Essential English Grammar: Sentence Structures | Gaia Massara | Skillshare
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Essential English Grammar: Sentence Structures

teacher avatar Gaia Massara, English Teacher | Cambridge | TEFL

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction

      3:27

    • 2.

      The importance of sentence structure

      3:37

    • 3.

      Intro to basic sentence elements

      0:52

    • 4.

      Independent clause

      2:17

    • 5.

      Dependent Cluases

      2:26

    • 6.

      Subject

      1:27

    • 7.

      Object

      1:13

    • 8.

      A prepositional phrase

      2:11

    • 9.

      Coordinating Conjunctions

      1:29

    • 10.

      Subordinating conjunctions

      1:33

    • 11.

      Main difference

      1:23

    • 12.

      Correlating Conjunctions

      1:50

    • 13.

      Introduction to Sentence types

      0:47

    • 14.

      Declarative sentence

      3:00

    • 15.

      How to structure declarative sentences

      2:24

    • 16.

      Imperative Sentences

      3:09

    • 17.

      Interogative sentences

      5:22

    • 18.

      Exlamatory Sentence

      1:31

    • 19.

      Introduction to the 4 sentence structures

      1:03

    • 20.

      Simple Sentences

      6:11

    • 21.

      Complex Sentences

      4:27

    • 22.

      Subordinating Conjunctions

      5:15

    • 23.

      Compound Sentences

      2:54

    • 24.

      Compound Complex Sentences

      6:18

    • 25.

      How to write compound complex sentences

      5:16

    • 26.

      Punctuation

      3:24

    • 27.

      Introduction to Parallel Sentences

      0:34

    • 28.

      What are Parallel Sentences

      3:36

    • 29.

      When to use Parallel Sentences (Part one)

      5:18

    • 30.

      When to use Parallel Sentences Part two

      4:22

    • 31.

      Introduction to Non Defining Relative Clauses

      0:42

    • 32.

      What are Non Defining Relative Clauses

      2:59

    • 33.

      Pronouns in Non Defining Clauses

      3:36

    • 34.

      Introduction to Defining Relative Clauses

      0:23

    • 35.

      What are Defining Relative Clauses

      1:51

    • 36.

      Who and That

      1:37

    • 37.

      Which and That

      1:33

    • 38.

      Other Pronouns

      2:11

    • 39.

      Conclusion

      1:14

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About This Class

Hello and welcome to this class, I'm Gaia and in this course I will be teaching you how to structure English sentences in order to advance your speaking and writing!

This course is for students at a B2 to C2 level of English who want to enrich their use of the English language in order to sound more formal, academic, professional and proficient. 

Learning how to correctly structure sentences in English is an essential element to your acquisition of the language as it enables you to not only build your confidence with the language but sound more fluent and native. 

In this class you will learn: 

  • How to use compound sentences 
  • How to use complex sentences 
  • How to use simple sentences
  • How to correctly punctuate your sentences
  • How to use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions (linking words) 
  • How to use defining and non defining relative clauses 
  • How to avoid key mistakes when using parallel sentences 

In this class you will get 

  • PDF Complete lesson notes and exercises 
  • Active speaking exercises 
  • More than 1 hour of video lessons

I'm so happy that you are here considering this class, I and look forward to helping you improve your English through sentence structures! 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Gaia Massara

English Teacher | Cambridge | TEFL

Teacher

 

Hello I'm Gaia,

I'm an English teacher from Australia but now i live in Italy with my beautiful daughter and husband. My journey with English began with my learning Italian, where i discovered that speaking a new language is one of the most personal eye opening experiences one could encounter. 

My husband and i opened an English Language school in 2015 however with the birth of our baby girl i moved all my teaching directly online, which now brings me close to 7 years teaching English.

As well as being passionate about teaching i love writing, studying personal development and behavioural phycology as well as practicing meditation. 

I incorporate my expertise and qualifications (Cambridge certified, TEFL certified) with my ... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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Transcripts

