Editing and Proofreading Masterclass | Dominate Writing, Punctuation & Grammar | Nitay L | Skillshare

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Editing and Proofreading Masterclass | Dominate Writing, Punctuation & Grammar

teacher avatar Nitay L, Proofreader & Translator

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction Video - Hidden Gems of Knowledge Await You


    • 2.

      Proofreading Preview Video


    • 3.

      Introduction to Proofreading


    • 4.

      Niches & Jobs as a Proofreader


    • 5.

      Universal Proofreading Symbols


    • 6.

      Keyboard Shortcuts & English AutoCorrect Software


    • 7.

      Proofreading with Microsoft Word


    • 8.

      Proofreading Translation


    • 9.

      7 Tips for Proofreading Better


    • 10.



    • 11.

      Spotting Colon Errors


    • 12.



    • 13.

      Identifying Semicolon Errors


    • 14.

      Full Stops


    • 15.

      Recognizing Full Stop Errors


    • 16.

      Commas — Part 1


    • 17.

      Correcting Comma Errors – Part 1


    • 18.

      Commas — Part 2


    • 19.

      Correcting Comma Errors – Part 2


    • 20.

      Hyphens and Dashes


    • 21.

      Locating Hyphens and Dashes Errors


    • 22.



    • 23.

      Detecting Apostrophe Errors


    • 24.



    • 25.

      Uncovering Slash Errors


    • 26.

      Quotation Marks


    • 27.

      Finding Quotation Marks Errors


    • 28.



    • 29.

      Catching Parentheses Errors


    • 30.



    • 31.

      Clarify Syntax


    • 32.

      Fixing Passive Voice and Misplaced Modifiers


    • 33.

      Common Spelling Mistakes


    • 34.

      Consistent Style


    • 35.

      Academic, Web, & Print Media ProofreadingTests


    • 36.

      Editing Preview Video


    • 37.

      Introduction to Editing


    • 38.

      Niches & Jobs as an Editor


    • 39.

      6 Main Types of Editing


    • 40.

      Inefficient Phrases and Words


    • 41.

      Clarifying Inefficient Sentences


    • 42.

      Redundancy and Repetition


    • 43.

      Fending Off The Attack Of Redundant Sentences


    • 44.

      Relevant and Irrelevant Info


    • 45.

      Eliminate The Trivial; Note The Devoid


    • 46.

      Hemingway Editor


    • 47.

      Complex Sentences, Adverbs, and Passive Voice


    • 48.

      Avoid Adjectives, Adverbs, and Weak Nouns


    • 49.

      Turn Weak Writing to Writing That Sticks You To The Page


    • 50.

      Sentence and Word Variety


    • 51.

      Add Variety; Make These Sentences Tasty


    • 52.

      Fact checking


    • 53.

      True/False? Spot Wrong Facts


    • 54.

      Editing Plot


    • 55.

      Editing Themes


    • 56.

      Editing Characterization


    • 57.

      Editing Point of View


    • 58.

      Editing Plot Pace


    • 59.

      Editing Dialogue


    • 60.

      Show, don't tell


    • 61.

      Academic, Web, & Story Editing Tests


    • 62.

      Proofreading Job Sites


    • 63.

      Introduction to Upwork


    • 64.

      Final & Bonus Lesson


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About This Class

Get 2 Courses In 1 - Both Editing and Proofreading

My name is Nitay, an Instructor with one main wish!

Bringing your knowledge of proofreading and editing to a whole new level through a series of fun video lessons.


Uncover Pro Methods From an Expert: Learn From an Experienced Proofreader and Freelancer for More Than 5 Years.

Discover the Biggest Market for Freelancing Jobs: Learn How to Get Proofreading Jobs on Upwork and Receive Exclusive Information on Other Freelancing Platforms.

Time Is Money: Become An Expert Proofreader and Editor within a Few Hours of Content-filled Lessons instead of Wasting Precious Time in Search of Incomplete Information on the Web.

Topics You'll Learn During the Editing Course

• Track Changes in MS Word and Use the Best AutoCorrect Software.

• Recognize Common Text Errors and How to Enhance Text Quality.

• Edit Fiction Novels, Web Articles, and Academic Writing.

• Use Keyboard Shortcuts to Write and Edit Faster.

• Enhance Publishing, Creative Writing, and Copyediting Skills.

And Much More!

Topics You'll Learn During the Proofreading Course

• Proofread Translation with 3 Essential Methods!

• Spot Common Grammar, Punctuation, and Language Errors.

• Clarify Text, Fix Poor Syntax, and Correct Punctuation.

• Work in Proofreading Through Online Job Sites (Upwork Guide Included).

And Much More!


⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "I have been editing for about two years now, and I wanted to learn more about editing and proofreading, especially when it comes to my writing. I'm glad that I took this course and will take some more like this." (Angelic Houston)

⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "Very straightforward explanations. This course is helpful, especially if you don't have experience or prior knowledge in Proofreading." (Arman Castillote)

⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️ "Very nicely explained, the instructor gave all essential details, very easy to understand" (Priyanka Chauhan)


You might also like my class on Freelancing On Upwork.


See you on the course!


Instructor Nitay

Meet Your Teacher

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Nitay L

Proofreader & Translator


Who Am I?

My name is Nitay. I'm an English and Hebrew translator, proofreader, and transcriptionist at Upwork.

I have wide freelancing knowledge and several years of experience working for numerous leading global companies.

My Goal

As an instructor, I have one main wish! To help you save time and start earning right away by learning knowledge that, sadly, I didn't have at first.

Stay Updated

Click "Follow" on the left to be updated when I upload a new course. You'll also know when I add new lessons to my existing courses!

