This Class

Are you ready to ditch Adobe Photoshop for a free alternative?  Then this class will make the transition from Photoshop to GIMP seamless.  If you've never heard of GIMP it's the number one, free, alternative to Photoshop.

This class was created with GIMP beginners and photographers in mind.  You'll discover how to edit both RAW and JPG files like a pro!

Here's what you'll learn in this GIMP for photographers class:

  • How to download and install GIMP, for free
  • How to make your images POP
  • How to customize the GIMP interface to be more like Photoshop
  • How to retouch your images
  • How to resize and save in GIMP
  • Discover the essential tools for editing
  • Learn the difference between layers in GIMP vs Photoshop
  • How to edit RAW files with GIMP
  • Pro tips for editing like a pro
  • 10 photo editing projects to master GIMP
  • 3 advanced composite, editing projects

Also, images are included (via a link in the Project and Resources tab) to use and practice what you learn.  Check out the project & resources tab to discover how to complete a project and submit for feedback (from me, your instructor - Chris Parker).

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Chris P.

GIMP, Photoshop, Photography + Lightroom

Teacher
Level: Beginner

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
    Exceeded!
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.

Transcripts

1. Everything You're Going To Learn in This Class: Are you looking for a free alternative for Photoshop to edit your photos and get professional results. While this class was designed for artists like you that would like to edit photos without the need for paying for software. In this class, you'll discover how easy it is to transition from Photoshop or GIMP. By learning the essential tools for photo editors, you will learn how to retouch your portraits, how to crop, rotate, and resize photos. How to edit RAW files with Gimp. How to make selections, adjust color, altered the tonal values, and more by doing real-world projects. Plus, there are three advanced projects included that will bring everything you learn together to create out of this world photo compositions, including a double exposure effect, magical glowing antlers, and the world's tallest giraffe. You'll get instant access to all five hours of content and practice Raphael's start watching today and ditch Photoshop for the number one free alternative. 2. How To Install GIMP: For those of you that have not installed Gimp yet, let me show you how to do that. So we're gonna go to Gimp.org. You're gonna click on this orange button right here. Now the version is to 1030 at the time of this recording. And may be different for you depending on when you're watching this tutorial. Once you click on that button, you will navigate to this downloads page and then you can choose your operating system from here, but it will automatically detect the operating system that you're currently working on. But if you're on a Mac, you're going to click here if it didn't recognize your operating system, once it loaded this page, once you click on this orange button here, it will begin downloading this file. And then all you have to do is install this app like you do any other software, so it's pretty easy to do. Then once you have that installed, you can come in and click on the little icon to open up the software. 3. How To Add Contrast To Your Images: All right, so are you ready to edit your first image and GMP? And so that's exactly what we're going to do in this tutorial. Let's go up to File. Click on Open. You're going to navigate to your section one folder. And you're going to select the old one image and you're gonna go ahead and open that. So this is the image that we're going to be working on. And as you can see, it's kind of flat. There's not a lot of contrast in the image. And that's due to the highlights and the shadows. Or maybe it's the blacks and the whites of the tonal range that are missing detail. And we're gonna find out which one it is with the Levels tool, which is going to show us the histogram of the particular image. But first, let me show you my final edit. This is the edit that I created for this project. And as you can see, it has a lot more contrast than the original image. So that's what we're going to do in this tutorial. Add some contrast and make it pop. So we're gonna start off with the Levels tool and then I'm gonna show you a different tool to add contrast because I preferred the second one better. But it's nice to know more than one way to edit an image. That way you can decide which one is best for you. We're gonna go up two colors and we're gonna click on levels. The levels tool shows you the histogram of the image. And if you've ever taken one of my photography courses before, then you may already know everything you need to know about the histogram. But for those of you that do not, we're gonna take a quick tour over the histogram so you can get an idea of what we're going to do for this particular edit. Now I'm gonna go ahead and grab a corner here so I can drag this out and make this a little larger to make it easier to see. The histogram is made up of the different tones of your image, and that includes the blacks which are over here on the left. Then we have the shadows. We have the mid tones in the middle, then we have the highlights, the whites on the right. And then we have what is known as the black and the white points, which are pure white and pure black. We have our black point right here, and that's designated by this little icon right here. And the white point is over here. Now we have some detail missing in the image, which is causing the image to have a low amount of contrast. And we can see that there's a gap on the right side and a gap on the left side. So the blacks and the whites in this case are missing detail. What we want to do is we want to fill in that gap. And that's going to add contrast to the image. We're gonna grab our black point here and drag it to the edge of the histogram on the right side here, I'm gonna go ahead and make this smaller. Now, we can see that the image is darker and that's already adding some contrast. We're gonna do the same thing with the white point. Now, we're gonna click and drag that over to the left side here. So I have 238 for the white, 0.11 for the black point. And that creates contrast in the image and fills in those gaps. Now another thing you can do with the Levels tool is you can target individual color channels. And I'd like to use these for removing color casts in my image. For example, if you find that the image is to read, you can drag the midpoint here to the right to remove that red and it's going to add green instead. Or if you want to add red, move it to the left. Since I'm not a big fan of this particular tool, I'm gonna go ahead and cancel out of this and go to my favorite tool for adding contrast, which is the curves tool. It's a little bit more advanced, but it does provide more precision and control over the levels tool. Let's go ahead and grab that by going up to colors and clicking on curves. Now just like with the Levels tool, we do have a histogram in the back. But this time instead of applying our adjustments along a horizontal line, we're going to manipulate this linear line that goes from the bottom left, the top right. The top right here represents the white point. So this little circle, if we grab that and pull it down and it's going to make adjustments to the white point. Down here we have our black points so I can drag this to the right and make it darker that way. But what I wanna do to create the contrast for this image is I want to manipulate this and linear line along the blacks and the shadows and the whites and the highlights. So I can pinpoint where that adjustment is going to be applied along that tonal range. And it's going to be more subtle versus linear like we had with the Levels tool. We're gonna click right around here. And you're gonna click and drag down. That's gonna make the image darker. And then that line begins to bend, creates a subtle transition from our edit from this point. And it slowly diminishes as it gets up to this part of the tonal range. So this part of the tonal range really isn't being affected by this adjustment down here. Now if I click and drag up, that's going to make the whites and the highlights brighter. By doing that, we add contrast with what is known as an S curve. Because now this linear line looks like an S curve. And this gives you the control and the precision to apply that contrast exactly where you want it in the image. Because now I come in and say, Okay, I'm gonna take this anchor point and move it up a little bit higher. And that's going to make an adjustment based on that new location versus where it was down here. So it's a lot flatter up here than it is down here. So you can make this adjustment based on your own creative vision and your own personal editing style. The other thing you can do now is you can continue adding additional anchor points along this line now, in order to target specific points of the tonal range, for example, you can come in here and click in the midpoint here and adjust the mid tones of the image and make adjustments that way because maybe that contrast was too much and you want to flatten it out a little bit, you can do that. And then I can come in here and target this part of the tonal range as well. So you can make these adjustments based on your own creative vision. Just like I mentioned, I'm gonna go ahead and stick with this right here. And I'm gonna go ahead and click Okay. And now we have our finished edit. How cool is that? I love the curves tool for applying contrast. All right, before we continue on with the next tutorial, I want you to keep this image open and that's because we're going to continue working on this image. In the next tutorial, I'm gonna show you how to retouch this image by removing blemishes, the stray hair right here. If you're ready for that, Let's do it. 4. How To Retouch Your Images: I'm now going to show you how to retouch your images in GIMP. If you're ready, let's jump back into GIMP and let's grab our zoom tool, which you can grab from the toolbar, which is right here. Or you can use a keyboard shortcut, which is the letter Z. And just like in Photoshop or any other editing software, you just click to zoom in. Now, my favorite way to zoom in is to click and drag around the area that I want to zoom in and we want to zoom in so we can actually see what we're going to be retouching, which are some of these blemishes and this stray hair. Now if you zoomed in too far and you want to zoom out, you can come over here until the Tool Options and click on, zoom out to do that. Or you can use a keyboard shortcut in addition to the zoom tool, which is your Control key if you're on a PC or your Command key if you're on a Mac. And when you hold that down and then click, it will then go ahead and zoom out. Once you release, you can go ahead and zoom back in. To retouch. We're going to use the healing tool in GMP, which is very similar to the healing tool in Photoshop. We also have another retouching tool that is similar to the one in Photoshop, which is called a clone tool. If we come over here to the toolbar, click on this little icon right here, and then you will see your heel tool over here. But in order to select it, I can't select it by clicking and dragging down. What I need to do is right-click on this icon. And then I can scroll down and select the healing tool from here. Or you can use the keyboard shortcut, which is the letter h. Alright, so let's say we want to remove this blemish right here. And if you click on it, nothing happens. And that's because if you take a look down here, it says set a source image first. So the first thing we need to do is give some information to GIMP about what we want to do. So what we wanna do is we want to take pixel information, colors, luminance, values, contrast, etc, from one part of the image to cover up another part of the image. In this case the blemish. We need to give GIMP a target source to work from. In order to do that, what we need to do is we need to hold down our Control key if you're on a PC or your Command key if you're on a Mac, now, you're gonna select an area that's similar to the colors and the pixel values of the area that we want to retouch. I'm gonna go ahead and click out here. We're gonna hold down my command key and click once. Then we're left with this little circle, which is the target area. Now when I come over here and click on this blemish, it disappears. How cool is that? I love it. It's very similar to what we have in Photoshop. But let's say for whatever reason, you don't like the results, let's go ahead and undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. What we need to do is change our target source. I'm gonna select an area of closer to that blemish. Again, I'm gonna hold down my command or control key, and I'm going to click right here to reset that source. Now sometimes you may need to click more than once in order to get the results that you want. Now we can come over here and begin removing these other blemishes by setting a new target because we don't want to use this area for this blemish, for example, because these pixels are much brighter than down here and it's not going to blend in as well if you don't set the correct target area. Okay, so I'm gonna come over here, click hold down that keyboard shortcut and continue removing blemishes as needed. Alright, so the next thing I want to show you is removing this stray hair right here. What we need to do this time is re-size the editing tool to be smaller or a little bit larger than the thickness of the stray hair. Now when it comes to blemishes, I like to have my brush size a little bit larger than the blemish that I'm removing. This blemish right here is much smaller, so I'll probably use a smaller one, but this size brush works okay for that one as well. But for this stray hair, this brush is too large. We're gonna come over to our tool options here and we're going to resize this smaller. I'm gonna go right around five for the signs. Actually that's a little bit too small. So I'm gonna go up to nine. And I'm going to go ahead and set my target area right here. So I'll hold down Command or Control. Click to set that target point. This time instead of clicking and releasing, we're going to click and drag down to paint over that hair. How cool is that? Now you may have noticed that this little circle followed my brush as I was brushing downward here. And that's because we want to target the different colors and the contrast levels and the pixel values along the edge or the length, I should say, I'm dad hair versus the pixels in here because if it just stuck to this area, it wouldn't blend in as well because this area is much darker than it is down here. Alright, so go ahead and keep this image open for the next tutorial as well, because I want to show you how to properly resize your images for online use. So if you're ready for that, lends to do it. 5. How To Resize & Save Your Images: I'm gonna share two more things in this tutorial that you need to know when working with images in GIMP, and that is how to scale your image larger or smaller. You have the proper size when posting online and also how to save your image and Kim, because it's a little bit different than what you would do in Photoshop. There's something you have to do specifically in order to save your image as a JPEG or a PNG file. And I'm gonna show you how to do that in this tutorial. So let's go ahead and take a look at this image again. And what we're going to do is we're going to scale it down smaller. So it's the recommended size based on what Facebook or Instagram tells us our image should be. So I did a quick Google search for Facebook posts sizes, and it shows it right here. But if you want the other ones, if we come down here and find this Hoot suite.com post, it's been updated for 2022. And then you can scroll down here and then you'll see the different sizes for Instagram, facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, landscape, portrait and square images, we're gonna have 1200 by 630 or 630 by 1200, or 1200 by twelve hundred. Twelve hundred is the maximum width or height that you need. Anything larger is going to take up extra hard space on your hard drive because you're using images that are too large for Facebook anyways, or at least what they recommend. And what Facebook was going to do is they're going to compress that image down smaller anyways, you might as well start off with the size that they recommend. And I'm gonna give you a pro tip on which file format I recommend when posting to Facebook. Now if you're going to do a story, you can go a little bit larger at 1080 by 1920. All right, so we know our width for this image because it is, the landscape is 1200 pixels wide. So let's go ahead and resize this image smaller by going up to image and selecting scale image. From here you want to make sure you have this little icon turned on. So it should look like this. And when you type in 1200 for the width and hit your tab key, it's going to automatically adjust the height, the 800, which is going to keep the image in proportion. Now, down here we have a resolution of 300, which again is too large for online use. 300 is for print, and then 72 is for online use. I'm going to click my tab key and it's going to update the Y resolution. Now when I click Scale, it should resize the image. And what I wanna do now is I want to fill in the window with this image like it was before. It's too small. So to fix that, we can go up to View, Zoom and select Fit, image and window. Or you can use this keyboard shortcut, which is Shift Plus Command or Control. If you're on a PC, plus the letter J, that fills it back into the workspace. Alright, so what we need to do now is we need to crop the image. So it's 1200 by 630 pixels tall versus the 800 pixels tall. It is right now. That being said, you don't have to do that. You can actually post the image as it is right now. But it's not going to show all 800 pixels of the image is only going to show 630 pixels. And then when somebody clicks on the image, they'll see the full size and the full resolution of that image. So if you want to keep the image cropped to the recommended size that Facebook gives us. You can go up to Image, click on canvas size, and then we can crop the canvas from here. This time, since we don't want the image to stay in proportion, we're going to undo this option here, so it looks like this. Now we're going to type in the height which is 630. You're gonna click your tab key. And then down here we have our thumbnail preview. And once you click that tab key, it's going to update with a new preview showing where the image is going to be cropped. So right now, just going to be cropped across her shoulders and her neck right here. We don't want that. I want the full body. So I'm gonna click and drag up to make sure the entire subject is in the frame. And then when you click re-size, it will read crop that image. Now we do have this yellow and black dashed line around the image, and that is known as the layer boundary. This is letting you know that we have pixels within the image that are still available. So I'm gonna go ahead and turn this final edit layer off. Then with my move tool, which you can grab with the letter M, you can click and reposition the image to recompose it as needed. Those pixels were not deleted permanently. Now in order to save this to be used on Facebook or Pinterest or anywhere else, you need to save the file as a JPEG or a PNG file. Now if we go up to File and click on Save, As it's not going to give you the option to save it as a JPEG file. So if I type in JPEG and click Save, I'm gonna get this little message right here that says the given filename cannot be used for saving. You can use this dialogue to save to the GIMP xy F file format, which is a proprietary file format for GIMP, which is similar to the PSD files that we use in Photoshop. So xy F is for saving files with layers. I'm gonna go ahead and click Okay. And I'm going to cancel out of this because we can't save a JPEG with that Windows, we need to go back to file. And this time instead of save, Save As or Save a Copy, we're going to select Export As. Now I can save it as a JPEG file. But for Facebook, what I'd like to do is I like to save it as a PNG file. And that's because PNG files are not compressed. Jpeg files will give you an option in Gimp to compress the file based on the quality setting that you'd give it in Photoshop that can be 809100 or whatever you want. And then when you upload that file to Facebook, facebook is going to compress that file again. And then you end up losing information in the image. And you can have what is known as color banding, which gives the illusion that there is a sharp change from one color to another. And it looks like there's little bands in your sky, for example. And that's because there's not enough colors from one color to another. So the transition from, let's say, a dark blue sky to a light-blue at the horizon. There's not enough colors within that particular sky. And that creates the banding effect. Well, that comes about from compressing the file one too many times. So short story is, use PNG file if you want a higher-quality image or if you're noticing that you're getting that kind of banding in your image. And then you can click on Export here. Then you're going to get another window here with some other options. I like to just keep everything set as now, even though it says it's compressing at a level of nine, that's okay. It's still better than what you're gonna get with a JPEG file. And then once you've click Export As going to export that file and then you can upload it as needed. Alright, so that is it for the editing portion of the QuickStart guide, but we're not done yet. We still have some things we need to learn about camp in order to get the most out of it as a photo editor using gametes. So if you're ready to get started on the next topic, well, let's do it. 6. How To Customize Your Workspace: All right, we're now going to discover gifts interface so you know where everything is located, how to customize the interface. So it looks more like Photoshop, like rearranging the panels, increasing the icon size of your tools and more. So if you're ready to get started, let's do it. All right, Let's start off by opening up a file, by going up to file and selecting open. And you're going to navigate to the section one folder and open up any image. Doesn't really matter because we're only going to be using this for demonstration purposes. Actually, let's open up O2 xy f Since it has an extra layer in it. And once you install GIMP for the very first time, you may have had this setup here where there's three individual panels. If so, you can combine them all by going up to Windows and selecting single window mode. All right, let's go ahead and get this image back in the center here. And it doesn't look like it's going to fit. So to get that to fit inside of there, we're going to go up to View and select Zoom and then fit image in window. All right, now that it looks more like Photoshop, let's go ahead and customize the interface some more. One of the things you may want to do is resize the left and the right panel by making them wider war than or. So. If you take a look right here, we have three little dots. And once you get your mouse cursor over there, you're gonna get this little icon right here. And once you see that, you can then click and drag it to the left or to the right. And you can do the same thing for the right side as well. The other thing you may want to do is rearrange these individual tabs here that have some information about different tools and features. And you may not want to have all of them either, so you can actually hide them. So let's go ahead and hide some of these up here. These are all the default ones. So I'm gonna go ahead and click right here on this little arrow and click on Close Tab to close it out. The other thing you can do is you can click and drag this out and create a free floating panel. It doesn't look like it's working in the Mac version right now. Let me show you the Windows version here and show you how that looks. I'm going to click here and drag it out. And now I have a free floating window. Now I just want to mention real quick that this class is being recorded on the Mac version, but it doesn't matter because GIMP is the same on Windows, Mac, and the Linux system. The only real difference is the font and each operating system, because the default operating system font is different for Windows compared to Mac. That's why it looks a little bit different visually. It's because of that font. Other than that, it's exactly the same. Alright, so the other thing you can do is you can take this tab and pull it down here in width, these other paths as well. So you're just gonna click and drag it down. All right, now we have all four tabs here in the same panel and it got rid of that bottom because there was nothing else there. But if you still want to have that split for whatever reason, just click a tab, drag it to the bottom. And you're going to notice a little bit of a line at the bottom there. Actually it's pretty thick. That blue line right there. Once your release, it's then going to separate those into two different parts. Now, you can also take a tab from over here and bring it over to the right panel by clicking and dragging. And you're going to notice a outline. Once you see that outline, you want to make sure all of it is selected there. You can then release and it will be added inside. You can also rearrange the tabs by order. So if you want to move the brushes to the end, you can click here and drag it to the right. And it will move it into that new position. I'm gonna go ahead and close some of these tabs because they don't need all of these right now, go ahead and close the channels. And I'm gonna close out the path. Now if you close a panel or a tab by mistake, you can actually add them back by going up to Windows, draggable dialogs, and then choosing the tool or the information that you need. So if you want your histogram, you can add that in there. I don't need that, so I'm gonna go ahead and close that. So go ahead and add any tabs you think you're going to need. Most of the time, I'm just using the layers and a tool option that's pretty much it. And undo history once in awhile. But I like to use my keyboard shortcuts to undo anyway, so I really don't have any use for that. Now the other thing that I'd like to do is I like to increase the tool icons and increase the size of my layer thumbnail previews here. So let me show you how to do that. For Mac users, you're gonna go up to GIMP and select preferences from here. And if you are on Windows, it's going to be under edit down here at the bottom. All right, so there's one main difference between Mac and Windows that said, I promise. All right, once you're in preferences here, let me go ahead and go back. You will navigate to interface, went to expand that and look for Icon Theme. Now up here in the icon theme, you can change while the theme of GIMP, my personal preference is symbolic. So you can go through these and choose the one that you like. And to increase the icon size, you're going to choose it from down here. Because I'm blind. I like to use the largest available, which is huge. Once you click Okay, you're all set, you'll notice that the tabs also increased in size as well. So that makes it easier to see and read what that tab is all about. Now for increasing the layer thumbnail preview in the layers panel here, you're going to click right here on the preview size and then you have all your options right here. Medium is the default. I'm not quite sure what tiny as far I'm not sure if anybody can actually read that. But again, because I am blind, I like to go with gigantic, alright, a much improved if you ask me right now, down here at the bottom of the Layers panel, you have some functions that will allow you to rearrange the layers, move them, duplicate, add layer mask, delete them, and we'll go over these later on in the class as we work on some different projects who began learning what all of these are for. Now let's take a look at the tool options over here, because again, you're probably going to be using this one the majority of the time in conjunction with your layers. The tool options are going to list all the options available for the tool that you have selected. So every time you select a new tool, it will update what the different options available for that tool. Some tools we'll have more options than others. And we'll go over some of these tool options as we work on the tools later on in the class as you progress through it. Now, down here at the bottom, we have some additional information that you can use to customize the interface. The main one is this one right here. The pixels or the dimensions that you want to set by default it's pixels, but if you want inches or millimeters, you can choose those different measurements from here. And then this is showing the current zoom level for the image in your interface right now. So if you grab your zoom tool and zoom in, it will update or you can change it from here if you want to go 200%, hey, 100%, etc. And then going back down 15.9 to fit it inside, at least for the way I have everything set up right now. And then we have our filename and the size of the file, the working file. All right, so that's it for the overview of the GIMP workspace. As you progress through the course, we will go over some additional tips and tricks for getting the most out of your interface. And you will begin recognizing where everything is located as you work on the projects in the remainder of the class. 