1. Introduction : Hi everyone. How are you? Welcome to the English sentence structures class? My name is Gaia. I am obviously going to be your English teacher in this course. And I'm going to be teaching you everything regarding how to structure beautiful sentences in English, right from our simple sentence structures all the way to compound, complex relative clauses, et cetera. So as you can see, this is a class specifically for B to C, two levels. It is a little bit more advanced compared to other courses. However, if you're at this level, it's absolutely perfect for you. Now, let's go through what we're going to be going through in this course before we go ahead and get started. So obviously first up we have this introduction video that you're watching now. Then we are going to carry through a breakdown of basic sentence elements are the main components of a sentence. In order to familiarize yourself with the vocabulary, in order to participate in the rest of the class. Next, we go through the four different sentence types and we analyze what are they, what do we do with them and how do we use them in English? Following this, we begin to learn about the fourth sentence structures in English, we have four sentence structures. So we will be focusing on these four. We will be understanding how to create them, the intention behind these sentences, how to use them correctly in English grammar, birth in speaking and in writing. Following this, as you can see, we are going to learn about parallels sentences. Is that something you've heard of before? We're going to learn what are parallel sentences and how can we avoid key mistakes in order to create these types of sentences? Following this, we begin to look at defining and non-defining relative clauses. How we can use who, where, what that sentences, the difference between these words and how we can use them to link and express our ideas. Lastly, we're going to finish off with some grammar exercises. Of course, in order to help you understand all of the content beta1 and just like, you know, really learn what it is we're doing here in these video lessons. Now, before we jump in in the course, I just wanted to say a shout-out to all of the women who are here participating in this class. And I would like to welcome you to join the, uh, women in English community if you are interested. Each is an on line English community that I founded with the goal of helping women realize their potential with English, build connection, build confidence, and just overall improve your English in a very comfortable environment. As you can see here, I welcome you to follow these links so you can follow women in English ever an Instagram, join the Facebook group, subscribe to the YouTube channel as well as the podcast. So if you're interested, ladies, you're more than welcome to join. So let's go ahead and begin the class. 2. The importance of sentence structure : All right, so let's begin with talking about the importance of sentence structure. Because if I feel like if you kinda understand why you're learning something and how that relates back to your life. It's going to be really difficult for you to allow the information to enter into your brain. So, why do you need to be learning about sentence structures? Well, correct sentence structures in English, meaning, formulating grammatically correct sentences and being able to use not just simple sentences, but complex, compound and complex compound sentences. This allows you to sound more like a native English speaker. Because in English, when we're having to express certain ideas and concepts, we like elaborating them. And though it is an extremely direct language and very likely straight to the point. And a particular situations we do like to change the structure in order to facilitate what we want to say. The next reason why it's important to learn this is because it enables you to express tone and emotion when speaking. Likewise, when writing, if you're understanding how to correctly punctuate your sentences I, II, where and when to use a comma, which we're going to have a look at in this course. It means that you're able to understand when to tell the person that you're speaking to 0 that is reading what you've written to stop till absorb the information to feel the emotion in the space of the word in order for you to express your turn and your emotion when you're actually communicating. The next is that it makes you sound more formal and professional. And this is fundamental when we're looking at academic writing and when you're looking at speaking English in a business context, in an academic context. Because when we are, for example, using our complex compound sentences, when we are able to use the correct linking words, we are able to invite a sense of flow to what we're saying is smoothness to what we are saying. That stops out information sounding like dock points. You know, sometimes when you speak English and you're like, okay, I said what I want to say but it was just like a, B, C, D. Stop. And then he just randomly stop talking through using an, experimenting with sentence structures. It kinda sounds like a song and you feel like I was able to contrast this idea and link it to another idea and then make a comparison. Following these, he really helps you to avoid translating and thinking in your native language. So obviously we know when we're speaking in English, we have our native language that you tend to fall back on in order to help you express what you want to say. But if you can understand the sentence structure and say no, I need to use this part of the speech here, and I need to use this word here. And it becomes a little bit like a mathematical formula when we're beginning to construct the sentences in your head, you're no longer falling back on your native language to help you. You'll simply using the grammar structure of English that he's like a mathematical formula and filling in the missing information. So these are the main reasons why it is super important for you to be here learning about sentence structure. 3. Intro to basic sentence elements: All right, so let's move on and we're moving on to the section of the course where we're looking at basic sentence elements. As I explained in our content page, which was in our introduction video. Here we're gonna go through some of the main elements of a sentence in order to familiarize yourself with seed vocabulary that is used to identify them and what each of them stand for, SAR as we progress with the course and I'm using the terminology, you're able to put it into context. So what we're going to be doing here is I'm going through all of these main terms, understanding what they mean, what they are, how we use them to identify them. So that as you're learning the rest of the components of sentence structuring, you're able to understand everything. 4. Independent clause: Okay, so let's begin with looking at an independent clause. Now, an independent clause is something that you are going to hear over and over again in this course because each is part one of, one of the most important component when we're looking at structuring and creating our sentences. So an independent clause is a part of a sentence or a sentence that can stand alone. So it is a group of words, okay, that we use in a sentence that makes sense by themselves, expresses a complete idea and opinion and do not need necessarily to be connected to anything else in order to understand what these independent clauses saying. Now when we're looking at an independent clause, it contains a subject and a verb, and it is a complete idea. Let's have a look at some examples here for, I can say, I like spaghetti, okay? Subject and verb I, the subject like is my verbs spaghetti. The only idea that I want to express In this sentence, the fact that I like spaghetti, they're my favorite food. Stop. Notice how from this very short and simple sentence, I do not require any other information to understand. What are these that I'm trying to say, it expresses a complete idea. Another example is he read many books. He read many books. Again, my subject, Hey, my verb reads the rest of my sentence and I'm not needing any other information because I have expressed a complete idea. So remembering an independent clause can stand a lord in a sentence. It expresses a complete idea and it contains a subject and a verb. 5. Dependent Cluases : Okay, So next we are looking at a dependent clause. And when we are looking at sentence structure, we're focusing a lot on independent clauses and dependent clauses. So a dependent clause pretty much the opposite to an independent clause. Think of the vocabulary that we're using. Independent and independent person, for example, is a person who can be by themselves, who is autonomous, that doesn't rely on anybody else. Hence, an independent clause is a clause that doesn't need another sentence. A dependent clause is dependent on other parts of sentences, on other clauses. Okay? So when we're looking at a dependent clause, it's not a complete sentence. It must be attached to an independent clause to become complete. These type of growth is also known as a subordinate clause. So for those of you who are really studying English grammar, dark freak out if you're hearing me call this a dependent clause, and then you sit on, but what's a subordinate clause just means the same thing. So independent clause is a clause that doesn't give complete information. It gives like extra information regarding something else, which means it must be attached to an independent clause. Having a look at some examples we have although spaghetti, and then we get the rest of the sentence. Although I like spaghetti, this isn't enough information. I don't know what I want to say here. I'm not expressing a complete idea. Secondly, my next example is because he read so many books pop up above and we need to say the rest of the sentence. Notice here how we have used the word, although, and because we just subordinating conjunctions, these are conjunctions that we're using when we're looking at dependent clauses, Dart stress, we are going to go into these seem quite depth later on in the class. But it helps you recognize what a dependent clause is, not just by the fact that, hey, this isn't a whole idea, we're missing information, but we're also using a conjunction. 