See full profile

Level: All Levels

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1. Introduction Video - Hidden Gems of Knowledge Await You: Here is a real life story. My friend was hesitant to send her assignment because of possible punctuation mistakes she might have missed. So I offered her to take the proofreading course I just made. A few days later. She asked me why didn't I told her about it sooner because you just received a passing grade and even better, she now can write with confidence. So what do you wish to build or improve your proofreading skills or maybe to write with Zillow mistakes. This course is the right place. But first let me introduce myself. My name is Ni Tai am an English and Hebrew translator, proofreader and transcriptionists that APOC, as a freelancer, we've years of experience in editing and proofreading. I decided to share my knowledge and made these lessons packed course. Alright, now that you know who does this weird voice belongs to, let me show you what the course features. First, that can every good meal, we will start with appetizers, which in this case will be the section called master the basics of proofreading. There, I will introduce you to the proofreading process, decent proofreading pricing, most common proofreading jobs, and advanced methods for proofreading on the computer or paper. After that, we will dive into the punctuation checklist. For each mark, I will detail the proper ways to use it and what misuses you must avoid. Afterward, a section called other language mistakes checklist, which contains four regular areas of writing arrows are waits for you to explore. Moving on, you will find the proofreading practice activities where I left free final tests to help you find the right proofreading niche volume and sharpen your brand new skills. What you think, That's it. Now, we move on to learn how to edit your writing, making it more engaging and ensuring readers will keep turning the pages. Master the basics of editing, like when diving for the first time, practicing in shallow waters. The first section we'll introduce you to editing before we can dive deeper. The three lessons, we'll teach you basic stuff such as editing jobs, pricing range, the common jobs in editing, and what types of editing exists. The standard editing checklist. The following list of lessons is the meat of the course and your trampoline for jumping to new heights. These lessons are for editing any topic and type of texts, whether it's an article, a scientific paper, or a book. This section information will bounce every texts writing level in any situation, even in space. The books Editing Checklist. The next list of lessons will allow you to better structural and develop your story elements. Turn robotic characters into real breathing characters and evade embarrassing plot holes. Don't leave any opening for critics to start complaining. And getting practice activities. The last three bosses of your editing Adventure have a bite at the three common niches of editing. This section can direct you to the type of editing that most fits you. And if not, then at least boost your confidence in those areas. But I'm sure that after all those wonderful lessons, you will be full of confidence anyway. The final lessons, the best way to practice your new writing, editing, and proofreading skills is by taking jobs. That way, you sharpen your skills and earn money at the same time. And in this section, I will show you how and well to get your first job online. So what are you waiting for? Join my course and write professional texts that provide results. 2. Proofreading Preview Video: If you wish to enhance your writing skills and become a proofreading specialists, then my course proofread arrows Like a Pro, is exactly for you. You can examine a manuscript for hours and missed several mistakes, or you can take my course and spot all unwanted arrows. Swift as a machine. Learn from unexperienced proofreader how to clarify texts, fixed poor syntax, and correct punctuation like the probe. My course promises to sharpen your skills with several helpful practice activities and it doesn't end there. Well, let's see a full and the learning guide it to Apple, one of the best freelancing websites. Because we know jobs could provide a great practice opportunity, improving your proficiency while earning money. So what are you waiting for joining my course and become an expert valence proofreader today. 3. Introduction to Proofreading: Sitting on elector, you glare at the text displayed on your monitor screen and ask yourself, where do I begin? Well, have no fear as your instructor, I am here to explain the proofreading process. You should follow. The proofreading process. Use your autocorrect software to detect spelling mistakes or double-spaced. It can be as simple as Microsoft spell checker or a more advanced online software. In a future lesson, I will show you the best one I've found so far. Okay, I'm continuing to read and later stay alert for missed spelling errors. For instance, homophones, words that have the same sound but different meaning, things. You will learn about them and other spelling errors in a later lesson. After that, the second step is to follow the punctuation checklists and other language mistakes checklist. These are two sections of the course which represents a list of checks you should follow. The first to clean punctuation errors, the second to abolish grammar mistakes and other language floss. As I'm here to introduce you to proofreading, I want to ask you a question. How many text editing services do you think there are? When I started, the only processes I knew were editing and proofreading. But the truth is, there are over seven types of text editing services. Don't worry, I won't throw them all atom. But some are common enough that any proofreader should know about them. Editing versus proofreading. Which service is better? Well, it depends on the problem you want to address. Editing involves making changes and suggestions to improve the writing and stories quality. It focuses on the core features of writing rather than surface level issues. And editors goal is to help writers published more fun to read gripping content, not to hunt for hidden language mistakes. When I think of editing, I imagine a film producer that always thinks about how the movie can be more impactful. Proofreading has less ambition than editing and thus is a cheaper service, but it's still performs a vital role. Proofreading is the process of correcting surface errors in writing, such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other language mistakes. The proofreaders job is to come through the document and look for any mistakes that may have slipped through the cracks, regardless of how ridiculous the writer and editor have been, there will almost always be L's when you're dealing with a book of 80 thousand words or more. Basically, step 1 is writing, Step 2 is editing and proofreading is the final process. Now let's look at another too frequently requested editing services. Copy editing and copy editing assures the text is free of grammatical errors and enhances the overall writing quality. The copy editors job is not only to proofread the manuscript, he or she must ensure that the content is consistent, correct, and efficient. Some of you might think if a copy editor does both proofreading and standard editing checks what Writer 12 rely on him. It's two processes in one package. And wild copy editing is popular. It does not fit every task. For example, a copy editor want Review Story developmental aspects like blood, characterization and story pace. So when does copy editing is the right choice? If a writer considers his story elements or content believable and well-structured, it has a tent about his writing quality. Copy editing is the right choice. Copywriting. Copywriting is the process of writing promotional materials such as text on billboards, websites, emails, advertisements and more. It is all about getting the reader to take action. And that action may lead to buy, opt in, or engage with your product, service, or company. In short, a copy editor is an expert writer who works in the commercial sector. While a proofreader is a language expert working on anything from academic two novels. If you've ever wondered, who writes the commercials you see on TV, the Internet, or in newspapers. Now you know, next, for those who aim to work in proofreading, let me shed light on the decent proofreading pricing. As a beginner, requesting a payment of $0.01 per word is reasonable since you have yet to gain any job reviews or work history. Later on, you can try asking for 25 cents per word and see how it curves. I estimated these rates based on jobs from up for. And while different languages mean different charges, the prices here are customarily for most languages. As for hourly rates, and beginner should request around $15 per hour. The low price will allow clients to hire you despite your lack of experience. After gaining enough work history, you may request 20, 1.25, or even $30 per hour. When I had a lower hourly rate as a beginner, inclined gave me seven hours to finish editing is article, except I finished the job after four hours. But since my client was pleased with my work and Adelie delivery, he paid me for all seven hours. My suggestion is, don't worry about low hourly rates. Rather, think about what price will fit your clients budget and start gaining work history in varied fields. Your expertise means you can demand higher rates. Having a background in particular fields allows you to charge more in that niche search proofreading jobs. Well, your prior knowledge exceeds others. Still, even if you don't have a degree to wave at your clients, you can expand your work history in a specific niche and low clients with that, I have piles of work proof in translating apps. And when clients need someone to translate their app strings, I always catch our eyes instead of 10 others. It's important to get an accurate overview of the project you're about to start on. Sometimes a client will send you a sample that screams the word mistakes that needs fixes for every second or third world. In such cases, asking for higher payment is also sensible. After you again, some proofreading experience, you can distinguish how long it takes you to proofread documents we various types or amounts of arrows. And that's when you will know if a task is worth your time or not. That's it for this lesson. In the next one, I will introduce you to the usual niches and jobs you can find as a proofreader. Well, I'll meet you there. 4. Niches & Jobs as a Proofreader: Just as every lake has different types of fish, which editing service has its own niches and jobs. And in this lesson, I'm going to show you the most common types of jobs you can catch in the proofreading lake. Preventing print media. Print media such as newspapers or books, often undergo proofreading before printing. To perfect the text, we omit missed language laws in formatting, spending, or grammar that are introduced or missed doing previous editing rounds. I should note that proofreading books is a major commitment and one of the most intensive areas of proofreading. On the one hand, proofreading books is a profitable job. On the other side, It's also time-consuming and complex. So before you embark on a career as a book proofreader, make sure you are well-versed in the worlds of writing and publishing. Proofreading translations, voice proofreading translation different from other niches because there's more than one language involved. Prevent translation includes the basic language checks, but also Message Preservation. With access to the source file, the proofreader maintains the meaning between the original and the translated versions. But what methods does he used to achieve that? Fortunately for you, I added a lesson about proofing translation, where you will learn that and more. Academic proof. Any academic proofreading, like getting someone to proofread your article, is also more demanding. The common theme of checking grammar and spinning returns and is sometimes accompanied by check smoke academic style. For example, referencing and correct academic terms. For those of you who have previous academic knowledge, this niche is a smart choice. After all, clients are willing to pay more for an expert in their field, especially if it's a topic not many specializing plus the competition is lower in this niche than in others. But you might find it difficult to spot a job related to your specific expertise. Why proofreading? Web proofreaders inspect content for various online sources. As a proofreader, you might need to know how to apply search engine optimisation tactics as the least demanding niche. It is a perfect fit for any beginner with 0 background. Also, proofreading a blog post, an article, or a whole website can teach you a lot about fascinating topics. If you're worried about the competition, try learning SEO tactics. Seo tactics are about chosen words and generate more traffic for the webpage and website. If you tell a client that you have experience in SEO, you will have better chances of getting hired. Now that you know what types of jobs are waiting for you, I would like to show some examples. Here is a transition proofreading job I picked from Upwork. This job is about proofreading a client's card game. But the client adds that if you know other languages than English, he would also pay for translation. This isn't the usual proofreading translation job. Were the translation was already done and you only need to go over it. But some clients prefer to work river single person who can provide both services. In this case, the ideal candidate will be a proofreader who is also a translator. So if you know two languages, try learning translation. A valuable is it alone skill? Let's see another example, this time on why proofreading. I will only read the few first sentences to give you the general image of this task. I have a regular feed of articles for my website that need proofreading and minor editing. I need somebody with impeccable English to be able to go through these and quickly make updates to correct grammar and spelling L. In some cases, I may want you to rephrase, shorten or lengthen certain paragraphs. As you can see, the clan didn't demand and the extra expertise or certificates only at tides grasp of English and proofreading skills as simple, profitable job that will attract many hungry freelancers. Proofreading, print media, proofreader or editor needed for English language non-fiction history book, 100 thousand words written in English, proof-reading and some editorial support needed. Basically described aims to hire a proofreader to ensure his history book is free of embarrassing language errors. Keep in mind that to get these or any other print media job, you must convince the client who has worked for years to finish his book and that you are the best choice and not so simple task for a beginner. So have you decided which niche fits to the mouse? Before the end of the course, you will have proofreading tests in those niches. Take advantage of them to make your decision easier. For the time being. I hope you found this lesson useful and I will see you in the next one. 5. Universal Proofreading Symbols: When proofreading on paper, the proofreader use subtle marks that show me suggestions that proofreading symbols. These symbols are coded sets of instructions that highlight where mistakes have been made and how to fix them. But why learn universal proofreading symbols? Although most editing and proofreading is done using tools such as Microsoft struck changes feature. You may wish to proofread a printed document one day and using these symbols will ease the process. For example, I like to print out a one to two pages work and proof we did on paper because often your eyes can catch L was better on paper than on the computer screen. Proofreading symbols are a fantastic way to keep the paid relatively clean and better organize your proofreading notes. There are dozens of individual preferring symbols. So to save you time, I've compiled a list of the top aid for proofreading printed pages. This pictorial sign is used whenever you want a word removal. For example, the word there was repeated twice, so I covered one of them with the removal side. Use the two edge triangle to show well and what word you wish to add to illustrate, because the word pops was missing in the sentence, I added it to edge triangle and wrote the missing word above it. Use one of these symbols when you wish to separate a word. Here is how there are two acceptable ways to do it. Choose the one that fits you. In contrast, if you need to ignite two words, use these to round marks. For instance, in this sentence, the writer wrote the word softball in two words rather than one. Using the two around marks, I can tell the writer to merge them. A common mistake and English is not capitalizing words. We needed to emphasize words that require capitalization use a three-line mark. As you can see, I added this mock below the words that lack of utilization. If appropriate is missing, use a marker of a circle with a dot in the middle and added at the sentence ends. When at the leaves part and absent comma, right triangle with a comma under it. Let me show you how. Here you can see I added the sign at the overlooked areas. Now how many more central symbols you can learn an easily find by typing proofreading symbols on Google search. For now lets the end of the lecture. Next you will have a mind-blowing less than on keyboard shortcuts and the best free autocorrect software for English. So don't wait, jump straight to it. 6. Keyboard Shortcuts & English AutoCorrect Software: Like one plus one equal to, which I hope you all know, keyboard shortcuts plus practice equals faster writing. These commands are meant to save you time and effort and it's up to you to stop using the old long ways. In practice these new shortcuts. Keyboard shortcuts are a fantastic way to speed up writing at a computer or any computer work. There are a hundreds of individual keyboard shortcuts programmed into a PC or Mac. Yet, to save your time, I've compiled a list of the top 15 for proofreading your next article or story. And generally, you should always seek built in keyboard shortcuts in every software you use, for example, in a video editing program on a captioning tool. You understand once you adapt to using the following shortcuts, your new speed will leave your mouth wide open. Control X, instead of copying the text and then deleting it, you get both actions in one click. Control C, instead of using your mouse to copy text every time, use this simple shortcut. Control V. If you want to paste text or anything you copied, save time with this shortcut, Control zed, the most helpful shortcut in my opinion, is this any action you indeed can be undone by this valuable shortcut. Now take a break and practice these shortcuts on Google Translate, Word or Notepad. Alt plus tab, switch between apps with this shortcut instead of reveal maps. Control a user to select all the text or all items in a software. Control D, This one is less usually used, muddies important to know, you use it to duplicate a selected text or an item. Control S for saving any progress you did without using the mouse. Control F. You might know this one already. When searching for a specific word. This is the shortcut you need to use. Again, take a break and practice these shortcuts. Controlling arrows. This shortcut helps to move more quickly between words and long texts. Try playing with this one for a moment. Shift with any arrow key. Use this to select a few letters or an item, control plus shift, we have an alkene. Also crucial to know. This shortcut allows you to swiftly select texts without the mouse. Stop the video, and use each keyboard shortcut a few times. Get used to them and make sure you do those actions only by the shortcuts I taught you. Trust me, it will save you a lot of work time. As keyboard shortcuts, autocorrect software also equal faster writing. Grammarly, one of the best English autocorrect platforms out there. Like a metal detector, it spots pesky spelling, grammar and punctuation errors. Grammarly can identify most spelling and grammar errors and suggest corrections and improvements. It has a handy google Chrome extension that's activated whenever you use Google Translate or other websites. And a Microsoft Word extension for those who deal with daily English files. The free no cost service is excellent. Try it even if you don't plan on using it for proofreading exclusively, Grammarly, premium service gives more corrections and grammar suggestion. The premium service is a useful upgrade, but I wouldn't pay for it at its full cost. Personally, I bought it at a friendly price thanks to a 50 percent off discount the offered on their site. Now, let's have a look at how Grammarly works. Go to Google and writing grammarly from extension. Then simply hadn't REML into Windows. Let me show you how it works. If I write, let's go together with spelling errors. Quickly identify them and suggest ways to fix it. You can also double-click any word that gets in other words, for a placement. Now let's look on the extension itself. Here, you have three options as soon just activating all of them. They give you the decision or which bases Gamow, they will be active, give or not, give you some, just some synonyms and similar words or option for other Gretchen of text. Now, if you have an English file, then want to check it, go and press new document. That's how we generally look. You arrived at the finish line. Thank you for watching and enjoy the faster wheels you obtained. Well, see you in the next one. 7. Proofreading with Microsoft Word: When proofreading beautiful self or a client, you want to show markups, changes and comments made on the document. And in this lesson, I will teach you how to track changes, to leave comments, and how to replace several words into better ones. Proofing options on Microsoft Word. When you're proofreading someone else's work, you need a way to show them what has changed. Here are two ways to do so. Track changes. Every time you change something in the document, it becomes visible. This feature can be switched on and off whenever you like. Keep track changes activated whenever you fix something. That way, you won't need to manually adjust the text to show your changes to the client. It's handy when challenge documents with other colleagues because it allows you to see what changes were made and by whom. Plus, it enables you or your client to accept or reject any changes made it to the document with a click of a button. Below is an image of, well, you can find this option. Go to review, tracking, then track changes. Comments. Comments can also be replied to if you are sending a document back and forth for many checks, add a new comment when you want to specify what you're changing y, or leave some notes for the writer. As we've done our vision Marx, word uses a different color for each user to distinguish among their comments. Comments can also be found in the overview tab as shown in the picture. Find and replace multiple words at once. Let's say you have a list of unnecessarily sets of words or ambiguous words that you wish to find on a document, instead of using control plus F to find and replace them one by one, here has an easier method. One, open the Word document and press the Alt plus F11 keys to open the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window. Step 2 in the Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications window, click, Insert, and then model. Afterward, paste the VBA code. You can find it in the lesson or course resources into the modal window. Step 3, change the two question marks towards you wish to be found and replace and separate them with a comma. On your right is how the VBA code looks like. Step 4 changed there in time to the new words you want to replace with, and then press the F5 key to run the code. In this case, the first question mark will be replaced with there, and the second question mark will be replaced with plank. Again, you can find this text in the lesson or course resources. In the next lesson, which is on proofreading translation, I will show you another way to present the changes you made in a document. So even if you are not fired up about diving deeper into the transition proofreading niche, at least watch it for that reason one way or another. I will see you in the next one. 8. Proofreading Translation: Translation proofreading, the final stage of translation cycle. But why is proofreading even a part of translation? First, most translators don't have the same perfect language command as a proofreader does. Second, what seems straightforward to the translator can be unclear to the reader. In the worst-case scenario, this can cause the reader to misinterpret the entire message. So by hiring a proofreader, the client ensures L three message retaining translations. Now, I want to revisit our proofreading process list, but we have a small addition. The first two steps are staying the same, being checks of punctuation and other language mistakes. Yet now there is a third step, keeping the same message, not words from the original version in the translation. Remember, a transaction's goal is not to keep the same words, but the same message. In other words, language localization. Okay, so how do I keep the same message from the original? Well, there are three methods to choose from. Original and new inversion comparison, back translation or read translation. Let's go. Although the three methods, starting with original and new version comparison, comparing the original and the new version. Begin by comparing your translation with the original texts. You can work sentence by sentence or phrase by phrase, whichever is easier. Go through the text, lining up the new version and the original. Tocqueville omitted or edited formation. And if the transaction differs from the original. If you're hesitant about the terms translation, a site called Pros can provide a solution. It has a network called kudos that offers a framework for translators to assist each other with translations of terms in short phrases, create an account there and ask questions to receive professional help. Signing up is free. I use it often for both translation and proofing jobs. It usually takes about 24 hours to receive a response, but sometimes less for those interested. Here's a shorter guide you can follow. Split the monitor screen into when comparing. Let's assume you have to open Word Windows on your computer, but one is behind the other. Take your cursor to the center of the topmost part of the open window on your screen. The press the left mouse button and grab the window. Keep the mouse button depressed and drag the window all the way over to the right of your screen. It will automatically resize your document and take it to the right half of your screen. Do the same from the other window and you're good to go. Obviously, if you have two monitors, you can place each window on a separate screen. Back translation. Back translation is another method for comparing your original with the translation. It means taking the translation and read translating it back into the source language without first looking at the original. Later, you compare the original and the back translated versions. Naturally, there will be differences, but they should be subtle, not major. This method is precise enough that translation agencies use back translation to double-check though translators and even proofreaders work before hiring them. Also, another incentive to hire proofreader is to avoid having the original translator do the back translation. Why? Because the fresh memory of the original document might influence the translators back translation. The solution, let a proofreader do it. He didn't saw the source file. Io is a platform called draft a ball to compare texts between versions. Let me give you a sneak peek. I entered the draft double side and now I will upload the two files I want to compare. Yes, it's completely free to use. All right, let's press compare and see what do we get. That's it. Now you can scroll down and bow files, we'll scroll in sync. There are three ways to move between the differences. You can press the colored areas in the scroll bar. You can click the colored sentences in the documents or you can use the changes this to your right. All in all, draft table is a convenient platform for comparing text and I highly recommend you try it. And last but not least, you can do a retransmission check for inconsistencies in translation. Let me explain. Read translation is another laborious way to proofread. This process is simple but not so ideal. You retranslate the original text and compare the two translations. On the one hand, it aids in comparing tricky spots and can be illuminating, but it is a real duplication of labor. As such, you better avoid this method unless necessary. But when is it necessarily? Well, if your native language is the target language, the language of the translation, translation is a wiser choice. After all, the translation is easier and more accurate when translated into your own language. But whichever method you choose, be vigilant and leave no stone unturned. Next up is seven tips for proofreading. Better value will discover more methods every expert users. Well, See you there. 