7. How To Move & Rotate Your Images: You're now going to learn about three tools that you can use in Gim to help you achieve your creative vision, which are the Move tool, Rotate tool, and scale image tool. Now the scale image and the move tool you're mostly going to use when creating composites and Gimp, what you're going to learn how to do in a future session. But the rotate tool you're going to use more often when you have crooked horizons in your landscape images and you need to straighten them out. I'm gonna show you how to use all three tools right now. So let's jump into GIMP and get started by opening up our O2 file here and our suction or one folder it to open this file from here, I'm gonna click and drag this over to the interface and it's going to automatically open as a new document. Now, depending on your operating system, this may or may not work if it didn't open the file this way, go up to file and select Open From here. Let's start off by moving this image layer right here of our subject from the last tutorial. And move her above this landscape layer here. So let's come down here and click on this little icon right here to move those layers around. Now I'm gonna grab my move tool because let's say we want to move this image layer higher on the canvas. So we can come over here to the toolbar to select our move tool from here. Or you can use the keyboard shortcut, which is the letter M. And then you can click and drag up. Unfortunately, it's moving in the wrong layer. So let's undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Now the reason why it moved that Landscape layer was because I have that one selected. If I click on this layer, it will activate or select this image layer. And then you can go ahead and move it up. But let's say you have this layer selected. And then in your tool options you have pick a layer or guide selected. This time when I click on the image layer, it's going to move this layer even though the landscape layer is selected. And if I undo that and come over here and click on the background layer, it will then move that layer. If it's not moving the layer you want to move and make sure you have the correct option selected in the tool options here. Now let's say for whatever reason, this horizon in this image layer is crooked and you want to strain it out. You can use the Rotate tool to do that by coming over here and clicking on this icon. And it's probably not gonna be this one that's visible. It's probably going to be this one by default if you're starting off with GIMP for the first time. So right-click here, scroll down and select rotate from here or use the keyboard shortcut, which is Shift plus r. If you select from here, you then have to click on the layer that you want to activate. Now because I had this landscape layer selected, it's going to rotate that one. So I'm going to escape out of there by hitting my escape key. I'm gonna select my image layer and then I can click on it and then click and rotate the image as needed. Or if you use shift plus r, it's going to automatically activate the rotate tool. You can click on the canvas and rotate from here, you can use this slider up here. You can also type in a number. If you want something precise or even more precise, you can use these little arrows right here to adjust them in smaller increments. Clicking rotate will then rotate that image for you. I'm not undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Now let's say we want to fill this image to fit inside of this entire canvas. We can use the scale tool to do that. So again, same area, same group of tools. We can select the scale tool from here. Now we can click and drag to the left or right or up and down to resize. The only problem is it's not in proportion right now. We're going to hit our Escape key to get out of there. I'm gonna hit Shift plus S to auto activate the tool. And then in this little window up here, we need to activate this option here to keep everything in proportion. And then you can grab a corner aside or drag from inside the image layer here to resize it as needed. Or you can even type in a specific number if you know you need 1200 pixels wide. It will then automatically adjust the height for you. Once you're happy, click the scale button here and it will resize your image. Alright, so that's it for those three tools. The next set of tools that you're going to learn about in the next tutorial are the ones that you're going to be using the most often when editing your images in GIMP. And it's all about making selections in Gimp to target your edits exactly where you want them. So if you're ready for that, well, let's do it. 8. How To Make a Selection in GIMP: One of the most important skill sets that you can learn and gameboard any editing software for that matter is learning how to make selections to precisely control where you place your edits on your image. In this tutorial, we're gonna do a quick overview of the six most used selection tools that you're going to be using in GIMP. And then later in the class will go into these tools and a little bit more detail so you can get the most out of them. We're going to jump back into GIMP here. And we're going to select our section one folder again. And this time we have five images for this tutorial. And just like before, we're gonna click and drag over the interface. And then they will open up one at a time into new individual documents. And you can navigate to each image by clicking on the tabs. Again, if this isn't working for, you, go to File, Open and open the images one at a time, and it will open up in new tabs right here. The first selection tool we're going to use is the fuzzy select tool, which can be found on your toolbar right here. And you can also select it with the keyboard shortcut, which is the letter u. Now this selection tool is very similar to the magic wand tool in Photoshop. And the key to using this particular selection tool is adjusting the threshold. So here's how it works. When you click on your canvas, it's going to give GIMP a reference color based on the color of the pixel you clicked on, then GMP will use that reference color to find similar colors next to it. Once it reaches the maximum threshold that you set in the Tool Options, gimbal no longer select any more colors once it's reached that threshold. So in essence, the higher the threshold, the more of your image that will be selected. Let's see this in action. So right now, I'm going to set my threshold here to 39.2. Once I click on it, that's going to be the reference point. And then it's going to make a selection based on that threshold or that range of colors. Now we didn't select the entire sky, so I need to click again. But before I do that, I'm gonna hold down my Shift key because the Shift key is going to allow you to add to the selection. And once I click down here, is going to add to the selection. And I need to continue doing this until I get the entire sky selected. And it's going to take several clicks at this threshold in order to select the sky. Now if you're in a rush and you set the threshold higher, and you click on your sky. Well, it's going to select not just the sky, but parts of the foreground as well, because you've clicked a higher threshold or a larger range of colors. Now another quick tip that I like to use is using the draw mask options. So if you turn this on, you can then click and drag down. And you'll see this pink overlay that will show you the part of the image that is going to be selected. Now if you go too far, it will start selecting the foreground as well. So I need a backup way until that disappears. And then shift click and drag down to continue selecting the sky. And this time in two clicks I was able to select the sky. How cool was that? I love it. All right, let's go ahead and deselect with command or Control Shift plus a. All right, let's go to our next image, which is this one right here. What we want to select this time is all the red petals. And this time we're going to use the select by color tool which is grouped together with fuzzy select. And it's right here. So Shift plus o will activate this tool. Now it works very similar to the fuzzy select tool in that you need to set the threshold to increase or decrease your selection. But it works very differently when it comes to targeting your colors. So this time, instead of picking colors in a range next to the target area, is going to select colors throughout the image. So let me show you what this is going to look like. Width, the fuzzy select tool first. So I'm gonna click and drag down, and it's picking only the colors from these two petals because these colors are next to each other. I'm going to de-select, and I'm going to select my select by color. And this time I'm gonna click and drag down, and it's going to begin selecting all the petals this time. How cool is that? Which tool you use is dependent on what it is you need to select. Again, it's not perfect. I need to make some adjustments, but it's much faster than the fuzzy select tool, at least for this particular image. I'm gonna go ahead and deselect, and we're going to go to the next image. For this image, we're going to make a selection of the turtle. And I'm gonna show you two different tools to do this. And then you can decide which one you like better. The first one I'm gonna show you is called the path tool, which is similar to the Pen tool in Photoshop. And it's not my favorite selection tool, but I want to go ahead and show it to you in case you've already used the Pen tool in Photoshop and you like it. Let me show you how to use it in GIMP. You're gonna grab the path tool by clicking the letter B, which is the keyboard shortcut. And then you can also grab it from the toolbar right here. I'm gonna go ahead and zoom in just a little bit more so I can see the edge a little bit better. Then to use it, you're going to click to add an anchor point and then click and drag out. The path. And then when you pull away from that anchor point, you're gonna get these little handles and then you can adjust where that path is being applied. The only problem is when you have the handles like this and you come over here and click, it's not always going to give you a straight line. It looks like it did a pretty good job that time. So let me see what happens when I pull it out a lot more this time just to show you what's gonna happen. If we want a straight line, let's say from here to here and I click here, I get a curve instead. So I'm going to undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Now to fix that, we need to take this handle and bring it back inside to get rid of it. Now, when I click here, I'll get a straight line. Basically you're going to click and drag out a path as you go around the turtles edge and bring the handle in as needed to make sure that you're getting that straight line when you continue going around. Now this could take forever. I'm not gonna sit here and select this entire turtle. That's pretty much how you use it. What you have to do though is he had to go back to the original anchor point here, hold down your Command or Control key, and then click on that anchor point to close out that path. So you can then fill it in or add a stroke. Or if you hit your Enter or Return key, it will then add that selection it for you around that path. All right, let's go ahead and deselect with command or Control Shift plus a. Then we're gonna get rid of the past tool by selecting our next tool, which I believe is ten times easier than the past tool. And that is the Scissors Select tool, which is similar to the magnetic lasso tool in Photoshop. So we can grab that via this grouping right here, we right-click, we'll find the Scissors Select and the keyboard shortcut is the letter i. Now instead of clicking and creating the path by pulling out handles, GIMP is going to do this for us automagically by automatically applying it the path between the two points. I'm going to click here to start with our first anchor point. I'm gonna come down here and click and boom. Gimp has automatically applied a path for us. And we can just go along without worrying about pulling out those handles to adjust the angle of the curve or the path to get the selection that we need. Now it's not perfect right now. I'm gonna show you a real quick. I'm going to go around this corner here and show you what happens when it goes outside of the line, like I did there at the bottom and how to fix it. But again, this is, I believe, much faster than the path tool. Right here. It is outside that edge right there. So I'm gonna click on this line and move it into position. And it's going to add another anchor point. And it's going to fix that path exactly where I want it now, just like before, we need to come up here and close out the path. This time we don't need to hold down our command or Control key. We just click on the first anchor point and it automatically creates that path, or I should say, closes it. And then with Enter or Return, you can apply your selection. Let's go ahead and deselect with command or Control Shift plus a. All right, This is our next image and the tool that we're going to use now is known as the Quick Mask Mode, which again is available in Photoshop. Now it's not available through the toolbar here. So you need to either use the keyboard shortcut, which is Shift plus Q, or come down here to the bottom left of the interface here, and click on this icon to turn it on. Now that it's on, we have a red overlay, and this represents what is selected. In this case, nothing is selected, so anything in red is not selected. Now to add to our selection, we're gonna grab our paintbrush tool with the letter P, or you can grab it from the toolbar right here. Now I'm going to increase the brush size here, a little bit larger, maybe a little bit more. And then I'm going to paint over, actually, I need to switch to white to the foreground here. And then when I paint over the horsehair, it will remove that or lay. And that lets me know that part of the image is being selected or is part of the selection. Once you go through and you adjust your selection this way, you can turn off the Quick Mask mode by using the keyboard shortcut again or clicking on this icon. And then it shows you the selection that was created with that selection tool. Now I like to use this particular selection tool in conjunction with the first tube. Fuzzy select. The select by color, even some of the other selection tools that you're going to learn about as well. And that way, I can quickly narrowed down my selection to exactly where it was. Because you may remember in this image here, it was selecting parts of the image outside of those petals. And you can use the Quick Mask Mode to quickly remove it from the selection. All right, we're going to de-select again. And I have one more selection tool that I want to share with you. And this one is called the foreground selection tool, which is in the same group as before, which is right here, foreground selected. We don't have a keyboard shortcut for that, so you have to grab it from the toolbar. Now the way this works is you're going to make an initial outline of the area of where the subject is or the foreground is. And then you're going to get an overlay like we did previously. What Quick Mask mode. And then you're going to fine tune your selection that way. So I'm just going to make a quick outline around our cardinal here. It doesn't have to be perfect because again, we're going to narrow down that selection process by helping GIMP figure out where the foreground or where the subject is. In this case. Once you go back to the beginning, you're gonna notice this little yellow circle once you see that, release your mouse button. And then it, you're Enter or Return key to get your blue overlay. So we have a lighter blue and a darker blue. So the lighter blue is the foreground and the darker blue is the background. Now in the tool options you want to make sure you have draw foreground selected. If not, it's going to do the opposite of what you want to fix or to refine our selection, you're going to use a brush tool which is automatically activated for you. You're just going to need to go in and adjust the stroke width to increase the brush size. So I'm gonna go maybe a little bit lower here. And what we're going to do is we're going to paint on the subject and tell GMP, okay, these are the colors, the textures, the brightness levels that we want to target, because this is the subject, this is the foreground. We're gonna go ahead and paint around the inside this time. And I'm not gonna select that branch because I don't want that as part of the background, or I should say the foreground. And we're gonna see if GIMP selects that or not. If it does, we can then use our Quick Mask Mode to remove it from the selection. So I'm gonna go ahead and fill this in. I want to make sure that this part down here is selected as well, the tail of the cardinal, I'm going to go with the lower brush. Then I'm gonna make a selection here again, it doesn't have to be perfect. We just want to get enough of those colors in that texture to reference or give GIMP a reference point for selecting the foreground. Alright, so once you paint on there, you'll notice that that light blue overlay has disappeared. So this is the foreground or were telling him, this is the foreground and it's going to refine that even further. Once we click on select is going to do it's magic. It's going to take a minute depending on the size of the file, the speed of your computer. And then it's going to finally hopefully sooner rather than later make a selection. And you can see it didn't make a selection of the tree branch here, and it kind of missed these colors are this part of the bird as well. We can go in with our Quick Mask Mode. Now, this time with our paintbrush tool, we're going to paint with white again to add that to the selection. Now if we go too far and let's say we add in the branch, if you paint with black, that will remove that part from the selection so we can go ahead and deactivate and then our selection process is updated. Alright, so that was a quick overview of the selection tools. And Kim, there's still a lot more to learn and we're gonna cover more in upcoming tutorials. Once we get into the projects, you're going to learn more about these tools to get the most out of them. But before we go on to the next section, There's another set of tools that you need to know about for editing your images in GIMP. And that is tonal adjustments and color adjustments. So we're gonna cover those tools in the next tutorial. If you're ready for that, Let's do it. 9. How To Fix Colors + the Tones of Your Image: I'm now going to share some editing tools, color and tonal adjustments, in particular, for editing your JPEG files and GIMP. And I don't use these tools all that often, unless I need to make adjustments after I've done my edits in the Raphael itself because I'm gonna make my tonal and color adjustments with the raw file, not when I bring the image in as a JPEG file. Now if you're shooting with JPEG files, you're going to use these tools more often. So I'm gonna quickly give you an overview of how they work and where they are. And then what I recommend doing is using your own images to practice using these tools so you can see how they weren't. Because if you're just going to use the one image that I'm gonna show you throughout this tutorial. It's not really going to give you an indication of how these tools work. So it's best to use your own images to learn how these tools work. I'm just gonna give you a rough overview of what's going on in each tool and how to use them. I'm going to use this turtle image here. And let's go ahead and zoom all the way in. The color and tonal adjustment tools are up here under the colors menu here. We're gonna concentrate on these tools right here. Again, we're only going to be using 20% of the tools, 80% of the time. So there's tons of more tools in here that we haven't even covered yet, but you're most likely not going to use them when you're editing images. And again, we're gonna start off with color balance, which will allow you to remove color casts or to add a color has depending on your creative vision, you can also target your shadows, mid tones, and highlights to pinpoint where that edit is going to go. So if I want to add red in the shadows, I can do that with the cyan red slider here and then add cyan if I wanted to do that. So if I want to add colors into the highlights or remove that color cast, I can do so by targeting the highlights and midtones, etc. All right, Let's go to the next one which is pretty important, which is the color, temperature or the white balance. As you know, in Lightroom or Adobe Camera Raw. With the color temperature window hearing, you're going to type in the original temperature or the Kelvin number that you used, or the Kelvin temperature that you used when you capture the image. And then you're going to apply your intended temperature that you wanted for that white balance. So if you shot it at 7 thousand, then you're going to type that in here. And if you prefer 5400, then you'll go ahead and adjust this. Now again, for me, I prefer shooting in RAW and nine out of ten photographers that I know a lot of my students, they prefer shooting in RAW as well. And that's based on a pole than I did in our private Facebook group. And 90% of them said they prefer raw over JPEG, and it's much easier to change the white balance and RAW vs JPEG. And that's why I bring it up. Because you're not necessarily going to get great results by changing the white balance from a large range. So let's say you did 8 thousand for the Calvin originally. And you actually meant for thousand while the skin tones, especially with portraits, the skin tones are not going to be dad good. It's going to look unnatural. Keep that in mind when you're adjusting your white balance. Next, we have hue and chroma. Never ever used this one. I don't. Anyways, you can adjust your colors here. You can adjust the chroma and then the brightness levels here. Instead, what I like to use is the hue saturation option here. And then I can target or you can target your individual color channels to remove color casts or to change the colors or the saturation, or even the brightness levels of those individual color channels. This is the one that I use 99% of the time if I need to make adjustments once the file is inside of GIMP as a JPEG file. All right, Next we have saturation, which adjust the saturation slightly differently than the previous option I just showed you again, I never use this one. This is something you're gonna have to play with to see if he liked the results from this saturation option versus the other one. Next we have exposure which is pretty self-explanatory. You're going to increase or decrease the exposure of this way. You can also change the black level or the black point with this slider here. Now a lot of these windows you're gonna notice down here a blending options. So you can come in here and choose a blending mode to adjust how that edit is going to be applied to the image. And that's something that I use, but it's there. So go ahead and play around with that to see if you can get something that you'd like for your particular style. Next we have shadows and highlights, so we can target the shadows and the highlights to make them brighter or darker. Here's the highlights, common, to be honest, I've never used this. I'm not even sure what it's used for us. They'll play around with that. Looks like it's making adjustments to the white point and increasing the radius of that white point and then compressing it to be wider or shorter based on the amount or the intensity for that particular edit. Again, I don't use these at all. I only use the shadow and highlight adjustments in the raw editor. Or if I wanted to target the highlights and the shadows, I use the curves tool like we talked about previously. I'm gonna adjust my highlights this way versus using those highlight and shadow sliders because again, this gives you more control. Then we have, I think the last one is brightness and contrast. Again, pretty self-explanatory, brighter or darker, more or less contrast. But again, I prefer the curves tool over this option. We've already talked about levels and curves, and we're going to use the curves tool more later on in the course, and I'll give you some more tips for using that tool. Alright, so congratulations on finishing the quick start guide. You now know how to do some basic edits and GIMP. Later in this class you will learn some more advanced techniques and pro tips for editing and GIMP. And in the next section, we're going to dive into layers in regards to how they work in GIMP because they work a little bit differently than they do in Photoshop. The concept is the same, but I want to give you all the information you need to know about layers and GIMP and how to maximize your use of layers and GIMP if you're ready to learn more about layers and get, Let's do it. 10. Discover Layers In GIMP vs Photoshop: When it comes to the layers and gamma, you don't have all the same features and tools as you do in Photoshop. However, there are four main types of layers and ways to customize them that can help you achieve your creative vision. Again, in this tutorial, you're going to discover all of that more. But first let's define what a layer is. So we're all on the same page. In your analog world. And layer is nothing more than a canvas or an image. And you can add layers to the initial layer, like a sheet of paper that you draw on. Or maybe you want to add another photo to it. And that's another layer that you can use to alter your artwork. Now, the same is true in your digital world. You either start off with a blank canvas or a layer that doesn't have any pixels. But if you open an image here, let's go ahead and open up an image. That first layer consists of pixels that make up your image. And just like in your analog world, you can create new layers to alter how your image looks. So I can add a new layer, I can fill it in, and then I can blend it in with the layer below. So that's how layers work. So let's go ahead and review the four types of layers and the four ways to customize them. Alright, to follow along, navigate to your section two folder and open up this file called for layer types. Now the first thing I'd like to do is to turn off the layer boundary, which is this blue and black dashed line right here. And you're going to learn more about the layer boundary in and upcoming tutorial. Let's go ahead and hide that by going up to View and clicking on Show layer boundary. Alright, so the first type of layer is the background layer, and it's a little bit different compared to the background layer in Photoshop. Now before I show you what it is, Let's go ahead and expand this first layer right here. Go ahead and click on this plus icon to expand the contents inside of it. And then what I want you to do is I want you to navigate to the background layer here. You can go ahead and click right here, and then come over here to the left and click right about in this area right here to reveal the contents of that layer. So this icon will show or hide the contents of layers. If you click here again, it will hide that content. Alright, so the background layer is the layer that is created when you create a new document or when you open an image for the first time, if I come up here and create a new document, that background layer is right here, the contents are blank. There's nothing in there. We have a blank slate to start with. But when you open an image for the first time, the thumbnail preview is going to consist of or show you a preview of what that image looks like. Even though it doesn't say background layer. This is the background layer for this file. And I don't recommend applying your edits to the background layer. Instead, you should duplicate your background layer and apply your edits to that so you can work non-destructively and we'll talk more about that as you progress through this class. Now, the reason why I bring this up is because it is a little bit different versus the background layers in Photoshop. And that's because in Photoshop the background layers are automatically locked. You can't move them, you can't apply any edits to them. But in GIMP you can. So if I grab my paintbrush tool here, I can paint on the background layer. If you want to have the function of background layers and Photoshop, you can come up here and click right here to lock the pixels. Now I can't paint on it, but I can grab my Move tool and move it. Now you can lock that action as well by clicking on the icon next to that. And then you won't be able to move it. So now it's a true background layer similar to what we have in Photoshop. All right, let's go back to our layers here. What we're going to do next is look at grouped layers. Let's go ahead and turn on this layer right here to reveal the contents and go ahead and click here to expand it. So a Grouped layer is a layer that well roofs other layers together. And when you first open this file, only two grouped layers were visible. If I collapse this group layer, this is layer, and this is a group layer. And then inside we have a layer here. And then this is considered a Grouped layer because there's more layers inside of it. Same with our Grouped layer here. We have individual layers inside. That's a Grouped layer. Alright, let's go ahead and collapse that and go ahead and turn on the pixel layer here. This is the third type of layer in GIMP. And a pixel layer. Basically is a layer that consists of pixels. At anytime you paint on your layer or you add an image to the layer that is considered a pixel layer. Then the fourth type of layer is a text layer. Now, if you take a look at the preview right here, it looks like there's some information there, but we can't see it on our Canvas. Why is that? Well, that's because the contents of the pixel layer here is above this layer which hides it. If you want to see that, go ahead and turn this layer off, which will turn everything off or just come inside of here and turn off the image pixel layer to reveal the text layer. So this is a text layer. Now I know it's a text layer. Let's go ahead and expand this here, because we have this little icon right here as part of the preview. If we come over here to our toolbar, you're going to see that same a letter. And if you click on it, you will then activate the Text tool. And then you can click here to update that text with new content or to change the color if that's something that you want to do, or to change the font, type, the size, and more. Now if you try and do that with this text layer down here where it says text layer or any one of these for that matter. If you try and click on there, you will not be able to update that text. And that's because it's been converted from a text layer to a pixel layer. And then if you take a look at the individual layers, you're gonna notice that the preview is different than the text layer up here. So that's how did the distinguish between a text layer and a pixel layer? Let's take a look at the four different ways that you can customize your individual layers. Let's go ahead and close this group up. And let's go ahead and turn it off to reveal the Grouped layer below it. And let's go ahead and expand this. The first type of way to customize your layer is through a layer style. So a layer style could be a stroke or a drop shadow or something else. If we go ahead and turn this layer on, we have the image without any type of layer effects. But if you turn on the layer below, you would then see a drop shadow has been added. So that's a layer of fat. Layer effects can be applied either through filters or through selections. And then adjusting that selection with a stroke through a selection or through a path right here. The next type of way to customize your layer is with a Layer Mask. I'm gonna go ahead and turn this image layer off here. Then inside I'm going to reveal this layer here. And then just above that, you can see the layer preview shows a black and white version of this layer below it. And then next to that we have this rectangle with some black paint on it, and this is the layer mask. The layer mask is used to show or hide individual pixels of that layer. If you turn this on, you will then see some color coming through that black and white image. And that's because it's blending with the layer below based on the black that's been painted on the white rectangle here. The rectangle takes the shape of the pixels and the layer. And then when you paint with white, you will add the edit and then black will remove the edit. That's why certain areas here are in color because that area has been painted with black on the layer mask to reveal the layer below it. Alright, let's go ahead and hide these two layers here and collapse the layer masks. And then go ahead and turn on the blending modes layer and expand the content here. And then inside you're gonna see that black and white image again, as well as a solid color of orange. Once you turn that layer on it will hide the image layer below it because it's a solid color and it's above it. Now what you can do is you can use your blending modes to blend this layer in width, the layer below. So let's go ahead and try that by going up to mode and selecting soft light. And now you have a sepia tone versus a true black and white image. And that's another way to customize your layers through all these different blending modes that you have. And again, there's actually more blending modes and GMP than what we have in Photoshop. So go ahead and go through all of these, play around with them. And you will see the different ways that you can blend one layer with another layer. All right, I'm gonna go ahead and collapse that actually, let's turn off these two layers here and turn on the opacity layer. Now, opacity is going to allow you to customize the layer by reducing the transparency of the layer. If you click on the blending modes icon here, you're going to notice that the opacity is down around 37%. If you increase this all the way to 100, it's no longer transparent and it's much brighter than it was before. But as you drop the opacity, it becomes more transparent, harder to see. And then the layer below it will then begin showing through because it's no longer solid. 11. How To Manage Layers with Attributes: So in this tutorial, I'd like to share some tips about using layers and GIMP and some layer attributes to help you organize them. Let's jump back into GIMP here, and let's go ahead and open any image since it's only for reference. All right, so in the previous tutorial I mentioned a couple of things you can do to lock the layer to prevent you from accidentally moving it or altering the layer itself by adjusting or altering the pixels of that layer. So to prevent your image layer from being moved, you can add this move lock and then you won't be able to move that layer. And then this one here will lock the pixels so you can't accidentally alter those pixels. And then this last lock option here is to lock the alpha channel. So the alpha channel is the transparency of layer. If you have transparency in that layer, let's say a logo, then you can lock that transparency from being altered. Now, in addition to locking with these three options, you can also lock two layers together or link them together. So if you come down here and click on this icon that will duplicate the layer, then if you click to the right of this eye icon, it will add a link icon, and then you will need to add another layer to link two. Now when you grab your move tool and move that layer, it's going to move both layers at the same time. If you only have one linked and it's not really linking to anything. So you're only going to move that one layer that has that link icon or without it actually, you can actually link to or multiple layers together if that's something you need to do for your particular project that you're working on. Alright, so let's quickly review some of these options down here at the bottom of the Layers panel. So you have an idea of the things that you can do with these attributes. And then we're going to cover some of these in more detail later in the class. So this first option here, pretty self-explanatory. It's going to delete a layer. And of course this will duplicate. This little cloud icon will allow you to add a layer mask and there's multiple types to choose from. And we'll go into great detail about these in the Pro editing sections. We're going to go ahead and cancel out of that for now. Then this icon here will allow you to merge the layer that is selected with the layers below it, or at least the ones that are visible. If they're not visible, then you won't be able to merge them together. So once I click here, it's going to merge those two layers together. Now if you want to change the stacking order of your layers, you can click and drag down or up, or you can use these little arrows right here. Now, this option here, we'll create a grouped layer for you, but currently it doesn't have anything inside of it. So to add a layer or layers into it, you're going to click and drag that layer over the image preview here until you see those dotted lines. Once you see that, release your mouse and it will automatically be added in. You can see it's added because it's indented compared to the top layer here. And then the layer group will inherit the image preview of the layer that is at the top. To add another layer, you're going to click and drag up until you see that horizontal line. You can do it either at the top of that layer or below it. And then you can add another layer inside of here as well. To remove the layers you're going to click and drag down. And then it's going to remove it. And if I close this, you'll see that this layer is no longer in this Grouped layer here. Now to create a new layer, you're going to click right here and you have some different attributes inside of here that you can apply while creating your new layer. So you can give it a name here, you can add a color tag based on how you want to organize your layers may be a specific color, will be applied to all layer masks, and then maybe another color for grouped layers, so on and so forth. And if you want to apply a blending mode at the time of creation, you can do that from here. These options are more advanced. I never really use them myself. You can apply an opacity setting for that layer as well. You can set the size and the position with these options here. And then this option down here, you'll probably use more often because you're either going to want to fill in that new layer with transparency or a solid color, whether it's your foreground or background color swatch that you had set up prior to activating the New Layer window. Now, you also have some options over here to make that layer visible or hidden. It's visible by default. And then you can set it up to be linked lot with these three options here as well. Now once you click Okay, it will create that new layer accordingly. Now if you want to change the color tab or make other attribute changes, you can right-click on the layer and select your color tag from here and make some other changes to that layer from here as well. And then there's other options down here and we'll cover some of these later on as you progress through the class. Alright, so the last thing we're gonna cover real quick is the layer boundary. What is it and what's its purpose? I have my new layer selected. And on the outside here you're gonna see the yellow and black dashed line. That's the layer boundary. Now if you select a layer group, it's going to change to blue and black. That's just an easy way to determine whether or not you have a group layer selected or an individual layer. Now the purpose of the layer boundary is to show the size of the layer and to confine your edits or altering of the pixels of that layer within the layer boundary because you can't paint on the outside of this layer because the size of this layer is right here. So everything you do is confined to that layer boundary inside of it. Now if you crop your canvas and you didn't crop the pixels or delete those pixels permanently than the layer boundary is going to show outside of that canvas. And that's your cue that you have additional pixels outside of that layer or outside of that canvas, I should say. And then you can readjust the layer accordingly if you need to recompose the image. Now, sometimes I find the layer boundary to be a little distracting. I like to turn that off and we did that previously by going up to View and clicking on Show layer boundary. Now, every time I click on a new layer, it will not show that layer boundary. If you want a ratio, it just come back up here and click on Show layer boundary. Alright, so one type of layer we haven't covered yet is adjustment layers. And if you have experienced with Photoshop than you probably know what they are. If not, that's okay because you're gonna learn all about them in the next tutorial. 