6. Subject : So the next element in a 1010 to ease the subject, okay, these, I'm pretty sure that you know about. We'll just review it really quickly. So a subject is obviously a person, animal place, thing or concept that does an action. Normally it's the first part of a sentence. And in order to determine the subject in a sentence, we can simply ask the question, well, who or what does the action, who or what creates, for example, the situation? Having a look at our example sentences from before, I like spaghetti. You can say, well, who likes? I like spaghetti? I am the person who is doing the liking, who is doing the action. The next example from before, he read many books and you can say, well, read many books. Read many books. He is the person completing the action. So obviously in simple sentences, it is quite simple to navigate our way in understanding who the subject is. When we're looking at our compound complex sentences, sometimes it can be a little bit more difficult because we have more than one clause and many commas, and it can be difficult to understand who the actual subject deeds. So this is a great technique Using the question who or what in order to help you understand this. 7. Object : All right, so moving on to now the object. Now the object is a person, Animal, Place, being or concept that receives the action. So objects, object, working hand in hand, subject does the action. Object receives the action. In order to determine the object in a sentence, you can simply ask the question, the subject did walk or the subject did what, to whom or for. So again, in our examples, I like the Getty, which is the object. Can you guess? Spaghetti. He reads many books. What is the object? Books? Okay, so remembering the object is pretty much the opposite to the subject. It is the person, animal, place, thing or concept that receives the action. And we can understand these by asking the question the subject did what? Like in our example, he reads books. This subject did what? To whom or for whom. It was books that received the action of reading. 8. A prepositional phrase: All right, Next up is a prepositional phrase. A prepositional phrase. This comes to do with something with a preposition, okay, a prepositional phrase. So this is a phrase that begins with a preposition. It doesn't have to just begin with a preposition. The preposition can also be in the middle of the sentence. For example, in Act 4, behind until, after, all, during, etc. And what happens is this modifies a word in the sentence. So it is a phrase with the preposition that modifies a word in the sentence, a prepositional phrase, and generally answers one of the many questions. But here an example like where something happened, when something happened or in what way. So for example, here, I like spaghetti for dinner. I like spaghetti preposition for noun, dinner. Now, how do I understand? Okay, well I say, Well, when do I like spaghetti? I like spaghetti for dinner. And we're using the preposition for just specify when I like spaghetti. So we would say for spaghetti, for spaghetti you for dinner is a prepositional phrase. Next example. He read many books in the library. Is my preposition in the library is my prepositional phrase. Tells me, well, where does he read the books? He reads the books in the library. So remembering a prepositional phrase is a phrase with a preposition modifies a word in the sentence, and it generally adzes one of many questions of where is it happening, when is it happening, and in what way is the action happening? 9. Coordinating Conjunctions : Okay, Now, moving on now, we're going to look at coordinating conjunctions. These are also known as linking work when we're not being too crevice specific. Now, a coordinating conjunction, joining words that link together parts of a sentence when you've got part 1, part 2, instead of putting a full stuff, instead of putting nothing, which is incorrect, we use a coordinating conjunction. Now they can be used to join together two clauses in a sentence. However, the important thing to remember is that these clauses need to make sense on their arm. In other words, we only use coordinating conjunctions with independent clauses, which are remembering clauses that can stand by themselves because they're independent, because they express a complete idea. So we don't use coordinating conjunctions in our dependent clauses. Having said that, we have seven coordinating conjunctions, which are and, but, or for, nor, yet, and sorrow. These are asked seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to link clauses together. That's our independent clauses. 10. Subordinating conjunctions: Okay, So next we're going to look at subordinating conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions, and considering where using coordinating conjunctions either independent clauses, subordinating conjunctions way using without dependent clauses. Now, a subordinating conjunction is a word or words which are used to join clauses together in a complex sentence. They are what? Sat tests because, although, unless, and whereas. And their main goal is to show the relationship between two close, closes laws is showing us which is the most important. So we use subordinating conjunctions with dependent clauses in our complex sentences in order to show us which clause is the most important. Now some examples of subordinating conjunctions, however, we do have many said these are the most common here. We've got after all though, As because before, how, if one seems, then that though till, which comes from until as he can say following when, where, whether and Y0. 11. Main difference: All right, so let's very briefly go over the main differences between our subordinating conjunctions and our other conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions. Sorry, overall, coordinating conjunctions link two or more words. Clauses, phrases or sentences of equal importance. I ate. Independent clauses. Okay, complete ideas, complete sentences, they are of equal importance. Whereas subordinating conjunctions are words that link dependent clauses to an independent clause in our complex sentences. Okay? So as subordinating conjunctions, they are words like although, etc. that we went over just before, that we are used to link a dependent clause to an independent clause in order to show the relationship, in order to show which part of the clause is more important. Coordinating conjunctions make two or more words, ideas, concepts, sentences that are complete and that are of equal importance. 12. Correlating Conjunctions : Alrighty, So now moving on to our last part of the sentence is correlating conjunctions. Correlating conjunctions, which are pairs of words very similar to the conjunctions been, been looking at up until now, but they were just singular words. They, the pairs of words that work together in a sentence to connect two sentences that have equal value, e to connect two independent clauses. Now, some examples of correlating conjunctions that we have are either or, neither, nor, both and not only, but also or whether or not, depending on the pair, they are either used to gather light, but also so and so you, so you can say like, I like pizza, but also I love ice cream. Or we use them as separately. For example, neither nor I, neither like ice cream nor pizza. And in this case we are splitting them. And we're saying here the applause at the conjunction clause junction. And you can see these by the examples here, the ones with a few dots in the muscle, meaning that that's where the rest of the sentence has to guard. Or for example, not only, but also these pairs of words that we actually used together. So correlating conjunctions, pairs of words that work together with sentences of equal value, i e, independent clauses. 13. Introduction to Sentence types: Bouquets start. Now that we've understood the glossary and terminology that we're going to be using in this course, it is time to begin understanding the four sentence types. Now here in this part of the course, we're going to go through four different sentence types which we have in English. Understand why we have them, why we use them, how we use them, and how they are constructed. Now this really does form the base of the type of sentences we have in English. And it's really essential for you to understand in order to then understand how to go ahead and structure your sentences. So let's go ahead and begin. 14. Declarative sentence : So the first sentence type that we are looking at is called a declarative sentence. A declarative sentence. Now, a declarative sentence is a sentence that hence the name declare something. In English, the word to declare means to state something, to state a fact or to state a situation. Of course, a declarative sentence state a fact and ends with a full stop. Now, we're gonna go through some examples sentences. But before I bring the example to you of what to tell you that you need to remember that a statement which contains an indirect question, not a question. So this is really important when we're looking at declarative sentence and I'm going to bring it up in an example just to make it easier for you to understand. So I want you to skip the first example and come down to the second one and it says, I wonder if it's going to rain tomorrow. Okay. So this is an indirect question. Is each going to rain tomorrow is a question. I wonder if it's going to rain tomorrow and indirect question. However, it's because it is indirect, it is no longer a question. It becomes a declarative sentence. So we do not need to put a question mark. We simply put a stop. When we are not looking at our indirect questions like this, we're just looking at simple sentences. For example, she is a fantastic worker. I am stating a fact. It is my opinion for me, something true. She's a fantastic work and this is a declarative sentence. Or there is a lot of water on the ground. There is a lot of water on the ground. Again, I am declaring the fact. I am stating the fact. My last example is we need to buy milk on our way home. We need to buy milk on alway heart, again, stating something we have to do with run out of milk. It is a fact. So remembering a declarative sentence is a sentence that simply states effect and it ends in a full stop. Now that you've clearly understood what a declarative sentence he is, can you please try it to give me an example sentence of a declarative sentence. Fantastic. Let's move on to the next type of sentence. 