EasyDSLR: Master your Digital Camera in less than 30 days | Kenneth Schultz | Skillshare

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EasyDSLR: Master your Digital Camera in less than 30 days

teacher avatar Kenneth Schultz, Photographer and Instructor

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Member Course Orientation


    • 3.

      What's a DSLR


    • 4.

      DSLR Essentials


    • 5.



    • 6.

      Exposure: Intro and ISO


    • 7.

      Exposure: Aperture


    • 8.

      Exposure: Shutter Speed


    • 9.

      White Balance Basics


    • 10.

      Custom White Balance


    • 11.

      Focusing Basics


    • 12.

      Depth of Field


    • 13.

      Flash Basics


    • 14.

      Flash Diffusers


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About This Class

So you finally got that DSLR camera you've been wanting, and you've dreamt of taking amazing photographs that will wow your friends. After ripping open the packaging, off you went in to a beautiful world just waiting to be painted on to your canvas. You zoomed and snapped your way back home, and when you uploaded your photos....they looked like they were taken with your phone!

Ok, so maybe it wasn't that dramatic. But that doesn't mean you've been taking the best photos you CAN take. Most new photographers are afraid to move off auto-mode. But to really get creative control over your photos you need to grasp some essential photography principles. This course was designed to provide and demonstrate the basic knowledge and techniques required. This will give the enthusiast the ability to move onto the more creative modes of their camera and start taking better images. Students will learn the essential principles and techniques to take good photos with their DSLR camera and by the end of the course, they will have a better understanding of their DSLR camera and will be able to move off Auto. 

This Class Will Cover

  • Introduction to DSLR cameras
  • Essential items
  • Composition tricks
  • Exposure fundamentals - ISO, Aperture and Shutter Speed
  • White Balance (WB) Basics and setting custom WB
  • Autofocus basics
  • Manual focus
  • Depth of Field (a key concept to creative photography)
  • Flash photography and the use of diffusers

This Class is For You

This class is best suited for Beginners using DSLR cameras to intermediate users who want to become more solid in the basic principles. It is also useful for those who have used Film SLR cameras for many years and want to make the transition to Digital. The basics will give them the foundation to improve their Photography. This foundation will be useful in any endeavor where photography is required and can be a pre-requisite to becoming a professional photographer.

This Class is Project-Based

You'll pick a photo category - such as people, nature, or art - and create a portfolio of 5 amazing photos. You'll use a different technique for each photo (ex. wide angle, depth of field etc.). 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Kenneth Schultz

Photographer and Instructor


I have over 30 years of Photography experience with SLR and DSLR cameras. My photojournalism and in-the-field experience includes capturing images of international travel, ocean life through my career as a marine biologist and 3 years as a professional wedding photographer using Canon 5D DSLR cameras.