12. How To Use Adjustment Layers in GIMP: Next up is discovering one in an adjustment layer is where they are in GIMP and how to use them. So if you're ready, let's do it. All right, so an adjustment layer is a type of layer, but it's a very special type of layer. An adjustment layer is used to contain a specific type of editing tool. We take our editing tool and we put it inside of a layer. For example, when you edit an image, you can access a tool to, I don't know, let's say make the image brighter. That tool when selected, is available in an individual window or it's separated from all the other tools. However, we can turn that editing tool into a layer that resides inside of the layers panel with all your other layers, which is how it got its name, adjustment layer. So the advantage of an adjustment layer versus having that editing tool outside and separate is that it gives you more control and flexibility over that editing tool. I have some good news and I have some bad news. The bad news is GIMP does not have this type of a layer, an adjustment layer built into it like Photoshop. But the good news is, I have a work-around that will allow you to mimic adjustment layers in GIMP so that you have that flexibility of using the editing tools for your creative vision. Alright, so let's go ahead and dive right back into GIMP and learn why we want to use adjustment layers and how we can use them in Gim. Just for demonstration purposes, we're going to increase the exposure of this image. So let's go up to Colors levels, and then we're going to adjust the levels midpoint or the mid tones section by clicking on this little triangle here and moving it to the left. So the image is now overexposed. It's not a type of edit that I would recommend. But again, just for demonstration purposes, let's go ahead and click Okay. Now we're going to go ahead and save this edit by going up to File select Export As We're gonna keep the same filename and click Export. It's going to ask, do you want to replace the original file? In this case we do. So click Replace, go ahead and click Export on this next window. Let's go ahead and close this file. Go ahead and select Discard Changes. And then we're gonna go back up to File, open up that same image as before. And let's say we do this tomorrow, next week, next year. After we edit the image, we say that we close it, we come back, we realize we over edited the image and it's overexposed. Now what? Well, you could go back up to Colors levels and try and adjust it. But the only problem is you're going to begin degrading the quality of the image. And it's not going to be the same as the original. What you have done is you've done what is known as destructive editing. You've applied an edit directly to the pixels and you altered them in a way that you cannot get them back because you saved over the original file unless you have a duplicates of that particular file or a backup of that file, you've essentially ruined the image forever. You're out of luck. All right, so now let's take a look at how we should be editing our images. So go ahead and close out that file. We're going to go back to File and Open. And we're going to open up image 02, which is the same image. Now what we're going to do is we're going to duplicate this layer by coming down here and clicking on this duplicate layer icon. Let's go ahead and double-click right here so we can rename this layer and let's just call it exposure edit. Now we're going to go back up to colors and select Levels again. And again. We're going to adjust the exposure to make it over exposed. So go ahead and do that click Okay. And now this layer is different from this layer. So we have our original and our edited layer. In essence, this edited layer is our adjustment layer. Let's see how this works. We're going to go up to File select, Save As. And now GIMP is going to amend the file type x c, f to the filename so that we can save the layers and keep everything intact. Go ahead and click Save. Close that file, go back in and reopen the O2 dot EXE file. We have both layers still intact. We have our adjustment layer. And now we realize that the image is overexposed and we over edited the image. We can come up to our opacity slider up here. And then we can click and drag it to the left to tone it down and then it will blend in with the layer below it. We still have the flexibility and control of reediting our image because we can adjust the opacity. But if at some point we decided we're not getting the results we want, we can either turn this layer off or we can come down here and delete the layer and then start our editing over with the original layer. We've in essence worked what is known as non-destructively. So we can use an adjustment layer in this manner to work non-destructively, to give us the flexibility and control to edit our images again in the future. Now I will admit if you have ever used adjustment layers in Photoshop, It's not 100% exactly the same, but this is the best workaround at this point in time. I will add that the developers add GIMP are in the process of updating gimp to include adjustment layers that are going to be much more robust and professional and more like the Photoshop option in a future release, however, we do not have a specific timeline for one that will happen until then. This is the best workaround. All right, congratulations on completing this section on layers. In the next section you're going to discover how to edit your raw files with camp if you're ready for that, Let's do it. 13. How To Edit RAW Files in GIMP: I have some good news and some bad news. The bad news is just like with Photoshop. You cannot edit RAW files directly in the GIMP app. Instead, there's a raw editor that works in conjunction with GMP and it's called darts table. For those of you who knew too dark table, it's a free alternative for editing your raw files that is similar to Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw. And just like with Lightroom, you can manage your images by sorting would labels, stars and keywords plus it worked seamlessly with GMP and did I mention it's free. All right, So installing dark table is super easy to do. And to download it, you're gonna go to our table.org, click on Install right here, and choose your operating system to download it and then you can install it just like any other app. That's it. You now have dark table installed. So let's go ahead and jump into dark table and take a look at what it has to offer. So once you have a table open, you're gonna be in the light table view and you can do a few different things in here. One is importing your images from your hard drive or from your camera. You can also organize your images by adding tags and keywords. You can add color labels. You can also write those images with the star system down here. And then next to light table we have a dark room module. And next to that we have other. So other is going to include additional modules that are similar to Lightroom. So we have a map module which is going to list your images on a map based on geographic location. And then you have a print module slideshow. And if you want to tether your camera to your computer, you can do that with this tethering option. And then when you create an image, dark table will automatically import that image into light table for you. So dark room is where all the magic happens for your editing. But before you can get in there, you need to select at least one image. And when you hover over this, you're gonna see that keyboard shortcut for getting into dark room is the letter D and light table is the letter. Alright, let's go into dark room. Like I said, this is where all the magic happens when you want to edit your images. And if you're transitioning from Lightroom to dark table, you're gonna notice there's a lot more tools and features versus Lightroom. You have a lot more ways to edit your images based on your creative vision. Now before we get into that, let's take a look at this left panel over here. We have a couple of options here that makes editing your images much easier. So to kind of streamline your workflow, you can use snapshots to take different versions of your edit and save them for future use. We also have a history panel here, which is pretty cool because it's going to record every edit that you apply to your image. And if you decide that you don't like the direction that the edit is going in. You can go back in time by coming in here and selecting one of these editing options. And then everything above it will be removed from your image. That way you can restart your edit from here versus restarting from scratch. Now, over here on the right side, we have our editing tools and they're divided up into different categories. Now there's around 5060, maybe 70 different editing tools that you have available for editing your images. Now, just like with GIMP, you're probably going to use 20% of these tools, 80% of the time and we're gonna cover those later in the course. I'm also going to show you right now how to customize each one of these panels to only include the editing tools del, you'll want to use. Because personally, I probably use only around 20 of the 60 or sold tools available for editing. So I don't like to have the clutter of all these different editing tools that I'm not going to use. So I'm gonna show you that in just a second. The first category right here are the first tab is the Quick Access Panel, which is going to list the tools that you're probably going to use the most often. So local contrast, exposure, lens correction didn't noise white balance, and a couple others as well. Now the next module here is going to list all the editing tools that you've used for the image that is currently visible. As you continue adding more edits and using new tools. They will be listed here. Alright, so the next module is the technical editing tools. This is going to list things like the output color profile, a base curve, the cropping tool, and much more. Now you may notice that there's a lot of editing tools in here that were included in the Quick Access Panel, like exposure and I believe white balances in here as well. We can actually hide those so that they're not visible and taking up more room again, I'll show you that in just a second. First, let's take a look at the next category, which is color grading. So you have your split toning. You have color contrast, color correction, shadows and highlights levels, tone curve, and much more. And then the final module is the Effects panel. You can add things like vignetting grain. You can convert it to monochrome. And there's a lot of other cool options in here as well. Now, like I mentioned, I like to have each of these panels setup with only the tools that I prefer to use so that my panels are not as clustered as they are right now. If you click on this hamburger icon right here, you're gonna see all the different default workflow options available. So they even have one for beginner display referred, seen, referred. Those are some pretty advanced types of concepts here. We're gonna keep this simple and just look at some of the basic editing tools that you may want to use in your editing workflow. So my workflow here is going to list only the editing tools that I selected. So once I click on that, you're gonna notice there is a lot less tools than there was before. I'm going to go back to default here and then back inside because I want to show you how to create your own workflow or your own workspace. What you're gonna do is click on Manage Presets. You're going to duplicate the default option that has the majority of the editing tools. Once you do that, you're gonna give it a new name. Call it new for now. And then from here you can go ahead and begin removing any editing tools that you don't want to use. Now if you're just starting out as an editor, you're probably not going to know which ones that you're going to want to use or not use. You may want to just stick with the default option for now. Now if you've made a mistake and remove something that you didn't want to remove. You can click on the plus icon here, and then you can scroll through and find the module that you want to add back in. Once I close out of this and go back and again, you will then see my new workflow right here. Now as far as editing your images, it works like any other Raw editor. Once you select the tool that you want to use, you just adjust the slider to the left or right. And then it's going to update the preview over here on the left side where your images, of course, and I just want to point out that you're not actually editing the raw file. Instead, you're editing a preview. So this right here is just a preview of that raw file. What is going to do is it's going to take these Edit Settings and save it as a separate file next to your raw file. So it's not going to affect the Raphael at all. It's non-destructive. And you can go back into that image tomorrow a week from now, a month from now, and continue making adjustments without ruining the original raw file. Now, in addition to customizing your individual editing modules here, you can also hide these individual panels, so there's one on each side. If we come over here and click on this arrow, it will hide that panel. Clicking again will reshow it. You can also hide all the panels at the same time by pressing the Tab key and then clicking again to reshow it. Now there's additional keyboard shortcuts for customizing your interface and for using dark table in general, we're not gonna go over all those keyword shortcuts. So the seed, the list of keywords shortcuts available in dark table. Just hold down the letter H to show all of those keyboard shortcuts. If we scroll down, there's a lot more. All right, once you release H, it will go back to the original interface here. Alright, So couple more things I want to share with you real quick, and that is adjusting the size of the panels. So if we come to the inside of the panels here, we're gonna get this little icon right here. And then you can drag it to the left or to the right to resize the width of the panel. And then for the thumbnail previews down here, come up to the top right here, and then drag up or down to resize those thumbnail previews. Alright, it's now time to get your images in the dark tables so you can start organizing in editing your images. So if you're ready for that, Let's do it. 14. How To Import RAW Files: You're now going to learn everything you need to know to import your images into dark table. And what I would like you to do is import all the images in the session three folders so you can use those images throughout the rest of this class. And of course, you can import your own images once you're done with this tutorial as well. So let's dive into our table here and get started. So like I mentioned before, importing of your photos has to be done in the light table module. Make sure you have that view active. And then in the top left here you're gonna find the import panel and clicking on it will expand the panel showing the options for importing. Right now in the latest version of dark table, which is currently 3.8, there are two default options, the library and copy and import. And since I have my Nikon D 500 connected to my computer, I have a third option. And when I click on Mount camera, it provides an option to import from the media card or to use tethered shooting. So let's go over each of these and then you can decide which one you prefer. Now, since we're here, let's go ahead and look at the tethered option first. To activate this feature, you're gonna click on the tethered shoot button. A new interface will open. Now when I capture an image, it will auto import into dark table. And let's see how that works. I'm gonna go ahead and take a random photo here of in my studio. And let's see how long it takes to import. So depending on the speed of your computer and your cameras media card will determine how long it takes for that image to import. And that took a few seconds to do. Let's go back to the light table option here. Alright, so if you already have your files saved to your hard drive, you can then use add to library to import those images. You can even import directly from your media card when it's attached. Now, unlike when you have your camera attached, it's not going to list the media card from here. Instead, you have to go into add to library and then locate your media occurred and find the images that way. Now it's not going to show up automatically in the folder session or even in places. Now I already have mine added into places which you can see right here, Nikon D 500 in order to add your media card so it locates it again in the future, you're gonna click on the plus icon here. And then you're going to navigate to that media card, click Open and then it's going to add it in places. Then when you click on the name here, Nikon D 500. And my case, It's going to show all the folders inside of that media card. Now when I click on Nikon D 500 from here, no images show up. What I have to do now is I have to dig into the folders to find the images. It might take a couple of minutes to actually find them. It's actually in here. But a quicker way to overcome that is to select the top folder and select recursive directory. And then dark table will look through all the folders to find all the images. By default, all images are selected for import. Now, I don't know about you, but the file numbers here, they have no meaning to me, so I have no idea what this particular image is all about. I don't know what I took. It could be a tree, it could be a person water. I have no idea. What I like to do is I like to turn on the thumbnail preview so I can actually see which images are being imported. Because I may not want to import all of them. I may just want to select a select few. If we click right here on this little icon, it's going to show those thumbnails and you can click it again to hide it. So it's gonna take a minute to show all those thumbnail previews depending on how many images that you have. Now what I can do is I can go in and select individual photos. So if I click on this top photo, only that photo is selected. If I want to select this one as well, I'm gonna hold down my command or control key and click that. Then I can scroll through and continue clicking as long as I have command or control selected. Now if I want to select multiple images within two other images, I can select one and then hold down my shift key and click on the top image here. And then it's going to select all those images in-between. Now it's only going to import those images that are selected versus what we had originally. So a nine images out of a 139 are now selected. That's it. Now, all you have to do is click on add to library and they will automatically be imported into dark table for you. Alright, so let's go ahead and close out of that and let's take a look at copy and import. Actually, let's go back because I want to show you one more thing here in add to library. And that is if you go to the places again and click on Home, this is going to list all the folders on your operating system. This way you can select your folder of images that are already installed on your computer. So in this case, I can go into desktop and select this folder. And it's then going to show all the images inside of here. That's how you would import your images if they're already. 11, your hard drive. Alright, so copy and import is pretty much the same process. However, this option allows you to rename your files during imports. So this would be helpful when importing directly from your media card or when you haven't renamed the files on your hard drive, but you're gonna end up with duplicate files since you're copying and importing at the same time. So my recommendation if your files are already on your computer is to rename them before importing. And you should be able to do that with the operating system that you have, Windows, mac, Linux, whatever the case may be, just do a Google search on how to rename your files before importing. But if you decide you want to use this option, you can rename your files from the option below the list of your files here by clicking on naming rules to set up how they're renamed. Now, the naming pattern consists of three parts. A bass part for defining the parent folder, a session part defining a subdirectory, and then a filename part defining the filename structure for each imported image. The file naming structure, I will admit it looks a little confusing. So in the next article that's going to follow this tutorial, you're gonna find a link that will provide a list of predefined variables that you can use an each part. By default, your images are going to be imported into the system Pictures folder on your operating system. And it's going to go inside of a sub-directory, or I should say a sub folder called dark table. If he'd like to import your images into a different directory, you can do so by clicking on this folder icon and then choose your preferred a folder. Now under that, we have our subdirectory naming pattern and a default subfolder naming system will be applied in your images will go into this sub folder. You can either change the subfolder naming to something you prefer or if you don't want your images in another sub folder, you're gonna delete all this information right here. You can also keep the original filename when you turn this option on right here, vs the file naming pattern underneath it. Now for the renaming of your files, you're gonna use this option down here. We have a default setting that way add the year, the month, and the day, which will be today's date, and then the file extension. Now for my system, I've set up a sequence variable that is going to add a sequential numbers. So all one hundred, two hundred, three, etc, to my filename. Now, I Dina mentioned something about this year, month and day here. And in the subdirectory, this date is going to be based on today's date, not the day you took the photo. If you want to override the date and apply the date that you took the photos, you're going to need to apply that in the override. Today's date. These images here were taken on, it looks like February 12th and today's date is oblique, February 16th. So if I want to override that, I'm just gonna do something random here. So we're gonna put our year first, followed by the month, and then the day that the photo was taken. Now this is going to override this information down here, and then it's going to put the sequential number in here next to it with an underscore, and then the file extension. And that's it. You're now ready to import the images. Okay, so one more thing you should know before importing is the parameters you can set during import. From here you can include or exclude certain metadata from these options. The one thing I like to include on all images that I import is copyright information. So all of these are pretty self-explanatory. So go ahead and go through these and you are now ready to import your images. So do that. And like I mentioned, import all the images from your section three folders so you can follow along with the rest of the tutorials. 15. How To Edit RAW Files: It's now time to learn how to edit your images and dark table with a real-world project that you can submit after you've completed your edit. Let's jump back into our table and it gets started. Alright, so here's the image we're going to be working on, and this is included in your section three folder. And here's the final edit that I created. How cool is that? I love it. All right, so let me show you how I achieved this edit. And I need to go into the history panel and click right here to clear the history to remove all those edits. Alright, so the first thing that I like to do before I edit an image is look at the histogram, which we can see up here. And you can see that it's severely unexposed, which is pretty interesting since I shot this with an exposure or a shutter speed of thirty-seconds, so I didn't nail the exposure in camera. And now we need to fix that. We're gonna use the exposure module to brighten it up. I'm gonna go ahead and increase the exposure by sliding this to the right. And as you can see, the histogram begins moving to the right to fill in that gap. And if I go to around two stops brighter, we can see that the histogram is beginning to be clipped right here on the right side. So I might be losing some detail with that clipping. And to verify if I am or not, I'm gonna go ahead and use my clipping indicators which are located down here. Actually, It's this icon right here. So once you click on that, you'll see this red or blue or both overlays on your image indicating that the detail on that part of the tonal range as being clipped. So the red overlay here in the sky is an overexposure indicator. I'm losing detail in the sky, so I increase the exposure too much. Now there's also a blue overlay and it's kinda hard to see someone go ahead and use my scroll wheel on my mouse to scroll in and you can see little specks of blue in the tree stops. And I'm okay with that. I'm not gonna try and correct that because it's not going to really help this image that much because we're not going to see the detail in there anyway. Especially when I'm done editing and darkening up that part of the image. What I do want to do though, is I want to lower the exposure value until these red overlays, these little dots here disappear. So I'm just gonna go ahead and grab my slider and move it to the loved until they're all gone. So right about there. Reading the histogram is an awesome way for figuring out where to start your editing. It's going to tell you if your image is over or underexposed and what parts of the tonal range needs to be fixed. So in this case, the highlights and the whites needed to be fixed in order to correct the exposure. So once you fix the exposure, you'd then have to determine what's next. Well, for me that would be the white bands because they see that the image is very blue. And I think it's too blue for my taste. So again, I didn't get the correct white balance in camera, so let's go ahead and fix that. If we navigate to the Quick Access Panel, you're gonna find the white balance setting options here at the bottom. And these settings are the ones that were applied during capture of this image. So I should've increased the Kelvin temperature before I took the photo. But since I didn't do that, I'm gonna go ahead and drag this to the right. And I think I want to police it right around 12 thousand for the Kelvin. And I also want to increase the red tint a little bit as well to add a little bit of red and reduce the green. Now, when it comes to white balance for an image like this, it's more of a personal preference. There's also, if you take a look down here, some white balance settings down here that will help you set the white balance to remove color tens. If you click on your eyedropper tool here, what you wanna do is you want to click on an area in your image that should be either pure white or pure black or pure gray. And then when you click on it, It's samples those colors in there and it removes the colors so that part of the image is pure white, pure black or pure gray. So a neutral gray. And that removes the color casts, which in effect is white balancing your image. Alright, so the next thing I wanna do is I want to adjust the contrast that's a little flat right now. I'm gonna go ahead and grab my tone curve here because that is my preferred method for adding contrast. What I'm going to do is create what is known as an S-curve. We should have a histogram behind this linear line right here and inside of this grid, that's going to represent the tonal ranges of your image which will match the histogram you have up here. So as soon as I click on this line, you'll see the histogram show up. So this side is the blacks and the shadows. Then we have our mid tones or the exposures and the middle. And then we have our highlights and whites on the end. That's the same with your histograms. So what I wanna do is I want to increase the brightness of the highlights and darken the shadows. So I'm gonna click and drag up here to brighten up the highlights. But you may have noticed that I'm overexposing the sky now. What I need to do now is decide if I'm okay with losing detail here, or if I should lower the setting here back to where it was or reduce it sum, which is going to still show some overexposure and then just darken up the shadows instead. And I think I'm okay with making this part of the image overexposed for two reasons. One, it's not that important of an element of the image. There's no detail there anyways that it can really see. There's no texture or anything like that. We're gonna end up darkening up the sky later on with another tool which is going to compensate and reduce the overexposure here. So these are things that you have to think about and consider as you're editing. What other tools do you plan on using? And can you fix it with a different type of edit or should you reduce the adjustment now that you've made with that specific tool. So increasing the highlights or making the highlights brighter and making the shadows darker and contrast. And we can see that when we turn off the tone curve module or any module, by clicking on this icon here to turn it off. And this is a great way to see the before and after. And as you can see, it's really flat here. And now we have some more contrast. All right, so let's go ahead and close this off. And what I wanna do next is I want to remove this tree branch that is peaking. And over here on the side, I'm going to use my scroll wheel here to zoom in so I can see it a little bit better. And then I can click and drag to navigate around the image a little bit more if needed. Or you can actually do that up here in this navigational panel right here. So to get rid of this, I'm going to use our retouching tool, which is in the effects group. And what I'm going to use is the circle shape tool. We also have an oval, a path, and a brush. But for this particular type of edit, I prefer using the circle shape with your scroll wheel. You can increase or decrease the size of that shape. And what I wanna do is make it just a little bit larger than the element that I'm going to be retouching. Once I click here, dark room is going to add another circle, which is used a sample in other parts of the image to be used to cover up or retouched the area that needs to be well retouched. Now sometimes dark table is not going to give you a good point of reference and it may overlap with the original area that needs to be retouched. What you can do is you can click on this circle here and move it into another position to create a better point of sampling. The other thing I wanna do before I move on is I want to turn off these two circles to review that area that's being retouched. Now if you take a closer look, you can kind of see some blurriness and the shape of that circle right here. So we need to blend that in a little bit better. So let's go ahead and turn these back on. I'm gonna go ahead and increase the feathering of this particular circle. And we can do that by holding down the Shift key. So make sure you're in-between these two lines here and then use the scroll wheel on your mouse to increase it. And then it's going to smooth out and feathered that a little bit better than it was before. Now, the other thing I'm noticing now that we're zoomed in is all this digital noise and I want to get rid of that. Now. Typically, when I shoot at ISO 400, I don't have this much digital noise, but because I had a 30-second exposure, that tends to increase the amount of digital noise. And because my image was extremely underexposed when I fixed it, it added additional noise. What I always recommend doing is trying to nail your exposure in camera at least as close as possible. And you'll end up with a higher-quality image and you won't have to do these extra editing steps like reducing noise. Alright, so I'm gonna go ahead and come up here to the search module and type in noise to find our denoise tool. And we have four options. Which one should we use? Well, this first one is for Astro photography or designed for that type of photography. Surface blur is going to apply an edge where surface blur to denoise or smooth out the textures. And I've never really used this one, so I don't know that much about this one. Now we do have denoise profiled, which is more of a common type of de-noise filter or tool that you'll see in other software like Lightroom or Adobe Camera. And then we have raw denoise, which is a more complex advanced type of denoise filter. So again, which one of these are you going to use? Well, it depends on your image and the type of noise that you have. So for this camera, my Nikon Z6, I found that the rod denoise works best for this particular camera. But I also have a Nikon D 500 where I found that this option, the profile option, works better for images for that particular cameras. So you have to experiment based on the camera that you have. The type of noise that is introduced. So I'm gonna go ahead and use raw denoise. And once I turn this on, it's going to automatically remove all the noise. How cool is that? I love it. The only problem though, is by