15. How to structure declarative sentences : I'm pretty sure that in the video that you just watched, I told you we're going to move on to the next type of sentence, but there's a little bit more information I actually want to give you regarding declarative sentences. So here we're going to have a look a little bit how we can construct them. And on the stand, the word order so that it's easier for you to reproduce declarative sentences as well as identify them. Sorry, what am I looking at a declarative sentence, the basic word order is subject, verb object, place, and time. Subject verb object, later time. Now there are other ways that we can change or produce the word order. However, this is the most common structure. Okay, so let's move on and have a look at an example here. We have the children study English in the classroom in the early morning. The children study English in the classroom in the early morning, breaking it down in correspondence to the word order. We have our subject, which is the children. Then we have the verb study. Then we have our direct object, which she's English. We have our place, which is in the classroom, and we have our time in the early morning subject, the object, place, and time, that children study English where? In the classroom, when? In the early morning. So now I want to practice a little bit together with you with your speaking. I would like you to tell me an example sentence of an a declarative sentence using the word order, subject, the object, place, and time. Go ahead. Fantastic sentence. Now we really will move on to the next type of sentence. 16. Imperative Sentences : Imperative sentence. So encouraging sentence, ease a command or a polite request. It can vary. It can either be that we know really angry and you're telling somebody, Hey, do this. And we like, use an exclamation point. Or it can be a polite request. It could be an advice and instruction or even a warning. So we do have some different ways we can use an imperative sentence. Either it is literally to tell somebody off or to warn them of something, to make a request, advice or an instruction. And because it varies, we have a different way to punctuate this type of sentence. Either eat can end in an exclamation mark, or it can end in a full stop. So let's go ahead and have a look at some examples here. I've got, when you finish your dinner, let me know. Now this is an instruction. Okay. I'm not really telling anyone off. It does depend on no tone of voice, but when you finish your dinner, let me know you're instructing somebody in regards to what to do, instructing them to say, Hey, when you finish your dinner, I'm instructing me to let me know. My next example is stop, stop. And you can see that I've just used one word with an exclamation mark, meaning this is a calm man. This is one of the most forceful ways we can use any imperative sentence. Up. Next we have watch out. Watch out again with an exclamation mark because this is a warning. Imagine that your Tableau was just about to cross the road. You say you are commanding and warning them with an exclamation mark. Next example we have is please help me. Please help me. This is a request. You are requesting somebody to help you and therefore we have a full stop. And lastly, you have to study, or as I've written here, you need to study. You need to study. This isn't advice. An imperative sentence is either used to express advice, instruction, wanting command, or a request. And these punctuated either by a full stop or an exclamation mark. So now that you're an expert in imperative sentences, please tell me with your words. An example sentence with an imperative sentence. Great fantastic. 17. Interogative sentences: Moving on to interrogative sentences. Interrogative sentences is just a fancy word to say questions. So an interrogative sentence is one that asked a direct question, and therefore always ends in a question mark. For example, Where are going or what's the time. Now, in English we have different types of questions and we have three main types of questions and we're going to go ahead and go through them. The first type of question we have is a yes or no. When we're looking at yes-no questions, as the title suggests, they are questions that require an and sign up with yes or no. Now the construction of such questions is as follows. We have auxiliary verb plus subject plus main verb, and then the remainder of the sentence. Auxiliary verb, which is IIS or do, not, easy, but the verb to be the verb do or the verb have plus our subject, plus our main verb, which is our action verb, the verb that expresses the action plus the remainder of the sentence. So for an example, we have, do you like to swim or ease, eat hot today? Do auxiliary verb. You ask subject. Like our main verb and to swim is the remainder of our sentence. So can you please give me an example sentence through speaking of a yes, no question. Fantastic. Great. Let's move on to our second type of question, which is question word questions. Now what our question words in English, while you may commonly nerd them as our W hate words, that is where, what, why, and when. So when we are using these words, they're called words and we have a particular structure for this type of question as followed here we have our question word, then our auxiliary verb, then subject, main verb, and the remainder of the sentence. So it is very similar, if not pretty much the same. So a yes, no question. However, the only thing that we are changing is a little bit the structure we're beginning without question. And then we add directly following that by auxiliary subject, main verb remainder, just like I yes-no questions. Having a look at some examples here we have, where are you going today? Where question verb, our auxiliary verb, you object going a main verb. And today, which is the remainder of our sentence, what is happening in the park? Why is she running so fast? Now, can you please give me an example sentence or a question using a question word? Fantastic. And our last type of question is when we have a question, when we are asking a question, presenting a choice between two things. Here, the structure that we use is auxiliary verb plus subject plus main verb plus Choice 1, plus or plus Choice two. Okay, so we have three new elements where we're including our first choice, connecting that to our second choice with the conjunction or. So, having a look at some examples, I can say, Does she want pizza, ice cream? Does she want pizza or ice cream? Does my auxiliary. My subject, one of my main verb, or my linking and ice cream is my second choice, where my first choice was pizza. Shall we go to the beach or the pool? Beach Choice1, or linking the pool choice two. So now, can you please give me an example sentence of a choice question? Great, fantastic work. 18. Exlamatory Sentence : And our fourth type of sentence is an exclamatory sentence, laboratory sentence. And hence to, as the name suggests, eat, eat a symptom that exclaimed something. So it needs an exclamation mark. And exclamatory sentences expresses excitement or an emotion. It can expressed feeling angry, feeling worried, feeling super, super excited to go on a holiday, for example. And it always ends in an exclamation mark. So an example we can say is, we are leaving. And this makes me understand where so happy we cannot wait to leave. Another example sentences, I can't believe she won. Again, this is expressing excitement, surprise, and joy, or an opposite immersion, I can say, I'm so angry at you. I'm so angry at you expressing anger. So an exclamatory sentences, we use an exclamation mark and we are expressing an emotion. Can you go ahead and tell me an example sentence using an exclamatory sentences. Fantastic, great example. 19. Introduction to the 4 sentence structures : All right, so time to move on to what interests you the most learning about the four sentence structures. So this will be a little bit of a longer section in this class. And because we are looking at the fundamental four sentence structures in order to start learning and not to stop learning, but to actually learn how to construct grammatically correct sentences in English across the four sentence structures, understanding when and how to use them and going ahead and practicing some examples to gather. So that's what we're going to go ahead and learn in this section. Now, a reminder here is where we're going to have our exercises, but I've waited to put the exercises at the very end of the class and they will be in regards to understanding the different sentence structures, as well as some other elements that we've gone over in the class. So let's go ahead and begin. 20. Simple Sentences : Alright, so we're going into a kick off this section with having a look at a simple sentences, which is our first sentence structure. Now, simple sentences are simple sentences that consist of just one independent clause. So it remember the vocabulary that we were discussing at the beginning of the class. Now we're going to be starting to use that vocabulary. So if anytime I start, you know, saying independent clause, dependent clause and you're like, what is this? Going back to the beginning of the class, have a look at the slides and revise the notes. So a simple sentence is a sentence with just one independent clause. For example, I cannot eat tomatoes. She is the owner of the school. I love to go to the cinema. Now, I simple sentence could also have a compound subject. What does this mean? It means that a simple sentence, as we looked at before, for example, just one subject. I cannot eat tomatoes. She is the owner of the school and just having one subject here. Whereas we can also have a compound subject to subjects. Me and my sister loved traveling. The teacher and students went to the museum. Emma and Alice work in that office. So we have, for example, here, me and my sister compound subject, the teach out her students compound subject, Emma and Alice, compound subject. Now, another trait of simple sentences is that it could also have a compound predicate. May mean they could be two or more verbs share the same subject, okay? So as well as being able to have a compound subject, they can also have two or more verbs that have the same subject. It sounds a lot more complicated than what it actually is. Having a look at the example sentences here we have, I hate walking, walking first verb and reading second verb. So we have one subject which is I, and verbs that share the subject, I hate walking and reading. Another example, we have ys. They love to go to the cinema and then out to a restaurant. Same situation. They love to go to the cinema and then out to a restaurant. Okay, and my last example, we study English and practice speaking. We study English and practice speaking to verbs. Now you would notice a little bit of a trend here when we are trying to connect these two actions where using our conjunction and I