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4. Member Course Orientation: - Hi. - Welcome to my easy dear Salar basics course. - Now, - in this course, - we are gonna go through the basic features and principles that you need to take command of - your DSLR camera. - So in this first chapter, - I'll have an orientation of the course, - which I'm giving you now. - And there'll be a really important chart which I'm going to go through in a minute, - which is the photo triangle. - And that's going to be the foundation for understanding the principles that you need to - know to be able to take better photos with your DSLR camera. - So the way obstructed this course as I start with an overview of what a DSLR camera is. - And then I have another video talking about essential items in your dear Salak. - It's so these are things that you'd wanna have to be able to take your photos to the next - level. - Now I want to get a little bit more into that further triangle because this is really gonna - be the foundation that I talk about all the other settings and concepts on, - and that really gives you a bird's eye view of all the settings without being overwhelmed - with all the extra buttons and things on your camera. - So there's just key settings that you need for creating a good photograph and key concepts - . - And my father triangle is to give you that bird's eye view of or the map to show you the - important things that you need to know to get there. - So once you go through the course and I build up on those different concepts, - you'll find it's actually quite easy to understand, - to see how they interact. - So with the Fed a triangle, - I'll just go to the white Board and show you the main points. - Okay, - so the major points of a photo triangle are frame. - And that's talking about things like perspective framing your image and also includes lens - choice, - which is very important for getting the right perspective in the correct framing of the - image. - And the second point of our photo triangle is light now. - Light includes things like exposure, - which is the total value, - or the actual light levels of your image as well as color. - So we're looking a tone and color values here, - so we look at things like getting correct exposure with aperture shutter speed. - I so as well as how white balance to fix the color of the image. - And then our final point of the triangle is focus, - so that's looking at what's in focus and what's blurred. - Sometimes you may want a blur part of the image to create an artistic effect or the effect - of speed. - So once you understand these three main points to taking a photograph and you understand - all the settings that feed into that which will look at it as we go through each video, - then you have a really good basis for understanding how to get a good photograph. - And you'll also start understanding how the settings on your DSLR camera relate to those - points, - and that will give you a really good foundation. - So once you have that foundation and you you can really move off auto for one on your - camera, - you'll understand how to set the exposure, - the white balance, - the focusing and also things like lens choices and perspective. - So from that point on, - with that solid foundation, - you can move on to more creative areas in your photography. - Okay, - the first chapter that deals with the photo triangle is our third chapter, - which is on composition, - which deals with framing of the image and that looks at perspective lens choice, - and I have some really interesting tips on how to use the order. - Focus points in your camera to compose your pictures. - Better now, - the next chapter after that is exposure exposes one of the key things to understand for - taking better photographs, - and I look at the three main settings that are required for getting correct explosion. - That's the icer, - aperture and shutter speed. - So once I've covered those three, - then you have a good idea off how to control the light values in your image. - And then the chapter after that is on white balance, - which is how to get the correct color in images. - And after that, - I look at focus and automatic focusing techniques as well as the key concept of depth of - field. - If the fields are really important concept for being able to create really artistic - photographs, - and it's really one of the features that sits DSLR cameras apart from regular point and - shoot cameras, - just that ability to control that tip the field and to get really narrow, - dipped the field. - If you want to select your subject. - It's a really important lecture. - That and then after that, - I have to final videos on flash. - So in that I go through the three main situations where you'd want to use flash to add, - like to your images. - And finally, - a video on using diffuses, - which I find the most flattering way of getting really good flash photographs. - So once you come out of this course, - you should have a good grounding on the principles that you need to take better photographs - . - I just want to make the point that this particular photography course is for beginners - using DSLR cameras. - Or it's for people who are making the transition from film style SLR cameras to digital SLR - cameras. - So that way you can understand how some of the technologies have changed so that you can - understand how digital SLR cameras work. - It's not really for professional photographers, - because some of the concepts here will be a little bit too basic, - and they should have a good grounding in those principles already. - So now that I've laid the outline of the course, - you can go to that next photo trying go lecture and you can actually download that as a - file so you can refer to that chart as we go through the different lectures. - So you're probably ready to jump in right now. - And so go ahead. - When you ready, - and you can start looking at the what is a DSLR camera and the essentials. - And if you have a bit of an understanding already about DSLR cameras and you're not a total - beginner, - then you can skip straight to the composition video and that'll give you some really good - key concepts will be and will compose your images to create better photographs. - Okay, - so when you're ready, - just jump in. - Thank you. 6. What's a DSLR: in this first video, I'm going to talk about what, exactly? A DSLR ease and some of the benefits and what makes them so awesome. So essentially, it's the same as a single injury flex camera SLR, but now they've added the digital sensor at the back. So if I dig out my old trusty Nikon FM two now, this is an SLR camera, so this doesn't have the digital back. It's a film camera, So that's the main difference between a digital SLR and a SLR camera. So, as you can see, this is where we loaded the film 35 millimeter film. So, like the digital SLR cameras had a control button at the top. Now this is a fully manual camera, so this actually had shutter speeds. I so settings and then the appetite you would actually change on the lens. Now, getting back to the digital SLR cameras, we've now replaced the film back with an actual digital sensor on the inside, and there's a bunch of extra buttons and controls associated with digital SLR cameras. Now the big benefit, of course, going digital is that you can preview images immediately after taking them, and with memory cards. Now, as the size get bigger and bigger, you can literally fit thousands of images on these memory cards. So if you were using a traditional camera film based camera, that would be 5200 rolls of film would be the equivalent of one memory count. So there's no question that there's a huge advantage going digital. Rather, and