default, the smoothing effect to remove the noise is intense hand, you'll end up losing a lot of texture and detail with the default settings. So that's where this extra linear line here in this grid and other options here give you more control over how much noise is reduced or removed and how much texture or detail is lost. So I don't want it to be this smooth because it looks fake, it looks plastic. Especially when applying this tool on portraits, the skin looks really unnatural with these default settings. So what I wanna do is I want to introduce a little bit of noise back by clicking right here and dragging it down towards noisy. Next, I want to increase the texture and the detail. And I have two options, either coarse or fine. Fine will be smoother, and course will be more intense. And you're gonna see more of that texture come back. So let's go ahead and click and drag this one down. And this node or anchor point, I'm going to bring down as well. And yes, we have more digital noise, but it's not as bad as it was before. Plus, we've brought back some of that texture in there now granted, this was a 30-second exposure. So we're not gonna have a lot of detail anyway because of the effects of the water being smoothed out during the process of the long exposure. I just wanted to bring back a little bit more texture so it wasn't too smooth. Alright, so the next step is to darken the sky, the water, and add a little color tint to the image as well. Because I think the colors right now are a little boring. And I want to add a little bit more color pop to it as well, maybe a little color boost with some contrast as well. So what I wanna do is I want to click on this icon here to bring back all the editing module. So the tool for this job is going to be the graduated density tool, at least for this image. This is the tool that I like for this particular effect that we're going to create. Once you click on your graduated density module here, you're going to see this horizontal line on your image. And this is the halfway point of the image right now. And we also have two triangles on either end which you can click on and then rotate the line according to the direction of the adjustments. Because what it's going to do is it's going to apply the adjustments from the top down to this line. So 100% of the edit will be applied up here at the top, and it will gradually decrease to 0 once it reaches this line. And then of course, anything below that line will not receive that edit. I want to apply this to the entire sky. So I'm gonna go ahead and click and drag this down to the horizon. And then in my graduated density module here, I'm going to increase the density. And by default it's already increased it by one stop. So if I turn this off, we can see that this guy is darker in the sky, is no longer overexposed in this area. So I'm gonna go ahead and increase this to around two stops or two EV. So right about there looks pretty good. And then I'm going to use my hue slider here to change the color. But nothing happens. And that's because you need to increase the saturation first, add some color to it because right now, without any saturation, It's not going to render any colors in that area or render any effects. So I'm gonna go ahead and click and drag this over to the right to right about. There should be good. And actually that's not the color I want. I want it to be more bluer to purple. I'm gonna go ahead and increase the hue slider here to the right. So right around there looks pretty good. All right. So I wanted to do the same thing with the water now, but I want to use different settings. And that's why I didn't drop this all the way down to the bottom. To create another density adjustment, we need to create a new instance. For this module. We're going to click right here and select new instance to get another graduated density filter effect. So again, this line does newline is applied in the middle of the image and it starting from the top down. And we want to reverse that. I can either click and drag and rotate it that way or we can use the rotation tool which I'm going to use. And let's drag it all the way to the right here to 180 degrees. Alright, so I want this to start at the horizon again. So I'm gonna go ahead and click and drag this back down to here. Now the edits are being applied from down here all the way up to this line. So I think one-stop looks pretty good. And as you can see, the blue overlay is much more brighter or intense than it was before. And that's because I'm clipping more of the blacks and the shadows and losing detail in that part of the image. But I'm okay with that for this particular image, because it is a knight or blue our sunset type of photo and it's more of a silhouette of the tree stumps and I'm not really interested in keeping all the detail. All right, so I'm gonna go ahead and increase the saturation again to about where we were before. And let's increase the hue to the right again too. I don't know what do you think? I don't want to go as purple as before. I want it to be a little bit bluer, so maybe right about there, I think that looks pretty good. Now, the other thing that you may have noticed once we darkened up the sky is the remnants of dust spots and they're much more visible now than they were before we darken the sky. So I'm gonna go ahead and zoom in right here. We can go ahead and navigate over here to the left and we can see a spot right here. And there's a couple of other spots here as well. To fix these, we're going to use the retouching tool again with the circle shape. And I'm gonna go ahead and click right here. Actually, I think maybe I need to make my brush size a little bit smaller. And then once I click here, dark table will do its magic and it will magically disappear. And don't forget, you can go ahead and move these circles around to adjust it if it's not giving you the sample point that you need to completely remove it. And once you have all of those removed, there's one other thing that we need to fix as well. What I'm noticing in the sky is some color banding. The color banding resulted from some of the other adjustments that we've already done. And to fix that color banding, let's do a search for the dithering tool. And this should help eliminate or minimize this color banding. So once you turn this on, dark table will do its magic again and boom, the color banding as gone. How cool is that? Alright, now that you've learned some tips for editing and dark table, you can complete this project on your own to reinforce what you've learned. And then you need to know how to get your images out of dark table so you can share them with the world and you'll discover how to do that in the next tutorial. So if you're ready for that, but let's do it. 16. How To Export Your Photos: Now that you've learned some basics for editing your images and dark table, it's now time to learn how to get your images out of it so you can share your images with the world. So let's jump back into dark table to find out how to export our images in our table here, make sure you're in the light tableview. Select an image or images that you want to export and click on Export and you have a ton of options to choose from. Before you export your images, we're gonna go over each one of these items so you know what they do and which ones you should select. But keep in mind, some of these are very advanced options and are beyond the scope of this tutorial because entire books have been written about them and we can't cover everything in this tutorial. But once you're done with this video, you will know how to export your images in which option I recommend using. The first thing you need to do is tell dark table where to export the file. So click on this icon here and choose the decimation. Under that, we have an item here called create unique filename, which is going to append a number at the end of that filename. If you click here, you also have overwrite, which will overwrite the original file. And you also have Skip, which will skip renaming the file. But if your original file is in that same folder location, it will overwrite it. So I don't recommend either one of these. It's nice to have a number appended to the filename so that you can keep them together. If you decided to put them in the same folder, then under that we have to set the format or the file type of the image when exported. By default, we have JPEG selected. If you click on it, you get this menu here with additional file formats. If none of these look familiar to you, then you won't need to use them. In fact, I would think 99% of the time JPEG will be sufficient for most of your project, especially if you're posting online, JPEG is sufficient, even when I do print enlargements, I still use JPEG 8-bit and I find my prints are perfect with that file format. Next, you need to set the quality of that JPEG file. You can set this between 0 to one hundred. One hundred is the highest quality, and I set mine to 80 for the quality just means a smaller file. It may not be as good as 100, but I can't see the difference unless I'm pixel peeping. In other words, I'm zooming in really close and putting that print enlargement right up against my face. I'm not gonna see the difference when it's hanging on the wall or sitting on my desk. All right, So under that we have an option to set the size of the file on export. By default, it's going to set the size to be the same as your raw file. If you want to change it, you can adjust the width and the height accordingly. You can set it in pixels, centimeters or inches, or by scale. If you want to create an eight by 12 print, you would type in eight for the width, 12 for the height, and then the DPI, or what is known as dots per inch. And that's the resolution here, eight by 12 by 300. If you're going to be using the images for online use, then you would use pixels. Now that same eight by ten print is now 2400 by 3600 pixels per inch. The other thing you can do is you can leave the width or the height set to 0. And then you can adjust the width or the height accordingly to whatever you need, let's say 800 pixels wide. And then dark table will adjust the height automatically to keep your image in proportion. And this is useful when you're sending images to a social media site that requires a specific width. This next option allow upscaling. I recommend using when you set the size of the dimensions to be larger than the original raw file. And what this option is going to do when you set it to yes. Is it's going to improve the quality of the image because you're making it larger than the original. And oftentimes, images will become jagged or pixelated due to the extra pixels that have to be created when making it larger since they were not there originally. So long story short, use upscaling when the dimensions are larger than your original. The next option, high-quality resampling, is another way to improve the quality of your images because it's going to. Process that image or the export in a different order in order to create a higher-quality image. But the downside is it's going to take a lot longer when you have this set to yes versus no. But if a high-quality file is of importance to you, I would recommend using this option here. The next option is grayed out for JPEG file formats. And it's not until you select something that can store masks like an SCF file, which is a gimp file format. Will you be able to store masks with that file? Under that, we have the color profile that you want to export to. If you're only putting images online, sRGB is the way to go. I even use this sometimes for prints. If I'm sending to my home printer, I will choose one of these other options that closely relates to the color profile of my printer. Again, like I mentioned before, color profiles are something you're going to need to spend a little bit more time learning about. But for now, for 99% of your images, sRGB should be sufficient until you have some understanding of these other ones and know when to use them and when not to use them. The next option here, intent, is another advanced type of setting that you're going to need to learn more about. And what this does is dark table is going to render your images that have out of gamut colors based on the option that you have selected here. So if you don't know what a color gamut is, that's something else you need to learn about if you want to take advantage of this option here and have higher-quality images on export. The next option called style is like presets, and it will allow you to apply specific edits that you saved. And you can apply those on export. It's something that I usually do during the editing process and that's something I do on export. But you do have that option to apply them during the export process. Now if you decide to use a style on export, you can choose to have that style appended to or overwrite the history stack of that image. I would recommend appending it, but not overriding it because you may want to go back at a certain point and take a look at those different editing steps you took for a particular image. The last decision to make is right inside of here. If you click right here, you get a new window called Edit Metadata exportation. From here you can tell dark table what metadata you would like applied or included in the image. These are all the default settings and you may or may not want to turn these off. One you may want to consider turning off is geotags. Let's say you're taken some pictures at home. Your camera or your smartphone is adding geo-information. Well, with that information, somebody can find out where you live if you're posting these online. So if you don't want people to know where you live, go ahead and uncheck geotags. And maybe you don't want tags either maybe you're using the names of your kids or your spouse or other family members and you don't want to include the names because you want to give them some privacy. You might want to turn off the tags option as well. Then once you save that, it's going to be sticky. So the next time you export, those same settings will still be there. Alright? Now that you spend all this time going through and setting this up, you may want to save this as a preset so you don't have to come back and do this every single time. Now that being said, this is sticky information. In other words, when you come back tomorrow and next week, whatever, these settings are still gonna be there, but maybe you're exporting images to Facebook one day. And then the next day you want to export images for Instagram. And the file size or the dimensions of that file are different for both platforms. Well, you can come up here and click right here and click on store new preset and give this preset a name. You can call it Facebook. And then you can select that preset from here. And then those export options that you set for Facebook will repopulate according to that preset. Now the moment you've been waiting for, you can click on export and dark table will begin exporting your image. 17. How To Use the Levels Tool: Alright, so we're gonna start off with the Levels tool and I want to give you a couple of quick tips on using it and both dark table and gam, even though we've used it before or talked about it before, I want to give you some additional tips on using it. So let's jump into dark table here. And we're gonna take a look at this image right here. And hopefully you've already imported all these images from the section three folder. If not, go ahead and do that, because we're going to be using a lot of these images in this section and the next section. So go ahead and grab that image, and those go into dark room. Now at first glance, you can tell that the image is very flat or lacks contrast. And the histogram confirms that. So I like to start off by reviewing my histogram to determine what part of the tonal range needs to be fixed. And you can see in this histogram that there's no detail in the blacks and very little and the shadows, and there's no detail in the whites or the highlights either. Those are two things we need Effects, we need to fix. The whites, highlights blacks, and shadows. We can do that by starting off with adjusting the white and black points. So the purest white and the purest black point of the image. Now in most cases, in most images, you want a full tonal range if it was available at the time of capture. This is a, I would say, a low contrast image, at least the dynamic range as low contrast. So that's why this person that whoever photograph does so it wasn't made, ended up with a low contrast image. Now they could have increased their exposure settings to make the image brighter, to fill in these gaps. So you want to try and do that as much as possible in camera. If you can't, then you can come into dark room and use your Levels tool to adjust the white and black point. We can do that by going to the color grading, grouping here and accessing the levels tool. Now once you begin adjusting one of these sliders here, it will then show the histogram. This is the white point over here on the right. Black is over here. And what I'd like to do is I like to adjust everything to the edges of the histogram. So I'm gonna take the black point right there because that's where the histogram begins. And then the white point over here to the left. So just like that, we've increased the dynamic range of the image and we've added contrast in the process so it's not as flat as it was before. The one thing you want to be careful of is not placing these markers on the inside of the histogram like this because you're going to start losing detail. So everything on the right side of this marker now is gone. All that detail is gone. And we can confirm that with our clipping indicator right here. So once I turn that on, we got a big red overlay. So all those pixels have been deleted. And then in some points of the foreground here you see some blue overlays, so that's pure black. So we've lost detail and that part of the image. So we can adjust that by moving this to the left to try and bring back some of that detail in the foreground. Now, a lot of it you're not really going to see. But I think the sky is important. So I'm gonna go ahead and move this back to the right. And then that overlay begins to disappear as I bring detail back into those parts of the image. So it's not necessary to go right to the edge. Sometimes you may need to keep a little bit of a gap just to ensure you're not clipping any detail. You don't want to always fill the gap completely. Again, this is all dependent on each individual image and your creative vision for a particular edit. Now real quick, before we jump into Gump, I have some tips about the clipping indicator here, because right now you're probably getting different results than I am. And that's because I've set up the settings for my clipping indicator versus using the default settings. And if you hover over this, you're gonna see a little tooltip. It says Toggle clipping indication, right-click for options. So go ahead and right-click. And you can see my clipping preview mode is luminance only. I like to set mine to luminance only versus full gamma, which is the default because I want to see what part of the image the brightness levels are being clipped. The whites are the blacks or the black points and the white points. So that's what I recommend using the clipping indicator for is for the tonal adjustments. I would set that to luminance only and then you can change the color scheme to something else if the red and blue isn't for you, and then you have different thresholds. So my numbers here are probably different from yours because I've adjusted these. When you hover over the lower threshold here, this is going to give you a pop-up window for the black points. And it's going to give you some ideas to what settings you should use based on your output. So if you were using an 8-bit sRGB, it's going to clip the blacks at minus 12.69. Ev bits. Adobe RGB is minus 19, so on and so forth. And then you can see if you're going to do a glossy print, it's minus eight. Now, which setting you use is dependent on your output, but also based on your individual image. Because if you're shooting Nikon Canon, Sony or whatever the case may be, it might be slightly different from one camera to another as well, especially when it comes to the upper threshold because it's not going to really give you any information about the output. Because pure white isn't really going to be printed on paper. But black is a solid color ink that is usually used during the printing process, not so much white. So the upper threshold here you're going to have to experiment with based on your own images. And I find right around 9995% works the majority of the time. If I take this upper threshold and move it to the left and lower the threshold, dark tables and how it's saying that that part of the sky is overexposed, even though we can visually see that it's not. Okay. So now that I have it turned off, I can still see color in there, so it's not really being clipped and that's why you want to be careful with your settings here. So I'm gonna set this back to around 90%. And I think that works pretty good for this image. Alright, so let's go ahead and click right here to reset those parameters. And then go ahead and go into light table and export it as a 8-bit JPEG file AT for the quality and then go ahead and open it up in him. I've already done that. And we're gonna take a look here at the levels tool in GIMP now. So I'm gonna go up two colors. Let's select levels. And we basically have the same information. The histogram is showing. That detail is missing on both sides, we have a gap. We can fill that gap in with our markers here on either side. Now we have a little teeny-tiny line right here. So that's why I'm stopping right here. And I think with this white point now along the edge, I think that's too bright. So I'm gonna go ahead and bring this back just a little bit. Then you have your before and after and GIM. So pretty much the same results, but what I want to show you here is a couple of other things that we haven't talked about yet. And I would use the levels tool when I'm using or editing, I should say a JPEG file. 99% of the time I'm editing raw files because that's what I shoot. But if a client gives me a JPEG file, this is how I would set up the white and the black points. So if you're not shooting raw and you're shooting JPG instead, then you're going to use your Levels tool to set your white and black points. Now, if your histogram is really flat and it doesn't have these really tall peaks like this. You may want to change from the linear histogram to a logarithmic histograms. So just click right here and it's going to change the height of that histogram. Nine times out of ten. I use this, but once in awhile I may need to use this histogram to see those peaks and valleys a little bit better, The Help me edit my image. Another thing that I would do with the Levels tool, instead of using the exposure slider here, or this exposure tool, you can adjust your exposure from here by adjusting the mid-tones. Now, I can make it darker or brighter by adjusting this midpoint versus going back into the Exposure tool here and doing it from here. Alright, so that's it for the Levels tool. Next up is the curves tool. 18. How To Use the Curves Tool: We're now gonna take a closer look at the curves tool to see how we can use it in place of multiple tools, we're going to jump back into our table here with this same image as before to see what kind of results we can get width the tone curve. So again, in color grading just below levels, we have our tone curve. It's a little harder to determine where the white and black points are, but they are in the corners here on this linear line. This is the black point, this is the white point. Now as far as moving the white point to the edge of the histogram. Well, to fill in this gap, we need to move this to the left. And now that aligns with the histogram right here, I think that's a little bit too bright, so I'm gonna go ahead and bring this back a little bit. Then for the black point, we can drag that to the edge of the histogram right here. Go ahead and turn our indicator back on if you don't have it on. And again, we're losing detail in the bushes, but we're not really going to see that detail in there anyway because that detail or that those elements I should say are pretty small. Alright, so we now have our white and black point set. Our histogram is now showing a larger tonal range. And we have pretty much the same result as before. But now, I can add contrast with the tone curve by applying an S-curves. I'm gonna go ahead and drag the blacks and the shadows down and take the whites and the highlights and drag those up. And now we have more contrast than we did before. And you're going to adjust this based on your creative vision. I love it, I liked that right there. You may think it's too much or maybe not enough, that's entirely up to you. I just recommend not overdoing it and start clipping too much detail. So I'm happy with these settings right here because I'm not really losing any detail other than these small bushes in the foreground. Now I can take it even a step further and adjust the exposure by dragging in the middle here where the mid tones are. And then dragging that up to brain up or darken the image so you can make that type of decision based on what you prefer. So maybe a little bit brighter is better for this particular image. I'm not sure. What do you think? I think that looks pretty good and let's go ahead and take a look at another image and see how we would apply the tone curve in the same manner With what you've learned so far. The first thing we do is we take a look at the histogram and we can see that there is no gap on the left side. So the blacks and the shadows are pretty good even though the indicator is saying we are losing detail in that part of the image. That's okay. Again, these parts of the image are not that important, but as we make adjustments to the right side, which are the whites and the highlights, it will bring up the shadows and bring back some of that detail. So let's go ahead and do that. I'm gonna grab my white point here and drag it to the left. Now, if I go all the way to the edge, I think that's too bright. It's a little hot plus I'm losing a little detail in the sky here. So I'm gonna go ahead and move this bank to the right until I find a setting that I think looks good. I think right about there. Now we're losing less detail in these parts of the image where that blue overlay is compared to the image straight out of camera. So it's brightening up that part of the tonal range, which is what we want. We're losing less detail. But I may want to do an S-curve which is going to lose more detail on that side. But again, I'm okay with that, but I'm gonna bring up the highlights as well because I want to add some contrast to this image. And I may drag this up a little bit more. And now we definitely have more contrast than we did before. So it's brighter and sharper and has more contrast. The contrast adds a little bit of sharpness to it as well. Because it's defining the edges a little bit better based on the contrast between the tree and the sky. And again, what do you want to do? Do you want to increase the brightness level or darken it up in the mid tones. So how do you want to change the exposure, or do you want to change the exposure? If not, just double-click here and it's going to reset everything. But if I use Command or Control plus the letter Z, it's gonna take me back because maybe I just want to get rid of just one anchor point and not reset it completely. And you can do that by right-clicking on that anchor point to reset it. Alright, back and GIMP. Let's take a look at curves from here. So colors, curves, and pretty much the same thing as before. So it all depends on if you're working with a JPEG file or a raw file, I would definitely recommend raw over JPEG because it's going to retain more information, more detail than a JPEG file. You can kinda see that this image now is starting to get pixelated because it is a lower quality image as a JPEG file compared to the raw file. So go ahead and play around with both your JPEG and Raphael to see this for yourself and go ahead and practice with the tone curve as well. Alright, so that's it for the tone curve. In the next tutorial, I have another type of editing technique that can help you elevate your photographic editing skills. And it's called dodge and burn. So let's check that out. 19. How To Darken and Brighten Your Image: Another important editing technique to help you fulfill your creative vision is known as Dodge and Burn. We used to use this technique back in the day when we processed our own film and printed it in a dark room. What exactly our dodge and burn. Well, you would dodge a specific area of the print to make it brighter and you would burn if you wanted to make another part darker. So Dodge and Burn are simply controlling how bright or dark different areas of your image are. And you can apply this technique in your digital world inside of GIMP with the Dodge and Burn Tool. So let's dive in and check out how to use this tool. But before we get into Gimp, let's first look at this image that we're going to be working on in Dar table. And that's because I have a couple of tips for editing and dark table that is related to a little bit to dodging and burning. So one of the things you may notice when you import your images into dark table for the first time is they may not look like they did on the back of your camera at the time you've captured the image. Some of them might be close to what you saw, but some may look completely different. They may look too bright or too dark compared with what you captured or saw at the time of capture. That's because dark table is applying default edits to all your images once they're imported. And if you take a look over here at the history panel, you can see all the edits that are being applied during import. If I click on Original, this may be closer to what you saw at the time of capture, maybe. Or it may be something like this. Which one you want to start your editing from is dependent on your creative vision and where you want to start your editing because you can come all the way back here and pick one of these points to start your editing. Now you may end up with something similar to this as you begin applying your own edits when you adjust the tonal range you apply or adjust the white and black points, you add some contrast. You may end up with something similar to this, maybe not this dark, but something similar. You have to choose a starting point in their history panel here. If you're not getting something close to what you want at the time of capture. Now for this particular image, I believe the photographer adjusted his exposure to the left, or in other words, he adjusted the exposure to get more detail on the highlights, which is going to end up creating darker mid tones and shadows. So something closer to this. But then dark table is adjusting for that compensation that the photographer did manually. And it's trying to fix it for that photographer. So I would come back to this point if this was what I wanted at the time of capture and then I will do my dodging and burning to make the shadows and mid tones brighter and the highlights darker. So we're gonna start from this point right here. Make sure you grab this image and you should have imported this image already from the section three folder. If not, go ahead and do that. We're gonna go ahead and do a couple of quick edits here. And we'll take a closer look at dodging and burning and Gump once we export and openness image, the thing I want to do for this particular image from this point is I want to brighten up the shadows so dad is dodging and you can do that with the shadow and highlights tool. I'm gonna type in shadow here to get the shadow and highlights. Now, once you turn this on, you're going to notice a huge difference in the image. Boom. That looks ten times better than it did before. We've done some basic dodging and burning, or I should say dark table has done some basic default, dodging and burning forests by making adjustments to the shadows and highlights for us automatically. So these are the default settings. And it adds more contrast, more detail, more depth in the image by adjusting the highlights and the shadows in this manner. Now, you can make adjustments to this. Now based on your creative vision, you can make the shadows brighter or darker if you want. I think I may want to make them just a little bit brighter and then I want to make the highlights a little bit darker. So here's the before and the after. So that's the basic premise of dodging and burning, making parts of the image brighter and other parts darker to add that depth to bring detail back and much more. Now the other thing I want to do before we open this up and GIMP is I want to do a basic lens correction. Because if you take a look in the corners here, you can see a vignette. It's very dark and I'm not sure if that's due to the lens hood or if it's a lens distortion type in lens here and turn on lens correction from here. And it's going to remove most of that vignetting. And you're also gonna notice that the image is stretching out. And that's due to the lens distortion for this particular lens, which creates what is known as a barrel distortion. So it kinda has a bulge effect in the middle here. And then Lens Correction is going to stretch out that image to remove that distortion as well as minimize the vignetting. Now it's not completely gone. So what you have to do is you need to come in and crop the image tighter to get rid of it. But the problem with that for this particular image is you're gonna start cutting into the rocks and the boulders here on the edges. And the composition is going to change. If you know a particular lens you're shooting with creates this type of vignetting. Or if it's going to happen because you have a lens hood on, then you may want to create a little bit more space on the edges here of any elements that may be close to the edge. That way you don't have to worry about cropping out too much of those elements or at all, and changing the composition completely. Or you can come in with a clone and heal tool in Gimp to remove this vignetting. Now the other thing you may have noticed when we applied this lens correction is the image is flatter, has less contrast and its overall much brighter than it was before that lens correction was applied. So what we need to do in that case then if that happens, is go back to shadows and highlights and make adjustments from here to get it back to where we wanted it