hate walking and reading, okay, we study English and practice speaking. Now, having a little look in regards to our punctuation and how to punctuate these sentences, we use a comma before and, or, but, or, or that joins two independent clauses together. For example, two clauses they can stand to learn in a sentence. So again, having a look at these examples, I've got, I love walking, comma, and I love swimming. Compared to the sentence, I love walking and swimming, and there is no comma. So what you can notice in our first sentence is we are mentioning the subject twice, which means we are combining two independent clauses because I love walking is one independent clause. I love swimming is a second independent clause. They had two separate sentences that can actually stand by themselves. When connecting them together. We use the conjunction and, but we also need to put a force at a comma. In my second sentence here, I love walking and swimming. We just have one independent sentence where the subject lack we looked at before shares the two verbs. One way to make it a little bit easier for you to remember is you can see the first sentence we re mentioned the subject and I love swimming. And my second sentence, I don't really mention the subject. I simply use my conjunction and then the verb. So now that we've gone through that together, I would like you to give me an example sentence in speaking of a simple sentence. Fantastic. Can you give me another example with a simple sentence? But can you use a compound subject, meaning? Can you say a simple sentence but with two subjects? Fantastic leg. Okay, let's move on to the next one then. 21. Complex Sentences : Now we're moving on to our complex sentences. So for those of you who are studying for your exam, or really wanting to sound more advanced and natural with your English using complex sentences is a great and actually critical point that you really should be working on. A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. Okay, So up until now we were looking at AP, simple sentences which were just either one independent clause or two independent clauses. Now when mixing them together, we have a independent and a dependent clause. Now, in regards to our dependent clause, and this is a clause that starts with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. And it contains a subject and a verb, but it does not express a complete thought. Remember in the vocabulary that we went through at the beginning of the course. So an example of days is stay at home until you finish your homework. Let's dissect stays, stay at harm. This is an independent clause. Why? It's a sentence and we can actually just use by itself, stay at heart and full stop, and it's fine. Then we have a link. We fill would until. Until is a subordinating conjunction. It is a word that we use without dependent clauses to link them to an independent clause until you finish your homework. Now, analyzing the sentence until you finish your homework. This is a complete when you hear the sentence you say, Oh, okay, what's going to come next? And you're waiting for more information. Because ET is a dependent clause, it only makes sense when it is connected to the independent clause. Stay at harm, stay at harm, and until you've finished your homework. Leave wildly. You can leave a while, you can now this is a little bit of a shorter of a complex sentence. Leave, this is a statement so we can actually just leave these bios by itself, leaf, I'm telling you, leave it's imperative. Why is a subordinating conjunction? You can is our dependent clause. Leave while you can. Next, we have our dog box. When it hears noises. Our dog barks when it hears noises. When is our subordinating conjunction, our dog box independent clause? Each hears the noise is a dependent clause. Put it all together, we get a complex sentence. Do you know the man who is talking to Mary? Do you know the man who he's talking to Mary, this is a question, but it is a complex. And do you know the man and the independent clause, I can simply ask the question, hey man. And it makes sense. However, we are connecting these two are dependent clause using their relative pronoun this time instead of a subordinating conjunction. And the relative pronoun we are using is who. And we're using this to give them more information about the man who is talking to Mary. Talking to Mary is a dependent clause because by itself it doesn't make any sense. And altogether we get f complex sentence. Do you know the man who is talking to Mary? Sorry. Can you please now through your speaking, give me an example. Sentence. Off a complex sentence, please. Fantastic, Great work. 22. Subordinating Conjunctions : All right, so I want to pause here and go through some subordinating conjunctions that we use in complex sentences. Now these are commonly known as linking words, and you would have heard them over and over again experimentally. If you are in the process of trying to improve your writing. And you would have heard advice from many teachers saying make sure you use linking words. What they're saying is make sure you're using the subordinating conjunctions and complex sentences. So these are words that are used to link an independent clause and a dependent clause. And there are many of these, like long, long list of different subordinating conjunctions that you can use. I have selected the most common, but I do want you to narc just so you're aware that there are many more that you can choose from. So the ones that I've written down here, you should have heard because they're extremely common to use in spoken and written English. Although, because before, even though since, until and when, and these are conjunctions, again that we're using to link our independent clauses, two independent clauses. Now, generally these are used in the middleware with God independent clause, subordinating conjunction, dependent clause. However, we can also use them at the beginning of the sentence and we can have subordinating conjunction, dependent clause, independent clause. Let's have a look at some examples. Here. We will go for a walk, old viral EDs hot out. We will go for a walk, although it is hot out. Okay, so what is the subordinating conjunction in this sentence? Good, it's older. And what is the independent clause in this sentence? Good, we will go for a walk. And lastly, what is the dependent clause in this sentence? Very good, although it is hot out. Another example here, she is going to pass the exam because I studied so hard. She's going to pass the exam independent clause because at conjunction, she studied so high. We need to go to the shops before you go swimming. We need to go to the shops. Independent before conjunction new goes swimming. Dependent clause. They ate the whole pizza, even the ice cream. They ate the whole pizza. Even the ice cream. Though. I'm tired, I still stay up late. Though I'm tired. I still stay up late. Notice here we've switched around a little bit and we are leading with a subordinating conjunction, though I'm tired. I still stay up late. Now It's also good to notice that when we are using, though, after our first dependent clause, we need to move out comma. Though I'm tired. I still stay up late. If we miss the flight, We will never arrive on time. Same situation here we are beginning with our subordinating conjunction if following that by our dependent clause, if we miss the flight, and then we are using our independent clause, we will never arrive on time. For those of you who are paying little attention, you might say, that's the first conditional. I didn't know that the first conditional was a complex sentence. Yes. Next only have 0s. I have decided to go to university. Since I have the money. I have decided to go to university since I have the money. And lastly, when he arrives, make sure you put on the oven. When he arrives, make sure you put on the same situation leading with when he arrives after the dependent clause, but putting out comma, make sure that you put on the oven. Okay, So why don't you go ahead now and give me an example with a complex sentence using a subordinating conjunction. Fantastic, Well, great work, everyone. 23. Compound Sentences : Okay, so moving on to our compound sentences. Now, compound sentences are sentences with two or more independent clauses that are joined together by a conjunction or a semi-colon. Each of the sentence clauses could form a sentence and learn because they're two independent clauses. Now this is similar to when we were having a look at our simple sentences with compound subjects and verbs. However, in this case, we can have two completely different subjects, two completely different situations because there's simply two completely different sentences that are independent, but in one way relate to each other that it connected by a conjunction. So let's go ahead and have a look at some examples. I can say, I like surfing and Mary likes women. Here we have simply used the conjunction and we can also use but or, or that we were looking at before as well. I like swimming independent clause and Mary likes swimming independent clause. I am going to go to the beach and my sister is going to stay harder. I am going to go to the beach independent rows 1 and my conjunction, my sister is going to stay harm. That is my second independent clause. Anyone can make a mistake, and most people do. Anyone can make a mistake. And most people do. Same situation here. Anyone could make a mistake, and most people do two independent clauses put together. He organized the files by name, an updated the system. He organized the files by name and then up dated the system. Noticing here how I'm using a calmer because I did not read mentioned the subject. If I said he organize the files by name and then he updated this stem. Okay. It's okay without a comma, but because we didn't really mention the subject, then we need to go ahead and use out comma. So compound sentences of two independent clauses joined together by a conjunction or a semicolon. If we're looking at writing, sorry, can you please give me an example sentence through your speaking of a compound sentence. Fantastic work, great, everyone. 