one of the other advantages of going digital is having that instant access to your images so that you can put them on the computer. You can manipulate them. You can email them and print them. So really puts you in control your photography a lot more than before. Before you have to get the roles of print or slide films into the lab. Wait a few days. In some cases you could get them at an hour's processing place. But you really don't know how your photos came out until they came back from the lab. Definitely a distinct advantages. Now, of course, some of the new cameras digital SLR are very capable HD video cameras as well. Now the real benefits of a digital SLR over a point and shoot camera are the fact that you have interchangeable lenses, so that allows you to swap lenses, upgrade your lenses. You can buy more professional quality lenses, and you can buy more specific lenses to whatever type of photographer year into there's specialist lenses as well. So the upgrade options are quite amazing things, and you can really start of basic with the kit and then build up build up accessories and lenses in a direction where your photography takes you. Another benefit of does less solares over point and shoot cameras is the response rate, like a digital SLR. When you pick up and shoot, it's instant when you hit that shadow button. It can be a slight delay with the order, focus and the exposure calculation, but it's fractions of a second, and it's really responsive competitors. Some pointed shoes will press the button and half a second to second late. It'll take the image. Another benefit of digital SLR cameras over point and shoots are the amazingly big sensor, and that allows you to get really low light photographs with very little noise. And so the image quality is really quite a jump up from a point and shoot camera. Now, a lot of still, photographers to the benefit for digital SLR cameras and why they all used by professionals , is the fact that you have, if you find a way looking through the lens. So you're seeing exactly what the cameras seeing and that also allows you to compose your shots better with less distraction. So you're basically looking straight through your lands and be able to compose with minimal distractions. And that's why they favored by professional photographers as well. So we're looking at interchangeable lenses. Amazing sensor. The fact that you actually looking through the lens and the response rate is great, and also what they have done with digital SLR cameras is they put a lot of the essential settings as dedicated buttons. And that's really important for a professional photographer to be ableto really quickly access those controls that he needs in those settings he needs. So, quite often a professional photographer, we just glued to the few finder, taking the photographs and just hitting the appropriate button and changing the settings with without even moving his eye from the viewfinder. So that makes taking photos in a professional environment a lot more efficient and quick. So in connection with these extra buttons, allowing you to change modes quickly, or the fact that there so many manual controls you pretty much have access to ALS, the different settings manually, so that you can fine tune your photos to exactly how you want once you know what those settings and principles are. And finally, some of the new digital SLR cameras have HD video now point and shoot cameras. A lot of them have video functions as well, and some of them even HD video. But you can't really compare the quality because of the large sensor size on the digital SLR ours. The image quality is really approaching, more like a film look, so certainly a lot better quality than most point and shoot cameras. So that pretty much wraps up the major benefits over point and shoot cameras. Now let's just take a quick tour of the digital SLR camera in the major components. First of all, we have the body and the lens, so those are the two major components that come with your your camera. I first go through the major features you have on the body, so the key to digital SLR camera is the mirror and the prison system, which leads to the viewfinder on the back. So that allows you to view directly through the lens and be able to zoom and focus and see exactly what the sensor will be seeing. Then you have the on off switch. This varies for different models. Sometimes it's up next to the controller on the left or the right. You have the all important shutter release button. You have other buttons associated with menus and different settings, just giving a broad overview, cause I'm gonna go into details on particular buttons and settings. In the appropriate sections. You have controllers. You have your main control knob, which sets with shooting, murdering and usually another kind of control or directional joystick or joy pad where you can choose menu settings and scroll through your images on a big feature on the back of the DSL. Ours is the large LCD display, which allows you dio display your images on the card as well as on the new models. You actually have live view so you can be you can switch to live you in the mirror at the front pops up, and it will actually show you a live preview of the photograph that's that you're gonna take. So it's an actual view of what the sense is gonna record and that also occurs in the HD video modes on the new models that have HD video. When you recording video, the mirrors up and you effectively in live, you moan but recording your videos and with each DSLR you have a battery compartment which houses the battery, and you will get a charger that comes with the DSLR as well for re charging these batteries . What's it worth having a spare? But I'll go more into that in the DSLR Essentials video and a memory card, which is one of the main features of digital cameras in general. So in this case, I have a In this case, I have a compact flash card. A lot of the semi professional and beginning level models will have SD cards, which a lot smaller and but they come with similar capacities is the compact flash cards. While we're on the topic of memory cards, I need to bring up an important point. A lot of DSLR cameras have an option in the menu, which is to enable you to shoot photographs without a memory card so you can have no memory card in the camera and be able to take photographs. It's quite often switched on by default to when you get the camera. Now I think that's a really risky situation because you don't to be put in a situation when you go out with your camera and you get that sort of perfect photograph and you line it up and you take the photo and then you find that you actually don't have a memory card in the camera. So the first thing you should do when you get your cameras checking the man, you'll find out where that setting is and turn it off. You don't want to be able to shoot photographs with without a memory card. You're better off having trying to take the photograph and having the camera actually warn you. Say sorry, can't take the photo because there's no memory card. Actually, I remember when I was and why is ah, professional wedding photographer? I heard this story about a photographer, a wedding photographer who this is actually in film days, but a similar principle. He he started shooting this wedding and took a bunch of photographs. It's crucial moments during the ceremony and found out afterwards that he hadn't loaded a roll of film in the camera. So that's effectively. What would happen if you didn't put a memory card in and you were shooting away and it it ended up being a total disaster. He had to fly along the people in because it was actually destination wedding. And he had a fly all the guests