originally. So I'm gonna bring the highlights and the shadows down just a little bit. And then we can do some more fine tuning, dodging and burning and GIMP. So go ahead and export your edit and open it up in GIMP. I've already done that, so I'm gonna go ahead and hop over to GIMP here. And let me show you the final edit I did for this particular image, for the dodging and burning. So here's the exported file and my dodge and burn. You can definitely see there's more depth in the image now with dead dodging and burning. So I've highlighted the highlights and darkened up the shadows a little bit and vice versa, which creates more depth. And you can also see more detail in the rocks here in the foreground. Now, I did make a mistake on my particular edit here. And I did that because it's a common mistake that I see photographers do when they're posting their images online. Whatever social media platform you use, Facebook, instagram, Pinterest, etc. It's a very common mistake that I think we need to try and avoid to give the impression that the image is edited or over edited. And that is known as the halo effect. And this can occur when you're doing your dodging and burning and you're going outside of the lines. So I don't know about you. But when I was a kid, I had a hard time coloring inside of the lines of a coloring, but the same thing applies when we're dodging and burning. And if you take a closer look at the boulders here, you can see a little halo effect. You can see it more so down here. And that's because I didn't keep my brush inside of the area where I was trying to apply that edit and it was being applied outside of the line and it creates that halo. So if I turn this back on and back-off, you can definitely see the halo effect that is occurring along the edges of the rocks. And it's an out of very good edit. So let's try and avoid this type of mistake when dodging and burning. Now you may also notice that I get rid of the vignetting here. I'm gonna show you how I did that real quick. And then we'll do some dodging and burning. I'm gonna grab my clone tool with the letter C. Then we're gonna target an area in the sky by holding down R command or control key, clicking right here. And then you can paint over that area to get rid of that vignetting. I'm gonna do another one down here. I'm gonna go with a larger brush now for this area down here, I want to go just a little bit larger than the vignette. So Command or Control, click here to set the target and then just paint in that area. So now that you know how to remove the vignette, Let's go ahead and grab our Dodge and Burn Tool, which is in this group right here. So if you see this little hand that's the smudge tool, right-click and you have your Dodge and Burn tool right here. Keyboard shortcut is Shift plus D. Now we have a brush tool automatically applied once we select that tool. And then we have to tell GIMP which one we want to work with, Dodge or burn. If you take a look inside of your tool options here and scroll down, you're gonna see a type dodge and burn. You can select whether you want to brighten. It or darken parts of the image where you apply that brush, then you can target a tonal range, whether it's the shadows, mid tones, or highlights. The other thing we have down here is exposure, which will apply that particular edit at 100%. So think of the exposure like a percentage. So 100, it's applying that edit, full force 100%. Down here. It's only going to apply it at 11%. So it's going to allow you to build up your edit at a slower pace. You're not applying it all at once. And it helps blend in that particular edit with the surrounding area where it's not being applied. So what blends in? A lot smoother and it looks more realistic and you're not going to really notice that you're applying and edit at a lower exposure rating versus applying it all at once. Let me show you what I mean. I'm gonna go ahead and dodge this part of the Boulder. And this one down here, I'm gonna go ahead and go with a larger brush, maybe a little bit more and 100%. So you can see it's not really blending in with the tonal range of the rest of the area of that rock or that Bowler and same thing down here. So 100% as too much. I'm gonna go ahead and undo that. And then if we drop this down to around ten to 15%, is going to allow you to slowly build up. So I haven't released my mouse button yet, but once I do, it's going to apply another, let's see it 13.8%. And then if I click multiple times, is going to add that brush effect more and more and more the more I apply it. And this allows you to slowly build up that edit so it blends in a lot better than it does at 100. Now I'm gonna bring this back up a little higher to around 52. And I'm gonna show you, you can see my little outline of my brush there. It's going on the outside of that boulder. And now I've created that halo effect around the bottom of that boulder. So be aware of that when you're applying your Dodge and Burn tools for this particular image, I would dodge my boulders with the mid tone range or the shadows so I can target some of these darker areas in the boulders as well. So that's basically what I did for my particular edit. My exposure is too high again, so I'm gonna go ahead and drop that down. Is I switch between shadows and mid tones. And I slowly applied different exposure settings and applied that brush exactly where I wanted it based on the tonal range. I can continue going in here into the shadows and building up or bringing out that detail in that area. Now for the highlights, same thing. You're going to grab your Dodge and Burn tool depending on what you want to do. I think for the highlights for this image should be darker. So I'm gonna go ahead and grab my highlights range here and then increase my brush size. And I'm gonna go ahead and darken up the sky slowly this way. And of course, just like before, we want to make sure we're not applying that halo along the edge of the trees and the sky. So he can continue applying this and adding additional adjustments until you get the sky the way you want it. And that's how I ended up with this. How cool is that? I love it. All right, so I'll leave it up to you to complete this particular edit on your own now that you know how to use the Dodge and Burn tool so you can complete the project that follows. And then you can post your image and make sure you're not adding that halo effect, which is going to be a dead giveaway in one of the first things I'm going to look for when you submit your image. 20. How To Select a Subject: All right, it's time to revisit an editing tool that you'll be using often when you need to make a selection of your foreground or a subject in particular. And the tool of choice for that is the foreground select tool. So in this tutorial, I'm gonna share some tips on how to get the most out of it. So let's go ahead and jump back into GIMP and we're going to open up this image which is O2 in the section for folder. And let's go ahead and get started. The foreground selection tool, like I mentioned previously, is a tool that will allow you to make a selection of your foreground, which you can then separate from the background. Once you make that selection, the creative options you have are limited based on your creative vision. For example, I've gone ahead and I've isolated our main subject from the background, and I converted the background to black and white. Another option is to remove the background and replace it with something else. How cool is that? I love it? So these are just two examples, and you're only limited by your imagination. So let's go ahead and isolate our bird from the background and review some ways to improve how the tool works so you can get exactly what you want to be selected. Now, before I forget, let's go ahead and duplicate our image layer here so we can work non-destructively. Now, before we start the selection process, let's review the tool options that can help improve the selection of your foreground. And let's go ahead and grab our foreground select tool from this group, right-click and select from here. Now one of the most important ones is the feather edges right here, which is turned off by default. This will feather the edges of your selection. That way it creates a smoother transition or separation of the foreground and background. Now from my images, I'll set this to around five to ten. It all depends on the image and the higher the quality and resolution, the higher I set this. If you're not getting the results you want, try adjusting the amount of the feather. And for this image, I believe five will work out for us just fine. Below that we have drum mode, so the draw modes determine your intended selection. So in this case we are selecting the bird and its parts. So the foregrounds, we're going to select, Draw foreground, but if you wanted to, you could select or target the background instead withdraw background. So if you ever find yourself trying to select a subject and it's not working as it had in the past. Make sure you have drauf foreground selected. We have stroke width, which is actually the brush size, and I'm not sure why they called it a stroke. But if you want a larger brush size, you can do that from here. All right, So under that we have preview mode and we can choose either color or gray scale. And I'm not sure what grayscale does because for me it doesn't really show anything except a solid gray and black overlay. So let's stick with color for now. Alright, so next we have our engines. So the engine is what drives the foreground select towards actually an algorithm that you can use to change how the tool functions. So the engine types are manning global, and managing Levin now, each will produce different results depending on whether you're on a Linux machine, Windows or a Mac. Personally, I prefer to use Levin for my photos. So you'll have to experiment to see what works best for your images. Now, depending on which engine you use, you'll have some different options to choose from to refine how it works. From Levin, we have levels and active levels. And then for global we have iterations. So for these, I will typically just use the default options and then I will refine my final selection with the Quick Mask Mode if needed. And that seems to work best and fastest for my workflow. Again, play around with the options to see the results you get from each and then you can decide what works best for your workflow. Alright, so let's go ahead and isolate our foreground by making our initial outline like we did previously in a different tutorial. And again, it doesn't have to be perfect because this is just the initial selection process. And we're gonna go all the way around back until we see this yellow circle. Then it can hit Enter or Return to get into the next step. What I like to do is I like to make an outline of the inside of my subject with a fairly small brush, not too small, but small enough so I can get most of the subject selected. So I'm gonna go ahead and create an outline like so. To begin the process of telling camp, these are the colors, the textures, the contrasts that I want you to target, because this is part of the foreground. Once I get my initial outline done, all then go in with a smaller and larger brush to fill in the other areas. Now the one thing I want to point out is the color of my brushstroke is probably different from yours. That's because GIMP is using the Foreground Color Swatch and the color that you have set in there. And it doesn't really matter what color you use because it's just being used to target specific areas of the image. So GIMP knows what's the foreground and what is the background. Alright, so I'm not going to make this perfect. You know how to do it now, the next step is to hit Enter or Return. And that's going to update the overlays to give you a better idea of where the foreground is at this point. Now you can go in and refine your selection if needed, by brushing on and off according to what you need to update for the selection process or you can do what I do. And that is use the Quick Mask mode after it's made the initial selection. So you can do that by hitting Enter or Return. And then GIMP will do its final analyse and give you your selection. And boom, there's your selection. All right, so what we're gonna do now is we're going to delete the background. But first, we need to invert the selection since the bird and our foreground here is selected. Let's go up to Select and click on invert. Here's the keyboard shortcut Command or Control plus the letter i. Now that the background is selected, we can delete it with our backspace key or our delete key. The only problem is we're left with a solid color based on the color in our background, color swatch here. And that's not what we want. We want transparency. So let's undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. What we wanna do, like we've talked about previously in a different tutorial, is we want to add transparency to that layer by right-clicking and selecting and alpha channel. So an alpha channel adds that transparency. Now, when you delete, you're left with transparency. How cool is that? I love it. Now there's one problem. This is not the way I recommend removing your backgrounds. There's a better nondestructive way to do this. What I would like you to do is to keep everything in place as it is right now. And go into the next tutorial where we're going to learn the proper way of removing the background. And I'm gonna give you some pro tips on the tool that we're going to use to do this. If you're ready for that, Let's do it. 21. How To Use a Layer Mask: Alright, so we're gonna continue where we left off in the last tutorial. What we want to do is work non-destructively. So we deleted those pixels in the previous tutorial. And that can be permanent depending on how you save your file and whether or not you duplicated the original image layer. Either way, you still want to work non-destructively as much as possible. So what we wanna do instead of deleting is we want to temporarily hide those pixels. That way, if you made a mistake in the initial selection process, you can bring back or show some of those pixels or hide other pixels if needed. That way it's not permanent, it's temporary. And you can do that with a Layer Mask. So a layer mask will show or hide individual pixels based on how you set up that layer mask. So let me show you how to do that in GIMP. Alright, so we're back where we started, and I need to bring those pixels back. And because I haven't saved and close this file yet, I can do that by undoing my last command. So Command or Control plus the letter Z brings back those pixels. Now we need to make sure we have the right part of the image selected, in this case, the foreground. And I know the background is currently selected. Because if you take a look at the outer edge of the canvas here we see these little white and black dashed lines. It looks like they're moving and that's known as dancing ants or that's what they're referred to some times that lets you know what part of the image is selected. If you see these dancing ants on the outside, that lets you know the outside of the image where the background, I should say is selected. So we need to invert that with command or control plus the letter I. And then those dancing ants disappear. And that lets you know that the foreground is now selected. Let's come down here to the bottom of the Layers panel and click on this icon to add a layer mask. And there's a lot of options to choose from. But when you're working with a selection, you want to make sure you use selection as part of the layer mask or the type of layer mask. Once you click Add, boom, your background is gone. How cool is that? But what's even better is those pixels are not gone permanently. They're just hidden. If you take a look at the image layer here, you can see the preview of the image and all the pixels are visible here. But next to that is the layer mask. Anything in black is hidden, anything in white as visible. Now if you made a mistake, Let's say for whatever reason you decide you don't want to include or show this thing that he's sitting on a tree stump or whatever it is. Well, you can paint with black to hide those pixels. So let's go ahead and do that. But first, let's de-select by going up to select and selecting None. And the keyboard shortcut for that is Shift Plus Command or Control plus a. All right, So we need a setup, our foreground and background color swatches. So go ahead and select white and black by clicking here and selecting them from there, or click on these little icons right here. So that'll give me blank. That'll give you white there as well. Now you can come over here and switch between the two by clicking on these double arrows. But what I like to do is use my keyboard shortcut, which is the letter x. I can be working on my image, adjusting the layer mask as needed. And then if I want to switch to the other, I just press X to add or to change the color swatch. I need black. So I'm gonna set black to the foreground color swatch. And then I can paint over this tree stump and it begins hiding those pixels. Pretty cool if you ask me, now, let's say you did the opposite. You made a mistake. You actually wanted this part of the stump included. Press X paint with white and it's going to make those pixels visible. How cool is that? I love it. So a layer mask will give you more precision and control over the final area being targeted with your edit. 22. How To Sharpen Your Images Properly: To sharpen or not to sharpen your images. That is the question. Then, how much sharpening should you apply so you don't over sharpen well in this tutorial, you're gonna learn some pro tips for sharpening your images. Let's dive back into our table here and we're gonna look at some raw photos. And we're gonna determine whether or not we should sharpen them and then how to sharpen them in dark table. Then we'll jump into GIMP and learn how to sharpen our images in there. We're gonna take a look at this image. First. I'm gonna scroll in with the scroll button on my mouse. And I don't know about you, but I think this image is sharp enough. What do you think? Yes, technically you can sharpen this image even more, but I think it will degrade the image, not improve it. Now this next image down here on the left is much softer than the other one. I think this particular image can benefit from some sharpening. Now if you want to zoom in a little bit more, you can click right here to select a different percentage. So you can definitely see how much softer it is versus the other image. So I would definitely sharpen up this image. Now how much sharpening I apply is dependent on the intended use for that particular file. If I'm gonna post an image online, than I will sharpen it more than if I were to do a photographic print, but even then, I'm going to sharpen my photographic prints more or less depending on the size of the image. For example, if I have a small five by seven print on my desk, I'm gonna sharpen that more than I would say for one of these 40 by 30 canvass gallery wraps that I have up here on my wall behind me because I'm not gonna be viewing these images behind me really close. I am my desk photo, so I don't need to spend as much time sharpening it and making sure I'm not over sharpening things like the skin. So if you want to sharpen your images in dark table, just go to the search module here, type in sharpen and you'll get this traditional style type of sharpening tool. Now, I only sharpen my images when I've completed my editing. If you're going to bring your images into GIMP, I would edit after you do all your edits and GIMP and then sharpen from there. But if you do all your edits and dark table, you can go ahead and increase the amount of sharpening and the radius will enhance that sharpening a little bit more. Then threshold will narrow down the sharpening and the different tonal ranges from all the tonal ranges down to the mid tones and the blacks and the shadows. And it will target the highlights less, which is where the skin tones usually residing within your tonal range. If I zoom in here, It's probably a lot sharper now than it was before. So let's take a look at the before and the after. I think that might be a little bit too much, so I might bring that threshold down just a little bit just to tone it down some so it's not as sharp as it was before. But what I would prefer doing is targeting my sharpening with a Layer Mask and GMP. So either way I would probably export this particular file and then sharpen in GIMP instead. So let's go ahead and do that. Let's jump into GIMP here. And we're gonna take a look at this image and this one here, both are in your section five folder. So let's go ahead and zoom in on this image. And you can definitely see it's not as sharp as it could be. And again, I think that's because of some motion blur at the time of capture. Let's go ahead and work non-destructively by duplicating this layer. Let's take a look at the first option for sharpening, which is under filters enhance. And then it's right here, sharpen Unsharp Mask. Now this is an old school, traditional, classic type of sharpening that we've had in Photoshop forever. So if we go ahead and click on that, you can then increase the amount of sharpening from here. And then the radius, of course, we'll refine the edges a little bit more than just the amount by itself. And if you go too far, you're going to end up with this grunge. Look, if you're into that or if that's what you want. That's one way to get it. Now for this particular image, It's not looking so good. I wouldn't use that much. If you bring your threshold. And again, you can target that to reduce the amount of color fringing and the amount of the sharpening along the edges. So it's not as intense. I'm not really liking this particular sharpening tool for this image. The one that I prefer is also under enhanced here and it's called High Pass. Now the first thing you're going to notice is the images converted to grayscale. And that's because it's easier to see the sharpening along the edges of the detail. More so an a grayscale versus a color image. But if you want to see the color image as you're adjusting the amount of sharpening. Can do that by going into your blending options here and selecting overlay. Now, as you increase the contrast level here, which is targeting the edges of the detail from light to dark. You will see that it's beginning to sharpen up the image. But again, it's over sharpening the skin and the pores and the blemishes and everything are being enhanced. And I think that's degrading this portrait image overall. I would probably bring the contrast level down to around two or so for this particular image may be a little bit more. What I would do next then is I would use a layer mask on this layer in white. And then it would paint with black along the skin here to remove that sharpening from the skin. I think that's looking much better now, the eyes are sharper, the eyebrows are sharper, and the hair is a little bit sharper. And so as some of the clothing, so you can adjust this to your own liking. But again, you have to determine how much sharpening you want to apply based on its intended use. Now for landscape photos, you can get away with sharpening a little bit more because you don't have the skin to deal with. For this particular image, I would use the high-pass as well. And I can increase that contrast to maybe right around two or so. Now for this particular image, actually I'm gonna go down a little lower because it's not as soft as the previous image. So if I put overlay here, you can see there we're already getting a pretty good amount of sharpening at 1.5 versus 2.5 with the previous image because the previous image, like I mentioned, had some motion blur in it before and after. So I think that is much improved. It's not a soft, the details are popping and there's more sharpening and contrast from the foreground to the background. And I think this overall makes the image much better. 23. How To Change the Sky: For this project, you're gonna learn how to replace this guy with another 13 essential keys for doing it, right, so let's open up image 01 from your session five folder. The first thing we want to do is duplicate this layer here so we can work non-destructively. Let's go ahead and turn this background layer off. And then let's make a selection of our sky. So we're gonna use our fuzzy Select tool. And I'm gonna set my threshold to right around 25. And I'm going to use a mask to assist in the selection process. So I'm gonna click it down and try and get as much of the sky as possible without the foreground. Let's go ahead and back away. Now with the Shift key, I can click and drag down and continue making my selection. Now, I'm starting to get a little bit of that foreground again. But we're gonna use our Quick Mask Mode to refine our selection. I just want to make sure all of this guy here is selected. That looks pretty good. Now we're gonna grab our zoom tool with the letter Z and click and drag in. Let's go into our Quick Mask Mode with Shift plus q. Let's grab our paintbrush tool with the letter P. And we want to paint with black so we can remove from the selection. I'm gonna go ahead and paint in this area. Continue removing from the selection shift plus Q again, to get out of it, I need to do a little bit more refining here. So I think that should be pretty good. Now Command or Control, Shift plus j to zoom all the way back out. Alright, now that we have our sky selected, let's go ahead and apply a layer mask to hide those pixels. We're gonna come down here, click here. We're gonna make sure we have selection selected, and we're gonna click Add. And unfortunately, the wrong part of the image has been hidden. So let's undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Let's go back inside of here. Invert mask from here will do just that. And boom, this guy is gone. How cool is that? All right, we're now going to review the three key essentials for replacing skies to make them look realistic. And that is the direction of light, color of light and creating an atmospheric conditions. So let's review those with some images. The first thing we wanna do is make sure that the direction of light matches our original image or the original sky. In this image, you can tell that the light is coming from over here on the left way from or outside of the camera angle of view. We know that because we have some shadows here coming from this mountain range, it's coming from over here. So we want to make sure that the light and the set of clouds or the sky that we're going to use matches. Otherwise it's going to look off. It's not going to look right. The other thing is the color of light in the original sky here. It's a light blue. But if you take a look at the light or the color of light right in this area here. You can see it's much warmer. So this tells me that this was taken later in the day, close to sunset. So I would like to find a sky that was taken at the same time as this image. Now, unless you're taking the images yourself, you're not going to really know the time of day that an image was taken unless you can get the original raw file that will have the metadata the time for that particular image. So when it was created, now let's look at some images to see why this is important. This image here, I took this set of clouds or captured it in the middle of the day, you can kinda tell that the lighting and the color is different. So it's not really going to match the original. This image here. You can definitely see the direction of the light. It's directly behind the clouds. So again, it's not going to match the direction of the light here. Now, as far as the time of day, this one was later in the day, I believe that the sun was pretty much below the horizon when I took this. The colors are much more vibrant, more saturated, warmer, more orange. We have some purples and blues. So again, it's not matching. So we want to try and find a set of clouds or a sky that matches as closely as possible. So I have this set of clouds here. We have the sun over here on the right side. It's near the horizon, but it's not completely down. It's a little bit warmer than the sky here, but we have some warmth in the colors on the mountain range right here. I think this set of clouds would work well for this image other than the direction of the light. But that's not a problem because we can flip the canvas so that the light is over on the side. This particular image is not included in this class. And that's because they want you to find your own sky, your own set of clouds, and try and find something that matches the time of day. The color of light, the direction of light. To add this layer to this image over here, we're gonna click and drag over the tab. And then I can release over top. Now the one thing I want to do is undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. And I also want to de-select. So I'm gonna go up to Select and click on None. Now another way to add a layer is to grab your file from your systems operating fuller or the fuller system and click and drag over your canvas and then it will be added as a new layer. Now if that's not working for you, you can go up to File open as layers, and then it will open up that image as a new layer. I'm gonna go ahead and click and drag this below my layer mask here so I can see that sky. Now I believe this set of clouds is much larger than the file that I have open right now at the mountain range that I'm working on. So I need to scale that smaller. So I'm gonna grab my Scale Tool. I'm gonna click and drag down and try and get it to fit within that Canvas. If I click on this little square here, I can reposition it and it looks like it's pretty large. So I'm gonna take a look here and I believe I resized the original image here from Five thousand pixels wide, I believe is what you have. And I scaled it down to 2500. So I'm gonna go ahead and type in 2500 for the width to re-scale or resize this image to fit within the canvas. I'm gonna make it just a little bit larger. And I'm gonna place it right there and then Enter or Return to rescale it. Now I have my light over here, or the direction of the light is coming from over here. So let's go ahead and flip it now by going up to Layer transform and selecting a flip horizontally, alright, light direction now matches the original. I'm gonna go ahead and grab my Move tool with the letter M because I want to go ahead and move these clouds up a little bit higher. Maybe, something like that. Alright, so the third key is the atmospheric condition. What is that? Well, you'll notice in a lot of landscape photos that the sky at the top is darker than the sky at the horizon. It's going to be much brighter, or there's gonna be some transition from darker to lighter. We can see that in this original image here. If I turn off my clouds here, you can see it's darker up here, but it's brighter down here. That's the atmospheric condition. We're going to recreate that with a Layer Mask and a gradient. The first thing we need to do is create a new layer. So I'm gonna grab my background layer here. I'm gonna click right here to create a new layer. You want to make sure you fill it in with white click OK. And that's going to add a layer above and below the clouds here. So make sure this layer is below the clouds. If it's not just click and drag it into position. All right, Let's grab our set of clouds now and let's add a layer mask. And we're going to select white because white shows the pixels black hides. And you need to make sure you turn off invert mask. Otherwise it will hold, invert the white to black. Let's click Add. And now we're going to grab our gradient tool, which you can grab from the bucket fill tool group right here. We're gonna right-click select gradient or press the letter G. Now in the tool options you want to make sure that you click right here and select foreground to background. And you want to make sure you have a linear set to the shape. We want to paint with white to black. So we're gonna start up here and drag down. So it's gonna apply white up here and slowly switch to black. So there'll be grays in-between that will reduce the transparency or begin to hide the pixels accordingly. So I'm gonna click here, drag down, and that will then create that transition from dark to light. I'm gonna go ahead and grab this right here and drag it up higher to create a smoother transition from light to dark. Once you have it set the way you want, I'm going to actually bring this back down. I'm going to click Enter or Return. And you have your atmospheric condition. How cool is that? I love it. All right, It's now your turn to apply your new knowledge and complete this project on your own. 24. How To Create a Matte Effect: In the film days, if you underexposed it, it would create a faded look today, you can recreate this manufactured in GIMP and I'm gonna share two different methods for creating it. The main characteristic of the manufacturer is it appears to be faded or muted, and it's easy to replicate by reducing the amount of contrast, in particular, the blacks and the shadows and adjusting the black 0.2 tools you can use to re-create the manufactured are either the levels or the curves tool. So we're gonna take a look at levels first. So let's jump in here. This is the image we're going to use now even though we're going to be doing this edit in GIMP, we first need to fix the tonal range of this image. So we need to fill in the gap a little bit here. Not too much because I think for this particular image, if we adjusted all the way to the right, it's going to start blowing out the highlights and ruining or degrading the skins. So we're not going to do too much. I'm going to increase the mid tones, shadows and highlights by adjusting the center of our curve here up. And then I'm gonna grab the shadows and the blacks here and brighten those up. Maybe just a little bit of a bump on the highlights as well. That's pretty much it for the tonal adjustments for this particular image. So once you do that, go ahead and export this file and open it up in GIMP. Alright, so let's go up to colors and select Levels. And the way we create the matter of fact is by reducing or clipping detail in the blacks and the shadows. So we're gonna take our black point here and move it to the right. And the image gets darker. So that is now pure black and all this area of the image. So we've taken all this detail and reduced it to a solid black color. Now to create the man effect, we're going to take our output levels here, and we're gonna take this marker and move it to the right. And the further it goes to the right, as you can see, it's going to get brighter. It's going to add shades of gray or a shade of gray, I should say, in, in place of that solid black. So let's go ahead and do that. I'm gonna go ahead and move it to the right. And there's the mat effect. Unfortunately, I'm not a big fan of this particular method. I know it's a popular one on YouTube and other creators use this particular method, but it's not my favorite. So let me show you the method that I prefer for creating. A matter of fact. So let's go ahead and cancel out of this. Now we're gonna go up two colors and select curves. So I'm gonna add an anchor point right here so I can restrict my adjustments to this part of the tonal range, which is the blacks and the shadows. There might be a little bit of mid tones in there as well, but I'm targeting the two main areas in that range that I need. Now this is the black point, like I've mentioned before. We're going to grab this and drag it up. And it's going to begin reducing the contrast in that part of the tonal range from blacks, the shadows. How cool is that? I love it. Now this particular method, I believe works much better and gives us that true classic, traditional manufacturing. Plus you can apply this particular technique on images that are much brighter versus this one. Whereas the other method will only work with images that has a lot of dark in it. But if you do have a brighter image, you can then darken it up by changing the shadows and the blacks to be darker and to increase the black point here. So if you wanted to, you can click and drag down here to make those blacks, are those dark grays even deeper than they were before? So you can adjust this based on your creative vision. Alright, so go ahead and keep this image open for the next tutorial, since we're going to be applying an old-school retro effect to it. Now if you can't do that next tutorial right away, go ahead and save this file so you can get to it when you're ready to start that next tutorial. 