9. 7 Tips for Proofreading Better: Proofreading writing is tough. Sometimes our brain sees what it is supposed to be written instead of what's actually on the page. Luckily, there are tactics you can use to make proofreading easier. Given the following seven proofreading techniques, a try and catch writing mistakes before the readers do. Proofread backwards. Start at the last word of your document and walk your way to the beginning one word at a time. This method allows you to see the writing with fresh eyes and focus better on each word. Along with recognizing spelling errors, this method makes it easier to spot three other types of l ofs, overused words, sentences you can clarify, and paragraphs you can simplify. Tried it the next time you need to proofread the document to avoid letting your brain fill gaps in the text. Double-checking by listening, even the most proficient proofreaders can make L. A good way to double-check your work is by listening to it. A very simple trick I like to use is to open and listen through Google Translate. After you copy-pasted a selected piece of text, you will see a sound icon clicker to listen to the text being read to you. Reading aloud what is written in a similar approach that also performs well. But to be successful using it, you must read what is on the page or screen, not what should be there. As I said before, our minds tend to autocorrect texts else without us noticing. So letting a software or read aloud for us is a safer choice. Put it on paper. People read differently on screen and on paper. So print out a copy of the texts. If a client gave you only a few pages to proofread, print them off, and see if your eyes catch errors better on paper than on screen. The idea is to proofread their printed form of the document and letter fix those changes on the computer. Remember the issue I said a minute ago about our brains filling gaps. This is less likely to happen when proofreading on paper. Why? Because changing the format of the content from digital to print makes it less familiar, which can cause your brain to be more alert to animals. I2 have had instances where I found a spelling error on a paper that I had overlooked on the screen. Ask someone else to proofread it. You can ask a friend to read over your paper and help you spot unclear sentences, wordy phrases, and even language L. Sometimes a second person can see from his position and l that you might have missed. Plus, it can help you value whether a tricky sentence makes sense or not. Obviously, the responsibility for proofreading is on you and you alone. But it will never heard letting another pair of eyes have a glimpse of your work? No, your own typical mistakes before you proofread, look over papers you've written in the past and make a list of your repeated l. I tend to make the mistakes of writing wordy phrases. Recently, I wrote the phrase sentences that are not clear, but soon realized. I could simply say alkyl sentences. This wasn't an alloy, often do, but I added it to my wordy phrases leads to ensure it doesn't happen. Again. The moral of the story is to keep track of your own L's to enhance your proofreading eyesight. It for one type of L at a time. Don't look for various kinds of errors in your writing and then miss certain laws while getting distracted by others. Instead, focus on one kind of error at a time and you will have a better chance of spotting them all. Untrue. Post a question on English Stack Exchange. This is a Q and a site where you can post any question about the English language and get answers from the community. In fact, I used it to make it the capitalization lesson. I asked about the various rules for capitalizing after a colon. As this is a matter of dispute between different style guides and, uh, wanted to be certain about what to write in the lesson. So how do you post a question? Simply enter the website and press the Ask a Question button to post your question on the site. Of course, you can also ask me about any questions you might have. All right, I will live. We talked enough about general topics on proofreading. It's time I teach you the meeting details of punctuation and grammar. First annual seatbelts. The real ride is about to begin. 10. Colons: Columns and semi-colons are two of the most confusing marks in the punctuation family. Let's get one thing. Although they look similar and have similar names, their functions are completely different. So don't use one instead of the other. In this lesson, I will show you the correct and wrong ways to use a colon and walk you on the path to master these twin like marks. One of the uses for a colon is introducing a list. The Angel Colon heel will show us the righteous path. He whispers to me that we should use a colon to introduce a list of items. Here is an example. There are three things. Every dog needs food, water, and health care. Another way you can use a colon is to provide an explanation. Use a colon to separate two independent clauses when the second explains or illustrates the first, a dolphin is not a fish, it is a warm-blooded mammal. Yeah, I was surprised to these two, well, the most common uses, but you can also use a colon for emphasis. Use a colon to emphasize a phrase or a single word in case the writer overuse the colon and M dash can also fit the job. For example, the restaurants serve the type of food most preferred by lawyers, red meat. Lastly, we can use a colon to introduce a quote. The grammatical rule is if you introduce the quote, we have full sentence user column. If you presented with a phrase, use a comma. For instance, Florio lenses essay with a metaphor, time is but the stream I go efficiently. Also, a colon has other and ungrammatical uses, Time Ratio or correspondence. Now that you know the proper uses for column, it's time I showcase the dark side of a colon when misused. Don't listen to the devil colon, not use a colon after phrases like, such as, including and for example, because phrases like these already state that a list of examples will follow. I traveled to many countries. For example. Let's swap the column with a comma. I traveled to many countries, for example, China, Austria, and United States. Don't use a colon after a preposition. The new law student excelled in. The new law student excelled in criminal law, legal writing and torts. And don't use a colon after a verb, we need causes an unnecessary interruption. I like to eat. I like to eat spaghetti, ice cream, and pizza. When these favorite flavors of ice cream of wind is favorite flavors of ice cream, vanilla, and chocolate. So what am I asking you to do? Allow a few minutes to look for cones in the text and fix any wrong users without altering the message. All right, Now that you've learned how to use a colon, I would like to introduce you to the rules for using colons with lists. Bulleted lists, and bulleted lists allow a writer to create a list that stands out from the text. Any symbol may be used for the bullets, although small circles or squares are typical software defaults, a bulleted list is a great way to highlight the items on your list. However, many fail to punctuate and capitalize them correctly. So to help writers avoid these blunders, let's get familiar with the guiding rules for bulleted lists. Guiding rules, rule number one, the introductory sentence must end with a colon. Rule number 2, if the list items are not sentences, punctuation options include commas, semi-colons, and no punctuation. Susan depends on your style guide, but whichever you choose, stay consistent. In the following examples, I will use the comas options since it's my preferred method. Capitalization rules for sentences are capitalized. Phrases are not capitalized and single words or titles can be both capitalized or not, depends on your style guide. Great. Now that you know the basic rules, I would like to showcase some frequent ellos in the topic and how you should fix them. Here we go. Consistent verbs ending. Some verbs cannot end in I-N-G. Well simon S, well as the consistency. If you look at the example, you will see that the verbs in the first item and in IND, while the verbs in the second item ends in S, not to mention the third item doesn't even have a verb. So let me rewrite the items. Here we go. Now they all have verbs, and they all end in I-N-G. Usage of a colon in the introductory phrase, often writers incorrectly insert a column after a preposition, verb or list stating phrase. Your task is to omit such unnecessarily interruption by revising the sentence. Here, the colon appears after the preposition for a mistake that I fixed in the correct example. Revise bullet lists for grammatical consistency. If there are inconsistencies between items and mix of phrases and complete sentences, rewrite them to be only phrases or sentences. In our example below, while the first item is a full sentence, the second third items are phrases. Let's fix that. Now we have three items of three phrases and I added the missing punctuation. Did you notice that it was upset? If you did you get 10 points for awareness. Remove unnecessary capitalization. Remember, in at least we capitalize items are full sentences and end each of them with a four-star. But in case of a list of races, we don't capitalize the first word of each item. For reference. Here is a previous example where I fix the phrases to not have capital letters. That's it for this one, we will return to the colon in a letter capitalization lesson. But for now, let's move on to the next punctuation mark, the semicolon. Well, I will see you there. 11. Spotting Colon Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 12. Semicolons: The semicolon is sometimes described as stronger than a coma, yet weaker than a period. But why would I want a punctuation mark that serves as the middle point between the two. To answer that, I will present two typical reasons for using a semicolon. Reasons to use a semicolon, linking two independent clauses that are closely related in thoughts. Independent clauses for those who don't know are parts of the sentence that could stand alone as separate sentences. For example, most birds can fly. However, some groups have beards, like penguins can't. Each of the sections before and after the semicolon could stand alone as a separate sentence, separating items in a complicated list for clarity, if you have at least with many commas, it's preferred to use semi-colons to better differentiate between each item and its description. You can see that in the presented example. Also, did you noticed I used the colon here to provide an explanation of why that person like scalps. Now, like before, I will reveal the correct and wrong ways to use a semicolon. Here's a semicolon between two independent clauses, replacing a full stop or a comma with a coordinating conjunction. I don't have any plans for the weekend. We can go to the cinema then. Here I chose to use a semicolon instead of a coma. And the word, because writers often do this to add variety to sentence structure or to reduce words in the text. Avoid using a semicolon when one sentence is not an independent clause. In this sentence, the word because it symbolizes and dependent clause, which means a coma is the right punctuation. So let me rewrite this. Great. And lastly, avoid using a semicolon before a coordinating conjunction. This sentence we have the word bud, which is the coordinating conjunction, and it needs a coma. Now the semicolon. Let me change that. Right now some of you may be curious, why did I add the coordinating conjunction and after the semicolon in the earlier example, I like cows. So let me explain. It is incorrect to use. And after a semicolon, unless you use the semicolon to separate items in at least for clarity. Just like in this example. Here's the semicolon, not a coma between two independent clauses that are connected by conjunctive adverbs or transitional phrases like therefore, however, thus, for example, payment was received two weeks after it was due. Therefore, you will be charged a late fee. Hey, what's this? We have a comma where there should be a semicolon. Let's fix that. Great. I want to add that if the transitional phrase or conjunctive adverb is used to introduce the sentence, then a comma is the right choice. The key to recognize that is to ask yourself if you could put the transitional phrase at the start and the sentence will stay the same. In the example here, you can take the four to the start because it isn't used to introduce the sentence, but to link the two independent clauses. That's it for our lesson on the semicolon, same as before. Your task is to search for semi-colons in the text and fixed an MSU. This, I hope you enjoyed this brief lesson. Now, let's move on to the next punctuation mark, the full stop. 13. Identifying Semicolon Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 14. Full Stops: Did you know the full stop symbol derives from the Greek punctuation introduced by Aristotle, financed in the third century BCE. Back then, they use the comma and period as we do today in English. So likely the Greeks, let us study the agent punctuation mark known as the full stop. As you already know, the full stop or period is a punctuation mark that symbolizes the sentence end, but sometimes other marks replace it. Let's see some examples. Question mark or an exclamation point. A sentence otherwise ends with a question mark or exclamation point. The period is emitted, as you can see in the example, I didn't and the full stop because the exclamation mark already shows the sentence end. Abbreviation. If a sentence ends with an abbreviation, the period used for their provision also serves as the period for the sentence. The first three examples show how their provision period serves as the period for the sentence. But in the fall, for example, while adding a question mark after deprivation period is correct, it looks a little messy. To avoid this, you should write BBC without periods. The last example is another special case. They'll, the sentence ends. We four dots freefall the ellipses and one to end the sentence, it is only correct to have four dots at the end of a quote. Otherwise, the ellipses replaces the period parenthesis. If the parentheses are within the sentence, we place the period outside the closing parenthesis. Here is an example of a sentence with some extra stuff. But if the parentheses are outside the sentence, we place the period inside the closing parentheses. Here's an example. I'm sure you liked it. Quotation marks. If a sentence ends with a quoted material, the period is placed inside the closing quotation mark, even if the period is not part of the original quotation. For example, my father always said, be careful what you wish for. And here you can see how the full stop was placed within the quote. That's it. These are the main points I want you to look out for. This lesson was slightly shorter than the last one, but it's only the calm before the storm since coming up is a two-part series on the most frequently used punctuation mark. The corner. 15. Recognizing Full Stop Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 16. Commas — Part 1: Before we jump in, I must mention that some of the upcoming rules may not apply for languages other than English. So please double-check any gaps in coma uses between your language and English. But what is a comma? Well, do you need a soft pause between words, clauses, or ideas within a sentence? If so, a common will feed the job, but be aware that the comma is one of the most complex punctuation marks due to its many applications, startled matter worry. Soon, you will discover the answers to the most challenging comma questions. But first, let's begin with a simple, it often forgotten comma rules. Mechanical uses of the comma numbers add a comma after the first digit of a four digit number. And the exceptions include, here's page numbers and street addresses. The example below shows how the comma is applied to a four digit number. And beside it, you can see an image for the pattern for adding a coma for even greater numbers, showing how after each three digit numbers we add a coma for clarity. Degrees and certifications had a coma when a degree or certification is shown after a person's name in academic papers, each contributor's name is mentioned with his education degree. And do insert a pause between the degree and the name. We use the comma, just like in the example here. Addressing on greeting someone had a coma when addressing a person's name or title afterwards, like hello, hi, or good morning. For example. Thank you As for the next feedback. But if you use the word dear to greet someone, a comma is unnecessary. Dates separate the day, month, and here we've commerce, even if the data includes only the monthly date revert which day of the week it is. We still use a comma. But avoid inserting a comma between the month in the year when they are the only two elements in the date. For example, the mom will reopen in October 1958. Geographic references add a comma to setup our geographic elements like city and state names. As you can see in the example, the state south Africa and the city Pretoria are set apart with a comma. The same rule applies to street addresses. You should also separate the street from its city. The list in coma. When writing a list, the comma separates a series of words, phrases, or independent clauses. For example, please buy bread, milk, and cheese. The last item in a list is often preceded by the conjunctions and or. Some writers and publishers put a comma called Oxford comma before these conjunctions, but it isn't wrong to leave them out. In the examples I wrote, you can see the difference when Oxford comma is used or not. I recommend using it because it helps distinguish between each item and avoid confusing the first item as the description for the other two. If you look at the image above and tried to read the least two without the Oxford comma, you might confuse the crazy people as you and your friends for the same reason I just said. But remember, whichever method you chose, stay consistent throughout the whole document. Rules for listing correctly, the important thing is to be consistent throughout the list. Here is an example of a grammatically wrong least. There are various harmful effects of deforestation. Rainfall diminishes, soil is rotted and flooding. This list is not consistent. The first two items present a verb, while the last item, flooding, is only a noun. Remember, the first item dictates the pattern after list. So let's fix this example. Now, the list is consistent because each item presents a noun without a verb. To write consistently and efficiently avoid relinking the starting word of the list to each item. We can see the connection even without it. For instance, here, the starting phrase, the N02, was repeated twice. This is inefficient since the reader can see the connection to the starting word even without rewriting it. Now it's nice and concise. Foreign language learning involves the need to practice regularly and use a dictionary. But you shouldn't repeat the definite article when the distinction is expressed between the items, like when the word between is used to present the list. Also, you shouldn't repeat it to infinitive where there is a risk of confusion, such as wave far away phrases. Here, although the two verbs aren't near each other, I could have left on the one to infinitive because the connection to it would be obvious. Still, with too close together verbs, there is no need to repeat too, though you could, for example, a group of companies were released to build and operate one of the most advanced digital mobile phone systems in the world. As for the use of indefinite articles in lists, it's better to use an article before every item. Then sounds more formal, reads better, and enhances the emphasis. But adding only an indefinite article before the first item is also correct. I should mention that the first item that acquires an indefinite article must have one, which in the second example case is oval face. But for the following items, you can choose whether to add indefinite articles or not. We went a bit off track. So let's return to the comma with the last topic for this lesson. Multiple adjectives before a noun. When more than one adjective modifies the noun, Acoma sets apart the adjectives just as the example shows. But stay shell. If both adjectives do not individually modify the noun, should not be separated with a comma. In this example, the car makes it sound as if the toys Brighton blue. However, what we actually want to say is that the toy is bright blue. So let's remove this column. Also, a comma is vital when an adjective or adverb is repeated for emphasis. For example, this is a huge, huge type of play. Great. We're halfway there. The first part was more of an introduction to the simple common roles for the coma. While in the next part, we will dive even deeper. So let's hop to the second part and slay the dragon. 