in into Hawaii and pay for the entire ceremony again. All due to this little error of not putting a little canister film in the camera, which turned out to be a big problem. So I would recommend turning that setting off course. You don't be put in that same position where you have some crucial photographs that you need to take and find out afterwards that you didn't actually have memory card in because if you have that shooting without memory card, you'll be shooting away and it won't warn you. You'll just find out later when you hit the playback button that there's actually no images in your camera cause there's actually no memory card, so that's very important point and now going onto underneath the camera. And aside from the battery compartment, there's not a lot of features underneath the camera, usually just the tripod. Mt. For attaching your camera to a tripod and on the top of the camera. We've already mentioned that there's a bunch of buttons. Aziz Well, Aziz. Some cameras will have the additional LCD and the very top. We have a hot shoe and some models. We may have a pop up flash this particular model, which is the Ken and five D Mark one. There is no pop up flash, but it has the hot shoe to allow you to attach an external flash. Now on the front of the DSLR body, you'll have a lends release button, and that's what allows you. Teoh release the lens when it's attached, and down here I have another little button, and that's step the feel preview. So now we'll take a tour of the next major component of your DSLR camera, which is the lens now with the lens. We have the focusing ring, which is found on all cameras, and there'll be a button to either have order, focus on manual focus. You can also buy lenses that are manual only and won't have that auto focused option. A lot of lenses will have a reader to, So when you're focusing, you'll actually see the distance focus distance value in that little readout, so that can be useful to for if you kind of pre focusing, knowing that your subject's gonna pass within a certain distance, you can set us set it on the focus ring for that distance. And on this particular lens, which is a zoom lens, we have Zoom Ring, which in this case takes us from 16 millimeters to 35 millimeters and on the front will have. Ah, there will be an option for mounting a lens hood, which I have in this case. So a lenses have this attachment for lens hoods, and on the very front they'll be a thread for attaching filters, and those filters will be Field is over a certain size, so in this case we have a 77 millimeter lens filter diameter. So so when you're buying filters to fit your lenses, you just make sure that you're getting the correct size diameter for your particular lens. And but that's pretty much That's pretty much it for the lens. And as I mentioned, you have a lens release. So that's how you take the lenses off your press, the lens release and your rotated, and the lens comes off. When you pretty lens on the camera, you need to line up some features. Now in this particular cannon, this is a Kennedy if lands on this cannon body. So in this case, we line up the red dots so the red dot on the lands with the red dot on the body and that makes connection, and then we rotated and it clicks into place. Now that will vary depending on your model camera and with DFS lenses, which lenses that are made specifically for crop factor DSLR cameras. You line up white dots rather than red dots. There's actually a couple more things you may find on lens, depending on the lens. So I'm gonna put on a large lens here to show you what I'm talking about. This is a 72 200 professional Siri's canon lenses F 2.8 lens. Don't worry so much about the values right now. I'm gonna go into what if 2.8 means and the zoom 72 200 all those kind of details later. So don't worry about those right now. Now, with this lens is actually an image stabilizing limbs. So here we do have some extra. So here we do have some extra settings, like we have the stabilizer. We have the option to suits the stabilizer on and off, and there's two different stabilizing modes as well. And also on this lens, which you'll find on a lot of the larger zooms and telephoto lenses, is a tripod mount. What happens is when you have such a large lens on the camera really becomes quite front heavy, so it makes more sense to place the lens directly on the tripod. It has a bit of balance that way, so especially with the really long lenses that makes quite a lot of difference when you have such a heavy piece of lands in the front. And in fact, if you have the tripod mount on the camera with the really heavy lens on the front, that's going to start causing stress to the mount as well. So that's another reason why they put that on the heavier lenses, so that pretty much sums it up. That's we have the camera and the lands, the battery in the memory card and you ready to go. You really go shoot! And all other accessories are in addition to that. So this is enough to get going and to start taking photographs straight away. So in the next video, I'm going to talk about the essentials that you need in your dear SLA kit. And some of that will overlap what we've just mentioned here. The certain things that you definitely need to be able to go out, take photographs. And there's some other accessories which are considered essentials, especially if you're going to try. Take more creative photographs and explore your photography too great a degree, so I'll go into those in the next video as well. So thank you for listening. 8. DSLR Essentials: - Okay, - Now I'm gonna go through the essentials in your dear salak it things that pretty much you - need to take photographs from the start as well as things that I consider essential to take - good photographs. - Starting with the body and the lens that's essential for taking photographs you can. - There's different lens options. - You can get different lenses like big a zoom lenses or even prime lenses, - which I'll talk more about later. - And then you definitely to have a battery and memory card in the camera and a charger. - Now, - if you buy a kit, - you'll get these old in your kids, - you get the body, - you get a kid lands and you'll get the battery in the charger that you won't get a memory - card. - You need order that, - in addition to your kids, - if you're buying the body on its own, - and then you need to get the both the lens and memory cards, - but you will get a battery charger now, - in addition to that, - an essential tool if you want to really get good photographs and be certain about having - the right color is either a great card. - Here we have 18% gray card, - and that's grateful. - Getting your white balance correct. - And I'll go through that in the actual white balance videos. - Another option is to actually use a disc, - which you placed in front of the lands is called an expert disk, - and this is also used for getting correct white balance. - It was to demonstrate that in the white balance videos, - there is a anything about these. - This is, - of course, - the compact Knicks. - Rather than carrying around large car, - you can slip this into your kit with your camera, - and it's not much bigger than a regular filter. - So that's a really handy option, - and another essential item is to have a dust blow off. - That's great for just keeping dust out of your camera. - And also just in the places where you find it. - Hard to clean can flow the dust out lens tissues. - Special paper for cleaning lenses You don't want to use just regular paper regular cloths. - Better to get proper lens tissues that were, - you know, - scratch your lenses and the special fluid leans came flu that you get cameras for Cain - England's as