25. How To Create a Retro Effect: So in the last tutorial, you learned how to create a manufacturer. And now we're going to enhance that image with a retro effect with some dust textures and more. And here's what the final edit is going to look like. How cool is that? I love it. So if you're ready, let's do it. The first thing we're going to do is work non-destructively by duplicating this layer. Let's rename this desaturate. That's because we're going to reduce the saturation of the image, which I like to use when I create my retro vintage type of effects. We're gonna go up two colors and select Hue in saturation. And I'm gonna drop the saturation down. Usually for vintage retro photos, I like to do around minus 50 to minus 80. But I think for this image, because we reduced the overall contrast, we don't need to reduce the saturation as much. So I'm gonna go right around at ten for this project. All right, so we have some resources that you can add to this image to create the final retro effect, which are these files right here, five through seven. So go to your section five folder, locate them, click and drag them to the canvas. Again, this doesn't work for you. Go up to file and select Open as layers to add the layers. Now we need to rotate and resize these layers to fill the entire canvas. Let's start with this first layer here. These are the scratches. So we're gonna go ahead and go up to Layer, transform and select rotate to rotate it. Then we're gonna grab our scale tool width shift plus S. And then I'm just going to click on the corners here or on the inside corners here and resize and stretch that out to go outside of that canvas, go ahead and click Scale. Alright, I'm gonna go ahead and turn that layer off and let's do the same thing for this layer. And one more. So we need to rotate this one as well. So back to transform and rotate. Perfect. All right, let's work on this layer here. I'm gonna go ahead and double-click and rename this dust. And I think I want to drop the opacity down to around 50 to 60. Now we have white dust, but dust really isn't white. So what we can do is we can convert those white color to black by going up to, let's go to colors and select Invert. And now you can't see it now almost go ahead and zoom in here. Well, we can see it a little bit, but if you can't see it, go ahead and increase your opacity to show those specks of dust a little bit better. I'm gonna go ahead and zoom all the way back out. And I think I want to increase that opacity just a little bit more. I wanted it to be visible when I'm zoomed all the way out. So right there, it looks pretty good. All right. Now that I'm looking at this black dust, I'm not sure if I want black dust. What do you think, white or black? Again, I guess this really depends on your creative vision because the dust particles on a print enlargement are going to occur in two different ways. One, it can occur during the printing process. Back in the old days when we did our own printing and a dark room, if there was dust on the paper or the film, would tend to be white on the final print. But when you lay your printout or hanging on the wall and you don't have glass on it, dust and dirt builds up and then they had dust and dirt as gray or black and not white. I guess I'll leave that entirely up to you based on your creative vision. I think I'm gonna go ahead and just leave it like it is for now. Also, don't forget, we can also use a layer mask if you need to remove some of that dust where you don't want it, for example, I'm probably don't want it on her tooth right here. I'm gonna go ahead and add a white layer mask. Then with our paintbrush tool here, we can go ahead and whoops, I did the opacity. I want to make this smaller. We can go ahead and paint with black to remove the dust as needed. So I like that better. So Command or Control, Shift plus j to zoom all the way out. All right, let's go ahead and grab our texture layer here. Let's go ahead and rename it texture. And let's go ahead and turn it on. Now we need to blend this in with the layers below. So we're gonna go up to mode here. Let's go with soft light. I think I like this effect. You may want to try one or the other blending modes to see if you can find something else that you like or maybe you just want to use soft light. Again, I'll leave that up to you. Alright, we now have our scratches here, so let's go ahead and rename that and add that in there. And we also need to change the blending mode for this as well. For this one, let's go with screen. All right, That's a little bit too intense for me and so I'm gonna drop that opacity down and just blend it in a little bit more. So maybe right around 40 to 50. I think I'm liking that right there. I think this big scratch on her lip right here is kind of distracting someone. Go ahead and get rid of that one with a white layer mask. And let's go ahead and get rid of that. There we go. I like that better. Alright, So the next step is aging the image just a little bit. When you leave your images out in the open and they're exposed to light, the chemicals used will tend to change and degrade that print over time. And not only will they fade, which we already did in the previous tutorial, but they will also begin to change colors because those chemicals are reacting with the light. And they tend to shift colors from left to right or orange to blue or whatever the case may be. So let's go ahead and create a new layer by clicking right here. Let's call it color, color fade. And then for Fill Width, make sure you have transparency and click. Okay. All right, grab your brush tool with the letter P. For the foreground color. I'm gonna choose this orange color right here. So if you want to use the same color, just type in this hexadecimal number right here. Click Okay, and then we need a really, really large brush because I want to cover about a third of the image with this color. So I'm gonna come over here and drag it to the right, right around 1300 or so, maybe a little larger. And what I wanna do is I want to drop the opacity of the brush because they don't want a solid color. And I'm just going to click here and there just to add the color randomly in different places. May want to go a little lower on that opacity and then just go ahead and add it to the new layer. Now, don't worry about what it looks like now because we're going to blend that in just a second. So what we're gonna do now is we're gonna change it to a different color. I want to choose a contrasting color. Let's go inside here. And I believe I used this color on my final edit. May want to go a little darker with that. So here's the hexadecimal that I'm going to use. Go ahead and click Okay, Then just in a different spot. Go ahead and add that blue color randomly and make sure it's not filling in a solid color. You just want to bring in a little bit of that blue tint into the image like so if you wanted to, you could overlap the colors a little bit as well, just to mix it up a little bit more. All right. So that's not looking too good right now. So let's go ahead and blend this layer in by changing the blend mode to soft light. So we have just a touch of a color shift in it. And if you need to add more, you can go ahead and continue painting across the image to add more color. If that's something you want to do, I think I want to add some more orange here. Actually, I think I did too much now, so I'm gonna go ahead and drop that opacity down of that layer just a little bit too, right around 80 to 90. So there's the before and the after. Alright, so the next thing we need to do is we need to add some grain because they retro image wouldn't be complete without any. So let's go ahead and create a new layer. Let's call it grain. And let's go to our foreground color swatch here. And let's choose a mid gray color, which I need to go back now. And we need to fill with the foreground color. And the reason why we're filling it in with the colors, because the filter that we're going to use requires some color in order to add the green and the color grade, the mid gray is a good starting points. So let's go ahead and click. Okay. Alright, let's go up to filters, down to noise, and let's select HSV noise. Alright, so we're going to increase the value to add more green. And of course, the higher you go, the more you will add. So I'm gonna go pretty high here. So maybe right around one or so. And depending on the speed of your computer will determine how fast it generates the grain for you. Now I do want to get rid of the saturation and the grain. So I'm gonna drop the saturation down to 0. And if I wanted to change the randomness of the grain, I can adjust the delaying. I'm gonna go ahead and change that to around three. Alright, so we don't have to wait for this to complete generating. Let's go ahead and click Okay. Now we're gonna go up to our mode here and change the blend mode to soft light and boom, we have our grain. Alright, real quick, let's take look at the before and after. And here's a quick tip on how to do that quickly and easily. We're going to scroll all the way down to our first image layer here. We're gonna hold down the Shift key and then we're going to click right here on this little icon and there's the before and the after. How cool is that? I love it. 26. How To Create an HDR Image: When photographing a scene that has a large dynamic range cancers are your camera will not be capable of capturing all the brightness levels. This means you'll end up with either the highlights overexposed or the shadows underexposed or possibly both. The solution is to take multiple images at different exposures. And for this project, I've included two images with two different exposures. One that captures all the detail in the highlights and another that captures the detail in the shadows. Then you're going to learn how to merge those two images in Gimp to create an HDR image which is known as a high dynamic range. So let's open up this image file here, which is 0 too, and it's located in your section five folder. And let's learn how to create an HDR image. So this file consists of those two layers that I mentioned. The first image I captured to retain the detail and all the highlights. And then the second image, I adjusted the exposure to get all the details in the shadows which caused the highlights to be overexposed. So the goal is to blend the two layers together to have a new layer that shows all the detail in the shadows and highlights. And here is the final edit that I completed for this project. And how cool is that? I love it. You can definitely see more detail in the shadows and the highlights. So the secret to blending and merging these layers together to create an HDR is through the use of a special type of layer mask. So let's add a layer mask by coming down here and clicking here. And you want to select greyscale copy of Layer. And what that's going to do is it's going to convert your color image into a grayscale and it's going to apply it on a layer mask. The result is the highlight layer has been blended with the shadow layer below. But why did I put the layer mask on the highlights and not vice versa? Well, let's do that and see the difference. I'm gonna go ahead and right-click here and disable this layer mask. I'm gonna go ahead and move that layer below shadows. And then I'm gonna go ahead and apply that layer mask to this layer. And they are blended together again, but they look different. This time. The shadows are really dark compared to what we had before. I'm gonna go ahead and undo this and get back to where we were originally. Notice now how the shadows are brighter and the highlights are also brighter as well. So this is a better starting point for the next phase of creating your HDR image. The next step is to do some dodging and burning to fix the black shadows, highlights, and whites of the tonal range. And we're gonna start the process by duplicating the shadows layer. So go ahead and click here, and then go ahead and double-click on the name to rename it to. Let's do exposure adjustment. For this layer. We're going to make it darker to tone down the highlights and darken up the shadows a little bit. So let's use our curse tool to make that adjustment. So let's go up to colors and select curves from here. And let's go ahead and pull this down and make everything just a little bit darker, right about there. Looks good. Okay, so we're now going to bring back some details from the layer below because maybe it's a little bit too dark and you want to bring back some of that detail. The highlights to me are better than what they were before, but maybe the shadows, especially in this area, I think it's a little bit too dark, so we're going to apply a layer mask to bring back some of that detail. So let's go ahead and click here, and let's apply a white layer mask. Let's grab our paintbrush tool with the letter P. Make sure you have black selected for the foreground color swatch here. And then go ahead and paint into the areas where you want to bring back some of that detail. So I'm gonna do with this area here. Maybe over here as well. Maybe a little bit up here. Wherever you think you lost too much detail with that curves adjustment. Maybe over here a little bit as well. I say I'm gonna undo that with command or control plus the letter Z because I do not want to brighten up this area as much. So I'm gonna drop the opacity, which is similar to painting with gray versus pure black. And that's just going to make a small adjustment. And it's not going to make it as bright with opacity set to 100. If you take a look at the Layer Mask here, you can see a little bit of gray here instead of pure black like we have over here. So I'm gonna go ahead and put the opacity back to 100. So I don't forget to do that later on. Alright, so what we're going to do now is a more traditional type of dodging and burning with our Dodge and Burn tool. So let's go ahead and grab that with Shift plus D. Now before we apply this tool, let's go ahead and grab our top layer here. We're going to right-click on it and select New from visible. And that's going to merge all the visible layers into a new layer so we can work non-destructively and apply our dodging and burning to this layer. Let's go ahead and target our highlights. First, I want to go ahead and darken those up. So I'm gonna select burn and I'm gonna target mid tones and the exposure I'm gonna set to right around 35. Now what I want to do is I want to slowly, gradually build up the details in this area and darken this area. I'm going to add multiple strokes at a time. Not one big stroke at a time, but multiple strokes. And that will bring out the detail slowly. And it will build depth as well, which is much better versus just one or two big strokes at a time. You can apply this to all the areas that need to be a little bit darker. And then you can go ahead and work on your shadows and brighten them up if needed. So I'm gonna go ahead and switch over to my dodge tool now. And I'm going to target the mid tones again. And I'm gonna go ahead and brighten up this area. That's a little bit too much. So I'm gonna go ahead and undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Let's try the shadows this time. I think that's too much steel, so I think I just need to adjust my exposure down to right around ten to 12. Let's try that. I think that's a little bit too much though. I think we did a pretty good job on brightening up those shadows in the previous step that we did, but I just want them a little bit brighter. Just going to add a little bit more depth. And over here I think I'll go ahead and brighten this up as well. And you can adjust the dodging and burning of your image to your liking, whatever your creative vision is and whatever you think looks good to you, that's what you're going to do. I think it took me about 20 minutes to complete this particular edit here. So you're going to spend some time on this yourself now to practice what you've learned. But there's one more thing I want to do before we finish up, and that's something that we need to talk about when it comes to HDR images that we haven't touched yet. And that is the ghosting effect. So we've talked about ghosting in a previous tutorial, but when it comes to HDR, you will create the ghosting, not from the dodging and burning, but because the two or multiple images, the details and the scene do not line up completely or exactly, I should say. So if you have a tree, it might be off a little bit compared to the previous image that he took. So what happens is when you are taking multiple exposures in your hand holding it, you're gonna take a photo of the first image at one exposure, right? And then you need to change that exposure to something else to capture the details in a different part of the tonal range. The problem is, as you're doing that, you're not going to line up exactly where you were before. So to avoid that you can use a tripod, but even then, if the wind is blowing and moving those leaves and the branches and stuff, they're going to be in a different position when you take that second photo anyways. So another thing you can do if your camera has the feature available, is to use auto exposure bracketing. And that will automatically change the exposure for you after you take your first photo. And if you shoot in continuous shooting mode, you can take two photos rapidly, one right after the other. And that's going to eliminate the elements in your scene from being out of position. Now, if there is some movement or they are out of position, that is going to create the ghosting effect because it's not lined up and it looks like ghosting effect around those different elements or the edges of the subjects in your image. So one way we can counteract that in GIMP is to sharpen up the image. So let's go ahead and do that. You learn how to do that in a previous tutorial. But let me show you what I would do for this particular image. And what I'd like to do is I'd like to go ahead and zoom in a little bit so I can see how much ghosting I have. It's not that bad, it's off a little bit. And that causes not just the ghosting, which we really can't see in this image, but the image isn't as sharp as it could be because those details don't line up perfectly from one image to another. So I'm gonna go ahead and duplicate this layer now, and I'm gonna call it sharpens, so I can apply that sharpening to this layer. We're going to go up to filters, enhance, and select high-pass. And then we just need to increase or decrease the contrast based on how much we need to sharpen the image or to minimize that ghosting as much as possible. Now it's kind of hard to see because we have a grayscale here and not the full color. So I may go a little bit higher than I actually need. And we're gonna go ahead and apply that. We're going to apply our blending mode of overlay. And let's take a look at the before and after. So it's definitely sharper than it was before. So those details look like they're aligning a little bit more than they were before. And if you over sharpen the image, that's okay. Just come into your opacity here and lower it down to tone down that sharpening. How cool is that? I love it. 27. How To Cut Hair Out: One of the most difficult things to make a selection of his hair. However, once you learn the techniques in this tutorial, you'll be able to cut out hair like a pro. So here's the image you're going to be working on and the final edit, how cool is that? If you want to follow along and complete this project, this image can be found in your resources folder. Now if you want to practice fixing the tonal range of the image, we have the original raw file to that you imported previously. And if I turn off my adjustment here, you'll notice it's much darker and the histogram has a gap in the whites and the highlights. And this was the Tone Curve adjustments that I applied to fix the image. If you want to do that, go ahead and practice making that adjustment. Export it and open and GIMP, or just use the image that I provided. All right, so the first step and cutting out the hair, we need to create a new layer and it has to be a solid color. We're gonna go ahead and grab a dark color and the color will work out just fine. Go ahead and name that layer color and then fill with the foreground color. And the reason why we're using this layer will become apparent later in the tutorial. Let's go ahead and move that layer below the image layer. Now let's grab our image layer and duplicate it. And now let's go ahead and D saturate the image by going up to colors. This saturate saturated and okay, so the next step is key to cutting out her hair. What we need to do is we need to convert the shades of gray down to as few as possible. And the goal is, is to make that background as pure white as possible. So we're gonna use our levels tool to do that. Let's start with our white point and dragging it to the left. And now we have a pure white background. The only problem is we're losing a lot of the detail and the hair and the stray hairs. And when I bring this back, you'll notice some of those stray hairs come back. I'm gonna place the white point right around 150, and I'm getting that number right here. Now to bring back and define that hair a little bit, we can grab our black point and bring it to the right. But again, if we go too far than that white background is no longer white, so we have to find a happy medium between the two. So I'm gonna bring this back to right around 20 to 25, maybe a little less. I think closer to 20 is good. Then we can darken it up a little bit more if we wanted to with the mid tones here. And I think I'm gonna go ahead and do that. Again. Need to find that happy medium between pure white and retaining as much detail as possible. So that looks pretty good. I'm gonna go ahead and click Okay. So our next step is removing the background and we're gonna do that with a Layer Mask. Now, before we apply a layer mask, we're gonna copy all the pixels on this layer. So let's go up to Edit and select Copy visible. Let's grab our color image layer now because we're going to apply that layer mask on this one. So let's go ahead and add a white one. Now we're gonna go back up to Edit and select Paste. And that's going to create what is known as a floating selection. We need to anchor this layer with the one below. Then it's going to paste those pixels inside of the layer mask. So come down here and click on this little anchor icon. And now you can see those shades of gray in the layer mask. Let's go ahead and turn off this color layer and our black and white layer up here. And now our model is transparent. The only problem is I want the background to be transparent, not the model. Let's go ahead and invert the layer mask by going up to colors and selecting invert. All right, We can now see our model a lot better than before. The background is gone. The only problem is our model is too transparent and that's where there are color layer comes into play for us to help us redefine where our model should be or to see our model again with our layer mask selected, we're gonna grab our paintbrush tool with the letter P. I'm gonna start off with a fairly large brush here, so I can cover as much of the image as possible. And we're going to paint with white to add her back. Now I just need to go around the image to reveal all the pixels or our subject again, so that she's not green or transparent. If that layer is off. I'm gonna go ahead and do this real quickly. Don't want to spend a lot of time on this now that you know how to do it. But I have one more thing I want to share with you before we wrap up this tutorial. The one thing you may have noticed is her hair has a little bit of a glow to it, at least along the stray hairs here. And we're gonna go ahead and fix that. Let me go ahead and finish up her shoulder here. All right. That's looking pretty good. Now, of course, I would come in with the smaller brush and get in along these edges here to refine that a little bit so we can see her a little bit better. Now let's go ahead and get rid of that glow in the hair by going up to colors and selecting Levels and grab your midpoint and drag it to the right that will minimize that glow. And again, you don't want to go too far, otherwise you're going to start losing too much detail in the hair. And in case you're wondering the green or any color of your choice is just really to be used to help you see where you need to make adjustments. For example, I can see I have some green in her hair up here. When the layer is turned off, it's really hard to tell. 28. How To Change Colors of Clothing: If you've ever wished, you worry. Different colored garment for a photoshoot than this tutorial is for you. You're about to learn how to change colors from one to another. And you'll discover three different ways to do it so you can find the exact color you need. Here's the original image we're going to be working with, and here's a different color. How cool is that? Now check this out. Here's a different color as well. Pretty cool. Alright, so let me show you how I did this. And just like with the other tutorials that this image is in your resources folder. If you want to practice fixing the tonal adjustments, the raw file should be imported into our table already. Here's the tone curve adjustment I made for this image. Alright, so let me show you how to change the colors. The most difficult part of this process is making a selection of the target garment that you want to change the color of. Now for this particular image, it's extra difficult because the government is the same color as the background. And if we try News, select by color, well, that's gonna select the background. And if we try the fuzzy select tool, that's not going to work because the colors are right next to each other. So again, it's going to bleed into that area and it's gonna take a long time with that particular selection tool. The tool of choice for this would be either the Quick Mask mode or the foreground select tool. I think I'm gonna go ahead and go with the foreground select tool here. And I'm gonna go ahead and make my initial outline here to start the selection process. I'm gonna go ahead and start targeting the colors that contrast the details and the textures. So GIMP knows exactly what is the foreground. Alright, now that we have our selection, we can refine that with our Quick Mask mode shift plus q, p for your paintbrush. And then I'm just going to paint with white and black to add and remove from the selection. All right, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom out now and that I have, my selection is not perfect, but I can always refine it with a layer mask later on. So the first thing we're gonna do is duplicate this layer. And the first method for changing a color is pretty simple. We're gonna go up two colors and select Hue Saturation. And then you can adjust the color with the hue slider here. You can make it brighter or darker with lightness and adjust the saturation. Now this is not my favorite method for changing the color. Let's try another method. For this next step, we're gonna try creating a new layer. Let's make sure it's filled with transparency. And then we're going to choose our color here. You can choose any color you want. I'm gonna go ahead and go with this dark orange color and then fill it in with your bucket fill tool. Go ahead and click inside of the selection and that will add the color to that layer. Alright, so that's not really working out too well. So let's go ahead and blend that in with the layer below. Let's go up to mode and select HSV hue. And boom, we now have, well, it's not really orange, It's more tan. What you can do if you're not getting the color that you want. Go back into the blending modes here and try one of these other values. Let's try color. So that's more orange than tan. And that's another way to change the colors of your garments. And it let me share with you one more. I'm gonna go ahead and put this layer back to normal. Let's go ahead and turn this layer off and grab our duplicate layer. Then we're gonna go up two colors, colorize and boom, you have a new color. This light blue color is the default color for this particular tool. Just click right here to choose another color. Or you can use your eyedropper tool here to select a color from within the photo. How cool is that? Love it. Now the other thing you can do here is you can apply a blending mode from here if you want to do that to see if he can get the color that you want. Or you can also adjust the hue, saturation and lightness from here, like we did in the first step. 29. How To Change the Color of Eyes: I don't know about you, but I've always thought it would be cool to change the color of my eyes, blue or maybe green. Well, I'm not a big fan of contact, so I'm stuck dreamy. And instead we'll have to settle for changing the color of my eyes and Gump. Here's the image you'll be working with. And she has brown eyes and now they're green. Let me show you how we did thus, one of the keys to changing the color of the eyes is ensuring that the eyes themselves are not too dark. Otherwise, the color of the new color will not transfer to that solid black color if there are too dark. We have the original raw file here. And I had a brighten up the image and the shadows and the blacks to bring up those eyes. But we need to go a little bit further and GIMP and target those eyes and make them even brighter. Let's go ahead and duplicate our layer here. And then we're going to make a selection of her eyes. I think for this image, this project, we're gonna go ahead and use the Quick Mask mode. And we're going to brush on the edits where we want them. Let us go a little larger on the brush size here. And then you're gonna paint with white to add to the selection. All right, shift plus Q again to get out of it, and it looks like we have a pretty good selection. Let's go ahead and add a layer mask here. Make sure you have selection, selected and click Add. And we're gonna make sure we have our image layer selected. And let's go ahead and deselect while we're at it. Let's go ahead and bring up those eyes. Let's go up to colors. And let's use our curves tool to make them brighter. And I'm gonna add a little bit of contrast here by darkening up the blacks and the shadows. And we're gonna brighten up those whites little bit. Maybe we need to adjust the white point and the black point. Whatever you think looks good. I just want to add a little bit of contrast and make sure that they're brighter than they were before. Let's take a look at the before and the after. There we go. That's what I wanted. So let's go ahead and click. Okay. And I need to zoom out now does a little bit. All right, Now the next thing we need to do is duplicate this layer again. Make sure the preview thumbnail is selected, not the layer mask. And what we're going to do is we're gonna go up two colors and select colorize. And boom, we have a new color. Now, I didn't do a really good job on my selection here, so I can go back with the layer mask and adjust that as needed. Let's go ahead and click here to choose a new color. Maybe you want a darker blue, lighter blue, entirely up to you. I think green might be pretty good for this particular image. I'm not sure what do you think? Maybe a little bit darker on this one right there, it looks pretty good. And of course, you can make your adjustments from the hue, saturation and lightness slider is just like we did in the previous tutorial. I'm gonna go ahead and go with that and click Okay. All right, so a couple more things I wanna do. I want to clean up this eye right here with my Layer Mask and my brush. I'm gonna go ahead and paint with black to remove this green from the whites of her. I shouldn't be out there. Let's go ahead and clean this up. If you hold down your space bar, you'll get your hand tool and then you can navigate to the other eye. And you can adjust the xy now. Alright, let's go ahead and zoom out a little bit. One more thing I wanna do is I want to tone down the green a little bit. It's a little too intense. I could either drop the opacity, change the blending mode or both. That's entirely up to you. And the blending modes I like to use are either darken, I don't think Overlay or Soft Light work too well. So when you have a Brown II, I think darken only works pretty good. Let's check out the before there's the normal Command or Control plus Z to go back, actually that's not going to work. So I'm gonna go in here and select dark and only, I'm going to increase that opacity again, it'll fall. Now if you wanted to, you can go up two colors. Actually make sure your image layer Harris selected. We'll have two colors, hue saturation, and adjust the color of your eyes from here. How cool is that? So maybe you wanted blue and not green. There you go. Kind of an uncle green. Now, here's the before and the after. 