17. Correcting Comma Errors – Part 1: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 18. Commas — Part 2: The coma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. Here is a glimpse of how comma looks in Japanese and Arabic. But without further ado, let's continue our lessons on the comma. Which Vs that when do we add commas? There is a key rule to each word we peak to define a noun. In a defining class. We use that in non-defining clauses, we use which? Remember, if you can remove the defining clause without destroying the message of the sentence, the clause is non-essential and you add which, but if the clause is essential, you add that to make things clearer and answer the question from the title. Here are some examples. When you use which to explain or define a noun, pair it with commerce. But when a description begins with that, don't add commerce. There is a subtle difference. You may notice when reading the examples we've written that can you tell what it is? Well, the word which entitles his wine refrigerator started to leak. Whereas the word that says the only one of these refrigerators started to leak. So if there are two or more objects, we want to use that to define the object we are talking about and set it apart from the others. Alright, but what happens when we define people? Who clauses? When describing a person or a group? The word who can be used with or without commas. For example, the patient who wears a button shirt will enter next. If the information provided by the WHO clause is only extra information, then you must separate it from the rest of the sentence with commas, just like weeds. Conversely, if it's required to define the noun amid the commerce, similar to that introductory matter, when a word or phrase occurs at the beginning of a sentence, a commercial usually separated from the main clause. As you can see, I separated the words yes. And nevertheless from the domain clauses by using a comma. There are two major alleles committed with compound sentences, the comma splice and the fused sentence. The comma splice is one. Writers separate the two independent clauses in a compound sentence with a comma alone, which isn't enough. The fused sentence is when writers pair two independent clauses into one compound sentence without using any punctuation. If you spotted these arrows, there are three ways you can choose to join the independent clauses. The first is coordinating conjunctions. Use a comma before the coordinating conjunction that unites two independent clauses, like the words but, and so, as you can see in the example, on a side note, if the subject does not appear in front of the second verb, a comma is usually are needed. For example, he thought quickly but still did not answer correctly. In this sentence, the only subject is he at the start, and no subject appears after the coordinating conjunction. But another method to link independent clauses is we've conjunctive adverbs. Use a semicolon before a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase, like they'll fall, however, all thus, that links two independent clauses and add a comma after the conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase. This might look familiar to you because I talked about this in the semicolon lesson. But just as a reminder, I also added it here. The third option is to fuse these two ways I just showed you into one which grants the sentence a more formal tone. Coordinating conjunction plus conjunctive adverbs. Another option is two independent clauses connected by coordinating conjunction and a conjunctive adverbs. In such a case, add a comma before the coordinating conjunction, but avoid inserting a comma after the conjunctive adverb. This might sound confusing. So let's see some examples. As we have the coordinating conjunction if the subjects does not appear in front of the conjunctive adverb, Acoma is unnecessary. For example, he accepted her offer and thus became sheriff. But if there is a subject, we add a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Accepted theories can provide satisfactory results and thus we can avoid experiments. In this last part, I want to focus on commerce. Independent clauses. Unlike an independent clause or dependent clause, cannot stand alone as a full sentence. For example, when other prices go up, something happens. The most common conjunctions and prepositions used to link a dependent clause are IV, sense when, as, while, because, end, unless. If the sentence begins with a dependent clause, use a comma separated from the independent clause. Because I was running late for work. I talked briefly. But if the independent clause comes before the dependent clause, omit the comma. I talked briefly because I was running late for work. If we held a contest about the most common punctuation mark, There's no question that the full stop will win the first place. But in its shadow, the comma will always add a second place. So as a proofreader, go through all the possible l's I taught you to ensure no writer is misusing this mark. 19. Correcting Comma Errors – Part 2: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 20. Hyphens and Dashes: The hyphen and dash and M dash look very similar. How do you tell them apart and how do you know that you use them correctly? In this lesson, you will discover the distinct functions of each mark and how to punctuate them correctly. Hyphens, compound words. A compound word is formed when we combine two or more words to form a single item or idea. There are three types of compound words. Open compounds written as separate words. Closed compounds written as a single word, and hyphenated compounds towards linked with a hyphen. As always, I'm well-prepared and brought you some examples. When unsure, consult the dictionary to determine whether a term should be hyphenated or not. Because the source or hyphen arrows is when out of luck of knowledge. Although Zeus open compounds as though they were closed compounds. So keep an IPL default. These mistakes, compound adjectives, the most difficult compound words to deal with our compound adjectives. The general rule is hyphenate a compound adjective if placed before the noun, it modifies, but not if placed after the noun. In the first example, long-term is used to define the solution. But in the second example, long-term is not defining a noun. Therefore, a hyphen is unneeded. Remember, we insert a hyphen between words to ensure a clear description of the noun. To illustrate that a blue striped snake is a snake with blue stripes and not a blue snake with some stripes. But when we don't use compound words as an adjective, this issue doesn't exist and the hyphen is redundant. However, there are two exceptions to these rules, prefixes and suffixes in the suffix Lee, if the compound adjective begins with an adverb ending in LEA, don't add a hyphen. But if the adverb is a part of a larger compound adjective, use a hyphen. This is a poorly made bread. This is a not so poorly made bread. Why the different treatment you might ask? Because it's obvious that the adverb modifies the verb beside it as adverbs always do and not the noun. But if we use more than two words to modify a noun, we want to clarify the white compound. We created the prefix re. Use a hyphen with the prefix re only when remains again. And omitting the hyphen may confuse readers. We've another word, we should recover from illness. In this example, readers not mean again, so no hyphen is needed. I have recovered the sofa twice. This time. It's different, really does mean again, and omitting the hyphen would cause confusion with the word recovered, which can mean fixed or regained. Whenever a vowel follows the prefix, you should add a hyphen to make reading the word easier. For example, I will really edit the course and make it exceed any students expectations. The letter e is a vowel, so I added the hyphen. As for other suffixes and prefixes, the rule repeats itself. If the lack of a hyphen can confuse readers, add a hyphen. Numbers whenever a number is used to define a noun, add a hyphen. Here are some examples of common uses of hyphens. We have numbers, time her 15-minute presentation proved decisive in the case, outcome. Pages, HAL, 9000 plus pages novel became a bestseller. Fractions, That's a half-baked idea if I ever heard one. And here's the two year olds favorite food was yogurt. Using the hyphen, the reader knows that both words function as a unit to alter the noun in front. This applies whether he wrote The number in words or digits. But remember, the use of 50 ends with numbers is only essential when describing a noun. Don't use hyphens when you're just talking about the amount. And dashes, so named because they are about the same width as an uppercase N are often confused with hyphens. As the middle brother in the dashed family, the en dash is wider than the hyphen, but nevertheless and then the em dash. So without further ado, I will now showcase several uses for this type of dash. Span or range of numbers. When writing the span or range of numbers, dates or time link the numbers, we have an en dash. For example, my part-time job demands eight to 12 walk hours per day. This rule though, does not apply when you introduce the range with the words from or between, as you can see in the examples. But why is it wrong in the first place? Well, omitting the word that follows from causes the sentence to be grammatically incomplete. That's why you should live the word to or through, as is. The en dash is also used to represent scores, conflicts, directions, and geographical connections. To sum up, there is no denying that compared to the confusing hyphen, the en dash is like a walk in the park. It's rules are much simpler and not affected by whether the message is clear, all vague. The same can be said on the em dash, which is also simple to master. If I'm your instructor, of course. The em dash, roughly the width of an uppercase M, is often referred to as the long dash. As a more pronounced substitute for commas, parenthesis, and columns, the em dash can enhance readability and sentence variety. Same as the bench player. It waits for the moment it was swapped. A punctuation mark like commas. To improve readability and variety, you can swap comas with em dashes. Did you notice the difference? Now, thanks to the em dashes, the middle phrase draws more attention. Swap or emphasis with en dashes. If you wish to emphasize the peripheral content, em dash will fit the task. Conversely, if you want a more invisible parent fecal material, use parentheses instead. As you can see in the first example, it's easy to skip the middle phrase within the parenthesis. But in the second example, the readers are less likely to miss the middle phrase between the em dashes. Swap columns with em dashes, like LAL, for the sake of emphasizing an em dash is preferable to a column. In this example case, the highlight will be a result or an answer. And finally, let's look at the last function, the em dash header. And in addition, an em dash can symbolize a whole word missing or parts of a word. A common scenario for this use is an interruption. And if you wish, you can also replace an em dash. We have two hyphens, whichever method the writer prefers, ensure he adheres to it. In a nutshell, hyphens are short links merging multiple words into one. And dashes are links that symbolize a span or range of numbers. And em dashes are punctuation marks that help emphasize phrases. And that's it. We're done. Unlike in this triple mock lesson. Next, we will dive into the single mark known as the apostrophe. So until next time. 21. Locating Hyphens and Dashes Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 22. Apostrophes: Apostrophes have two main uses indicating a possession or a contraction. Contractions should be avoided in academic writing, but possessive apostrophes are used in all type of writing. Here we go, contractions. And contraction is a simplified version of a word or group of words that excludes some letters or sounds. For example, let's daunt couldn't eats. Oh, she's new tie is a funny instructor. It's true. My humor has no bounds. And here the apostrophe with the letter S replaces the word is. Similarly. We can also use this contraction to replace the word has on us. Sometimes we mistake the use of it's with an apostrophe and its without an apostrophe. It's is the possessive form of it. While it's with an apostrophe is a contraction of it is, for example, she thinks is, it is in the car. The car needed. It's possessive form of eight brakes repaired. Here is a small historical fact. Up until 300 years ago, people wrote the possessive form of it as it's with an apostrophe. But from then, we started using aids with an apostrophe only when we mean it is or it has. I suppose it was quite confusing back then. Possessives. How to possessives relate to apostrophes? Well, adding an apostrophe and S to a singular noun shows possession. We are having a party at John's house. Michelle drove his friend's car. But different rules apply when showing possession with a parallel. Now, if the noun ends in S, We join an apostrophe after the S. If the noun ends in a letter other than S, we add both an apostrophe and S, children's toys. The parallel noun ends in a letter other than S. Rainy days fault. The parallel noun ends in the letter S. This rule though, can differ, depends on this tile guide you follow. If you're a writer doesn't have a style guide, it's okay to follow the method here. Also, when you have a singular proper noun that ends with an S, use only an apostrophe. Mr. John's first novel, The Beatles first album, shared an individual possessives. Third position is indicated by a single apostrophe. Coby, mark, and Brittany's parents on three share the same parents. How do we know when to categorize at least as shirt possession if all own the same thing that's written after the apostrophe. In this case, all three shell the same parents. Individual position is indicated by apostrophes For each side. For example, this course is based on the taels and so bouquets, proofreading knowledge, each instructor brought his own knowledge to the table. Also, this sentence is incorrect. I am the sole brain behind this course. Somehow, you know it's true. Well, that's it Everybody. In the next lesson, we will learn how to slash and dice incorrect uses of this latch punctuation mark. So as always, I'll meet you there. 23. Detecting Apostrophe Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 24. Slashes: The slash, also known as the solidous, has several uses, most of which should be avoided in formal writing. Also, while it is rare, prevent the rider from using a backslash in place of a slash? Yes, Some writers do that. But putting aside these general notes, Let's get into the specifics of when and how to use the slash to indicate pair. For better writing efficiency, we can aggravate parallel with a slash membership cost $10 parallel here. You can find this use on jobs, websites, or in informal letters. To replace or to divide two choices. We can use the slash as a shorthand for or he or she can pay the amount in cash or credit when we use a slash at the start, only capitalize the first word has seen in the example. But don't allow the writer to overuse the slash to express. Or it can suggest laziness in the reader's eyes. Signify conflict or connection. Like the en dash, we can use the slash to signify a conflict or a connection between two things. In the example, I'm using an en dash to show the connection. But I can also use a slash for the same task to indicate to yield span. Instead of writing 1998 and 1999, we overweight and we have a slash. For example, the years 2020, 21 signify the global Corona plague. Hopefully only these two years and no more. I'm sure you've all had enough of these fibers. Plural and singular subjects using a slash, we were plural and singular subjects can be confusing if you can't omit one option over the other, place, one in brackets for clarity. Generally, if you are not proofreading legal documents, it's best to prevent a joint use of plural and singular words with a slash. Here is another example where the writer ends the term we were slash and the letter S. That way the term is both plural and singular. This method is not recommended because the writer now needs to adjust the surrounding contexts as necessary. To mention, it looks awful to avoid such redundancy, I usually leave only the pelvis Aylward. Gender neutral writing. Writing for both genders can be time-consuming and redundant. One solution is to inform readers that you wrote the paper in masculine language, but it is intended for both genders, which is what I suggest my clients to do. Another option is to rewrite sentences with gender-based words to remove the issue entirely. That's all for this one. Feel free to message me if you have any questions, and I will see you in the next lesson. 25. Uncovering Slash Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 26. Quotation Marks: There are several cases in writing when we place quotation marks in pairs around the word or phrase, quotation or direct speech mentioned from another work or scare quotes which express irony. Today we will face these situations and now they are accurate way to punctuate each one. Punctuation following the quote, commas and periods following the quote go inside the quotation marks, despite that being included in the original quotation. Bear in mind that in languages other than English, such as Hebrew, this rule may not apply. Now in the example before you, you can see how I inserted the following coma inside the first quote and the following period inside the last quote. Now this also applies to exclamation points and question marks, but only if the mark is part of the quote itself and not the entire sentence. In the second example, the question appeals within the quotation marks, and thus I also inserted the question mark inside. Yet in the third example, the question appeals outside the quote. That's where the question mark will appear outside is well, punctuation presenting the quote comma. The comma is the most common punctuation mark representing quoted content. Usually we add a comma to introduce a direct speech. For example, the kind of dreams that you can't forget. Mark said, you might recognize this practice from characters dialog in books. But if the writer wrote a partial quote, omit the comma. The general rule is if the quotation blends into the rest of the sentence, the comma comes out. Let's read some examples. We tried to persuade him, but he said, No way. George admitted that he was a bad friend. In addition, be allowed for quotation marks. Use the round reported speech. This is an example of reported speech. We are reporting what George meant as opposed to quoting exactly what he said. After all, it doesn't make sense that George said the quote, he was a bad friend, but rather I was a bad friend. So when you spot reported speech, remove the quotation marks column if the quoted material could stand as a sentence on its own, or the introduction is an independent clause. You can use a colon to present the quote. For example, the guards always shouted the same command, get out. The introduction is an independent clause. Robert said, I have a pen, you can borrow the quoted material could stand as a sentence, which means it's an independent clause. I should note that when the introduction sentence is incomplete, such as in the second example, it's preferable to use a coma rather than a color. Presenting the quote with a period. When you wish to present a block quotation, a long quotation that's indented from the rest of the texts. And a period or a column in the example below, a period was used before the long quotation. But similarly, it could have ended with a colon. Double and single quotation marks use single quotation marks inside double quotation marks when you have a quote within a quote. For instance, Herder asked, Why did you call that man a ridiculous Indian? Emphasizing letters and words, you should use quotation marks when referring to a specific word or a letter. But when you wish to highlight a term, a name, or a phrase, it's acceptable to use Italica or bond. These days, Italica is the most widely used method of adding emphasis, but don't get confused with quotes on specific words. In these cases, quotation marks are preferable. Feet and inches. In informal writing, feet and inches are expressed with quotation marks. For example, 50 feet and ten interests. That did everyone. And other punctuation mark is in the bag. Our next and final mark will be parentheses. Don't hold up. Jump straight to the last lesson of the punctuation checklist. I, as always, we'll meet you there. 27. Finding Quotation Marks Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 28. Parentheses: Parenthesis. Oh, I know them. They are those round things that trap boards inside them. But what is their purpose exactly? Well, let me enlighten you. We put the parentheses around the word, phrase or sentence to provide additional information while separating it from the main sentence. Treat parenthesis and the words inside them as separate from the rest of the sentence. Any sentence that contains parentheses should still make sense if the parentheses are removed. Let me show you what I mean. Avoid grammatical alteration. Avoid grammatical alterations due to the parenthetical material. For instance, turning the sentence subjects from singular to plural, all changing the sentence tends. The owner and his dog went for a walk. This sentence will also be valid if I say the owner went for a walk. Thus, the sentence is correct, but things look different. On the second example, the president and his assistant, we're expected to arrive by 1080. We don't consider what's inside the parentheses. So if I read without the parentheses saying the President where is wrong? So let me fix that volume. Placement of the full stop. If the parenthetical sentence stands alone, place it after the surrounding sentence and ended with a full stop within the closing parenthesis before you, the parentheses is outside the main sentence. Therefore, we add the period inside the parenthesis when peripheral content can stand alone, added within the sentence and close it with a full stop outside the closing parenthesis. As you can see in the example below. Well that no punctuation mark should set off a closing parenthesis from the word before it ended. Perfectly material cannot end with a comma. If the graphical material needs and exclamation point or question mark, but mount a period, set the mark inside the parenthesis. Of course, if the exclamation point or question mark relates to the surrounding sentence and not the brown fecal material, the mark must appear outside. Abbreviations on the first use of our number ration, you should consider readers that might not understand it. So present the full term and write its abbreviation in parenthesis. Later. Writing their provision can be done without the full term. Since readers now understand its meaning, I always suggest this method to each other I work with. But if the readers are likely to know the reference, the author might redeem these unnecessary. And with these final words, you've completed the punctuation checklist. Congratulations. Now that you have conquered the mountain called the punctuation checklist, it's time to start climbing the hill known as the other language mistakes checklist. This upcoming section is less lessons packed. It as essential as the punctuation checklist was. Once you're done, you will finally be able to proudly display your expert proofreader certificate and a new set of skills. So what are you waiting for advance on to the next proofreading lesson? 29. Catching Parentheses Errors: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 30. Capitalization: Unlike most languages in English, we capitalize specific letters. But why do we complicate things by giving each letter two different forms? Well, capital letters are useful signals for readers. They have several purposes to show the beginning of a sentence, to highlight essential words in a title, to signal proper names and formal titles, and more. Proper nouns and adjectives, we classify nouns and adjectives as either common or proper. A common noun conveys a generic term, like dog, while a proper noun names a precise term, German shepherd, a specific type of dog. Below is a list of proper nouns and adjectives that require capitalization. You can take a minute and quickly read through them. Among them, you have days, months, holidays, names, languages, time periods and events, nationalities, races, and religions. These rules are essential to set proper nouns apart from their generic siblings, the common nouns, and to signify that the people, places or things they stand for r in some way, Special. Also capitalize a person's title, if followed by the name doctor, Dr. Linda, capitalize words like mom and grandpa, if written without relation words, looks like my mom is late. Looks like mom is late. Pronoun I. The pronoun I is always capitalized no matter where it falls in a line. For example, you and I are going to the movies later tonight. We capitalize I for two reasons. To add weight to this pronoun, use to describe the individual writer and to avoid a difficult to read lowercase i. If you would write the lowercase I by itself, it looks like it broke off from a word or GOT lost or had some other accident. That's why we prefer to capitalize I. The first word in every sentence. As the title suggests, we always capitalize the first word of a sentence. As you might guess, by capitalizing the first word in every sentence, we make, it's evident when a sentence begins. The first award in quotations capitalize the first word of a complete quote. For example, the waiter said, my boss will be here shortly, but he never came. Don't capitalize the first word of a partial quote unless you wrote it at the sentence start. To illustrate. Hemingway said that the way to learn if someone is trustworthy is to trust him. Also, if the author split the complete quote into two partial quotes, capitalize the first word where the original quote began. Capitalization after a colon. Usually we don't capitalize after a colon. There are several vegetables I dislike, tomato, carrot, and eggplant. But there are three exceptions to this rule. First, you can use a capital letter if the text on the right is a full sentence. On a side note, some style guides, like the Chicago Manual of Style, say to capitalize the word following a column only if there are at least two complete sentences following the column. Just like the example here, in case of uncertainty as your client about what style guide he prefers you to follow. Second, you can use a capital letter if a short phrase introduces the text. For example, my philosophy, there are no failures, just results to learn from. And exception number three, you can use a capital letter in case a colon presents a quotation. David Allen once said, You can do anything, but not everything. Capitalization after a colon differs between style guides. For example, you are often expected to capitalize the first word after a colon in legal documents. So to ensure that you're proofreading properly, the client, if he has a style guide for you to follow, if he doesn't have one, feel free to use the methods I talked to you here. Capitalization after a semicolon. However, don't capitalize after semicolon or less, the word is ordinarily capitalized. Although a semicolon can separate two independent clauses, they are considered a part of the same sentence. As you can see, the word, however, in the example is written with a lowercase letters. Of course, if the first word is a proper noun or the pronoun I, you need to capitalize it. That's true in all cases, including columns and semi-colons. Capitalization inside parentheses? The answer is simple. Only if the surfaces are after the full stop, capitalize the first word within it. If it's before, don't capitalize it. I'm sure you've noticed this by now, but here are some examples. Now, onto the last capitalization rule. Capitalized words entitles words you want to capitalize the first word, adjectives, adverbs, nouns, verbs, even short ones like ease, pronouns, and the last word. Words, you don't want to capitalize articles, conjunctions, and prepositions. For example, the total of the famous story, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Just so you know, some style guides said to capitalize conjunctions and prepositions containing many letters, such as inside. In conclusion, we use capital letters for clarity, symbolizing the start of a sentence or a quote, and adding weight to proper nouns. Capitalization follows general rules, Medicins, different style guides often have different rules. You should always ask the writer what he prefers. Well, that's it everybody. The next lesson will be on clarifying syntax. I'll meet you there. 