well. - And then, - if you're gonna actually travel around with your camera. - The next essential item is some kind of camera bag. - You can either get a more compact bag. - This is actually a bag that fits around you. - So that's quite a interesting style that you get a lot of compact bags, - that you can put your camera and a few lenses in a swell as your charger and additional - batteries and filters. - So this basic it can fit in most bags that you can get three DS alarms. - I like these particular bags. - Is that backpack travel bags Now? - That's actually my favorite way of carrying my camera around because he could get a lot of - year in these and that I shout out, - This is a camera either. - To me, - it's actually safer. - Option two people aren't gonna be front of grab your big canon or Nikon camera bag because - they just think it's a regular backpack. - So it has compartments that you can move around and to fit your camera body use. - You can 50 camera and lands in the middle, - and then you can other lenses, - flashes and a whole bunch of extra accessories, - as well as lens cleaning tissues and charger and cabling and everything. - I think one of the great things about this particular bag is is the pocket at the back. - This actually has a dedicated pocket at the back where you can slide your laptop. - That way, - you can have all your camera gear in the front, - and you can still be left up in the back and you're ready to travel and be able to process - your photographs wherever you go as well. - Now, - when traveling to another item, - I would always recommend to, - in addition to getting extra memory cards, - having some kind of memory card protector. - This is actually a little travel case for my memory cards and totally would approve and - will protect your memory cards against any damage while you're traveling. - So definitely a handy thing to have really essential if you want to go traveling now, - aside from these essentials, - there's some other items which I want to show you quickly, - which you'll need if you start wanting to expand your photography into more creative areas - , - and first time is a dedicated flash. - So if you're going to do any serious flash photography, - the on board flashes pop up flashes that some of the new models have a fine for occasional - flash use and maybe just fulfilling flash for, - you know, - just removing shadows. - That and I'm gonna get into details bad all that in the flash videos. - But dedicated flash is definitely a requirement if you're going to do more serious flash - photography. - And with the flash is, - well, - I would recommend getting some kind of diffuser. - I'm gonna talk all about diffuses in a dedicated video have on flash diffuses in Flash - Module. - And another thing you might want to have if you're gonna do a lot of landscape photography - , - which is something I'm gonna describe more in the landscape. - Section two is filters, - particularly polarized filters. - So that's something that you just screw on the front of your lands. - You get get appropriate size for your particular lens, - and it just screws on the front, - and some photos will actually make it darker. - So it's mostly recommended when it's brighter outdoors, - and I'll talk more about that when I took more about exposure and nature photography and - another option if you wanted to stop getting creative with your photographs to, - it's some kind of remote release, - particular these kind of wide ones which have a time of function. - So that's for taking time lapse photographs. - They can actually seven interval there. - It'll take photographs every certainly seconds or whatever interval you choose, - and I could describe more about that in the time lapse video. - If you're Goldmember, - that'll be under the Let's Get Creative section and one final thing for experimenting more - with your photography is a tripod that's really used a lot for things like night - photography, - Time lapse. - And even if you want to include yourself in photographs, - it's definitely a a very used item in my kit. - So there's a role, - things which are considered essential for when you're building your kid. - I mean, - these things can be built in time. - You definitely want those original things up and running to take photographs. - But these additional things, - like tripod flash remote timer off things that you can add in time. - And also, - of course, - you may want to add lenses in time to, - and as we go through the different videos, - you're going to see what kind of lenses you may like to purchase. - Depending on the top of photography you want to take now. - There's also a few specialised items like can actually get tilt shift lenses. - So if you start heading into mawr architectural photography than those tilt shift lenses a - great cause actually correct for perspective distortions that depending on what angle you - taking photographs of architecture. - And there's also other specialist lenses and things as well. - I want to talk about other specific items in the videos in the creative section, - for instance. - Macro, - I won't go through all the macro items now because that's really a specialist field. - If you're interested in giving macro photographs, - certain tools that you want to get for that. - So really, - when you getting a DSLR camera, - you're really getting a kit, - and you started for the basics, - which I mentioned it first. - You don't have to memorize a love story about that. - I'm gonna have a checklist down the bottom where you can download and a listed as basic - requirements for taking photographs and then other items, - depending on which direction you want to take with you photography and then in the - particular creative sections, - our list additional accessories in that that you may want for those particular types of - photographs. - So, - like I say, - it's really getting a DSLR is really getting a system and building on that, - Depending on the direction that you talk, - he takes you. - So in this module you've got an overview of what a DSLR ease and the benefits and what the - basic requirements are. - And some other essentials that you can get for your kid to start experimenting more with - your photography. - And now you're ready to jump into the DSLR basics videos, - which start talking about re actual settings and photographic principles that you need to - understand to really push your photography next level and understand how to use your DSLR. - So when you're ready, - jump into those videos. - Thank you. 9. Composition: - No way. - Welcome to the first video in the DSLR basic section. - In this particular video, - we're going to talk about the first point of our triangle, - which is framing Andi. - That includes composition and perspective. - And where you put your subjects in the photographs. - Once you've decided what you're gonna take, - what what your subject is, - you've picked your subject and then the next riel big choices. - Which lens you're gonna use because you could either have a wide lens if you if you need to - take a really wide view. - If it's like a scene re photographed for or like interior shots for kind, - like architectural or interiors of houses, - you wanna have quite a wide view to build taking the whole room. - Or you may need to have a longer lens or a telephoto where you can actually magnify and you - zooming in. - You're actually magnifying something in you. - So in those cases where you can't get close to your subject and you want to bring your - subject closer, - so the first thing I should probably mention is talk a little bit about focal length - because that can be a little confusing for people. - Focal length is in millimeters and