24. Compound Complex Sentences: So now we're up to our fourth and last sentence structure, though immersed complicated one, which is a compound-complex sentence. Again, this is where you want to be paying attention if you are wanting to improve your writing and to sound more native and professional image English. So a compound, complex sentence, as the name suggests, is a mix between a compound sentence and a complex sentence. And therefore, eat is made of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. So it's quite a long sentence. It's got two independent clauses at least, and one or more dependent clauses. Now, the use of this type of sentence is to help us express longer and more complicated thoughts with more pipes and other sentences. So this is when maybe he was storytelling. Oh, you're trying to explain something that happened that has many different pods. A lot of information that you need to add. This is a great tool for explaining complicated ideas or describing long chains of events. And a lot of the time in English, when students is storytelling or wanting to explain complex ideas, they do so without using the structure, a compound-complex sentence. And what can happen is your interesting story can just become a series of points that feels like you're just saying one simple sentence after another. And that makes what you're saying, Sam, quite mechanical and robotic. And when you're listening to native speakers of English, she makes sense. They have a sort of loro and everything blends in and make sense Exactly because they're using compound, complex sentences. So let's have a look at the structure here. We have a formula that we can follow. We've got our independent clause plus a subordinating conjunction Class a dependent clause. And here we're looking at a complex sentence. This is the complex sentence side. Then we're going to add to face with a coordinating conjunction and an independent clause. Let's have a look at some examples here. So remembering got independent clause, subordinating conjunction, dependent clause, coordinating conjunction, independent growth. Again, if this vocabulary is feeling like it's too technical and confusing, go back to the beginning of the slides, but we have like our glossary just so you can look up what the vocabulary actually means. All right, so moving on to some example sentences. The first one we have, John didn't come because he was ill. So Mary was not happy. John didn't come because he was ill. So Mary was not happy here we're expressing quite a few ideas, very expressing the idea that John didn't come, that he must speak. And the result of all of this was that Mary was not happy. Now let's analyze this in relation to the formula of a compound, complex sentences. So John didn't come. This is our independent clause because a subordinating conjunction. He was our dependent clause. So coordinating conjunction, Mary was not happy out independent close. John didn't come because he was ill, so Mary was not happy. Our next example here is he left in a hierarchy after he got a phone call, but he came back five minutes later. He left in a hurry after he got a phone call, but he came back five minutes later again, in the context of our formula, he left in a hurry. Vcs are independent clause. After subordinating conjunction, he got a phone call, our dependent clause. But our coordinating conjunction. He came back five minutes later. He left in a hurry after he got a phone call, but he came back five minutes later. A last example here, little bit longer, we've got, I stopped believing in Santa Claus when he asked for my autograph in a department store. But I still want to believe in him. I stopped believing in Santa Claus when he asked for my autograph in a department store. But I still want to believe in Him. Same formula. I stopped believing in Santa Claus is my independent clause. When my subordinates and conjunction, he asked for my autograph in a department store, my dependent clause, but my coordinating conjunction. I still want to believe in him my independent clause. So let's have a look if we can practice maybe a little bit in some examples. But the next video that we're going to have a look at ease in regards to actually constructing base, but we'll give it a garden. Now, why don't you try to give me an example sentence of a compound, complex sentence. Great work, fantastic. 25. How to write compound complex sentences : All right, So let's practice a writing. But in this case, speaking with some complex compound sentences, we're going to understand how we can actually put them together to make it a little bit easier for you. So our first step is to work out independent throws are independent clause. So the first independent clause of your compound-complex sentence should have a strong main idea because it's going to remain one of the main points of your sentence. It's going to be the foundation of your sentence and everything else we add, either going to give more information or just redefine these initial idea, the base of our story. So we're going to have a start off with this one here. We've got the girl sat on the chair. This is our first independent clause. Now once we've defined these out, next step is our second independent clause. So now we need a nother independent clause that is related to the first. Often this means that the two independent clauses will have the same subject or share another word in common, but it doesn't always have to be like that. Now, the goal of the second clause is that it should either continue describing the action or add information of an equal importance with the first independent clause. Now this is very important because we are adding a second independent clause. Whatever information we include, it has to be of equal importance because remembering independent clauses there, all of equal importance because they are all complete sentences. So here, Next independent clause is the girl sat down on the cake. So our first independent clause, sorry, the girls sat on the chair. Our second independent clause, the girl sat down on the cake. They are independent sentences with equally important, in this case, giving more information to what the GIL, the one subject is doing. Now once we've done this, would need to construct our dependent clause. Now ADH dependent clause here, we'll spice up the two independent clauses that we've already written. Meanings. Some extra information, something that is not 100% relevant because it is not an independent clause, but it's something extra that makes sense in the context of our two independent clauses. So it could tell us more about the situation or explain an action. But it can't be a complete sentence on its art, of course, because it's a dependent clause. So for example, here we can put just as I was reaching for the cake, just as I was reaching for the cake. So now it's time to put all these together in order to see how complex compound sentence. The girl sat on the chair and sat down on the cake. Just design was reaching for it. Now we've done three things here. Actually. The first thing that we have done is we've placed a calmer between our two independent clauses. Then we have added our conjunction and as subordinating conjunction. So having a look at this sentence, we've got the girl sat down on the chair, comma and a coordinating conjunction sat down on the cake. Remember we using our comma? Because we didn't really mention the subject. We didn't say the girls sat down on the chair and the girls sat down on the cake. In English, it's not common to have to read mentioned the subject, especially if we're using a coordinating conjunction, you can sound quite lazy and just too wordy. So we opt to take off the subject because anyway, it's the same person. Utilize the color and our coordinating conjunction. The girl stepped down on the chair and sat down on the cake. Now we have our subordinating conjunction, which is Just. And then our dependent clause, as I was reaching for, it just says I was reaching for it. So this is a very basic structure that you can follow when having to create our compound complex sentences. Step one, step two, step three, and put it all together with a coordinating conjunction and subordinating conjunction. I hope this was helpful for you. Next off, we're going to start having a look at how to punctuate these sentences. 26. Punctuation: All right, Let's have a look a little bit further in regards to how to punctuate these sentences. So when depend on clause is at the front of the sentence, meaning you begin the sentence with a dependent clause. And it acts as a sort of adverb normally because each states and time a place or a condition, then it is usually used with a comma after the dependent clause to make us understand where the independent clause starts. When subject close appears at the back of the sentence, at the end of the sentence, you usually don't need a comma. Now let's have a look at this in an example and then I'll give you a special trick in order to help you understand this a bit better. So in my first sentence I have I became a sales assistant when I moved to America, I became a sales assistant. This is my independent clause. When is my subordinating conjunction? I moved to America is my dependent clause and we have no commas. Let's switch the sentence around. And let's lead without dependent clause. When I moved to America and became a CEO Assistant. And here you can see we've begun without subordinating conjunction, dependent clause, app comma, and they're not independent clause. Now, in this case, when we begin our sentences with a dependent clause and with a subordinating conjunction, we need to utilize a comma between dependent and independent. How can you make these easy out for yourself to remember? You can think of a subordinating conjunction like a coma. So looking at our first sentence, I became a sales assistant when I moved to America. When acts as a comma, we naturally pulls a little bit when we say When I became a salesy sister, when I am moved to America, it acts as a calmer and it helps us understand the separation between a dependent and independent sentence. So in the second sentence, when we switched the sentence, surround and begin with when an independent clause, we have no indication to make us understand we are transitioning from a dependent to independent sentence. So we need the comma in order to highlight that we are connecting two different sentences. End to take a poll. Because if not, we would read the sentence like when I moved to America, became a sales assistant, it's not very natural with the comma. We said, when I moved to America, I became a sales assistant and we need to detach. We need to change our tone of voice. So when we have punctuating the sentences, if we begin a sentence with a dependent clause and subordinating conjunction when it typically acts as an adult, we are using a comma between dependent and independent clause. If not, if we are leading without independent clause, we use our subordinating conjunction in the place of a comma. 