31. Clarify Syntax: Syntax. It may sound like a bowling grammar term, but correct syntax can mean the difference between a clear, accurate message and utter humiliation. So what is syntax? Syntax is the second name for sentence structure. The rules of syntax exist to make sentences clear and consistent. Pool syntax occurs for several reasons, and one of them is misplaced modifiers. Sentence modifiers. And modifier is a word or phrase intended to change or modify and other part of the sentence, for example, in the following sentence, the word burger is modified by the adjective vegetarian. I'm going to the cat cafe for a vegetarian burger. Usually a misplaced modifier happens when the modifier is a phrase. While watching a movie. People who text on their phone are very annoying. Here, the misplaced modifier is while watching the movie, readers can get the wrong message that when someone is watching a movie, any person in the world who texts on the phone is annoying. To avoid a possible misinterpretation, you should move the sentence subject to the start. People who text on their phone while watching a movie are very annoying. Clarity of the subject. Happy about her upcoming promotion. That trip home was full of singing. Doesn't sounds alright. The incorrect sentence is stating that the trip home subject was happy about her upcoming promotion. But last time I checked trips don't have promotions or jobs. Instead, we should write it as semi. Who is the happy individual liver promotion. Happy about an upcoming promotion, some assigned on the way home. To clarify before, we had a misplaced modifier that altered our message. But here, the subjects that didn't fit it's modifier. Let's examine another scenario. Watching how Zack played. Several mistakes became evident immediately. Oh great. But who discovered the mistakes? The incorrect sentence lacks something or someone to perform the action. Like we fall. The modifiable phrase defines the wrong subject, which is civil mistakes. To fix that, I rewrote the sentence and added the teacher as the one who did the action. Alright, let me show up in your syntax eyesight for unclear subjects. With one last example. Being an effective communicator makes it easier for the team to follow someone. But who is someone who is being an effective communicator, always check for a clear subject and description of someone or something to fix both issues in one swoop, Let's join the two. It is easier for the team to follow someone who is an effective communicator. I want to remind you that you can write without a subject in an imperative command sentence. In imperative sentences were combined is being given. The subject of the sentence is understood as being the pronoun new. Misplaced location modifiers. She served cake to guests on paper plates. This sentence makes it seem like the guest. Well, on paper plates, the goal is to modify the cake. So let's bring closer the modifier to the noun, cake. She served cake on paper plates to guests. Lesson learned. Always aim to bring closer the modifier to its subject. There are all sorts of misplaced modifiers, but I won't go over all of them. Don't get discouraged. In the following assignment, I will introduce more of them. Now, let me present a method for assuring more readable syntax. Use the active voice. Writing an active voice is one of the most effective ways to keep your syntax clear. This indicates that the subject is carrying out the sentence action. Here is an incorrect example. Hiking up the undoes, a bottle of water is drunk by him, except for the passive voice. Our coordinates descendants also implies that the bottle of water was the one doing the hiking. It's a little unsettling to imagine a floating bundle hiking or mountain. Here is a better active voice version. Hiking up the unders. He drinks a bottle of water. But why use active voice? Well, hero for reasons, it leads to clear and concise sentences that use fuel words. It makes a writing much easier to read. Active voice is more direct and to the point, and active voice makes writing more interesting. The active voice is a cornerstone of tight writing principles. But while it is often better to write in active voice, in some cases, using passive voice is the right approach. When do I use passive voice? The actor is unknown, all irrelevant. You want to be vague about who is responsible. You're talking about a general truth. Maybe want to emphasize the person or thing acted on all your writing in a scientific journal that traditionally relies on passive voice. But when other passive voice is optional, you want to switch to an active voice. As you have seen, lack of clarity and perception of the information can often wreck havoc on the author or speaker's intentions. That's why this proofreaders, we always leave time to search and fix poor syntax. And as proofreaders, we also leave time to check common spelling mistakes, which is exactly what your next lesson is all about. 32. Fixing Passive Voice and Misplaced Modifiers: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 33. Common Spelling Mistakes: The first line of defense against spelling errors is your spellchecker. It can be as simple as Microsoft spellchecker or as intricate as Grammarly. Unfortunately, a spellchecker won't catch every spelling mistake, such as wrong words. Instead, you must roll up your sleeves and hunt for these hidden arrows on your own. That's when this lesson comes in handy. Here you will learn the types of spelling else that is political will miss. Verify spellings, people's names. Incorrect spreading of a name isn't a typo, but a mistake. What can you do to avoid it? Coupa Google Search tab open when you proofread and lookup array names proper spinning in your text. For example, Stephanie and not Stephanie. I'm sure you also appreciate it when your name is spelled correctly. Companies names. When a conscious readers parts of spelling or lowercase l, it makes an article looks Rp. It could be Copyblogger, we've space or Copyblogger we've two capital letters. Instead of the correct spreading Copyblogger, we've only one capital letter. The same goes for names of places or historical events. As a proofreader, double-checking those proper nouns is a part of your job. Uncountable nouns. While we can recite count nouns as one or more PAN, pans, we cannot name uncountable nouns like water or fish. So you should recognize non-count nouns to prevent incorrect addition of an edge to them. Throughout this process, we have obtained valuable feedback and not feedbacks. Also, as you can see in the image, we do not usually use the indefinite article or n with uncountable nouns. And we usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. Using the verb is. If your memory of uncountable nouns is foggy, you should spare some time to study them. Is it cannot, cannot or maybe can't. Well, Kant is a contraction of cannot. Thus, cannot is better for formal writing. If it's an ad or article you're proofreading cannot is preferable over cat. Family, relatives, for example, don't talk formally to each other. So a mom can say to our son, sorry, I can't do your homework volume only in a feminine voice, of course. But if it's aligned from an academic article or other formal document, cannot, is the right choice. For example, we cannot allow these obstacles to slowest step. Don't use cannot. When you mean Can not, the only time you're likely to see cannot written as separate words is when the word can happen to precede some other phrase that starts with not. Since the phrase not, but requires the word not to appear on its own, we separated from the word can't. British and American spelling differences. There are two main forms of written English, British and American. And depending on your audience, country of residence, you must adjust the spelling of certain words. To showcase. Here are some differences when writing the word versus color or humor, you must take the English form into account. Sadly, many others are unaware of the exact variations between British and American English. As a result, a client may hire you to also correct any wrong spelling choices. In the next lesson, I will show you the software I use to detect those differences. Homophone pairs. Homophones are words that have the same sound but different meanings and spellings. If you wrote the wrong word as spellchecker won't state your mistake as the word is free of spelling errors. Here is a list of some homophones. Steel can be said in two ways, whether night and the word for. So stay sharp. Don't fully rely on a spellchecker. Go through the text and inspect it word by word. That's the only way to do it. If you're worried due to miss the homophones lurking in the text, get to know them better. Let me showcase some frequent homophones mistakes. The word then we have E and a. Then we've E is a versatile word used to show the order of how things happened. Then we've a, is a subordinating conjunction you can use to make comparisons. For example, back then he was living in New York. He said nobody works harder than low anionic. A good way to know which one fits the sentence is to ask yourself if then presents a comparison. If he does use it, then we've learned her a. If it doesn't, then we have the letter E, the word effect with the letter E and a effect to the letter a is a verb that signifies influence. Effect of the letter E is a noun and is the result of an action or change. Your actions can affect the outcome. Hollywood her irritated him civilly, but had no long-term effect. In short, if the word expresses an action, use effect with the letter a. If the word presents the outcome, use effect with the letter E. The variations of the word there. There we have w. E can act as different parts of speech. And depending on how it's used in a sentence, most commonly, it is used to indicate a location or position. Then we have 1, e is a pronoun and they'll weave an apostrophe is the contraction for they are. You can start your investigation. They're good friends, share their feelings, their hopes, and their dreams. Because whatever they are doing, this guys think they are untouchable. The word compliment with E and I, compliment with murder, I means to say something nice about someone or something. Compliment with the letter E Min, something that enhances or completes. To complement my scarf again, you should complement your nutrition. We vitamins very similar, but totally different. And lastly, the word bear, right? Bella, we've EA, when referring to the animal bear, or to indicate the act of holding or supporting, right, bear with me as an adjective, indicating lack of clothing or adornment. But I bear responsibility for their deaths. We need to keep expenses to a bare minimum. The word bear with the letter a can mean a reduced rate even when the topic isn't about clothing. In the second example, this word is used to say that expenses should be reduced as much as possible. So the moral of the story is, you can rely solely on a spellchecker as level arrows that only human eyes can spot. Unless you know a software that can detect any spelling mistakes I showed you, you must inspect the text for these animals with your own two eyes. Next up is the last lesson of this section. Consistent style. You're almost finished. Don't stop and go watch it now. I as always, we'll meet you there. 34. Consistent Style: Proofreading involves much more than checking and correcting grammar, spelling and punctuation. Creating consistency within one document or several is an important part of our work. Proofreading for consistency serves two goals. First, it keeps a consistent writing style that makes reading easier. Second, it eliminates inconsistencies that might confuse readers. In this lesson, I will teach you what sort of inconsistencies to look for. Headings and subheadings when proofing, ensure that heading styles are consistent. If most main headings Alan 16 points are real, while some are in Fourteen Points, New Times Roman, it can confuse or readers when they are trying to find information in the documents. The same rule applies to overall texts, whether it's a Word document or a web article or an academic paper, ensure the font stays consistent. And speaking of fonts, I want to mention that some fonts can help you proofread better. There are two common suggestions for fonts that you can use when proofreading. Comic Sans. This is a highly informal font which works great if you usually deal with formal fonts and want to avoid your mind filling the gaps. Dp costume, magneto, this one was developed by the proofreading community to help readers spot common spending. Else. Though today, we can spot spelling errors using most built-in spell checkers. Dates, and time. Here you can see four different ways to write a date and for other ways to write the time of day. So you should make sure that all dates and times in the document follow the same style. Numbers in sentences. Spinning out numbers versus using numerals is largely a matter of the writers preference. What's important is to stay consistent with your choice. But when writing complex numbers, it's recommended to use numerals. Who wants to read an eight digit numbers spelled out British and American spelling. When a reader notices that the word that ended in S a few paragraphs ago now ends in zed. He immediately questions the writer's ability. For this reason, it's imperative, you know, to identify the differences between the two in which warms. If you are interested, there are online tools that can highlight these mistakes. Volume. For example, with Grammarly, you can set the English spelling that suits your document and it will alert you of any inconsistencies in the text. I believe this option is also for free users. Would add punctuation. There are several ways to break consistency within or between bulleted lists. I will use the four main ones. Number one, capitalization in consistencies. Items of single words or titles can be both capitalized or not, depending on your style guide, one way or the other. The other should stick to his decision. Number 2, punctuation in consistencies. There are three punctuation options for liabilities. As I showed you in the colons lesson, commas, semi-colons and no punctuation. Whichever option the author chose, he should stick to it. Or the way that means no lists that use different punctuation options within or between them. Number three, symbol inconsistencies. It can be small circles, squares, or any other symbol, but adhering to only one of them is a must. You can, however, use a different symbol in a list within a least for clarity. And finally, number four, items grammatical in consistencies. I already explained this topic in the Collins lesson, but I will remind you if you forgot, some verbs cannot end in I-N-G. Well, summing S, if there are inconsistencies between items, a mix of races and complete sentences, rewrite them to be only phrases or sentences. That's it. I tried to be consistent in giving you a well-thought, informative lessons and I believe I succeeded. I hope. 35. Academic, Web, & Print Media ProofreadingTests: A practice activity or waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the proofreading resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills, go check it out. You will find that in the course resources. 36. Editing Preview Video: If you wish to enhance your writing skills and become an editing specialist, then my course, edit writing like a pro is exactly for you. You can examine the manuscript for hours and missed several mistakes, or you can take my course in spot all unwanted air holes with time to spare. Explore the story editing, checklist, and descend your novels writing level to new heights in readers to the pages, or discovered the standard editing checklist preparing you for every editing tasks around the corner. But hold tight, it doesn't end there. My course promises to sharpen your skills. We've several helpful practice activities and free final test. So what are you waiting for joining my course and become an expert writing? Any saw today? 37. Introduction to Editing: Ladies and gentlemen, we arrived at the introduction to editing island. The island is known as the home of two famous boxers, and I will give you tickets to the front row in the upcoming battle. Editing versus proofreading, who will win? Well, depends on the type of editing you need. Editing involves making changes and suggestions to improve the writing and stories equality. It focuses on the core features of writing rather than surface level issues. And editor will pay attention to bowling or redundant texts that he or she can improve and even review the story structure. He aims to make writing more readable and engaging, not to fix grammar or spelling mistakes. He might, but that's not his job. That's when our second Fighter enters the RNC. Proofreading has less ambition than editing and thus is a cheaper service, but it's still performs a vital role. Proofreading is the process of correcting surface errors in writing, such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, and other languages tapes, for example, before writers published the articles, a proofreader checks their work. He omits typos or grammar errors and helps avoid an unprofessional look to the paper. But Stoli writers prefer to pay for an editing process before anything else. It's more important for them to make a captivating book. We writing that draws more readers than a book if no typos, we have enough budget for both processes. Here is the usual order in which they appear. Editing is step 2. Step 1 is writing, of course, and proofreading is step three. In this course, we will focus on the fighters standing, on the arenas lifestyle. The one who always thinks about the audience feelings when they read. Let's meet him in a detailed manner. These are two sections of the course I want you to use as checklists. Whenever you edit, there will be seven areas. You will always check as seen in the standard editing checklist. And if you're editing a story, there will be seven more topics to pay attention to in the books editing checklist. For those who wish to work in editing, let me show how much to ask for as a beginner or an expert. As a beginner, requesting payment of $0.03 per word is reasonable since you have yet to gain any job reviews on Locke's story. Later on, you can try asking for $0.06 per word and see how it goes. I calculated these rates based on payments for editing Jobs and Apple. And while different languages mean different charges, the prices here are customarily for most languages as well. I will erase. A beginner should request around $15 per hour. The low price will allow clients to hire you despite your lack of experience after getting enough work history, you may request $20.5 dollars or even $30 per hour. When I had a lower hourly rate as a beginner, a client gave me seven hours to finish editing his article, except I finished the job after four hours. But since my client was pleased with my work and Adelie delivery, he paid me for all seven hours. My suggestion is don't worry about low hourly rates. Rather, think about what price will fit your clients budget and start gaining work history in varied field. Your expertise means you can demand higher rates. Having a background in particular fields allow you to charge more in that niche search editing job as well, your prior knowledge exceeds others. Still, even if you don't have a degree to wave at your clients, you can expand your work history in a specific niche and low clients with that, I have piles of work proof in translating apps. And when clients need someone to translate their app strings, I always catch our eyes instead of 10 others. It's important to get an accurate overview of the project you are about to start on. Sometimes a client will send you a sample that screams the word mistakes and needs fixes for every second or third word. In such cases, asking for a higher payment is also sensible. High ones received the 20 pages sample of a short novel to proofread. I refused to do it since every third word had a spelling error and it looked like the seven years old wrote it. The client offered me $5 for each page, but I didn't accept his offer because I knew that it wasn't worth the effort. After you gain some editing experience, you can distinguish how long it takes you to edit papers with various types of amounts of L. That's when you will know if a task is worth your time or not. That's it for this lesson. I hope you learned something new from all this. The next lesson is about the usual areas of jobs in editing with examples from Upwork. See you there. 38. Niches & Jobs as an Editor: I hope you wrote some popcorn because this lesson is full of surprises. Fasten your seat belts and stick to our chiral because the right is about to begin. I want present dozens of possible niches, or only one or two, I will present three, the top three niches that are most common. Now that's high level animation. Definitely worth preparing popcorn. Book editors. Book editors Walker full-length manuscripts from a massive variety of categories to choose from. Fiction or nonfiction, thriller, biography anymore. Books editing is a major commitment and one of the most intensive areas of editing. Make sure to familiarize yourself with the world of writing and publishing before you devote yourself to a book editing career. Unlike academic and web articles that often contain less than 10 pages, books include the hundreds of pages. In book editors need to consider both writing and story elements. From one side, editing books is a profitable job, but on the other side, It's also time-consuming and complex, but not for you. After you finish my course. Academic editors, please fly over here. Thank you. To make a career out of academic editing, you will need a postgraduate degree in the relevant subject. It's not for everyone and is usually only a viable career option for those who already had a master's or PhD. For those of you who have a degree, academic editing is a smart choice. The Moscow's your knowledge is, the higher your salary will be. And this niche demands both editing skills and academic knowledge. If you wish for profitable job, this is a good option. Plus there will be less competition in a specific LEI use specializing. Wow, these effects are only getting better and better. Web editorials create and edit content for various online sources. As a web editor, you might need to know how to apply search engine optimization tactics and sometimes to publish your writing with tools like WordPress, variety, the web editing strong point, and my motive to be a web editor all you receive a variety of articles about diverse products or topics, then learn new themes. Also, SEO tactics for those who don't know are about choosing words that get more traffic for the article. If you tell a client that you have SEO expertise, you will have better chances of getting hired by Weber the toes. All right, are you ready? Let's open the door to another dimension. This is an example of a book editing job that also requires experience we ride. Sometimes knowing how to edit isn't enough. Clients may ask for further specialization in proofreading skills in developmental editing, or even in writing. Blogging, little arc niche. We run a large and successful blog in the arc niche. Every month we published several blog posts written by talented artists. We are looking for talented Alito, we've native English to join us for an ongoing assignment editing around two articles per week. As you can see, this web editing job is about art, but doesn't ask for previous experience in the topic. You can jump blindly into the subject and learned about art while editing. It's a great example of why I like web editing, despite the higher competition. Need someone to polish my research proposal for PhD application. I wrote a four-page research proposal on the economics of education for PhD application. And I need someone to polish my languages. Although this is an academic editing job, the client doesn't ask for a degree, but rather a person who have solid language skills and experience editing academic documents. It shows that we've both editing and proofreading skills. You can find jobs in all three niches. Still, you better pick one topic and focus all your efforts to specialize in it. The competition is harsh and you need to give clients arisen to choose you. Have you decided which niche feeds you the mouse? Before the end of the course, you will have editing tests in all three niches. Maybe that will help you choose. For now, I hope that you enjoyed the information I presented. And if not, I'm sure that these expensive effects are enough incentive for you to keep watching my course. 39. 6 Main Types of Editing: No matter the niche you want to work in, B, It's MOOC editing or web editing. You still better recognize the coming editing services. The next two types are related to book editing and all the usual editing options for writers. Copy editing assures the text is free of grammatical errors and adheres to the standard editing checklist. The copy editors job is not only to proofread the manuscript, he or she must ensure that the content is consistent, correct, and efficient. In short, a copy editor goes through proofreading and standard editing checklist to check for accuracy, consistency, and errors in grammar. Contrary to editing, which avoids proofreading and includes the book Editing Checklist. Copy editing focuses less on the big picture and more on the writings details on a sentence by sentence spaces. If a writer considers is story elements or content believable and well-structured, it hesitant about his writing quality, copy editing is the right choice. Developmental editing, also called structural editing, is looking at the big picture. Whereas the copy editor takes a micro view, drilling into the detail, the developmental editor goes macro. Their job is to enhance your ideas, organization, structural, your book's content better and smoother transition between ideas. Not to examine spelling and grammar. In short, a developmental editor uses the book editing checklist. Yet developmental editing isn't intended only for stories, feeds, content-based books and articles to. Sadly, I don't focus on this side of developmental editing. Doing my curves, you will learn about story developmental aspects including organization, structure and transition of story elements. So when is this type needed? If a writer is confident in his writing quality, it has attempt. That is, story elements or content are full of holes and pull the structured developmental editing is the desired choice. Line editing, as the name implies, a line editor performs a line-by-line review of the manuscript. He does not look at the big picture, but focuses on word choice and whether each sentence has the intended impact. To make sure each sentence works as intended, a line editor checks for clear and concise syntax. For example, the sentence while watching a movie, people who text on the phone are very annoying, is not clear. Who is watching the people? Or does it mean that when you watch a movie, all people who text on their phone are very annoying. So a line editor would change it to people who text on their phone while watching the movie are very annoying. He also distinguishes plot and character in consistencies and corrects mood and tone. Line editing perfect your manuscripts quality and style, which is why it's also known as stylistic editing. If you wrote a commercial or a speech and you want your sentences to deliver a clear and impactful message. Line editing is a smart choice. Align it all follows both the standard editing checklist and the book Editing Checklist. But besides these two, he also clarifies syntax and corrects mood and tone. Evaluation, editing and evaluation. And it looks at your manuscript to assess the structure, flow, completeness, and quality. The editor will usually provide a short message that summarize his key points, areas of concern, and suggestions for the book. The evaluation should direct the writer on how to get the story to a publishable state. For example, going back to square one and heavy and developmental editor, working over or hiring a line editor to help we voice and tone. Evaluation editing sheds light on hidden weak points of a writer's manuscript. It helps authors that debate what kind of editing their book needs or whether they're self-correction will suffice. Proofreading. Proofreading is the last stage of the manuscript editing process. Proofreaders are the grammar inspectors who make sure no spelling or punctuation errors make it to the final version of your work. And proofreader after receives a style guide that notifies him of any unusual spelling or styles in the manuscript. For example, if the offer road a fantasy novel and have invented some words to clear things out. Proofreading is a type of editing service and isn't related to the general term editing. And as chefs sprinkled cherries on the cake for final touches, proofreaders check punctuation, grammar, and spelling to grant writing its perfection. Fact checking. If a writer has a lot of niche information, he knew his book, especially if it's a topic he has never written on before, he might consider getting a fact checker. A fact checker takes note of all the factual references in the book and confirms them via external sources. If he finds any insecurities, he will alert the writer right away. Sometimes competitors are fact checking to, for instance, when they edit an academic document or other fact-based papers. We will have a future lesson about this process, then I will avail essential fact checking steps. That's it for this one. So which editing type caught your attention the most? Go back and think about that for a minute. Our next lesson will be Keyboard Shortcuts and autocorrect software. Both help not only in editing but in any writing task you will do in the future, but enough spoilers and waiting in the next lesson. 