what it is is the smaller the number, - the wider the view, - so so, - 16 millimeters is quite wide, - especially on a full frame sensor. - I should probably just show you on the white board exactly what I'm talking about. - So this is that lands and the focal length is really related to how how close the the - actual sensor is from your focusing elements. - So if if it's closer, - then you have a wider view. - And if you're lens elements are further away from your sensor, - then the views narrower. - And so the focal length wide angle lenses, - which are smaller distances in the lens elements so focal length is smaller, - will have a wider field of view and that can get extreme. - You can get to the point where you have ah, - a fish islands which can cover like 180 degrees. - Now you can also get zoom lenses and zoom lenses. - What they do is they actually modify the lens elements so that you have a wider view and - you can range from a wider to a narrow view. - So you change your magnification, - so a narrow view will basically make the object bigger on your final frame, - so it's effectively magnifying. - Now you can get prime lenses, - which have a single focal length here, - have, - ah, - 50 millimeter, - so that has a fixed view, - fixed angle of view. - So if you want toe change, - how much is in the picture? - You really have to get closer or further away. - And that's one of the advantages off zoom lenses is. - It gives you that flexibility where you can change how much your field of view how much - including your framing by changing the zoom setting. - And finally here I have, - ah, - a long resume so you can see that larger focal length lenses because of that distance in - the lens elements. - As you get a longer focal length lens, - higher magnification, - the actual physical size of the lens gets bigger. - So now here this is actually a zoom, - too. - So we're here. - We're looking at a 72 200 so it ranges from just beyond the 50 million middle ins 50 - millimeter lenses. - You recorder standard lens because when you have it set at 50 on a full frame sensor, - this this is a Canon five D. - So it has a full frame sensor. - It has the same magnification is your eye. - So 50 millimeter, - when you look through the viewfinder and then you take away and look with the ID has - roughly the same view. - Magnification as the human eye and then beyond 50 millimeters is considered telephoto, - and then less is called wide angle. - The reason why the focal length choice is important to when you're framing the object is to - do with not just how big you want the object in your photograph. - It's to do with the perspective, - because wide angle lenses, - when you have a wider view, - you have much more exaggerated perspective. - So that's like If you're really close to an object and you have a wide view, - the object will be really big. - And then things will get small really quick, - so it exaggerates that perspective. - So, - like, - for instance, - if you're taking photographs of your dog and you want them to look like Snoopy with a huge - nose, - then you use a wide angle really close. - In fact, - I recommend you don't use that for brides because they're not gonna be happy with the - photos with their nose four times big and then it should be. - So when I was doing wedding photography, - this is one of my favorite lenses was the 72 200 especially during the ceremony, - where you don't really want to get right up and right up close with the bride and groom. - You can sit back behind the crowd a little or at a decent distance, - and you can frame the bride. - You can get really nice close up framing, - and with the longer lands, - you can frame them nicely without distortion because, - in fact, - it flattens perspective a little, - so it's more flattering for portrait photographs. - In fact, - if using a full frame sensor, - even a 50 millimeter normal lens or standard lens can call some distortion. - So you're better off going from 80 millimeters plus. - So 85 millimeter lens is really a popular portrait lands and 1 35 if you want to bring the - subject a little closer now, - this is probably a good time to talk about crop factor, - too, - because now this is a full frame sensors, - so 50 millimeters is one times magnification or normal lens Better. - A lot of the popular ones are actually a crop sense. - And what that means is the sensor size is a little bit smaller, - so I can give you a quick comparison. - Actually, - on the camera here, - you you can get an idea. - Okay, - so that's moved the mirror out the way. - And that's the actual sensor at the back of taking a long exposure here so you can see. - And now, - if I put that side beside side by side with the crop factor, - Okay, - so here we have the canon 60 D. - Okay, - so there's the two cameras side by side now, - and you can see the sensor size on that one's a lot smaller compared to this one, - which is, - and in fact the crop factor is 1.6. - So the sensor on the Canon 60 D is 1.6 times smaller. - So if you divide it by 1.6, - that's the actual size you'll get on the on the Canon 60 D. - Now that's important for when you thinking about which lends to use because now you're in a - situation where for a particular focal length, - it's gonna be you're going to get a different magnification for these crops into cameras. - I actually just say quickly on the board. - What I mean, - so now protect the two senses. - So that would be a full frame. - And in the crop center, - which is just over half the size now, - what it is is using different lenses. - And although the lenses the same lens on on each particular censor, - what happens is because of the crop. - You're only getting a portion of the scene. - So what happens is the lens. - The lens is actually projecting this image, - so whatever lanes you have, - it's projecting this image. - So that's how full frame sensors that's picking up the image from the lens. - Now, - with a crop factor, - you have the same size image projected or the same angle projected from the the lands. - But now you you're only covering a small portion of that recovering just, - ah, - just over half the amount that the actual ends is projecting. - So that's why what happens is it's a narrow view. - Ultimately, - it works at that's a narrow view, - so it becomes effectively a magnification factor. - So for the cannon canon, - 60 d or the T two i or the t three I and the 70 they all have, - ah, - 1.6 crop factor, - so that becomes effectively a multiplication. - So if you had a the 200 mil lens 200 millimeter lens focal length, - which is like a telephoto, - a reasonable telephoto, - you actually multiple. - Apply that out and you'll find it turns out to be equivalent to 320 millimeter lens, - so it's not had it becomes a 3 20 millimeter, - but but effectively, - it's taking a small piece, - smaller piece of that 200 millimeter, - and the magnification becomes equivalent to 3 20 millimeter lens. - So that's important because really, - your field of use narrow now because you're dealing with this cropped center eso. - It has its advantages if you if you only have a 200 millimeter lens, - but you want to get close to your subject, - you put it on a crop factor camera, - and you suddenly have almost double the magnification, - which is really handy for, - like wildlife for event photography, - where you want to get much closer. - And but the downside is on the wide side of things on a crop sensor. - If you put a it's a 20 millimeter lanes, - then on a full frame sensor, - that's a reasonably wide view it's anything below 24 millimeters is getting quite wide and - remembering that 50 millimeters is basically normal or standard lens, - which one times