30. How To Fix an Overexposed Image: So our next photo editing challenge and project is trying to fix an overexposed image. And you may remember this image from the HDR tutorial where we merged two different exposures to get detail in the shadows and highlights. This time we're gonna see if we can fix an overexposed image when you don't have multiple images to create an HDR. And you're also going to discover the challenges that you're going to face when you overexposed an image. Now, for this particular image, I captured both a raw file and JPEG at the same time in camera. And the results are very different straight out of the camera. So this image here is in your resources folder. And of course, this is the JPEG files since this already in Yemen. So let's go ahead and take a look at the raw file now in Dar table. Wow, that's a huge difference, wouldn't you agree? So more detail in the shadows and highlights compared to the JPEG file, but it's still overexposed. Now check this out. We're gonna go into Lightroom here to review this raw file there to see what it looks like in Lightroom. So it looks completely different. It looks more overexposed compared to dark table. And it looks more like the JPEG file. Actually. This is more of what I saw at the time of capture with the LCD view on the back of the camera. So if you're transitioning from Lightroom to Dar table, you're not going to be presented with this. Instead, you're going to have this preview of the file. Why is that? Why do they look different? Well, you may remember from a previous tutorial how I mentioned dark table. Apply some basic edits after you import, which you can see here in the history panel. Even if I go all the way back to the original, it's still looks different than what we saw in Lightroom. And that's because dark table and Lightroom are rendering the raw file based on how they were programmed. Dark table is showing more of the detail that was captured. Lightroom on the other hand, is showing the raw, unfiltered rendition of the file. So seeing the detail in dark table from the start is nice to have, especially for those that haven't mastered reading the histogram yet. Now I know that detail is in Lightroom as well. Because the histogram tells us it's there based on the bars being displayed in each of the different tonal ranges. And if I adjust the highlights all the way down, and I dropped the exposure down as well. It's closer to what we start with an dark table. Alright, now that we got that out of the way, let's go ahead and jump back into GIMP and figure out how to fix this underexposed JPEG file. And then we'll edit the raw file and dark table, and then we'll compare the two with each other. Alright, so for this particular image, the JPEG, I went ahead and did the edit, and here's my final edit. And it's much improved over the other, but I think it still has some problems because the image was severely overexposed. So I'm gonna share with you the different steps that I took to get this final image. I'm not gonna do the complete edit because what I want you to do is to take the knowledge that you're getting and apply it to the image yourself, because that's the best way to learn how to do something is applying your knowledge. All right, let's go ahead and get started by duplicating this layer so we can work at non-destructively. And we're gonna go up two colors and select curves. Because what I wanna do first is I want to darken up the overall image. In particular the highlights. I want to try and darken up the highlights and the whites as much as possible so I can bring back some detail or at least show some detail in that area is going to affect the blacks and the shadows as well. And we're going to lose detail in some parts of the image. That's fine. We're gonna fix that in the next step. So I'm gonna go ahead and darken this up and may want to drag the highlights and the whites here and try and darken it up from here. Alright, so I think already we've done a pretty good job in restoring the details in this image. Let's go ahead and add a white layer mask now so we can bring back the detail in the shadows. We're gonna grab our paintbrush tool with the letter P. And let's go ahead and drop the opacity down to around 50 or so. And I'm gonna start over on this side and I'm gonna go ahead and begin bringing back that detail in the shadows. Maybe this area here as well. I may need to go back and make adjustments to this later on. We'll see though. What I wanna do now is I want to increase the opacity just a little bit. I don't want to use the same opacity brush and all the areas. Otherwise it's going to be really flat. And then we're gonna end up doing more work later on trying to bring back some contrast in the different levels. I'm gonna go a little bit higher again, for this cliff that might be too high. I'm going to undo that with command or control plus the letter Z. Actually, I need to go the other way. I'm gonna go at twenty-five percent here. I want to keep this side a little bit darker because it's on this side of the cliff here and it's not really getting any direct sunlight like this side here. So this side, I may want to go a little bit brighter. And over here, if I wanted to bring back a little detail in here, and go ahead and use a higher opacity setting here to try and bring back some detail in there. Let's go all the way to 100%. We're gonna have to do some dodging and burning, I think to get the detail back in there. All right. So you can continue working on your shadows as needed until you're happy with your final results. I think that looks pretty good for now and now we need to do some dodging and burning. So let's go ahead and right-click and select New from visible. We can merge all those layers into one, and then we'll do our dodge and burning. Here. Let's grab our Dodge and Burn Tool width shift plus d. What I wanna do first is I want to burn in the highlights. I'm gonna start off with the mid tones, I think, and the exposure right around 3035. And I'm gonna go ahead and try and darken up these highlights in this area here. I may need to go a little bit higher on the exposure or just continue building up with multiple strokes. I'm gonna go ahead and do that. Overall, we are starting to bring out some detail, but I think we're starting to introduce some additional problems. And that is, I think this area is becoming oversaturated based on the amount of burning that we have to do. Let's go ahead and apply some adjustments to the highlights now. Maybe that'll tone it down a little bit and it looks like it is. This area here. You can see that the results are not that good. So I'm going to go ahead and undo that with command or control plus the letter Z a couple of times until I can get back into this point. And then I'll go ahead and apply some edits in this area here as well. That's pretty much it. That's how I achieved this particular edit with some dodging and burning and the curves adjustment overall, it's not bad if you hold down your shift key and click here, you will see the before and then the after. Now personally, I'm not really happy with this particular image because it is too overexposed. And you can kinda tell that there's something wrong with it. You may not know what it is exactly when you first look at it, but what they trained eye, you can definitely see that something is off with this particular image. It's kind of flat and the highlights we could probably go in and make some adjustments to the shadows as well and try and bring back some contrast and that part of the image. But overall, I think there's a problem with it and it's due to the image being overexposed. And this is why I always recommend trying to nail your exposure as close to perfect as possible in camera and shooting in RAW. Because you're gonna notice when we edit the raw file, you can give back that detail because what your camera's doing when it converts it to JPEG is it's taking the detail and information and it's throwing some of that information out to compress it into a JPEG file. So you're going to lose that detail and you won't be able to get it back like you can with a raw file. Now let's jump into dark table and take a look at how I would edit this image as a raw file. Now I wouldn't want to start at the original point. I may want to go up a little bit higher to maybe number eight, I think number nine makes it too dark in the shadows. So these steps right here, I'm okay with. Now. I'm gonna go ahead and begin making additional adjustments to try and bring back the detail in the highlights for this particular image. If we take a look at the history, I'm, it's showing that we have detailed from the blacks to the whites, but it's still overexposed. And you can see this little line right here. It's kind of being clipped on the right side. See that blue line there. That's letting you know that there's detail being clipped in the whites. We need to try and fix that. And what I want to use is the shadows and highlights. Let's go ahead and grab that. Once we turn this on, there will be a huge difference. Boom. Alright, so it did kind of fix the shadows a little bit and we have more detail. And here in some other areas, but I think the overall image now is flat. So we need to add a little bit of contrast. But first, I want to try and fix the highlights a little bit more above the default setting here of minus 50. So I'm gonna go ahead and drag this to the left to see if I can bring back some detail. And definitely, if you take a look at the sky here, you can definitely see that some details coming back into there. And in this cliff area right here, if I put this back down to around 50, you're gonna notice that the highlights in here are getting darker. The only problem is we're getting this halo effect around the trees. And that doesn't look good. I'm gonna bring the highlights back down until that begins blending in together a little bit better. Or the transition from dark to light is a little bit less visible, It's more transparent. So right around minus 60 to 65, I think would've worked pretty good for that. We're also going to make an adjustment to the white point here to the left. And that too is going to fix some of those highlights. So there's the before and the after. So I think this does a much better job than the dodging and burning in GIMP. Although when I'm done editing in Dar table, I will then bring that file into dark table to do some additional dodging and burning if I think it can benefit from that. Alright, so the next thing I would do for this particular image is a tone curve. To add some contrasts, we're gonna do a little bit of an S curve here, and we're going to try and retain as much detail as possible in the shadows and the highlights. So I think the more I bring this down, I'm still seeing details. I'm going to continue going until I'm not seeing any detail in this area. In particular, if I turn on my masking indicator or my clipping indicator, I should say, that'll definitely help us out. So I can go ahead and pull this down. And I'm starting to lose a little detail in here. So I'm gonna go ahead and stop right there. Now if we take a look at these little red overlays, that's where all the highlights are being blown out. Now we do have another indicator to show whether or not parts of the image are overexposed and it's the one right to the left. This is an overexposure indicator and this is going to be more precise than the clipping indicator, at least when it comes to overexposure. So once you click on that, you're gonna see this red overlay here. And it's basically telling you the solid red here is completely overexposed slightly and then less overexposed. Now these areas in here, the reds that looks pretty solid to me. So all of that is being blown out or it's overexposed. So that's a good starting point as well. Before you start editing your image, you may want to turn this on to see where the Troublespots are. Alright, So far it's not too bad, but there's some detail missing in this area here and over here that we're not going to be able to bring back, at least not with the editing tools we've used so far. What we could do to bring back this detail in here is to use the Clone tool in Gimp to copy the detail from one area into another, which is going to be tedious and hard to try and match the coloring and the lighting to make it look natural and realistic. But before we do anything like that, we still have a couple more things we need to do to fix this image. In particular, the contrast levels are pretty low in the trees, the water or the rocks, and the color as well as kind of flat. So let's go ahead and work on the color first. I'm gonna turn on this panel right here in the alveoli, which is going to boost the color saturation and the image. The default settings here are pretty minimal. So let's go ahead and increase the strength. It's kind of tune that up a little bit. And then let's take a look at the before and after. So I think that's much improved. We're starting to get that halo effect again in the sky here. So we'll probably have to go back and make some adjustments to the black and white points, the tone curve, and possibly the shadows and the highlights in order to fix that halo effects. So if we go back to this tab here, it's going to show you all the edits that you've applied so far. So I'll make it easy to go back and make adjustments to any of the tools that you've already used. And I need to bring back this highlight down, back to around minus 50 to fix that halo effect. Alright, so the next thing I wanna do is try and work on the contrast. So I'm gonna go into my Levels panel here and I'm going to adjust the black point, which is going to clip some data in the shadows, which MLK width, because I really don't need to see the detail in this area. I think that's much improved versus what we had before. I think I want to adjust the white balance now. So I'm gonna go into the Quick Access Panel here and at the bottom we have our white balance. So I'm gonna go ahead and increase the temperature here to make it warmer than what it currently is right now. So there's the before and the after. Actually, I need to bring this down. I think that's too much now, so right about there looks pretty good. All right. So I think we've done just about everything we can do in dark table. So I'm gonna go ahead and export this file and open it up in GIMP. Here's the raw file here. I'm just going to add it to the JPEG layers here so we can compare the two. At this point. We haven't done any dodging and burning yet on this file that we just imported. But I just want to do a quick comparison between the JPEG file and the raw file. So we have much more color saturation in the JPEG file, but I think that's too much. It's oversaturated in my opinion. At least that's what I think you may think differently. But I'm liking the detail and the raw file better. Now if you want to spend the time on fixing some of these overexposed areas, you can grab your clone tool here with the letter C. It's a little bit too large. Remember you have to hold down your Command or Control key to give GIMP a reference point to copy from. And then you can go ahead and copy this in. And you can see that it's not really blending in all that. Well. What you're going to need to do is go back with your healing brush to try and blend that in with the area that you're fixing right now. So if I grab my Healing Brush and then paint over this area, actually I need to do a reference point for this as well. So Command or Control, click and then just gently paint over the edges here to try and get that to blend in a little bit better. So that would be one way of getting some of that detail back. Now as far as dodging and burning, again, you can do that if you think you can improve the image by trying to bring back some detail in the highlights or darkening up the shadows, or bringing out more detail in the shadows, whatever it is you want to do. So I'm gonna go ahead and increase my brush size here and try and do a couple brushstrokes here in the highlights to see if this will improve it. And I think it does. And this time, unlike what the JPEG file, we're not getting that oversaturation as much as we did before. We may want to go into the mid tones next to try and darken that up a little bit more. And overall, I'm starting to like this edit better than the JPEG file. So I'll leave that up to you to decide which one you like. But now it's time for you to go ahead and practice on the JPEG and raw file to complete this project. 31. How To Whiten Teeth: Next up, learning how to whiten teeth. Here's the original image and the final edit. How cool is that? Alright to follow along and to complete this project, go ahead and go to your section five folder and open up the teeth JPEG file. The first thing we're going to do is duplicate this layer so we can work non-destructively. Now, we need to make a selection of the teeth so we can target our edit directly to the teeth. So you can use any selection tool that you want to use. I'm gonna go ahead and use the foreground and select tool. And since we've gone over those tools several times, I'm gonna go ahead and speed up this part of the video so you don't have to sit here and watch me redo this again. Alright, if needed, go into Quick Mask mode and go ahead and fine tune your selection by painting with white and black to add and remove as needed. Alright, let's go ahead and add a selection layer mask. Grab the image preview thumbnail by clicking on it. Then go up to colors, hue, saturation, and drop the saturation. I wouldn't go too far, otherwise it's going to look unnatural. You want to leave a little bit of color in there. So maybe right around minus 45 to minus 50. Whatever you think looks good. I'm gonna go right about there. Click Okay, go ahead and deselect. And there's the before and the after. 32. How To Create a Custom Vignette: To add or not to add a vignette. That is the question. In this tutorial, I'm gonna show you how to add a vignette and dark table GIMP and then how to create a custom vignette, in this case, a heart shaped vignettes. How cool is that? I love it. Let's dive into dark table and apply a vignette to this image. First, this raw file is in your section three folder and it should be imported already if you've been following along since the beginning. Now before we add our vignette, I'd like to do some minor adjustments to the tonal range. It's a little dark. I'm gonna grab my highlights and my shadows here. And I'm gonna go ahead and turn that on in. Yep, I think I liked that. We have more detail in the shadows now and that's what I want. I want to bring the highlights down just a little bit, just to bring back some details in the highlights and darken them up a little bit. Alright, let's go ahead and grab our tone curve next. And I want to apply a small S-curves. So I'm going to brighten up these highlights a little bit more than the blacks. And I think I want to go ahead and increase the mid tones as well to make those a little brighter. Alright, so that's looking pretty good. I'm gonna go ahead and grab my vignette tool. Now. We're going to add an old-school traditional style type of vignette. Once you click on this, the tool will be activated and you will get these two circles on your image. You can either make adjustments from these two circles here or from the sliders over here or both. So if I click on this little teeny tiny circle right here and drag in, I can reshape that vignette. I can also resize it from up here as well. Go ahead and adjust that to your own personal preference. And then this outer circle is where the feathering begins for that vignette. So if we click and drag in, you can now see that vignette inside of the corners here. But that might be a little bit too far. I'm gonna bring that out. And then of course, the brightness will make that vignette darker or brighter. Saturation will reduce the color saturation or increase it depending on what you want to do. And then horizontal and vertical center will allow you to move that vignette into a different position because your subject may not be directly in the center and then shape will change the shape from an oval or a circle to more of a diamond shape. All right, so what I want you to do now is go ahead and turn this vignetting tool off and go ahead and close it. Because we're gonna learn how to add some vignettes and GIMP now. And sometimes GIMP is a better tool for adding vignettes compared to dark table because we can do more and GIMP versus dark table. So go ahead and export that file, open it up in GIMP. And then we're gonna grab our image layer here, and let's go ahead and duplicate it so we can apply the vignette non-destructively. And to add a vignette in GIMP, you're gonna go up to filters, lightened shadow, and select vignette from here. Now, just like with dark table, we have pretty much the same tools and adjustments here on the image as well as we did in dark table. We have a third oval here that will re-size. Then this outer one will increase or decrease the width or the height depending on which one you adjust. And then we have this dashed line which represents the feathering that vignette. So it's much softer now than it was before. If I bring this in, it will be more of a harder edge. And of course you can do all these adjustments in the sliders here. Then the other thing you can do is you can change the shape of the vignette from a circle to a square. There's a diamond. There's also horizontal and vertical. So all depending on your creative vision. But if you want to add a custom shape like this heart-shaped here, what you're gonna do is let me go ahead and delete these. So we can start over. You're gonna navigate to your section five folder. You're gonna find this heart PNG file in a click and drag it in. Or if that doesn't work based on your operating system, you're gonna go up to file and select Open as layers to open it up as a new layer. Now before we can create a vignette out of this, we need to increase the layer boundary because it's smaller than the current canvas. And if we try and create that vignette right now, it's going to be confined to the inside of this layer boundary. Let's go up to Layer and select layer to image size, and that will increase the layer boundary to match the canvas size. Now let's make a selection of our heart and we can do that real quick by right-clicking on the heart layer here and selecting Alpha to selection, and that creates the selection. Now we need to invert the selection so that we can then fill it in with a color of our choice. So let's go up to Select and click on invert. Let's go ahead and turn this layer off. And let's create a new layer called vignette. And let's fill it with transparency. Now we're gonna go ahead and grab our foreground color swatch here and choose a color. So choose anything you want. Click Okay, grab your bucket fill tool with Shift plus b and fill in that selection. Let's go ahead and deselect. Then the final step is to blur the edges and the layer itself by going up to filter blur, gaussian blur, and then adjust the x and y size to whatever you want. I'm gonna go pretty high here, so right around 60 to 70. Click Okay, and then drop your opacity down to blend it in a little bit more. How cool is that? I love it. All right, congratulations on completing the ten projects in this section. In the next section, you're going to learn how to do three more projects that are a little bit more advanced. So we're gonna do some compositing, which simply means you're gonna take multiple images, bring them together in one document, and then merge them, blend them, and do some other stuff to create a new image or a new piece of artwork. So if you're ready for that, loves to do it. 33. How To Create a Double Exposure Composite: For this next project, we're going to create what is known as a double exposure. And you're going to take two main images and combine them together to create what looks like one image. So here's the main image that we're going to be working with. And then we're going to add some trees and then some birds. Now once we're done with this particular project, we will have something that looks like this. How cool is that? I love it. Now, I did do a couple of different versions of this concept. So here's another version. And another one here with some different trees and a mountain in the background here that I shaped to his head. I think this is Yosemite. You could do something like that or another set of trees here. And I converted it to black and white because I do like black and white myself. What I recommend you to do once you've finished this project is take what you learn and apply this new knowledge to your favorite animal and add whatever elements you want because it doesn't have to be trees. It can be clouds or it could be a cityscape. If you want to do a juxtaposition of the city and the industry or something industrial with nature, you could do something like that. And I would love to see your final composition, your final artwork. If you want to share that, go ahead and place that in the Q&A section for everybody to see or if you're part of our private Facebook group, go ahead and post it in there as well. I would love to see it. Alright, so let's go ahead and get started by opening up the resource file that is in your section six folder, and it is called elephant. Now I placed all these image layers in there for you so we could go ahead and skip that part since you already know how to do that. In fact, everything we're going to do for this particular project you've already done before in other projects. So although you're not really going to learn any new tools, you're going to learn how to apply them differently than what you have before, which is going to help hopefully inspire you to create your own artwork. Let's go ahead and start off by cropping this canvas here to a square. Let's go up to image and select Canvas Size. And let's go ahead and do 1800 for the width. And let's make sure our elephant here is in the center. Go ahead and resize. And actually what I wanna do is I want to make this elephant larger. So let's grab our scale tool with Shift plus S. Let's go ahead and enlarge. Let's see if we drop the opacity that will make it easier to see the size of the elephant compared to the canvas. And I liked that. So I'm gonna go ahead and scale that down and place that opacity back. The hardest part of this particular project is making a selection. So we're gonna have to select the sky here and then possibly make a selection of the sky of these birds here as well, to remove the sky in both of them. Before we do that, let's go ahead and duplicate this layer. And I'm going to rename this the sky removal. And I'm gonna use my fuzzy select tool here to make a selection of the sky. So I have my threshold right around 30. And let's go ahead and make a selection. I'm gonna hold down my Shift key to add this part as well. And let's add our selection layer mask. Actually, I think we need to invert that. Yes, we do. So let's go ahead and deselect Command or Control Shift plus a. What we're gonna do is we're gonna go up two colors and select Invert. And that will invert the colors of our Layer Mask. Alright, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom in over here because it looks like I missed a little area over here. I'm gonna grab my paintbrush tool and paint with white to add that back. Alright, Let's say I had a little bit of contrast. The overall image is a little flat. I'm going to duplicate this layer. I'm going to right-click on the layer mask and select Apply Layer Mask. Now we can turn this one off, and let's call this curve. Since we're going to add an S-curve, let's go up to colors curves. And let's go ahead and create a small S-curve. I'm gonna bring the blacks and the shadows down a little bit for the highlights and the whites, I'm going to bring those up a little bit more than the blacks. I can accentuate the brightness levels a little bit more to add more contrast that way. Alright, so the next thing I wanna do is I want to do some classic dodging and burning because I find that the grassy area here is too bright, so let's go ahead and darken that up. Let's start by duplicating this layer, calling this Dodge and Burn. Let's grab our Dodge and Burn tool. And then as far as the options, we have burn mid tones and I'm gonna do exposure or right around 30. Actually, I might go a little bit higher because what I wanna do is I want to try and get this done as quickly as possible. I don't want to spend a lot of time making this perfect because I think you have better things to do, like practicing this on your own. When I did this edit here, I think it took me about an hour to do because I was being really picky and spending a lot of time on perfecting it. And I'm not going to do that for this image here. You already know how to do all the stuffs. So let's go ahead and do this real quick. Now when you begin applying this, you're going to be adjusting the elephant as well, his feet, legs, belly, his trunk. And what we need to do is we need to remove that once we're done with our dodging and burning. So let me show you how we're gonna do that. Actually, you probably already know how to do that because we've done that a 100 times already and that's by adding a layer mask to remove the edit from the elephant. So let's go ahead and do that. Let's add a white layer mask. And then with your paintbrush tool and black, you can begin removing that edit where it shouldn't be. We don't want it on the elephant. So let's go ahead and remove that as needed. I'm going to go ahead and do this real quick and we'll go onto the next step. Alright, so it's not perfect, but I think you get the idea. Let's go ahead and move onto the next step, which is, let's go ahead and add a new background layer to fill in our sky. Let's go ahead and click on the elephant layer here. We're going to click here to create a new layer. Let's call it IT background. I filled it in with white. I don't want white. So let's go ahead and choose our color from this tree layer here. So we're gonna click on our foreground color swatch here. Grab your eyedropper tool right here, and click on the sky to choose a light gray. That's the color I want to fill in for that background. Let's make sure that background layer is still selected. And with your bucket fill tool, go ahead and fill it in. You can kinda see what it's doing and starting to blend the sky in from this tree image together, which is what we want. All right, let's work on our tree now, which is scaling and then blending in to cover up part of the elephant. Let's go ahead and grab our move tool. And we're going to move this up just a little bit now it's kinda hard to see where we want to place it. So let's drop our opacity. That'll make it a little bit easier to decipher where to place it. And I think I want it right about there. I'm gonna grab my Scale Tool now with Shift plus S. And I'm gonna drag from the top right down. So I can keep that right side in position. And then I'm going to continue adjusting until I want this tree along this area here. Let's go ahead and move this up just a little bit. Maybe right about there. Maybe a little bit tighter, I think right there. Alright, perfect. Let's go ahead and put that opacity backup and then add a white layer mask. Alright, so this layer boundary right here is really bugging me. Let's go ahead and go up to View and click on Show layer boundary. Now here's another little neat trick if you never want to see that layer boundary ever again, right-click, go to Edit and select Preferences. Then let's see, I think it's down here somewhere. I think it's under Image Windows. Click right here on Appearance, and click right here. That will turn off Show Layer or boundary. And the next project you work on, you will not see them. All right, let's go ahead and grab our paintbrush tool here. And we're going to paint with black to remove the trees. But first actually I forgot a step. Let's go back and click on the image layer, go up to mode and select dark and only that will help blended in our height back to the layer mask and then begin removing with black. Now what I would recommend doing is possibly using a lower opacity to help blend that in at a slower rate, you can fine tune your edits so it's not completely gone along the edges. Otherwise it's going to have a hard edge. And you also want to work with a soft edged brush. I have 50 right now you may want to go down lower to round 2225, something like that, up to 50 at the most. And that's going to give you a softer edged brush, which will help blend everything together. All right, Again, I'm not going to spend a lot of time. I'm getting this perfect essay. I'm doing that thing again where my OCD is kicking in and I'm trying to do it. Perfect. But let's go ahead and stop right there. Before I go too far, I'm going to set my opacity back up here and my hardness back to 50 by clicking right here. Alright, We're now going to get rid of the elephant's head and hump right here and over here as well. Let's do this. Let's go ahead and turn this layer off. We're going to, let's see, let's go down here and turn off the background as well. We're going to right-click and select New from visible. All right, we can turn this one back on. But what I wanna do is make sure these two are turned off and then the trees can go back on. All right, So guess what we're going to do now. That's right. We're going to add another layer masks. So let's go ahead and do that. And then with our paintbrush tool, we're gonna paint where that elephant shouldn't be visible to make him disappear. How cool is that? I love it. Let's go ahead and rename this discipline. I'm hearing elephant. And of course this would be trees and now we're gonna add some birds. Now we already have a set of birds from this tree layer here. I'm not sure if I want to add more small birds or not. I'll leave that up to you. We're gonna go ahead and work on this image layer here. What we're going to do is convert this to black and white first. And then we're going to apply a technique that we learned in a previous project. Let's go ahead and grab this image layer here. We're gonna go up two colors, hue saturation. Let's drop the saturation down. Not all the way. I just want to leave a little bit of color. So something like that. Let's go with that. And then let's go up to Colors, levels and try and brighten up that sky as much as possible without losing any detail from the birds. I don't wanna go too far like that. So I'm gonna go maybe right around 200. For the white point, I'm going to darken up those birds just a little bit. I'm not too worried about this part of the image because I want to get rid of all these birds anyways. I'm concentrating more on this area here, but maybe a little bit brighter on the white point. So right about there. All right, so let's say you go in and add a white layer mask again, and then you go try and brush in-between all the birds here, and it's not working well. What you can do is you can make a selection, even though you added a layer mask. Where you have to do though is make sure your image layer is selected and then grab your fuzzy select tool and make a selection of the sky like so. Then go back to your layer mask. Make sure your background color is filled to black and then go up to Edit, Cut. And that will remove the sky based on that selection. Let's go ahead and deselect with command or control shift plus a. What I'm going to do now is paint with black to remove all these birds that I don't want. Let's go ahead and remove all of these. This guy up here. I think I may want to move these birds into a different position. I think I get rid of a bird there that I didn't want to get rid of. So I'm gonna go ahead and restart. If you're gonna try and do this all in one stroke and then if you have to undo it, well, you're gonna have to redo everything. So I like to stop release my mouse button and then continue editing. That way I don't have to go all the way back to the beginning if I have to undo something because I made a mistake, Let's get this bird here. Let's get these guys over here. Alright, let's go ahead and grab our move tool. I'm gonna place this on, move the anchor of layer because it's gonna be kinda hard to select a bird. Otherwise, it's going to select whatever you click on other than a bird. Let's go ahead and click and move this up. I'm gonna move it over to the right. I think right about there should be good. Now, I need to undo that because we need to make sure we have our image layer preview selected and not the layer mask, because the layer mask was going to move with the image layer at the same time. Now, I think I need to grab my scale tool here and make this a little bit smaller. Let's go ahead and reposition this right about there. Now we need to go back in with our paintbrush tool and remove this side of the image, make sure your Layer Mask is selected and adjust as needed. Alright, so the last thing we need to do is some color grading because we have three different images that were shot under three different types of light or different colors of light. So each one of these were shot at a different time of day. And I want to blend it in together to finish off the entire image so that it has the same color tone. Alright, long story short, we're gonna create a new layer. Let's call it color grading. And I don't want black. Let's go into our foreground color swatch here. And this is the color that I want to use. If you want to use the same color, here is the hexadecimal number right here. Go ahead and type that in right there. Click Okay, and then fill in your foreground. Now let's blend that in with all the layers below with, Let's see, Let's go with luma. Luminance darken only. Well, that doesn't look too good, does it? So let's go ahead and drop the opacity down to help blend it in. So somewhere around 50 to 55. There you go. That's the double exposure project. Go ahead and complete this project on your own and pick out your own elements to create your own artwork. 