40. Inefficient Phrases and Words: Efficiency is using the least amount of resources possible to achieve the goal. As an editor, you direct the writer to avoid dawn chunky paragraphs to achieve his goal. A clear and concise message. And as you already guessed, cutting inefficient phrases and words is one way to do it. But before we begin, here is an interesting inefficient fact. You didn't know a particular solar panel can convert only 20 percent of available solar energy to electricity under ideal conditions. Imagine how many energy problems we could have solved if solar panels were more efficient. As an editor, you should remove wordy phrases that your reader may regard as extra or inefficient. Let's have a look at some. Yo aim is to be familiar with as many inefficient phrases as possible. Doing editing. Open your eyes for both familiar and new inefficient phrases and replace each one with a tighter word. Fortunately for you, I attached a pre-made least to the lesson on course resources. So don't forget to check it out. Omit fact phrases, phrases like in fact, as a matter of fact, and the fact is, should be removed. These phrases don't add anything to the message. In fact, they are a loophole for readers to stop reading. Or as I should say, without. In fact, they are a loophole for readers to stop reading. Exclude them as soon as they pop up. Avoid negative phrases. Negative sentences often confuse readers and make them work harder to grasp the message, the words no, and not our signs for possible tangled negative sentence. Here of our few examples, no more than can be replaced with utmost. I'm not crazy about the movie, but for its aesthetics element can be replaced with I only like the movies and aesthetic elements. I will not go to the market unless I have two can be replaced with, I will only go to the market if necessary. You can leave negative sentences that aren't too complex and can't be tighter as they are. Yet. Always check negative sentences to see if they're positive version is clearer. Some words are used often, but usually can and should be admitted for sentence efficiency. However, before the showcase begins, here is another interesting inefficient facts. And standard incandescent light bulb converts about 2% of its energy consumption to light and 98% to heat. Talk about inefficient the Remove there. When you talk about a general group, for example, Muslim women wear hijab. Cats are great pets. Also, there should be removed if repeated in a list. For example, the 20s and 30s, saying there twice is unnecessary as long as they are not interrupted by other words. Note that this doesn't apply for a n as they should always appear before singular noun. Really, a lot or after. Seeing suffering is really tall means your too lazy to write exactly how much, how tall is it? Quantified? Swap these vague terms for a more accurate description. Instead of saying that the Empire State Building is quite tall, tell the numbers and domains the readers even more. Believe and think. People are more interested in the facts than they are in vague thoughts. Even if you are writing an opinion piece, readers should understand that based on the context. Combined eye stronger, more impactful verbs and make a sharper tone for the writer. Just uses off just to imply something small or inefficient. Don't add anything to the sentence. In most cases, you can remove the word just without affecting the sentence meaning. For example, I barely arrived in time. Or like when we first met. Both sentences don't really need just, I want to clarify that using just as an adjective or rather than the word only is all right. Using just to quantify that's wrong. That, and then to smooth your text, remove the words that. And then whenever the sentence makes sense without them, and don't start sentences with then, because it makes them clunky and difficult to read. For example, one of the kids said lots of the old places down here had secret rooms. Yet be mindful, natural remove that or then if it might confuse the readers and disturbed the sentence message. For example, the governor announced his new tax plan would be introduced soon. We felt that the readers first impression is that the plan itself was announced moments ago. Thus, this sentence doesn't need that for clarity. Literally and virtually. Both words are often superficialis remove or replace them with something more descriptive and precise. Usually, these words don't add information to the sentence. Eliminate them at all costs. Sorry, I will be less dramatic. Useless adverbs completely, entirely, certainly, absolutely, obviously suddenly and undoubtably. You can remove them from any sentence without affecting its meaning. Use more descriptive terms in their place. Adverbs are vague and all intend to prolong already confusing sentences. In a future lesson, I will show you how to catch and omit them plus explain why. Vary. The leading vary in any sentence won't take away the intended meaning. When you spot very Plus and edit to replace the combination with a single stronger adjective. If you write in Google Search, the sentence omitting the word vary. You can find many replacements. Check it out next time you spot the word vary. So so is another word that doesn't do much deleted without affecting the sentence, meaning. Help plus 2. Two is an optional before an infinitive. And the infinity for help is usually the later action. Thus, if you deleted or added to, there will be no difference in meaning, clarity and efficiency, we'll possible results upon removing two after help. For example, omit information that doesn't aid. Emphasize the main purpose. Except for the words I mentioned here that our mole you should recognize and the meat. You can discover them yourself later through my sample files or the practice activity. What is your task? Go through a list of wordy phrases and inefficient words and learn them by heart. Slowly read the manuscript and spot this pair words. Titan or remove the unnecessary to ensure the sentence contains only the essential. Again, you will find a pre-made list on the lesson or course resources. Here is a tip for you. Try searching in your language unnecessarily words and repetitions or ambiguous words on Google and grow your list as much as possible. This sums your first editing action. Check the following practice activity for sharpening your skills. I trust you understand now the relevance of efficiency. Still don't go overboard and brush your teeth while showering. Even efficiency has limits. Anyway, hope you liked this one. See you in the next lesson. 41. Clarifying Inefficient Sentences: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 42. Redundancy and Repetition: Redundancy is the needless repetition of words or phrases, sentences, paragraphs, or ideas. Remember this, repetition is good for humor. Night for writing. Repetition is good for remembering, not for writing. Repetition is good for our knowing someone not for writing. Repetition is good for this joke, not for writing. As an editable, you must identify repetition through different angles. That's why this lesson will teach you different forms of repetition in the text. Avoiding redundancy in phrases and words and action description. She nodded her head in agreement. Those last four words can be deleted. What else would she not but her head. And when she nods, the writer shouldn't add that she agrees. That's obvious. They heard the sound of a train whistle. The sound off can be deleted. Redundant adjectives. In a moment of hopeful, optimism, she made the call. Adding two positive adjectives is inefficient and you should remove one, several words that serve the same purpose. The reason for this is because nobody cares. They opened IT for redundant words and tighten the manuscript as much as possible. To sum it up, your first action in this topic is to check for redundancy in adjectives, actions, descriptions, and words with similar meanings. Don't allow sentences to sound like a broken record, record, record, alright? Avoiding redundant details. Sometimes a text has an overabundance of description. How to avoid? Ask yourself, will this amount of details engage the reader or will it bore him? Can I reduce some details but keep the essence of the point I wish to make. Can I merge some details into one? In a story? It could be the environment description in an article. It could be Awards packed paragraph without an eye-catching style. And in academic paper, it could be an overuse of examples. And if we're mentioning examples, then avoiding redundant examples. How to avoid? Ask yourself, is it necessary to use two examples to emphasize the point? Can I reduce one example but keep the essence of the point I wish to make canal emerge above for examples into one. Usually one example is enough to strengthen one's point. But if the writer wishes to use various examples, at least tried to group them as much as possible. United sentences with the same subject. If a short sentence starts with he, she, or it, and the sentence before it is short to unite limb, but only if the new sentence isn't too complex. For example, the wild boar gulped towards the prey. It hasn't eaten for a whole day. Or a better version, the wild boar, who hasn't eaten for a whole day, gulped towards the prey. Instead of writing two sentences with the same subject, you should merge both into one cohesive sentence. There is no need to repeat the subject twice unless the sentences are too long. Claim repetition. Writing that repeats the same basic lane without expressing a new reinforcing point of view. For instance, overuse of synonyms to express a point. For example, her stance on issues zed has 0 morale. It offends standards of right versus wrong of decency versus indecency. It stands in the face of that which is good and righteous and noble. None of these synonyms add anything of substance to the text. The reader doesn't even understand why the stance has no morale and in what specific ways. Thus, the paragraph is redundant. How to avoid? Ask yourself, how many times have I made this point already? Can I reduce the details but keep the essence of the point I wish to make. Except for redundancy of synonyms. Acclaim repetition can happen by redundancy of counterclaims or examples. Pay attention that every message contains new information within its sentences. Excessive references, repeated references. Avoid including two references for the same quote. For example, at first, I wish they knew my mistakes before they happen. But then I heard what Eleanor Roosevelt once said. If life were predictable, it would cease to be life and be without flavor. Eleanor Roosevelt. In the better version, I omitted the secondary laws are valid in the brackets. This type of excessive references is problematic yet uncommon. Let's look at some more typical excessive references. Redundant citation numbers. Here are two ways to use citation numbers when citing more than one reference at the time, there should be no spaces between commas or dashes. For example, as you can see, there is no empty spaces inside the brackets. If a sentence has various citation numbers, removed them and add one at the end of the sentence. The footnote to include all words references in it. For example, at the 64th meeting, a draft resolution submitted by 19 member-states was voted upon, but was not adopted owing to the negative votes of two permanent members. The better version, we remove the free citation numbers and added one at the sentence ends. What are footnotes? They are brief explanations shown at the bottom of the page. As you can see in the image below. Repeated footnotes in documents, footnotes are like draws for long references, but we can shorten these long references when we cite the same source. Again, shortened footnote should include author's last name, shortened version of the title, and a cross reference to the original footnote. For example, the original reference says, Peter leverage all luck, population aging in developed and developing regions, implications for health policy, social science and medicine volume 51 number 6, 15 in September 2 thousand. Now, the second time we reference the source, I will write the author's last name, literature alloc, shortened version of the title, population aging, and the cross-reference to the original footnote. See Chapter 2, footnote 3. That's it for the angles of repetition in writing. Note that redundancy can be positive if you don't just copy and paste the same words. It's a great tool for reminding your readers of key information and reinforcing your ideas. The rule is returning two key words and phrases, but not restating basic facts or repeating entire sentences. Next lesson, we will talk about relevancy in writing. Sounds exciting, right? Well, until next time. 43. Fending Off The Attack Of Redundant Sentences: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 44. Relevant and Irrelevant Info: When I started writing my book, I intended to introduce the environment in the first paragraph. Yet after many revisions, it was all about how the city got its name rather than its surroundings. Thankfully, I felt something was off and check the relevance of the chapter. Doing my inspection, I noticed that the first paragraphs purpose wasn't fulfilled, so I changed it. In this lesson, you will learn what relevant and irrelevant info is and how to find it. How to recognize relevant and irrelevant info. Here our first step is to ask what is the main purpose of each chapter in the manuscripts? Later, divide the material in each chapter into separate pieces and ask the same question. For example, define the main purpose of Chapter 1, write it down and separate up to one into pieces. Next, write the main purpose of each piece in Chapter 1, this process allows us to identify what info contributes to each piece main purpose, and what informed to remove. If you are uncertain as the writer about his goals behind each piece. Except for a situation when the main purpose opens our eyes to what is missing, there are details that the main purpose won't shine its light upon. For that reason, I gathered some guiding questions to discern overlooked info, info that its absence might confuse and irritate readers. Is it obvious why or how the reader wants to know why something happened or how something earned its title. Unless you aim to answer these questions later, you should add this information now and make the saturation clearer. In story writing, the writer hides in full from the reader to create interests. As I said, if the writer answers the questions later than it's all right, the problem happens when the author ignores the questions and leaves them open. However, a writer can explain every small fact that his story tells. Therefore, you should read the manuscript and see if not knowing why or how something happened may impair the reading experience. Is it obvious where something happened? The writer needs to fill the picture. We've colors and not leave it in black and white. Make sure it's clear where the situation is happening, whether it is a story, a history, or biology book, ensure the background is described. We'll an example, a chop and your point to gain the readers trust or to clarify the message, we often add an example. If you are editing academic papers, you can strengthen an argument when it's not impactful enough by adding an example. An essential method for academic writer. If you're editing a story and example can explain why a character act in a specific manner. Thus, an example is relevant when trust or clarity is lacking. Like in the last lesson, the target is clear and concise sentences. And removing the irrelevant will bring us closer to this achievement. Omit information that doesn't aid the main goal of each piece. For example, main purpose, a paragraph that describes the Salinas Valley. The Salinas Valley along the narrow swell between two ranges of mountains can be found in Northern California. The few people who live there tend to drink alcohol more often than drinking water. Writing about the residents drinking habits doesn't serve the main purpose. Thus, you should remove the second sentence. By looking through the glass is called the paragraphs main intent. You gain a new vision that highlights what's relevant or not. Delete information that the reader knows and getters return again. For example, the day has come to leave town forever. That morning, David's last patrol around town brought up old memories because the reader learns that this is the last day for David through the first sentence, the word last is irrelevant. While reading the document, he'd that every sentence ditches something new and doesn't repeat all the info. In case repetition happened, you can swap it with the reference to the repeated info. That's it for this one. Attempt, this lesson, practice activity and polish your new glasses of the paragraphs, men intent. For now, see you in the next lecture. 45. Eliminate The Trivial; Note The Devoid: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 46. Hemingway Editor: Hemingway editor will make your writing crystal clear and more effective. It pinpoints words and sentences that effect there is ability of any paper. Hemingway editor readability score shows the level of education a person needs to understand the texts. The lower the grade level is, the better. The tomb was named after Ernest Hemingway, the writer characterized by concise language and short declarative sentences. His work is estimated to be between a fourth, sixth grade level of readability. And in this lesson, I will teach you how to use it to enhance readability in writing. The Hemingway editor is an online tool that highlights complex sentences, adverbs and passive voice in your texts. It also marks compound words and suggest replacements for them. The online version of Hemingway editor is completely free. The desktop version Hemingway App is available for a onetime payment of $20. The online version has all the features the paid version has. But if you wish to donate to the developers, you can do that by buying their desktop app. But before I show you how it works, let me explain why complex sentences at verbs and passive voice should be removed or revised. Shorten overloaded sentences. In this busy world full of information, readers tend to favor short sentence length rather than flowery convoluted pros. Yet, long sentences are crucial for creating variety in writing. What we should avoid are overly long sentences. For example, making a sentence too long can be confusing because it is easy to lose track of what was said at the beginning, since they do not give the reader enough time to process what they are reading. And by the end of the sentence, you might have forgotten. Well it started. That's 51 words with no pause for breath. It would make sense to break it down into two shorter sentences. Making a sentence to longer can be confusing since you forget the words at the beginning, the reader lack enough time to process the information, and by the end of the sentence, he forgets where it started. This fragment is a lot easier to read and more engaging. Shorter sentences make it easier to get your message across and make no mistake. This is true for more advanced readers as well. In the future, we will have a lesson about sentence and word variety, in which I will teach you to use both long and short sentences. Yet, when sentences are overly long, Hemingway editor will warn you off, you will need to trim them. Shorten sentences highlighted in red or yellow on Hemingway editor and make their writing clear and concise. Reduce the use of adverbs. Adverbs are lazy way to tell how an action was made. Instead of using a creative and appealing expression, we add an adverb, expecting the readers to be imaginative for us. For example, saying she signed loudly. But how loud the juicing? To answer that, I would rephrase these two. She sang at the top of her lungs. In the writing world, adverbs have a bad reputation for being weak and unnecessary. For example, run quickly is better stated as sprint. There are plenty of adverb verb combinations that are often best expressed with a single more meaningful verb, such as driving fast becomes speeding. But even when there isn't a more fitting verb, you still should replace the adverb. We have an expression. And here's why. Another example. Why don't you come over here and sit by me? She asked flirt yesterday. The adverb, flirting mostly tells the reader how she asked the question. Instead, it should show how she asked. Why don't you come over here and sit by me. She asked, batting her eyelashes. As an editor, swap adverbs we've lived brimming expressions or stronger verbs. Hemingway editor will help you do that. As you can see, it highlights adverbs in blue. Reduce the use of passive voice. When writing in the passive voice, we don't have to spend time writing in clear and concise language. It may be a time-saver, but it can lead to unclear syntax and stretch sentences. Active voice is superior to passive voice. The reader learns first who acted what the action was, and finally, who are white was affected. It is an easier way to process information. For example, passive voice. The results were analyzed by the government committee. Active voice. The government committee analyzed the results. As an editor, make sure the writer uses passive voice as little as possible. Passive voice is highlighted in green on Hemingway editor. All right, now let's have a look at Hemingway editor. Search it on Google and enter the online page. As you can see, overloaded sentences are highlighted in red, yellow sentences are also too long, but you are not obligated to rephrase them if they are easy to read. Purple worlds are complex words that might be worth replacing if your audience is in fluent in English. And verbs are marked in blue and should be replaced or removed. Let's move this to the relief of the sentence. And on your right is how many of each. Through here, you can buy the desktop app if you want. If not, copy-paste your manuscript to the online page and do it from them. That's it, everyone, check this tool through the following practice activity. The next lecture will be on avoiding adjectives, adverbs, and weak nouns. You can't wait. Jump right into the next video. I will be waiting. 