magnification. - So this starts getting quite wide, - but you put it on a crop factor camera 1.6, - and then you end up with a quick equivalent of AH, - 32 millimeter lens, - which is not not so why that's heading more in the range of a off the standard lens. - So that just shows you that if you if you need to get a wider view, - you're gonna need to go. - You have to get a smaller focal length lens or use a full frame sensor, - so there's a bunch of things to consider. - So when you considering what lenses you're going to use, - it's you'll find it well, - very little bit. - Whether you've got a full frame or a crop center and actually on the Nikon's, - it's usually a 1.5. - The crop factor is not as great as the cannons, - so you're getting a little bit wider view, - then the cannons on the crop factor. - But on the other side of the scale, - the cannons will have a little bit more reach, - you will get a slightly more telephoto effect. - Slightly more magnification before use, - mostly a full frame sense. - And now I'm using a crop center more. - And I find I My most common lens now is the actual 16 to 35 millimeter. - Where is on the full frame since I attended tended to have the 35 to 70 millimeter lens on - the camera more often for most shots. - So it does. - Does have Ah, - So it is something to consider which which camera body you have, - and that gives you some decisions as to watch lenses. - You're gonna pick up a news so that covers focal length and lens choice, - which is really important. - And it is a big it is a big factor involved in framing your photograph and having, - you know, - deciding what kind of perspective you want. - The next thing that it's quite important in framing your picture, - which a lot of people don't talk about, - is just whether you're gonna have it as a landscape picture. - What were they gonna turn your camera on the side and extremely have it says in portrait - format. - In other words, - are you gonna have ah picture that's tall than it is wide or or you have a wide picture, - and that can give you a totally different look to your subject, - Depending which way you frame that. - Now we're gonna get more into, - like, - rules that kind of rules. - But you can bend them, - and it's good to be aware of certain principles. - See, - there's certain things that in in photography generally that if you know some basic - composition rules, - it helps your pictures with you taking with point and shoots digitally. - Solares. - One thing I like about digitalis solares and one of the benefits of off framing and - composing is the fact that you do look straight through the lens and you have this view - that's not complicated. - It's you can really isolate in what you're looking at. - You know you don't have any distractions, - and it lets you think about your subject and what's in the background. - Better because that's an important thing to consider is what's in the background. - Some people just take the photograph of their subject, - but they don't consider necessary what's behind it. - So you have to have a whole view of the scene and think about okay, - what's behind there. - Could I could I reframe that? - So that the backgrounds more appealing? - Yes. - Oh, - definitely a benefit of SLR cameras. - But like I say, - these particular tips and knowing some basics about composition can help. - Doesn't matter what Camry have. - You could be using an iPhone and a little improve your photography. - So one of the things people do, - which I'll demonstrate now, - is quite often when they take pictures of people, - they have the person's head. - So it's like straight down the middle, - because it's natural for us to focus in on the person's face. - So when they're taking the photograph, - they just focus in on their face and just frame the person so their faces straight in the - middle. - And that doesn't or occasionally it works, - having a perfectly symmetrical picture, - but its most the times. - It's not the most pleasing composition, - and the same holds true for when you take landscape pictures. - A lot of people just put the landscape line straight down the middle, - and so you have equal sky unequal land. - And that doesn't always create the most pleasing picture, - either. - So when things to think about two is having like, - for instance, - of the persons facing a certain direction. - If you just place the person smack in the middle and they're looking in that direction. - One of the reasons it's not so pleasing is you haven't left room. - You haven't left any space in front of them. - So so it's good to space is an important thing to think about in composition, - so you actually want to leave. - So if someone's looking that direction, - you leave a bit of space, - leave a bit of space for them to look into in the picture, - and it creates a more pleasing composition. - So that's one of the things to think about. - And you definitely don't want to go the other extreme way. - Someone's right on the edge of the frame looking out of the photo because that would almost - become agitating. - People will be wondering, - Well, - you know where they look, - why they're looking out the picture kind of things. - So it's good to think about framing, - so something's moving, - especially if it's a runner or something moving. - It's quite nice to have that little bit of room in the photograph, - so you have them a bit, - so you have less room behind them, - a little bit more room in front of them, - so they have placed to move into, - and it just seems to be more appealing. - So on that note, - I have a good question. - What do these things have in common? - A Nautilus shell, - the Parthenon and Daisies. - Well, - somebody may know, - and some of you may not. - And the thing that have in common is what's called the golden mean. - And a lot of people have actually called it the thirds rule, - which is really a simplification. - That's really goes back to what's called the Fibonacci numbers of the Fibonacci sequence. - This is gonna be the meth part of the lesson today. - And the mathematician Fibonacci found that if you take a number starting with zero and then - one and then you add the two numbers to create the next number, - so then you end up with one again. - And then one plus one is two, - one plus 23 and in three posters, - five and then eight and then 13. - And none gets bigger and bigger. - We're up to 21 34 and so on and so on and so on. - And this number gets larger and larger and What Fibonacci found is as the sequence gets - larger and larger, - the ratio of one number to the one before it starts becoming starts, - becoming one point 618 and a few decimal bugs here, - more decimals like zero 34 So as the sequence goes on, - it starts basically getting closer and closer to this number, - and it's they've actually given. - It was given a Greek lit. - If I and it's really the Professor, - anything about this numbers. - It's found a lot in nature, - like on a lot of flowers. - These are the numbers of petals you see, - and in Daisy's you see like daisies with 13 2134 and not every single flower. - But a lot of things in nature seemed to follow the sequence and including the the way seeds - arranged on sunflower heads and all sorts of interesting things like that and even the way - the stems grow from a little. - Branches grow from the main stem on different flowers and trees, - and they found it optimizes the Mount of Sun that gets to the low branches really - fascinating number. - And of course, - the the famous example is the Nautilus Shell, - which tell you an interesting way of drawing the Nautilus shell if we start off with a - little square. - So this is basically going to follow that Fibonacci sequence