27. Introduction to Parallel Sentences : Alright, so the next section of the course that we are going to cover a parallel sentences. Now, parallels sentences are, I'm going to say one of the main topics where I've seen students making very basic mistakes in their speaking and writing. So in this part of the course, you're going to understand what are parallel sentences, how to create parallel sentences and the common mistakes to avoid when we are speaking and writing in English. 28. What are Parallel Sentences : All right, so let's start off by understanding, well, what are parallel sentences? Now, parallel sentences are the repetition of a chosen grammatical form within a sentence. By making each compared item or idea in a sentence followed the same grammatical pattern, you create a parallel construction. So the most typical form of these sentences is when you are, you've said a statement and then you want to list other things involved. And at times I see students do these emigre through the examples as well. But where they stopped the verb off in the ink form and then mentioned another form in the infinitive and then guard back to the informed. This is an example of what not to do. This is not to parallel sentence. So when we're looking at parallel sentences, it's when we choose the same grammatical form for the whole sentence. Let's have a look at some examples here. So this is an example of a sentence that easy, not parallel and therefore incorrect. Alan, like hiking the rodeo and to take afternoon naps. Okay. This is not a parallel sentence. So yes, in theory, when you're talking in English, you can say these. But what happens is it doesn't, it doesn't flow. It sounds awkward and it causes the person listening to you to have to think twice and to be like, are we still talking about what alan like? So have we changed the topic? So it creates some disconnect and doesn't allow the sentence to be cohesive. So instead, in a parallel construction, we would say Allan likes hiking, attending the rodeo, and taking afternoon naps. So what what is the grammatical form that we have repeated? It's the I-N-G form. Hiking, attending, taking. All of our verbs are in the ING. So another option to the same sentence, we could say, Allan likes to high, attend to the rodeo and take afternoon naps. And here, the grammatical formula that we've continued is the infinitive of the verb, hi, attend, and take. Now whether we can use the ing form or whether we can use the infinity depends on the verb before. In this case, the verb like the verbalize can take either or infinitive. One thing that is important to remember is that when we're using the infinitive form, we do not have to use. With all of the verbs we lease. We just use two for the first verb if we need it. For example, here, Avalon likes to high. Now, every other verb in the infinitive that proceed through high doesn't need to. Ellen likes to hike, attend the video and take afternoon naps. We can say out and like to hike, to attend the radio, and to take afternoon naps. It's not needed and it makes the sentence become woody. Okay? So remember that parallel sentences are sentences where we choose to repeat a particular grammatical form within the sentence, like, for example, our or our infinitive. 29. When to use Parallel Sentences (Part one) : All right, so let's move on and understand the grammatical rules in regards to what we are going to be using these parallel sentences. So the first one is we use a parallel sentences with coordinating conjunctions. So when we want to connect two or more clauses, phrases with a coordinating conjunction, for example, for and, nor, but, or yet, or, so, we use a parallel structure. So let's take this example sentence here. My best friend took me dancing and to show, my best friend took me dancing. Intuition. Think about this sentence now. Is it a parallel sentence or is it not a parallel sentence? Good. It's not a parallel sentence. However, we're using a coordinating conjunction. And so transforming these into a parallel sentence, we get something like this. My best friend took me to a dance and a show. Notice. The continuing grammatical form, took me two and dad, and a show. In this case, the grammatical pectin is the least of nouns, a dance show. So this structure follows the same grammatical form. Comparing this back again to the not parallel sentence, my friend took me dense, seeing here we have a noun to which show, and then we have a noun, verb in the I-N-G form and a noun, it is not following a parallel structure because we've got grammatical forms that dark match together. Now the second way we use parallel sentences are with correlating conjunctions. So when you connect two clauses of phrases with a correlative conjunction, for example, not only, but also either or neither nor if, then. This can help you remember there are two conjunctions together, two words together. Here we're using a parallel structure. Let's have a look at an example here. So my dog not only likes to play fetch, but also Chase. My dog not only likes to play fetch, but all search case cards here tell me is this a parallel sentence or is it not a parallel sentence? It's great. It's not a parallel sentence. To transform this into a parallel sentence, we'd say something like this. My dog, not our only likes to play fetch, but he also likes to chase cars. So here we have a parallel sentence because we're following the same grammatical formula. We have used the infinitive, like play, but also in our second clause, we use the same structure, but he also likes to chase cars. So you may have noticed before I mentioned that when we are listing our verbs that take the two, we do not need to put two before all of the verbs. But in that case, it's when we're listing verbs. I like to walk, swim, and jump. Notice how in this sentence I'm not re mentioning my subject and I'm not giving any other information except that the comma the comma. In this case, we do not have to say, I like to swim, to walk, to jump, etc. However, the example we have here when giving more information, we're not the stink. We've also mentioned the subject where using a correlated conjunction, and we're saying the more than just the bare verb. So in this case, we do need to mention the two in order to follow the same grammatical structure and create a parallel sentence. So we get something like my dog, not orally likes to play fetch, but he also likes to chase cars. Now, in a second option we have, we can say, my dog likes not only to play fetch, but also to chase cars. And we've just switched, we've put out correlated conjunction. Previously, the correlating conjunction came between our subject and our main verb, my dog. And like in our second option, it comes between the main verb and the other verbs, or my dog, like, not only to play. So these are some examples of when we are using our parallels that does this. I was going to say correlating conjunctions, but this is not all. Now in the next video, we're going to go through the rest of the times that we can use them. 30. When to use Parallel Sentences Part two : All right, so moving on to another two ways. The other two ways we can use our parallel sentences. So we use our parallel sentences with phrases or clauses of comparison. Phrases or clauses that show a comparison. So when we connect two clauses or phrases with a word of comparison, such as van or us. It's better to use parallel structures. Let's have a look at this sentence here. I would rather pay for my education than financial aid. I would rather pay for my education. Then financial aid. Have a look at this sentence. Have a look at the grandma structured. Is it a parallel sentence or is it not a parallel sentence? So it's not a parallel sentence. We're not following the same grammatical formula. To transform this into a parallel sentence, we wouldn't stay. I would rather pay for my education then receive financial aid. How have we made this sentence parallel? Well, we now use of, I would rather pay for education then receive financial aid. So after rather we've used our verb to explain our preference. Whereas in the first sentence we only use one. We say, I would rather pay for my education, then financial aid, and then we've followed by a noun. So we have the verb and noun, comparison noun, It's not the same flow of grammar. Instead, I would rather pay for my education then receive financial aid. We have verb comparison, the NK. The next way we can use our parallel sentences with that I was explaining to you before. So when you are comparing items in a list, use parallel structures. Having a look at this sentence here, John Taylor ghetto criticizes public schools because they are compulsory, funded by the government and destroy students humanity. So is this a parallel or a non-parallel sentence? Good. It's not a parallel, it's not a parallel sentence. Instead, to create a parallel sentence from this, we would say, DOD tailored ghetto criticizes public schools because they are compulsory, government funded and normalizing. Now compulsory government funded and normalizing, these are three adjectives. So we have listed three adjectives in order to describe the school instead of out first sentence. 31. Introduction to Non Defining Relative Clauses: Okay, so now we are moving onto a new topic and we're going to be talking about non-defining and defining relative clauses. Here in this particular section, we're going to start off with looking at non-defining relative clauses. And you are going to learn what they are, how to use them, and the grammatical rules behind them. That way you're going to be able to start including them in your writing. So this section is really great for you to understand how to implement those complex and compound sentences. Because you're able to use these structures in these types of sentences. So let's go ahead and begin. 