47. Complex Sentences, Adverbs, and Passive Voice: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 48. Avoid Adjectives, Adverbs, and Weak Nouns: Like adverbs, adjectives are devoid of creativity. And as moose Voltaire says, the adjective is the enemy of the noun. But why is that a problem? Well, let me explain. Avoid adjectives and adverbs. Good writing rely on strong nouns and verbs, not adjectives and adverbs. When writers use them, they're writing looks lazy as if they want you to see the world through broken glasses. Even worse, sometimes adjectives and adverbs repeat what readers already know as an editable. Whenever you spot adjectives or adverbs, remove them, or replace them with inaction. Here are two examples to emphasize my point. John was exhausted. He dropped onto the couch and exclaimed entirely, I'm beat. Improved version. John dropped onto the couch. I'm beat. Another example. I hate you, dude blurted fiercely. Improved version. I hate you. Jill said, narrowing her eyes. Except for the alternative of strong nouns and verbs, there exists another better option. You can also replace adjectives or adverbs with a parable. For example, you look marvelous in this beautiful dress. Her, he said, amazed, improved version. You'll look like the beauty queen in distress. Harris said, we've been. Tell me that you didn't enjoy reading the improved sentence more. Comparing her looks to a beauty queen makes your writing clever and interesting. Readers enjoy seeing how you link to your message to a different topic, rather than relying on another simple adjective to do your work. Avoid weak nouns. Sometimes a simple noun is all you need. If a scene takes place on the Hawaiian island, beach by itself might be fine if the writer already described how I in beaches. Unless of course, the characters are visiting a sparkling black sand volcanic beach for the first time. But a more specific noun is almost always better. Let me show you some examples. For example, a difficult problem might be a quandary, a complication, a dilemma, or an predicament. A habitual liar might be a predicate or a fabricator, a deceiver, trickster. A beach could be the coast, the waterfront, the lakefront, the seaside, or a shallow. As an editor, always aim to have a strong noun that forms the exact image the writer had in mind. Avoid lazy verbs. The same principle applies to verbs as we've nouns. For more specific variables. For example, the verb God. God is the laser word because it doesn't tell people how or why the action happened. Instead, use more potent words, such as obtained or earned. This also applies to the words use, make to be, there is to have and any other general word. If you wish to test your creativity and sharpen your writing skills, challenge yourself with the next practice activity. I hope you enjoyed my lesson. See you in the next one. 49. Turn Weak Writing to Writing That Sticks You To The Page: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 50. Sentence and Word Variety: Variety in shoes, your writing flow better and isn't repetitive and boring. For example, when I'm zigzagging between humor and raw content in my lessons. Since sentences can be diverse in more directions than words, let's start with them first. And I will prepare a salad while doing so. Sentence variety length. Several sentences of the same length can make for bland writing. One short sentence after another makes your prose sound choppy and childish. Here's an example. Only short sentences. Word and sentence variety is important. Variety helps keep your reader engaged in art board. Thus, use both long and short sentences. The problem with this paragraph is that all sentences are short. It makes the paragraph repetitive. And doll. It's like this cucumber salad diamond, expressing laziness and utmost simplicity. Conversely, All long sentences can make your writing hard to read. Here is an example. Only long sentences. In order to compose a piece of writing that engages your reader, it's essential to user writing in both your words and your sentences to incorporate sentence variety into your next piece of writing, tried to use both long and short sentences in addition to varying your word choice. If your paper lacks variety, it won't be compelling for your reader who will get bored and possibly even stop reading. So make sure that you include plenty of variety. This time. The problem was that all sentences with long, not only can that get repetitive and boring, but also difficult to remember what was said at the start. As this tomato salad lacks diversity, the paragraph lacks length variety. That's why the salad won't be served in any restaurant. And this paragraph, one be written in any blog. But enough about what to avoid. Let me reveal the correct recipe for making a salad. I mean, for choosing sentence length. No complex sentences and a variety of both short and long sentences vary both words and sentences to keep your reader engaged. Too many short sentences make your writing doll, while too many long sentences can confuse you, find a balance between both short and long sentences. This paragraph was much easier to read and more engaging. As an editor, you'll see that sentences aren't too long and mix between short and long sentences. And finally, I made a salad. I can be proud of. One of the trickiest patterns to spot is that of repetitive sentence structure. Same wavelength over using a sentence structure can hinder a reader's engagement with a text. Try using a variety of basic sentence structures. We can categorize sentences into four main types. Depending on the number and type of clauses they contain. Simple one independent clause. The boy who wanted to go outside, compound more than one independent clause connected by a coordinating conjunction. I like to read, and he likes to write. I like to read, and he likes to write, are more than one independent clause. And the word end is a coordinating conjunction. Complex one independent clause, and at least one dependent clause. Although he's now 79 years old, is still claims to be 65. He is now 79 years old is the independent clause. And although he's still claims to be 65, is the dependent clause, compound, complex, more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. After it was all over, my dad claimed he knew we were planning something, but we think he was timed two independent clauses and dependent clauses in one sentence. Adjusting the sentence structure during an edit is a great way to create effective prose for any other. Sentence variety conjunctions. The most common coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet. And so you can remember them by using the acronym FANBOYS as an editable, ensure variety of conjunctions in sentences. Now, I will bring fanboys on stage with examples and alternative words. For example, for the holiday you Danny bought new clothes, waist to save for two in honor off toward upon. And Example, Sharon brought Danner a birthday present and balloons as gifts waste to say. And also moreover, first, not to mention Plus including, besides. Nor and our example, she did not return that night nor the night after. Another example, life or death situation. Ways to say, nor neither. Ways to say or either else. But an example, the data was no longer in an Access database, but SharePoint lists waste to say. But, and yet however, although except, unlike, whereas end steel. So example, Danny was thirsty, so he drank, ways to say so, therefore, hands as a result, thus, centers, variety, openings vary the way you start sentences to keep the writing interesting and lively. Most of us learned how to write sentences using the following pattern, subject, verb, object. Thus, we expect to read sentences in this order, using different sentence openers to delay the subject and verb of the main clause creates tension and Russia's interests. For Sundance openers, here are some options. Similarly, comparing something to something else, for example, has quite as a whisper, he turned to me. Preposition informs you of the position of someone or something. For example, behind the gate, the road stretched far away. Connectives joining words. For example, despite the sunshine, Mr. Tucker was wearing a heavy coat. Time preposition moves the timeframe to a different point. For example, afterwards, it was clear that he regretted his actions. Participle phrases. For example, shopping at the grocery store, my brother picked up a loaf of bread. That's it for sentence variety. It's shocking how many ways we can vary our sentences. But don't worry, word variety is much simpler. Word variety. Word Variety means Avoiding repeating words. When you revise the writing, pay attention to repetition in words and replace them with synonyms. After various edits, I can say that repetition of words can often occur in sentence openers. For example, starting several sentences with their eat or I, well-informed manual search, I discovered a simpler way to spot repeating words. How to spot repeating words? Word counter, a site that shows keywords density and highlights your overused words in the text. Copy paste your text and find out your words appearance percentage. How to find replacements for words. Thesaurus aside for finding synonyms for all English words. Use it to enrich the vocabulary in your document. Except for learning how to make a successful salad. I hope you enjoyed the lesson about sentence and word variety. Next is fact-checking. Another topic that others sometimes forget, and the new come and save the day. Well, see you in the next lesson. 51. Add Variety; Make These Sentences Tasty: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 52. Fact checking: It can be humiliating when readers, all important industry contacts, catch a blogger on author making mistakes like putting Sydney in Australia rather than Australia. Even if unintentionally these mistakes happen, both a blogger and author and an online publisher should consider reliability and accuracy. And the fitting process is called fact-checking. Sometimes a writer uses a quote or a fact without enough reference, if at all. As an editor, in shoe clarity of who said the quote or fact and on wide basis as web in academic writing are fact-based content that involve regular fact checking. And even an ad needs some basis for its facts about the presented products. Some writers are unaware of this and it's your job to advise them about their missing references. Check your source credibility. There are fact checking sources for different fields. Thus, you need to identify a trustworthy source related to your material. It could be an expert you spoke with on LinkedIn or a trustworthy website. How to identify a trustworthy website? Check who is the author or Tim behind the website and redo the views about their website. Review the author source legitimacy. In show the source comes from a globally known institute or reliable person. If it's not obvious as the writer, food sources and their credibility. Like I said before, inspect who is the author or team behind the source and read reviews about them. The other reliable sources challenge these packs. Its advice to check for arguments against the fact the writer used, if you spot one in college, the writer to deny it, right? The opposite of the fact that you are presenting and see if anyone challenges your fat. Now let me detail deeper what types of facts you need to be aware of. Most common errors, names, titles, place names, statistics, references to time, these tense, date, season, location, and physical descriptions, argument or narrative that depends on a fact, historical facts. And we were off superlatives like only first and the most. Superlatives, or when we say something is the most, the least or the only. The problem is superlative words are sitting facts that might change in the future. Thus, you better avoid using them. Some of you might focus on story editing and won't deal with facts. Still, it's crucial to maintain a line of thought that every fact needs a basis. Even in a story. I wonder, did the standard editing checklist help build your confidence? Or did you already knew all those skills? I talked to you. Even if you did, this isn't the end of the ride. But before we continue to the books editing checklist, I want to say congratulations on finishing this section. Trust me, by the end of the course, you will fill again editing expert. And my references are the curves and read reviews and the professional content itself. All a burn the books Editing, Checklist. 53. True/False? Spot Wrong Facts: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 54. Editing Plot: Now is the time to focus on story instructor. But where to begin? If you start a big picture editing, also known as structural editing, in an organized way, you will get the work done faster. To achieve that, I will showcase guiding questions through the lesson. All right, let's begin plot a term for the sequence of events that includes the story. The most common formula for plot is the three-act structure, which consists of beginning, middle, and end. The beginning serves to introduce the protagonist. The middle contains the rising action towards the climax and the end ties all plot threads. Plot editing guidelines. The following questions will assist you to spot embarrassing plot holes. Thus, the plot makes sense. Is it believable though the plot points flow logically how the plot threads tied by the ending. To ensure that here is your method. Create a model for plot points made from chapters by keeping track of how you enter and exit each chapter, right? The issues and or solutions that flow to doing chapters and add the purpose of each chapter. Highlight the beginning, middle, and end in your model. Doing so will make it easier to answer those four questions. Mapping a story by issues and solutions brightens any untied plot threads and an inconsistent stream of blood points. Follow the story chapter by chapter and complete your model. Do the plot twists make sense? Ensure it's obvious why the twisters happened and that the twist doesn't contradict situations that occurred in the plot. You can even add clues during the plot that make the twist more believable. Let's say you had a friendly character that turned out to be the villain, if that's the case, why did he help your protagonist at the start? See that a character's true intentions match his behavior. Twist the plot, not the logic. With the characters move too quickly between far distances. When characters traveled between destinations, right? The events during their journey and tell the exact time it took. Five days to weeks or even a month. If the characters will in the desert in the last chapter, they can't jump to a skyscraper city. And as the characters can teleport, tell the reader about their journey, you can even summarize it by saying, after a few minutes they found themselves near and abandoned gas station. But don't completely ignore the journey. How are the laws of the world stay true? Fiction stories that includes supernatural or futuristic elements, create plot holes. If you forget them. Your method. List the rules and laws of the world. Do they use magic or unique ability in this world? If so, who can use it and how powerful is it? Follow the story and preserve those rules. There are many ways to go about worldbuilding and listing them is key to detect rules breaking plot holes as you add it. Is there a person or an item that controls time? Traveling back in time or knowing the future could create several plant holes. If a character can travel back in time, it can also reverse every obstacle along the way. Thus, all complications in the story won't matter. Or if a character knows the future, it can't have any problems because it knows the future. Hence, since every story, the coil, some obstacles, Estonian with the power of time will be full of potholes. So what can you do? Reduce its capabilities and add limitations until it's empty of story breaking functionalities. For example, instead of a watch that controls time, have a watch that can freeze time for 10 seconds, except for it's overpowered functionalities, the power of time isn't original at all. It's repetitive. How so many movies have reused? This power? Is the applied device, also called a MacGuffins or a deciles ex machina. A plot device is usually an object the protagonists are searching for, trying to activate, kill 50, or even destroy a story element that serves to move the story forward. The plot device could also be an event, character, or ability. The issue develops from it's illogical power that appeals from out of nowhere to save the day or solve the problem. That's considered a pothole sense. It's an unlikely or illogical event. The stories ending should feel earned, not wrapped up in a shiny saw that fell from the sky. Method, reduce its capabilities and add limitations until it's empty of stolen breaking functionalities, plus review and remove it's illogical points. One example is the infinity stones for Marvel movies that somehow allow us to destroy the universe. Another is the one ring from Lord of the Rings and invisible irrational power wielding object. If you locate a plot device, advice the author about its issues and revise it together. Did the writer used bad leg to advance his plot? Let's say a character failed by accident from the tree on a dangerous piece. This lazy and all the way to advance the plot will look Chip in the reader's eyes. Don't let it seem like bad karma affected the outcome, but rather character traits. And finally, is null so much backstory that the main plot is dwarfed. Flashback is a great tool to reveal hidden information. For example, if we weld the past memory, a decision a character made doesn't make sense. Yet. Flashbacks don't affect the present story. Thus, it's tricky to make them engaging. You don't want a flashback to early in the story, but rather get readers hooked on the solid first, when the returns are thirsty to uncover a character secret or discover how current events came about. That's the cue for flashback method. Ask yourself, does the flashback unravel and mystery the reader want to find out, if not, remove it. And when it does attempt to shorten the backstory as much as possible. The truth is, readers want to stall it to move forward, we bought a reason to call for the background information on a character. A flashback might take the form of an irritating roadblock. And as a result, readers will hustle through it to resume the coin plot. So advice the author to edit later rather than sooner. Well, these are different angles you should review to dodge the potholes. Next lesson, we will dive into story themes and learn about the mysterious plot iceberg. What do I mean by the plot iceberg? Jump to the next lesson and find out. 55. Editing Themes: With its so-called Dirichlet feels like I'm inside the fridge. All right, That's because this lesson's world theme is below 0. The narrative theme, which is the subject of our lesson, is the main message or moral lesson in the story. Yet the world we craft can also have a theme. In these lessons case, the narrative theme, we'll be editing themes and the world theme will be a cold environment. That's a narrative theme is the heart of the story. It presents a vital idea, or more or less than that the character learns doing the plot which touches the reader something to. If you look below, you will spot our plot iceberg. At first, readers come in boats and only see the plot above the wider with its narrative events. But some dive deeper and discover the eternal and external character conflicts in the story. Between the diverse one or two are sharp enough to notice the theme that drives both plot and story from beneath the surface. So yeah, if you thought editing plot was important, editing themes is very, very important. Huts. Why is theme important? A theme builds the character's soul from concerns and passions. And gripping theme assures readers will relate to the characters and their struggles and feel invested in the outcome. Whether the theme is doll or alluring can impact the book success. But how do you know if a theme is captivating or not? Well, let me show you like before, I will present questions about what to avoid. Are the themes simple and predictable? Rather than using obvious themes, follow your dreams. You should forgive others or justice. Choose moral dilemmas to forward your plot. The readers aren't stupid. A simple theme of you should forgive others, means the character will learn to forgive others and isn't engaging. Instead, ensure the story explores a dilemma. Do you forgive all, take revenge on someone who has done the unthinkable to someone you love. Sometimes the theme does present a gripping Dilemma, yet it's not emphasized or clear enough. Follow the story and advise the author were to brighten his themes message. Is that a balanced amount of themes. On one hand, a story with more than one theme allows the writer to intrigue readers from several directions. And even if the writer wrote a short story, you should aim to have various themes. As an editor, you'll see that the story doesn't lack themes. Contrarily ostomy with too many themes can cause a lack of focus. Having many themes could weaken the protagonist theme or divert the readers from the book's central message. The more pieces there are, the less weight each piece has. As an editorial, evade, overuse of themes that harm the books message or its characters and omit some, if necessary. In short, balance the number of themes without overwhelming the reader's attention nor boring him with only one viewpoint. The appropriate number of themes should be between two to four. But my brain is breathing here, so maybe a little more is fine too. Before advising anything about the amount, it's best to judge by reading. Because the fact is, each story is different. Does the story have overused symbolism? Symbolism can better express the theme through a reappearing symbol like an object, animal, name, or dialogue. For example, a theme of freedom can present beards as a symbol. But if it's too obvious for frequent, it can annoy readers. As an editor, offer creative and variable ways to present the symbol and assure a symbol grows in importance during the story. For example, if the symbol is beards show a person with a beard name or an object with a beard mark. But be willing not to push the symbol at every possible moment. Some of you might say, okay, then I will bury my symbolism deep so it won't be too obvious. It hidden symbolism is like a gamble. It can have 0 value if the reader never noticed it. Or for those readers who do cut the obscure reference, the symbolism will be very effective. Symbolism is a delicate dance and finding the perfect balance can be time-consuming, yet rewarding. That's it for this lesson. This one was short, but every word is pure frozen gold. Sorry about the repetitive below 0 symbolism. But here is another attempt. Don't put on ice watching the next lesson and proceed with your book editing journey. Hopefully in a warmer lesson than this one. 56. Editing Characterization: Characters are your story. They act and react. They create emotion. They show motivation. People read a story to find out what happens to them next. But what happens next is only trigging if the readers care about the characters. So how do you make a lovable character? Besides gripping theme, a character needs to be well-developed. And in this lesson, you will learn to achieve that and more. Characterization, how you make a character seem like a real living, breathing person is tricky. As we will plot model, one of the best ways to solve character problems is to return to the character profile the writer created. If the profile lacks essential traits, the character will seem less like a person and more like a puppet. Often, this is the reason for character problems. And that takes us to our first question. Are the characters well-developed? As an editor? Ensure the characters are complex as real people and have reliable basis for their own behavior. Here are some guiding questions. Do the main characters have the following features? Mannerism, nervous tics, or habits. For example, it could be sticking out the tongue while thinking or tendency to mumble when scared to his mannerisms that fit your character image. Identifiable appearance. It could be weirdly shaped. Two glasses or red hair. Backstory. Just as in life, every person has a history. So in the story, every character has a backstory. Even secondary characters, although their background can be less detail. Strengths and weaknesses. Characters aren't perfect and they too have weaknesses besides strikes. For instance, being brave and strong, it has a dangerously reckless specific action when they get mad or when they're happy. And other direction to express mannerism. But if your character has many habits already, you can ignore these bad habits or traits that aren't seen as good. No one is perfect. And that includes the main characters in our stories. Moreover, the same holds true for villains. Sure they're awful people and no doubt their souls are cold and dark. But isn't there even one beam of good light in there? Of course there is. So as weird as it sounds, don't let your characters be perfect. Distinct voice, accents, slang, or frequent phrases can aid build your character personality and make it more memorable. While distinct voice isn't obligated, sometimes it's the missing piece to complete the characters puzzle. If you lack an idea, think of a friend States formula, but don't tell them that they were your inspiration. Else, copyright claims will soon come knocking. Knew the protagonist and antagonist motivations are realistic and clear. One of the most common mistakes I see in novels is a villain who acts nasty bug. We never learn why. Give you a villain or history that tells your reader how he justifies his own behavior. A realistic antagonists should have enough motivation in his backstory that the reader is almost tempted to sympathize with him. New characters evolve in some way during the story. Some of you might have already heard of the term character. Character evolution is the same thing. It's the inner journey a character embarks on over the course of the story, we've a significant change or growth at the end. And novel without a character arc is like a novel without a plot. It's less interesting when that element is lacking. Thus, to add the depth to the story led the main characters evolved by their themes dilemma. Do character's behavior shaped by the world they're living? Well, your bone influences the person you become. If a character leaves in a luxury mansion, he or she might dislike cheap food or act arrogantly. In real life, we develop some characteristics based on the people, the place, or even the country we're living. Your story characters are no exception. Do character's past feed their current personality? For example, if a character had a traumatic childhood, feeding personality can be a pessimistic, shy person or a crazy one. Then lesser, jumpy, friendly type. Do they sometimes behave out of character to ensure a believable story and characters spot actions that break logic or characters image. Here are a few examples. A character does an action that goes beyond her physical capabilities. Write down the exact strength of your character. How much weight can he carry? How strong is punches are, or how high can you jump in before breaking his legs? That way, you will recognize the character trespassing her physical limits. Also, the same method can be applied to bravery, wisdom, or friendliness. Being exactly with rates will allow you to grasp even better who the characters are. A character does an action that goes against her purpose, nature, subbing she said, or an event you went through. First, learn the character profile and pay attention if she behaves out of character. Second, keep in mind what a character learned and said during a conversation or an event and match her opinion or newly obtained knowledge in future events. Between two scenes, a character's personality flips with no explanation. As shy, useless sprints can become a brave, frightful character the next morning without any believable reason. Also, the same goes for character expressions. After seeing a close friend crying, a character can smile and be cheerful as if nothing happened. So be wary of this irrational sudden changes. Now let's talk about a different topic. How do secondary characters serve the story? Secondary characters are living beings. They aren't prompts to be used and then put on a shelf. Here are several editing rules for handling these characters. Ensure all characters present personality traits and their creative description. Avoid lack of details and over descriptive characters. Secondary characters deserve to have their own importance. Has a protagonist would not let a minor character stick to only one personality trait or unfold as simple and all backstory. However, don't get too caught up in details. If you dig too deep with their details, your readers will stray from the main plot. Reduce your list of secondary characters by removing those that doesn't help develop the story or the protagonist. In the first drafts, authors often write too many characters and it's okay. This is a helpful process as we create. But upon developmental revision, we discern which characters are essential and which characters are unnecessary. Because as we've themes, too many characters will spread the readers concerned and memorability for each one. To make it easier for the reader to remember secondary characters, attach each of them to one location and give them an easy to remember names. For example, a character that only appears at the post office, the grocery store, or a frequent dream. Instead of having the character randomly visit your protagonist, one that have your protagonist traveled to the one spot that you have designated for this character to live. If there is no reason for the secondary character to be at a second location, don't move them. And lastly, vary between types of secondary characters. Foil, dynamic, static, round, and flat. Foil types are characters with the opposite personality of the main characters. Dynamic types are characters that changed throughout the blood. The protagonist is a fitting example of this type. Static types are characters with personality traits that stay the same in the blood. Round types are capitals, we've conflicted nature, unsure of themselves. The value of the protagonist and grow alongside him. Flat type characters are tied to only one trait and recognized by this for the entire plot. Not every story will include every type of character. But the more you are aware of the different character types, the more precise your decision about which character type fits the story. If all of this wasn't enough, healer or more characterization issues, don't give a trade of bad luck to a character. It doesn't make sense and seems like a cheap way to advance the plot. I remind you again that lack isn't the answer to move the plot forward. And finally, avoid repetition of the same character trait in an expected and uncreative way. Don't let the reader think, oh, here he goes again, losing his way for no reason. Instead, use a creative and varied way for him to lose the way each time. When choosing or revealing iterate, verify its iteration possibilities. If it has none, suggest a different, more variable quirk. As I said before, repetition is good for human, not for writing. Repetition is good for, all right? All right, I want to repeat the same joke. That sums everything up. Characters are the heart of a restoring and as an editor, follow those guiding questions to strengthen the heart and the body of the book. Next lesson, I will teach you about editing point of view, waiting for you when you are ready for another inspiring lecture. 