34. How To Create a Glow Effect: For this next compositing project, we're gonna take this image here and transform it from day to night and add a magical glow. How cool is that? Alright, so let's go ahead and get started by opening up this image from your section six folder. And let's go ahead and start off by duplicating this layer and calling it night, because that's the first thing we're going to do is transform it from day tonight. And we're going to do that by going up to colors and selecting colorize. Now for this, I'm going to add a light blue color. So I'm going to use this color right here, and here's the hexadecimal number. If you want to use the same color, go ahead and type that in. And let's go ahead and grab this layer next and duplicate again. And let's move it above the other layer. What we're going to do now is separate our deer from the background with our foreground selection tool, which is what I used originally for this project when I was putting this together. And then I use the Quick Mask Mode to fine tune my selection. Now you've seen me do this several times throughout the class and you've already practiced a few times as well. So there's no need for me to go through how to use this particular tool again, since you already know how to use it. So I'm gonna save you and me some time by cheating a little bit. I'm gonna grab my Layer Mask here that I've already done. I'm going to add it to this document. So go ahead and duplicate that layer and make your selection and then apply a layer mask based on a selection. Once you have that, you should end up with this. Now we're gonna take this layer and we're going to duplicate that one and right-click on it and apply the layer mask. Now the background has been removed. What we need to do now is we need to match the color of the light in the background with the foreground because he's being lit with daylight. It's a different color than the nighttime light. Let's go back up to colors, colorize and apply that same blue color. All right, let's duplicate this layer and let's call it antlers. And we're going to make a selection of the antlers and remove everything else. So let's grab our free select tool, which is right here, or you can grab it with the keyboard shortcut, which is the letter F. And I'm just going to draw around the antlers like so. And let's go around this ear right here, so it's not included. Then go ahead and finish off by going back to where you started. We need to invert our selection and then hit your Delete key or your backspace key. That should leave you with just the antlers. Alright, so we're gonna start working on our glow of the antlers. So let's go ahead and put this first set of antlers inside of a layer group. And we're also going to change the color from blue to a yellowish, orangeish color. I'm gonna do that by going up to colors, hue saturation. And I'm gonna drop the hue all the way down to minus 180. Let's go ahead and grab our zoom tool here and zoom in because I forgot to do this little piece in the center. This is a little bit of a gap between the antlers and it shouldn't be glowing yellow. It should include the background or at least show the background through it. I'm gonna grab my eraser tool, which is right here. The keyboard shortcut is Shift plus E. And let's just go ahead and erase this because we're not going to need this back later anyways, otherwise, I would use a layer mask. It doesn't have to be perfect because we're going to do some blurring of the antlers to create the glow. So don't worry about making it perfect. All right, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom out. And I'm going to duplicate this set of antlers. And I'm gonna call this glow one because we're gonna do this a couple more times. And let's go up to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur. And I'm going to set the blur amount to, I don't know, what do you think? I think I'm gonna go pretty high here, around 80 to 90. So maybe let's go in the middle in 85. Alright, I'm gonna go ahead and duplicate this layer now. And let's call this glow to, let's go up to filters and repeat that Gaussian blur. I also want to change the blending mode to dodge, and that's too intense now. So I'm going to drop the opacity down to around 30 or so, maybe right about there. Let's go ahead and grab our original antlers. Again, duplicate it, and move it all the way up to the top. And let's blur it again, but not as much as before. I think this time right around five to ten. So I'm gonna go with six. Now there's one thing that's bugging me. I think the background should be darker than the foreground. So let's go back to our night layer here, and let's recolor eyes that with a darker blue. Let's see, Let's try this one. Or even darker. I think I like the darker one because the DIR stands out a little bit better now. So I'm gonna go ahead and go with that. And I think we need to do one more thing with the antlers here. I think I want to bring the glow to opacity up a little bit. And then I'm gonna grab my layer group and drop the opacity of this one down to kind of tone down everything just a little bit. So right about there looks pretty good. All right, let's go ahead and collapse this layer groups. So the next step is applying this glow color on the deer itself. Since it should be reflecting off of his body. So we're going to target the highlights of the deer and we're going to apply the edit more towards the top or where the antlers are closer to his body. Down here, it's going to be less of a glow or less of that color. So to do that, we're going to grab this layer here. We're going to duplicate it. I'm going to rename this glow highlights. Let's go ahead and colorize the deer with that color that we used previously, this light orange color. And then we're going to add a black layer mask to remove it. And then we can paint on with our brush where we want it. And I'm using a low opacity of around 15 to 20, I can gradually build up the edit where I want it and kind of create a smooth transition from one part to another. And that's going to create some depth as well. So I'm gonna go pretty heavy up here on the top near the antlers because that's where the antlers are closest to is this part of the body. So it should be brighter over here compared to other parts of his body. And again, I'm just targeting the different highlights on his body, which makes it a little easier to target where to place everything. I'm gonna go really dark in here with lots of strokes. And I'm gonna go with the larger brush now so I can begin feathering this color down a little bit. Here we go. So now you can see it's starting to feather in. We probably really shouldn't have any down there, maybe a little bit on this part of his leg here because it's kind of protruding out a little bit and it might get a little bit more light than other parts of his body. And maybe a little bit on his legs over here, but not as much. And then just go ahead and continue feathering this n until you're happy with the final results, I'm gonna go ahead and go with a smaller brush now to get his eyes here a little bit more because it's really close to the antlers and I think this should be pretty bright in this area. Of course, if you add too much, you can always paint with black to remove it and tone it down if needed. Now the other thing you can do if you want to speed this up and make this a little bit darker is you can come down here and duplicate this layer. And I think that's a little bit too much now. So I'm gonna go ahead and drop the opacity down just to add a little bit more than what we had previously. So there's the original and then the extra. You can do more or less depending on your personal preference. Let's go back to the antlers here. I'm going to duplicate this layer. And I'm going to turn this layer off. And then I'm going to right-click on the antlers and select Merge Layer group because what I wanna do is I want to tone this down. It's not exactly the same color that I had previously. So I don't remember all the exact steps I did. So your rendition and your final edit may be different than mine because you may choose different colors throughout the process. And I didn't write down the exact colors that I used here. But I do want to tone this down because I find it's a little bit too saturated. And I'm gonna go up to Colors saturation. Actually let's go to hue saturation because I prefer that tool over the other one. And I'm gonna go ahead and drop this down a little bit. So right around minus 40 to minus 50. Yeah, that's too much, I like that much better. Alright, so the last step is to add some stars to our glowing. Navigate to the section six folder and drag that over to create a new layer. And again, you can go up to File Open and layers if that doesn't work for you. Now what the Move tool? I'm gonna go ahead and move this up so it covers up those antlers altogether. I think right there will be good. I'm gonna go ahead and apply a black layer mask. And then that can begin painting in the stars exactly where I want them. And make sure you have white selected to paint that on. You can add as many or as few stars as you want. I'll leave that up to you. Now there's one more thing we need to do. We need to tone this down just a little bit because it's a little bit too bright. I think. I'm gonna go ahead and grab my black now and paint with that what they lower opacity. And I'm going to begin painting in some different strokes here to tone this down a little bit. So we're left with just a few stars, not too many. And I don't want that big white glow in some of these areas here. And this will help tone that down. Now, depending on the colors you chose, if you have a really dark background, you may want to change the blending mode to either screen dark and only multiply or something else to help blend those colors. And also depending on the stars you chose, if you're choosing something else, you may need to choose a different blending mode to help that blend in with the background. The other thing you can do is you can go to your Levels tool here to adjust. Actually, we need to go back and select the image layer here, and then adjust the white and the black points to try and darken it up that way so we can brighten up these stars by going to the left here, that's a little bit too far. And then you can darken it up some more this way. And that might help blend it in a little bit more as well. But now I'm starting to see an outline here. And that's why you may want to go in and choose a blending mode to try and get that to blend in a little bit better. So here's the original and the final edit. 35. How To Create a Majestic Animal Composite: The final composite project consists of a couple of new challenges, reflections and drop shadows. When you're done with this project, you will have created the world's tallest drafts. So let me show you what we're going to create. Here is the original image that you're going to work with. When you're done, you're gonna add a couple of photos and boom, this is the final artwork. How cool is that? I love it. Let's go ahead and get started by opening up this image which is in your section six, Fuller. Let's go ahead and grab the other two files. Here are the clouds and the draft, and go ahead and add that as well. Let's go ahead and turn these layers off for now. Alright, so we have a lot of steps to cover and we're gonna start off with the foreground by making a selection of the sky. And when I did this project initially I used the fuzzy select tool. Go ahead and use whatever selection tool you want to use to make a selection of the sky and go ahead and get that done. Alright, with the Quick Mask mode here, I'm gonna go ahead and refine my selection if needed. It looks like I did a pretty good job. I need to clean up a little bit here, so I'm gonna go ahead and do that next. The other thing I want to do now, real quick, if you're wondering how I'm navigating around, if you hold your space bar key, you'll get the hand tool and then you can move around the Canvas as needed. Now the one thing I want to do is I want to adjust this peak right here because we're going to make this canvas taller. And when we do, we'll end up with a flat top for this mountain peak. And that's not what I want. So I'm gonna go ahead and come in here and adjust it by creating a slope like that. Alright, so once you have your selection, go ahead and invert it and apply a layer mask via the selection option. And boom, this guy is gone. Alright, let's increase our canvas size down by going up to Image Canvas Size. And for the height, we're gonna type in 3500. And once you click your tab key, makes sure you adjust your position of your image to the bottom of the new Canvas. Alright, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom all the way out with Command or Control Shift plus j. And now we have room for our Cloud and our giraffe. Let's work on our clouds. Next, let's turn that layer on. And let's go ahead and move it behind the foreground. Now, right now, the image layer is way too large. If I zoom all the way out here. Let's see if I go up to View Show layer boundary. This is the size of that layer right now, and I want it to be closer to what we have for our canvas. I'm gonna go ahead and resize that by going up to layer and selecting the scale layer. I'm just gonna do a little bit wider than the Canvas right now, so I don't have to worry about getting it perfectly aligned along the edge of the canvas there. So I'm gonna go ahead and do that and move it up with my move tool. I'm gonna go ahead and get rid of that layer boundary again because it's kind of annoying. All right, So two things we have to do with the clouds now is we need to create a reflection in the water since we have a new set of clouds. And we need to create our atmospheric condition that we learned how to do any previous tutorial. So let's go ahead and do the reflection first. We're going to duplicate this and call it clouds reflection. And it should be above the foreground since we needed in the water. So let's go ahead and go up to Layer, transform and select flip vertically. And then with your move tool, you can go ahead and move this down into position. I think I'm gonna go right about here. Now let's go ahead and grab our new mode, which is going to be overlay. Alright, that looks like it's in the water now. That looks pretty good. We just need to clean up now because we have this part of the sky overlapping the mountain and it shouldn't be. So we're gonna grab a white layer mask. And then with a black paint brush, we can go ahead and remove that part of the sky. I also want to clean it up on the steps here. I don't necessarily want to remove it completely because the steps look like they are white. So what I'm going to do is I'm going to drop my opacity as soon as I get it off the legs here of our subject, I'm gonna go a little bit smaller here so I can get in nice and tight. Clean all of this up. I need to fix this again. I'm gonna go with a lower opacity brush this time so I can paint with gray and remove some of that from the stops. All right, next is the atmospheric condition. This is optional. It's something that I like to do, but it's entirely up to you. If you don't remember how to do this, let's go ahead and do that real quick. I'm gonna go ahead and create a new layer called atmospheric condition background. I'm gonna fill out what transparency. And then I want to fill it with white. Let's grab our bucket fill tool and fill on that layer. And we're going to move it all the way to the bottom. Let's grab our clouds layer here, and let's apply a white layer mask. Now with our bucket fill tool, we can go ahead and apply that condition. I'm gonna set my foreground color to black and my background color to white. So make sure it's pure white and pure black. I'm going to click right here and drag down. It looks like it's reversed. So I need to either adjust the line here or in the tool options, I can click on this little icon right here. To reverse it. I'm gonna go ahead and bring this down below this peak right here. And I'm gonna drag this down just a little bit more, perfect. Enter or Return to apply that. And you can now see there's some gray right here that is removing that part of the sky and letting the background SRO through which is the white, which creates that atmospheric condition. And yes, you probably already know that since you learned about it previously. The clouds are done. Let's go ahead and work on our giraffe now. Let's go ahead and resize him. Let's go to Layer, scale layer. And same thing I'm gonna do 1620 for the width. And we have 2446, so I'll click Scale. We just want to make sure that we have the correct layer selected. I still have my clouds. I'm going to go back to giraffe here and layer scale, layer and 16202439. Click Scale. Alright, let's go ahead and move him up into position here. Let's go ahead and drop the opacity so we can see where he is in relation to the rest of the image. And I want him to look the other way. So I'm gonna go up to Layer transform and select flip horizontally. And that's the direction I want him to look in. I think I have the position exactly where I want it. Alright, so I did a pretty good job there. Let's go ahead and put that opacity all the way back up because now we need to get rid of the sky a lot easier this time since it's a solid blue. So I'm gonna go ahead and make my selection here and apply my layer mask. This time I'm gonna click Invert Mask and select selection, and that will invert the selection. So we don't have to go up to colors and introverted up there. Now we need to place this layer below the foreground so that he's behind the mountain. Now, I'm gonna let you do some fine tuning of your mask here. You can get rid of all this blue and white along his main right here. And then you're gonna go in with a teeny tiny brush in-between the his hairs here where the light is shining through. I'm not gonna do that because this is going to take a few minutes. All you have to do is grab your paintbrush tool and paint with black to begin removing it. Now what I did originally is I did lower the opacity and I did multiple strokes along the main to get rid of that, to try and keep as many of those hairs as possible without losing the overall shape of the main. You're going to have to spend a little bit more time on that to get it just right now it looks like I have a little boo-boo or bobo or whatever right here. And I think that is the foreground. So I'm gonna go ahead and grab that and get rid of that. Alright, I'm gonna go ahead and zoom all the way out. And now we need to work on a few different things. We need to add a reflection and the water because he's behind the mountains now and he's kind of peeking over the mountains. His reflections should be there plus a drop shadow on this side of the mountain. Then we need to create some depth by reducing the contrast in the image. Because the further away a subject is from you, the less contrast it will have. In most cases anyways, now for this particular image, it's a little bit harder because the lighting is pretty harsh. We have some strong sunlight coming from over here. And then if you take a look at the mountain here, we have a strong hard edge shadow here, and then we have the same thing on the draft as well. We don't want to reduce the contrast too much, but enough to where it looks like he's further away from us than he currently appears. So a lot of things to do. Let's start off with the reflection. First. Let's grab our giraffe layer here. We're going to duplicate it, right-click and select Apply Layer Mask. Let's go up to Layer transform and flip vertically. And then with your move tool, you're going to go ahead and move them down into position. We also need to get that layer above the foreground since he is going to be on top of the water now. Now all this blue is the sky. But you don't really have to worry about that too much because we're gonna get rid of that with the layer mask in just a second. I'm just going to go ahead and position them where I think he should be. Now he's directly behind the mountain and he's kind of peeking over. So how far down you go depends on where you think he is in relation to the mountain. If you take a look at this peak right here, that reflection is all the way down here. So I think it should be. In that same general area. So I'm gonna go right there. Let's go ahead and apply a white layer mask and clean up this guy. Actually, I need to go back because I had invert turned on. I'm gonna go ahead and turn that off and redo it. Now we're gonna get rid of the sky along the edges and the bottom here with your paintbrush tool. All right, Let's change the blending mode to overlay to help that blend in. And let's go ahead and drop the opacity down as well. And that's going to definitely help blend it in some more. Now the one thing I want to do here is zoom in because I don't think this part of the drafts should be on the steps at all. I'm gonna go ahead and paint that out. All right, so the next thing we need to do is we need to blend in this reflection a little bit more so it matches the water. What do I mean by that? Well, if you take a closer look at the water, you can see there's some ripples happening in the water, so there's some motion in the water. We need to apply that motion to the draft reflection as well. A better matches what's going on with the water itself. So to do that, we're first going to duplicate the layer, and then we're going to apply the layer mask. And let's turn this layer off because we don't need both of them. Then we're going to go up to filters, blur, motion blur or linear motion blur. And we're going to match the angle of the ripples to match the angle of the water. So right now it's left to right or right to left, which is what we have for the angle right now, if you're working on another project and you need to change the angle, there's a little arrow right here. Just click and drag it to match the angle of the waves. Then you just need to adjust the length to match the intensity of those ripples, anywhere from ten to 15 or 18 for this particular image I think would work. I think I used the 18 originally, so I'm gonna go with right around 18. So that's a little bit too much. So I'm gonna come down just a little and go with that. Now we have another problem. If we take a look over here. The giraffe is now outside of the water, so we don't need this part of the giraffe on the mountain, but we are going to use that for the drop shadow. But first I want to clean up this part of the draft layer so it's not outside of the mountain range. So we're gonna go back to a white layer mask and clean it up once again. Alright, let's go ahead and duplicate this layer. We're going to go ahead and turn this layer off just for a moment. Because what we need to do with this layer mask now is get rid of this part of the layer or the reflection part of it on the layer mask. So a cleaning up once again, and then we'll be left with just what we need for the drop shadow. Let's go ahead and apply that layer mask. I'm going to call this drop shadow, and let's call the swan reflection. Let's go ahead and turn that back on before we forget. I'm just going to scroll up here so I can take a look at my drop shadow. We do need to make some adjustments to it. Make sure you have the drop shadow layer selected. Let's go ahead and darken up that layer. I'm gonna go up two colors. And I'm gonna go with levels. And I'm gonna bring the black point all the way over to the right here. And that's going to darken it up. And then we need to blurred out a little bit so that the edges are softer and it will definitely soften up the rest of it. So it looks more like a drop shadow. So we're gonna go up to Filter Blur, Gaussian Blur, and then increase this to around ten to 20 or whatever you think looks good. Now, as we're doing this, as we're increasing the amount of the blur, it starting to go on the outside of the mountain range here. So we need to go back in and clean that up once again with another white layer mask. Now, I would spend a little bit more time on this than I am right now. So you're going to need to spend a little bit more time to fine tune everything so it looks really good. I'm making a mess here, trying to go through this as quickly as possible. So we're not here all day. And you're gonna notice that the blue in my main here, and I'll also have a blue outline here and under his chin and his mouth. That's actually going to show up in the reflection which you can see right here, which is another reason why you want to clean up before you start doing all these extra layers. So you're not spending more time fixing this up after the fact. Alright, we now have our drop shadow and now we need to work on the perception that the giraffe is farther from us than what it currently appears to be. And we also need to make an adjustment to the mountain ranges well, because I want those to look like they're further away as well. So let's go ahead and start with the foreground. Let's grab our foreground layer here and duplicate it. Let's go ahead and apply the layer mask. And now we're going to apply the effect by going up to colors and selecting levels. So to create this effect that the mountains are further from us, we're going to reduce the contrast, or in this case, reduced the amount of tonal ranges from 0 to 255. To 35 to 40 to 255. If we adjust the output levels, this will decrease the tonal ranges in the image. And you will notice that the image becomes brighter or has less contrast the further to the right you go. That's too much. So I'm gonna go maybe right around 25 to 30. I think I'll go with 30. And then we're gonna go ahead and apply a white layer mask. Again. We can add back the contrast in this part of the image with our gradient tool, which is going to give that illusion that there is more distance or more depth and the actual image than there really is. So with your gradient tool, make sure you have pure black set to the foreground and pure white for the background. Otherwise, you're going to have some transparency and other parts of the image. I think we've talked about that before. So I'm gonna go ahead and click and drag down here. And you'll notice that this part of the image is getting darker. I'm gonna go ahead and move this line up to shorten that distance. So it's more on the mountain area or the mountain ranges here and less so on the water. I'm gonna go ahead and click Enter or Return to apply that gradient. Now we need to do the same thing to our giraffe. Let's grab the draft layer, duplicate it, right-click and apply the layer mask, and then the same steps as before. So back to Colors levels. And I'm going to adjust this until I think it matches the mountain range. And you can see already, it's starting to give the illusion that that giraffe is actually further away than it is if the level is at 0. I think I'm going to increase this to right around 2728. I think that matches the mountain range pretty good. If you want the draft to be further away from the mountains, then you're going to apply this level further to the right. The only problem is I think if he's back that far, you're not gonna see the reflection as much because most of his body and his head here are going to be cut off from the mountain pass. And then you'd have to move your reflection here up higher so that it's not covering as much as it is right now. I'm gonna go ahead and bring this down to around 2728. And that creates that part of the illusion. Now the other thing I want to do is I want to do some white balance adjustments on the draft. Because if you zoom in, you'll notice that this side of the draft is pretty blue, especially in his eyes and his ears right here. And we have a setting sun and it's very warm compared to what we see on this side. Now this side will be more blue or less yellow because it is further away from the sun. Just like in the mountain ranges here, this is more blue. Now I do have some problems with some ghosting from the sky and a previous layer right here. So again, that's why you had to spend a little bit more time getting things right from the beginning. You're not going back and making corrections like I am right now or we'll have to. But anyways, let's go ahead and do our white balance adjustment on our giraffe here by warming him. We're gonna go up two colors and selecting color temperature. And then we're going to adjust the intended temperature to the right. And that will make the draft much warmer than he is right now. So you can definitely see a huge improvement by adjusting that to around 8800. So you can go more or less depending on your personal preference. All right, so there's one more thing I want to do to the white balance or the color of the image or the drafts, I should say. And that is to tone down these blue colors here. And we're gonna do that by duplicating this layer. And then we're gonna go into hue and saturation and drop the saturation down to remove that. Then we're gonna go ahead and apply a black layer mask and then paint in those areas to apply that previous edit. All right, so we only have two more steps left. And next I want to create the illusion that the giraffe is inside of the clouds, not in front of them. Let's go ahead and create a new layer group and place all our draft layers inside of it. Let's go ahead and duplicate that Grouped layer and turn off the original right-click and select Merge Layers group. Now, do you have any idea how we can create the illusion that he's in the clouds? Well, if he said a Layer Mask, you are correct. Let's go ahead and add a white layer mask. And then we're going to paint with black to begin revealing the clouds. But you want to make sure that you have your opacity set pretty low under 50 or so. Then a fairly large brush to cover more area. And then the hardness I would do under 50. So the default is 50. I'm gonna go with 25, which is going to create a softer edged brush which will help blend everything together much better. And then you can begin clicking and dragging out to create the illusion that the clouds are coming through. How cool is that I love it. May want a little bit up here on top as well and maybe around his ear. All right, so the last thing we need to do is we need to match the color of light between the three images. Each of the images were captured at a different time of day and possibly a different season, which means the color of light is different for each of them. To create some color harmony, we're gonna create a new layer and fill it in with a color. I'm going to call this color grading. I'm going to fill it with transparency, and then I'm going to choose the color that I want to be dominant throughout the entire image. And what I want is this orange pink color right here. So I'm gonna grab my eyedropper tool, and I'm gonna go ahead and try and find a color that I like. Actually I liked that. So here is the hexadecimal number. Then I'm going to use, go ahead and grab your bucket fill tool and fill it in. And alright, let's go ahead and blend it in. Not quite done yet. Let's try overlay. Nope, that's not gonna work. Soft light. Actually soft light or overlay I think would work. What we need to do is tone it down by dropping the opacity. Just like that. We now have that color throughout the entire image. And the colors are now in harmony from one image to the other.