32. What are Non Defining Relative Clauses : All right, so let's begin with understanding what our non-defining relative clauses. So a non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about someone or something. However, it is not essential information, meaning that the information we give the extra information is not essential for understanding who or what we are talking about. It's something extra. When we're doing this, we always use a relative pronoun or adverb to start on non-defining relative clause. So these are using who, week, Who's when our, where. We also use commas to separate the clauses from the rest of the sentences. So having a look at some examples here, we have my mother, Kama, who's 60, goes swimming every day. My mother who's 60, goes swimming every day. How do we understand this is a non-defining relative clause. Well, simply take out the extra information and try to understand if the sentence still makes sense. So our extra information is specifying how old my mother ease. So let's take this away. Who's 60 and reread the sentence, My mother girl swimming every day. It still makes perfect sense. So this makes me understand that the information of specifying her age is extra information about my mom that whether you know or whether you don't know, doesn't take away the main meaning of the sentence, which is my mom goes swimming every day. Another example of a non-defining relative clause is the school, which was built in 1883, has just been open to the public. The school which was built in 1883, has just been open to the public. Again, let's do the same exercise. Let's take away our non-defining clause, which was built in 1883, and let's reread the sentence to see if that makes sense. My school has just been open to the public, makes perfect sense. The main purpose of this sentence is to tell the person that the school has just been opened to the public understanding which year it was built or who built it doesn't do anything to change the meaning of this sentence. It just provides extra information. So when we're looking at non-defining relative clauses, these are the main features. It gives extra information about someone or something, but this information isn't essential. It just adds something extra to the sentence. 33. Pronouns in Non Defining Clauses: Okay, so now we're going to look at our pronouns that we can use in our non-defining relative clauses. So the burnout that we can use, our h2 which, whose, where and when. Let's understand a little bit how we can use them and then go through some example sentences. So we use who to talk about people, which we use to talk about things. We use to refer to the person or the thing It belongs, true? We use aware to talk about the location that we use, when to talk about time. So whenever we want to give more information regarding people, things, time, location, or belonging, we need to choose the correct pronoun a from this list. So let's go through some example sentences together. Yesterday, I met my new boss who was very nice here. I wanted to give more information about my bus. So I utilize h2 because that's the pronoun we use to talk about people. In my next example, I have the house which is very big. He's also very cold. The house which is very big, he's also very cold. Here. I'm talking about a thing which is the house. Therefore, I utilize the pronoun week. The next example here is the next door neighbor whose children go to school without, has just bought a new car. Here. I want to give you information about, well, who the children belong to. So I've used the pronoun, who's following this? We have my house where I lived. Most of my life has been sold. Here. I am giving more information about a particular location, in this case where I live. And therefore, I use the pronoun where. And lastly in our sentence we have last year when I was in London, I worked as a teacher. I want to give more information about the location of where situation occurred. And therefore, I use when. So these are the different contexts in which we are using our pronouns in our non-defining relative clauses. Now it's time to practice a little bit together. Start time for your speaking. Please tell me an example sentence of a non-defining relative clause using Who. Great, and I'd like you to do the same thing, but now using the pronoun, which fantastic, moving on to the pronoun, fantastic, mixed with using the pronoun where. And lastly, an example sentence using the pronoun when. Fantastic. Now it's time to learn about defining relative clauses. 34. Introduction to Defining Relative Clauses: Okay, so now we are moving on and, uh, we are going to have a look at defining relative clauses, much like what we did without non-defining relative clauses. Here we are going to understand what a data, how to use them and how to construct sentences using defining relative clauses. 35. What are Defining Relative Clauses : All right, so what are defining a relative clauses? Defining relative clauses give us essential information. Information that tells us who or what we are talking about. So already here you can start to understand the key difference between non-defining and defining. Remember, non-defining was non-essential information, just something extra to make this sentence more interesting. Whereas a defining relative clause is an essential information. Information that if we do not have in this sentence, the rest of the sentence, the meaning of the sentence that we want to put across is not going to be complete and it's not gonna make sense. Now we usually use a relative pronoun or adverb to start defining relative clause, much like a non-defining relative clause. And these are the same pronouns that we've looked at before. Who, which, that when, where, or. Having a look at some examples here I have the teacher who worked in the school has a cat. The teacher who worked in this school has a cat for the purpose of this sentence. Maybe because of the context in which it's being said, it is essential for the person that I was baking teacher know that the teacher actually worked in the school. Another example I have here is these plates that are broken need to be returned. These plates that have broken need to be returned. It is important it's essential to know the information that the plates are broken because I guess we don't really understand well, why did the plates need to be returned? 36. Who and That: Okay, so now we're going to have a look a little bit deeper into the relative pronoun that we can use, I'm going to begin with having a look at who and that. And as you would have noticed to before when looking at our non-defining clauses, that is not a pronoun that we use. That is a pronoun that we use without defining relative clauses and can be used like WHO. So we can use who or that to talk about people. However, that is more common and a bit more informal. So when wanting to be more formal, we tend to use who? Wanting to be like everyday social English. We use that. Let's have a look at some examples here. We have she's the woman who cuts my hair, or he is the man that I met at the conference, their birth. Totally correct. However, utilizing who gives us a little bit more of a formal feeling, and utilizing, that is just how we speak in everyday English. So let's practice some example. Shall we give me an example sentence using who in a defining relative clause? Fantastic. Now give me another sentence using that in a defining relative clause. Great work. 37. Which and That : All right, Let's have a look at another pronouns which and that. So in our defining relative clauses, we can use which or that to talk about things. So that is more common and a little bit more informal. So here you're seeing a patent the same with when we were using, who, we can opt to use that when we want to be less formal. And the same is with which, which is a little bit more proper and formal. Whereas in everyday English we simply use that because, well, it kind of lazy and it's really easy for us. Having a look at some examples here I have there was a one-year guarantee which came with the television. Or I could say, the laptop that I bought last week has started making a strange noise. Birth sentences equally correct, utilizing, which is just a little bit more formal. Utilizing that is more common to how we actually speak English. So let's practice together. Give me a sentence using the pronoun which fantastic. And now give me a sentence using the pronoun, that. Fantastic, great work. Everyone. 38. Other Pronouns : All right, So when we are using our defining by the chief close as we could also use the other pronouns like without non-defining relative clauses, where, when, and. For example, I can say winter is the season when I'm the saddest. That's the house where I grew up in. He is a painter whose paintings have changed the world. However, unlike our non-defining relative pronouns, we also have times. We don't have to use them in our defining relative clauses. So this happens when the pronoun is followed, a subject and a verb. So in our sentence, when the pronoun is followed by a subject and not followed by a verb. We do not need to use a pronoun. We can leave an app. Let's have a look at some examples sentences here. So the assistant that we met was really kind. Now, here if we had that, you would see directly the word after ease a subject, it's weight, therefore, we don't have to use it. We can say this distance we met was really kind. If you like, you can still leave the pronoun and say, the assistant that we met was really kind. However, it's more natural just to omit it. Now let's compare this to another sentence here where we have the assistance that helped us was really kind here after our pronoun, that we have the verb help. Therefore, we must use the pronoun. We have no option to admit it. We must say, assistant that helped us was really kind. So recapping here when we are using a pronoun in the defining relative clause, if this pronoun is followed by a subject, we can opt to not use the pronoun. However, if the pronoun is followed by a verb, then we must use the pronoun. 39. Conclusion : All right, everyone, congratulations, you've made it to the end of these cars. I hope you enjoyed it and I hope that well, I know that you should be, but I really do hope that you're feeling more confident in regards to constructing your sentences in English, writing in English, and overall, being able to communicate in English. I just want to remind you that there are these video lessons are finished. You have your exercises to go ahead and do. Please make sure that you do complete them. I just tell you as a teacher because they are there to really help you understand everything that we spoke about here in the videos and to put everything in practice. It's also a really great idea to guard back, reread these slides, maybe re-watch some of the videos as much as you need just to make sure that you're understanding all of the information. So it was a pleasure being here teaching you all. And ladies, if you are watching, just to remind you, you can go ahead and join the women in English community by accessing all of the links over in the introductory video. And that's it. Thanks so much for being here and I'll see you all in the next course. Bye Bye everyone.