57. Editing Point of View: It's common for stories to be told for many points of view. And writers can swap between them in the middle of a chapter or the next one. But then the problems eyes up when readers can figure out whose perspective the story is told from. But before he showcases the do's and don'ts, let me explain what is story point of view? Point of view is through whose eyes and voice the reader experience the chapter. There are three types of point of views. First person, second person, third person. First-person. The character speaks in first-person I and takes the narrator's role. Second person, the writer speaks to the reader and tells the story from the perspective of you. And third person. The narrator is outside of the action, describing what is happening to a character within the story. The programs used are he, she, or eat? There are two types of third-person point of view, or magnificent, in which the narrator knows all the characters, thoughts, and feelings at all times. And limited a point of view that adheres only to one character's perspective at a time. No matter which type was chosen, your job is to check if the author diverted from it and fix it when he did. The Australian, each chapter is point of view. Here are some guiding questions. Point of view, editing guidelines. Is the point of view maintained. Did the writer used two types of points of views? For example, both first-person I and second you. And I'll you told, not shown about the different characters, thoughts, or feelings in the same chapter. First, historic can have more than one type of point of view. That means both first-person and second person, by the breaking point must appeal before swapping between them. However, changing point of view type has several potential problems. It's maybe confusing to the reader and irritate him that he doesn't get one continuous story. So bear that in mind. Second, unless your point of view character can read minds, it can't know what the others think or feel, as long as they don't tell all, show it. Stay sharp for when that happens. And maintained point of view. Is it obvious whose point of view is it? Make it clear to the reader when a point of view has changed and whose perspective you're using. In the chapters first paragraph mentioned somehow the name of the point of view character. If in the middle of the chapter, User chapter break to state that this scene has changed, as can be seen in the image below. But it doesn't have to look like this. Any bolts side will manage. Just make sure there is one. Isabella consistent switching formula. Many writers pick a formula to avoid confusing readers from changing points of view. You can structure a formula like this, a, B, C, a. We see the distribution should be as even as possible. After all, why would a reader concern himself with a point of view character that shows up every five chapters. The, the writer swap point of view in the middle of a scene. Don't live a point-of-view character in the middle of an action sequence. If the chapter ends with a cliffhanger, readers will turn to the next chapter to find out what will happened and when the next chapter begins with a novel point-of-view, character, readers will be impatient and rushed through it. I'm not fond of when a writer chooses the protagonists point of view and starts a thrilling battle. But before we know the outcome is tops, switches to the enemies point of view and says, No. Now I want you to learn about antagonists childhood. A cliffhanger is made to raise the tension in a reveal the outcomes trait in the next chapter to delay it and ruin the pace. The only time it can be valid is if the shift was to another point of view character yet at the same scene, otherwise inform the author about this issue. How there are too many or too few points of view. The more point of view characters there are, the more you first readers to spread out both their attention and their attachment. Many points of view can fragment the story and destroys focus. So how do you recognize a suppose point of view? Ask yourself, does this new point of view add something vital to the story? Or can you rework the scenes into an existing point of view character? Each point of view must either impact or be affected by the stories major structural moments. If that's not true of any point of view, then that point of view can be removed without affecting the story. That's it for how to edit point of view. This train isn't stopping and our next destination is editing plot pays, well mall hidden gems of knowledge awaits you. So make some popcorn, and I will see you there. 58. Editing Plot Pace: Most writers are aware that pacing is important, whether in a short story or novel. But what exactly is basing? Why is it so important? And how can you improve it in whichever kind of story you are editing? Blood base is crucial to keep readers hooked from start to finish. It's the rhythm you tell a story and it's events. How you telling an event too slow or too fast? Do the obstacles continue to rise? These questions helping enhance the reading experience and intruders will want to read more. And by repeating our usual ceremony of questions and answers, you will know when and how to change gears. Plant-based editing guidelines, spirit is key for the stories opening and towards the climax. But does your story adhere to this rule? The opening should interest to those past. The climax is a tense moment readers anticipate for. So slowing them down will make your readers impatient and disinterested. Obviously, if you see that these moments are slow, which soon you will know how to determine that. You need to revise them to be faster. How can you do that? Well, let's take a look at methods to hasten your scenes. Action, action scenes are will you show what happens in the story? And they contain few distractions, little description, and almost no thoughts. Such scenes aid in making a quick pace writing. Cliff hangers. When you leave the outcome of a scene or chapter hanging, the pace picks up because the reader will turn the page to find out what happens next. Prolonged outcomes. When you prolong outcomes, you create suspense and forward movement. While it may seem that belonging and event would slow down his story, this technique actually increases the speed because the reader wants to know if the character survives. Dialogue, a captivating argument with invigorates anything. The best dialogue for swiftness is a real life conversation that snaps with tension. A series of incidents and other means of spinning your story is to create events that happen one after another. We have minimal or no transitions. These are some forms of fast-paced writing if the opening and climax are stress free events. So just the writer to raise gear using one of these methods. Did you outline the plot to balance spacing to avoid concentrated event foreignness, or ongoing com chapters balanced spaced throughout the story. Use the plot model you outlined to discern well to smooth, uneven pace. Spread out both fast-paced, exhilarating moments of action and peaceful scenes with a paste formula. As you did with point of view, the redemption say this happened way too fast or that part dragged on forever. The goal is for pacing to be even and consistent. Slower paced scenes are as essential as fast-paced ones, as well as allowing for character development and inside, they give readers a chance to catch their breath after a fast-paced, gripping scenes. So follow a formula and balanced applaud pace. How complications pile up as the blood goes on. Progressive complications attract the reader to continue reading. Smooth sailing towards the story climax with brief obstacles along the way won't cut it. Instead, ensure arising. It balanced based of unsolved complications. After passing the introduction phase, it's time to crank it up a notch to keep the readers interested. So we dropped more and more unsolved complications. Reaching the climax, readers are then thrilled to unfold how everything settles. And finally, did the writer choose a fitting sentence structure to manipulate pacing? After you know, the chosen pays for each chapter, checks that the synthesis length suits or repays. If this is a fast seen, fewer words and shorten sentences will be more effective. If this is a slow scene, keep your writing descriptive and lead the character, admire the scenery. Writing longer chapters for a slow pace or shorter chapters for fast-paced will help to. As an editor in show the sentence structure follows the rising or dropping pace. Other ways to control paste are shifting. Our story is focused to a secondary storyline or using flashbacks when you want to slow things down. Has an editorial learned to recognize such paste control methods and the device plot paste to ensure a well-structured, engaging story. Sadly, that's all for this topic. Almost fully equipped. You can already see the light at the end of the tunnel. Your next editing step is editing dialogue. Keep going and I will see you there. 59. Editing Dialogue: Writing dialogue is hard work. Some know how to use it as a tool to enhance their storytelling. That's the group that you want to be a part of. And in this lesson, I'm showing you how to join them. Some say dialogue is well-written if swift and simple to read, and some say it's well-written if it fits real life conversations and isn't clogged. I say achieve all four. But how can you obtain these titles for your dialogue to give me a few minutes and you will see dialogue editing guidelines take their place. It's advised to consider what you would say in your character's position. Sometimes we prefer to hide our thoughts to avoid complications or to achieve our goals. Imagine what the characters are thinking and if you would choose to hide what they said. Also, in real speech, we use filler words or sounds to buy time to think about what to say next. However, in dialogue, words like, well, we can the conflict and get in the way of its progression. If your character needs to stall for time, have heard do something that signals her need to stall. For example, biting her lips and looking down at the floor. Take their place, but don't add filler words that you would use. Improving character's voice. Giving each character their own voice is vital to the authenticity. Here are a few ways to do so. Character unique phrases, usual mood that affect their speech, style of speech based on where they lived, on their past and reminder traits in relation to the dialogue topic. Also, researching the type of character, for example, a pirate, child or a hunter could reveal my ideas. As in real life conversations, each speaker has his own style of speech. So in story dialogue, characters would have their own unique voice. And it's your job to remind that to the author when he forgets outside the quotation marks. In real life, conversation will reveal our state of mind by poster, physical actions, facial expressions, and tone of voice. If you spot a naked dialogue scene, you should add descriptive tags, actions, or thoughts to bring it to life. Taking a break from Raw dialogue, every so often, allowing some variety. We have descriptive tags and actions is preferable. It how is that done and what our tags exactly. Descriptive tags and beats. A dialogue tag is a small phrase, either before or after or between the actual dialogue itself. For example, I know the truth, but I will never admitted. She whispered. She whispered is the Tag. Dialog beats is a detailed action that shows the character state of mind. Also, an unexpected beat action can revive the reader's attention doing a long dialogue section. But overuse of tags and beads can break the flow of nano. So unless if the dialogue is doing an action scene, had them only once in a while. Be mindful about the chosen descriptive weeds a writer should pick beats that reveal a character's personality based on his profile and not meaningful glances, smiles or nods that make your description feel repetitive and unoriginal. Accurate punctuation. We've tags I know the truth. Coma. She whispered coma material. Never admit that period. We've bits. You have some nerves showing your face, year period singularities, him loading eyebrows, period again, after what you did after what you said. Basically, tiles are linked with a coma and beats with a period. Also, it is worth noting that no one size grunts or breve words. These are action beads. Remember, tags explained how the dialogue sounds. Don't forget said. In real life conversations, we don't use physical expressions every single time. Most of the time we only say stuff. As an editor. Ensure the right girl throws said or even asked once in a while. Some of you might ask, Doesn't the use of said or asked sounds simple and boring. The short answer is no. Engrossed in the story and connected to the characters, a reader's eyes tend to pass over said or ask. So a writer doesn't need to avoid them, but use them from time to time. Conversely, don't let him overuse them as well. Repetition, get rid of unnecessary, repeated words and claims. Cut any excessive or redundant naming. The characters, know who they are talking to, like you do when you speak to someone. But if the reader might get confused about who's saying what are the speaker's name? Sometimes a character who has experienced an event in an earlier part of the story will describe it to another character. If the reader knows the scene already and this revisiting unveils nothing new. The Narrator can sum it up in a sentence. However, in some ways, repetition can be a useful tool to offer something weight. For example, when a character's brother dies, despite all efforts to save him, will repeat the phrase. He had done everything right to build the pressure, but use this method sparingly. Good dialogue is unexpected. Imagine how bore readers will be, if they can expect how characters will respond. Readers don't want the dialogue to be a statement of the character. Rather, they wish the dialogue to be adore into the characters deeper self to discover among unexpected part within him or her. As an editor will ensure one surprising moment in each exchange. Good dialogue is also one that moves the plot forward. After each conversation or exchange, the reader should be one step closer to either the climax or the conclusion of the story. That's it everyone. And now my final words before we continue to our last story editing lesson. Repetition apparently isn't always bad for writing. The crowd is stand, dramatic music plays as if someone found is lost brother after a decade. Anyway. See you at the next one. 60. Show, don't tell: This is it, The last story editing lesson? Kick up the music. Now, just kidding. Show don't tell is advice for writers, meaning don't describe the scene to readers, but allow them to learn it through your characters. As an editor suggests the writer to fix paragraphs that tell more than show confused. Well, let me provide some helpful examples. Setting, right, about how characters interact with their surroundings. You can tell a sentence like he walked through the forest, it was already fall and he was getting cold. All you can show forest fall and getting cold. The dry orange leaves crunched under my feet as I pulled the color up on my codes. One of the best ways to show rather than tell is to create a sense of setting. It allows the reader to imagine themselves in that very setting. As a result, reduce the gap between your and their image of the scene. Characters looks show character's appearance by exploiting their features, such as body features, clothes, or items they own. Telling my sister had a music player with her for our break-in plan. Show music player, my sister was busy breaking the locks while humming to herself after some song from how music player. Same with body features. If your character is tall, your reader can deduce that because you mentioned others looking up when they talk with him. So take your time to think what better way you can show a character looks. Character sensations. Results shouldn't rely on boiling adverbs on nouns to show what their character fields. Instead express feelings through actions or interactions with the surroundings. Telling I listened to the August time while freezing by the cold wind, show freezing the orchestra played. But because of the wind blowing in my ears and my teeth chattering, I heard nothing. Another example, instead of telling that your character is angry, show it by describing his face flushing his throat, tightening, his voice rising, or is feast slamming on the table. Scene progression. A sequence of actions and environment descriptions without thoughts or feelings, will turn any character into a narrator, puppets and puppet that the reader won't care for if kidnapped or murdered. Since all he knows is that it did this and then that and so on. So ensure scenes show the character's thoughts or feelings on the other side, in shrill action scenes limit cartel thoughts in the midst of danger or crisis. After all, people don't think every moment during a crisis they act. Some of you might ask, who's telling ever acceptable. And in some scenarios, yes, it does. For example, when describing the trip towards the next destination, rather than investing several pages showing every aspect of the trip from packing, dressing, getting a cab to the airport, going through security, boarding a plane, and arriving at the destination, you can shorten it to three days later. After a flight to Africa, he packed his weapons and set out to finish his mission. When it's information that isn't vital to the plot or already known to the reader. Telling it is preferable. And thus, you crossed the finish line of the story editing section. But wait, you're editing and proofreading journey is not even close to being over. A ton more content remains for you to discover when exactly you ask and goes straight to the final lesson and reveal the answer. 61. Academic, Web, & Story Editing Tests: Practice Activity waits for you. It has the same name as this video and can be found in the editing resources questions file. If you wish to sharpen your skills and go check it out, you will find it in the course resources. 62. Proofreading Job Sites: Hello everyone. In this lesson we will learn about optional job sites that could provide your first proofreading jobs. And we'll also try to emphasis the differences between them as much as I can. So let's begin with why get hired in the first place? Will taking jobs could provide it read practice opportunities, improving your proficiency in proofreading all while earning money, like hitting two birds with one stone. Now let's look on some websites for proofreading jumps. Here first three options are freelancer, people per hour and fiber. These sides are among the biggest freelance websites out there providing a large number of jobs. You will also find fair number of freelancers that compete on them. Most jobs they're Arlene entry level and no entrance test is required to join them. Upwork and grandly to sites that provide between entry level to experience jobs and no entrance test is included in order to join them up. Ok is also known as one of the biggest finance websites. And after earning enough experience on the platform, you can certainly find well-paying customers. Grandly is an online service that provides editing and proofreading services. You might not get paid much if you're an entry-level proofreader, but it's still worth to give it a try to gain more experience. Proofreading services and galactose global alpha experienced proofreaders that already have solid grammar and punctuation skills, you can expect high salary on both of them as well as full-time jobs. But bear in mind that once you apply, you need to pass at 20 or 30 minute tests to be able to get any job assigned to. I believe that finding a place with both entry and experienced jobs is the best option, which is why in this course, I will provide a phone Guide to apple, a great site for wolf advanced and beginner proofreaders. And from my experience, after you again, trust and walkie story on the site, you can definitely find full-time, high-paying jobs. So that's it for this lesson. I hope it helped you to decide where to start and I will see you in my APA guide. 63. Introduction to Upwork: Hello everyone. In this lesson, I will give you a short introduction of Upwork and how it works through several questions that I will answer along the lesson. My goal is to give you a look on the big picture of what Upwork is. Alright, let's begin. How do you get jobs and up for? The main way is by waiting for new job posts published on your My feet page. You look up the details of the job and decide if you want to apply for it. Another way is if a client soil profile was impressed and decided to send you an invite to his job. Of course, once you find a client that gives you ongoing work, applying for new jobs, isn't the problem anymore. How their hourly jobs on Upwork? Yes. You discuss with your client the time it will take to finish the job and later you use a desktop application that you downloaded from, opposed to record your log time while walking. Unlike fixed payment jobs which require the client to approve your work before the payment is sent to you? I'm only jobs on Upwork approve your log time payment automatically without the need for any approved from your client. Also, once you start to record your lunchtime, the desktop application takes screenshots of your desktop once every ten minutes to make sure you're actually are walking and not faking. What disadvantages does a book had? Unfortunately, upon takes 20 percent profit from parents unless you earned already $500 with a client, which lowers your service fees to 10 percent, but only with that specific line. Also, after a few jumps, you will be required to buy connects points that allow you to apply for a new job posts. Don't well, IDO connects are quite tube and once you get the client that keeps your ongoing work, there is no need to buy anymore connects. It's true that 20% is not a small amount, but for the many jobs and higher payment opportunities you can find, it's totally worth it, at least as a beginner. How can you receive payments on our call? Our book supports PayPal, Pioneer US bank direct payments and global direct payments. Your clients pay your payment to our book, then do collect your total profit from a book by any of those options. In the next lessons, you will learn mainly about our book and how to correctly use it. However, feel free to try your luck on any other job sites you like. If you're not interested, simply skip to the final lesson of the course. Quick note, those of you who understand the rarely spoken language will obviously have it easier than those who speak common languages. For example, English, Spanish, or French. Since there will be less people to compete with. To start your journey on our book, here is where you can find my full course on it. Scroll down in my profile page, click the course and become an expert freelancer on their platform. 64. Final & Bonus Lesson: Hello students, first congratulation on finishing my editing and proofreading tours. Notice probably the time to throw your hat to the air or something. Thank you very much for applying. I hope you've found my course helpful and informative. I've prepared some bonus editing and proofreading methods to enhance their skills even further. Read aloud. Good proofreading is done slowly. Simply reading it normally allows your brain to fill in gaps and fix errors in your mind and skip them on the page. Reading aloud in shoes that each word and punctuation mark is verified. It also highlights awkward sentences because it will sound more awkward out loud than on the page. Give it a try for a sec and see what I mean. I learned it's important the hard way finished proofreading and add fall client's website. I delivered my work, but later, Mike Land contacted me about a spinning L. I missed a noticeable L by reading aloud. So next time you proofread it a few pages, try reading aloud. Circled punctuation marks. This method may seem over the top, but it's one of the most effective methods out there for spotting punctuation mistakes. By circling every single punctuation mark, you force yourself to look at each one in turn and question if it really has been used correctly. When do I use it? If I choose to print the document and don't want to miss any punctuation marks, find important client. Refer to people as who not that Harry is the guy who never stops mumbling, not the guy that never stops mumbling. It's easy to make this slip because that has become adequate in daily cover sessions. But it's more noticeable when written down. Swap thing with more exact word. Usually when we write thing of things, it's because we were too lazy to think of a better word in everyday life. We may ask for that thing over there. But in writing, calling anything a thing doesn't aid your reader. And to replace all thing of things with a mockery of word. Read well edited writing. People don't read enough these days, at least not well edited books and magazine articles. He had. Reading excellent writing is one way to see how to edit someone's own work. You will discover new options for recasting sentences. You will find inspiration for new ideas. And finally, I wish you good luck in your proof reading and writing projects. Hope I made you a little more confident in both. If you have any questions, feel free to ask, and I will see you in my next course. Also, if you wish to start working in editing and proofreading, go check my beginner's guide for financing on Upwork, and check my other courses while you're at it. Anyway. See you in the next one.