that we're gonna square one by - one. - And they were at another square, - and now we take the longest side, - which is to be added to that one. - So it's like the Fibonacci sequence where we keep adding the previous payers. - And then we draw that rectangle, - and then we take the once again the long side. - In this case, - it will actually be three. - And we add three to there and and we take the long side and we add that again, - actually, - actually five, - adding heading five by five to that, - and then keep keep going. - Take the long side at it to their and then I'll just do one more here. - Now, - if you draw a curve starting from this inside here, - you see that it actually creates that Nautilus shell. - That is just an approximation, - cause these would actually be the ratios away in. - But this is showing you how you can start with the beginning of the Fibonacci sequence, - and it gets closer to that golden mean and so this has found a lot of nature with shells, - and it's being used a lot in architecture like I showed you the picture the Parthenon - before. - If you actually break up the the structure of the Parthenon, - you'll see this elements that fit on those golden mean lines. - So it's quite interesting. - So it's being used throughout history with with art and architecture and now being - discovered a lot in nature as well. - Seems to be a really important number and related to aesthetically pleasing things. - Have even called it the divine ratio and and like a sets us called golden mean so you can - find that if you divide your image up into these race the golden mean ratios. - Actually, - there is a golden mean sighs where this is one, - and that's 1.6 18 the ratio between those who gives you what's called the golden rectangle - , - which is a very pleasing size. - In fact, - interesting thing is things like even the credit card has that ratio, - and I think the person who invented the credit card sort of necessary looked at the golden - mean to see how toe how to actually size it. - But I think it just happened that it was a pleasing, - pleasing to the eye, - that particular ratio. - And so if you get your your image like this and you divide it in that ratio, - so that will be the one, - and that will be the 1.618 and you can do the same from the other side, - and you break your picture up like that. - Now they found that painters and that in the past have found that if if interesting things - are placed on these, - particularly on these points, - where these lines and dissect it creates a more pleasing image. - And and like I say, - there is a the basic simplification off this is thirds, - and the third's lines are actually a little bit out from those. - So the golden mean lines come a little bit closer into the middle. - But anywhere in those regions creates a more pleasing image. - So when you're taking a sunset photograph and you've got the, - you know, - amazing sunset, - great drawing on her and say, - Have the yes, - you say have the ocean instead of placing that ocean straight down the middle, - which, - um, - is a right, - but it's not as pleasing to the eye as placing it on close to the golden mean or the thirds - line. - So that becomes your ocean there and your son sit there and likewise, - you can change it the other way around, - where you have, - ah, - see escape where the horizon lines actually on the third line there. - So you got mostly water in the foreground, - so so around 2/3 is water, - and then you have a little sky above that. - So that's a good way to think about framing images. - Actually, - what we'll do now is will go to the computer and I'll show you some of the pictures that - I've taken, - which some of them I thought, - Well, - these air pleasing to the eye are thought this, - you know, - like the way it looks. - And I over laid the thirds lines and golden means. - And it's quite interesting that the ones that I considered more pleasing to the eye usually - obey pretty closely the golden mean lines. - So there's something inherent about this proportions, - thes proportions that make it pleasing. - So if the only thing you get from this particular video is to think about placing your - images on not straight in the center, - but just just around the third position, - like just in from the thirds. - And start experimenting, - putting, - putting your horizon lines on those positions on putting interesting objects on those - points, - and that can be like someone's. - If it's someone's face, - for instance, - you can and you've actually got a relatively close up off the person's face. - They head can be there like that, - and maybe the eyes air on that golden, - mean physician. - So so that makes it more interesting composition, - and you'll find that when you do that, - it will. - Actually, - somehow there's something about it that just looks a little bit more appealing. - Let's go back to the computer and I'll show you with some some images. - How that how that can improve your composition Thinking about those lines, - and this particular photograph to me always had a nice balance to it. - So even though the the mountains are kind of down the center, - that's not really the subject of the photograph. - So my son in the foreground is now. - What I did is over laid the thirds lines just to see where it fits and you can see his head - is roughly in the position of that intersection of the thirds line, - and you can see so and also the feature down here. - So there's some lining up, - and then I put the golden mean on just to see Hat compares, - and that's even even stronger here. - You can see his head's pretty much exactly on that golden, - mean intersection there. - So I found that it very interesting that to me, - that picture just had a good balanced hurt, - and it lines up fairly close to the golden mean lines. - Now, - let me give you some of the examples. - Here we have the Canadian goose shot. - Now, - this is a case where it just happened that the horizon is pretty much exactly on that gold - mean line, - and the Canadian goose body kind of access is more or less on this, - the vertical golden, - mean line. - And once again, - this is ah, - photo which seem to have a nice balance tip. - And also you have. - We had this bright red object on this side, - and then the Canadian use from that side, - so there's a little bit of balance there as well. - Now, - this is a good example of leaving a bit of space. - You can see the little American Robbins facing to the left here, - and I've left a little bit of room there so that it's looking into the space. - So that was an example of that leaving space that I mentioned earlier. - And once again, - if we overlay the the thirds lines, - it's pretty much body excesses on the third's and the golden mean lines once again fairly - close to the golden mean as well. - So you can see if we just removed the thirds lines that the beak is almost exactly on that - golden mean and the eyes very close. - So so within that region within that region off the thirds and golden mean. - In fact, - the actual head the access of the head there with the I in the beakers, - really on that golden mean line fairly strongly. - So, - leading to quite a nice composition example. - Here, - we're looking at something that wasn't exactly on the gold mean in thirds, - but close to the thirds line. - We have my little daughter here. - She's Her body is fairly close to that thirds line, - so it wouldn't have been a stronger composition if I'd put us straight in the middle - because there would be no balance. - Because here we have the horses to the side here and we have the little foal and my - daughter here. - So if I had put her in the Santa, - what would have happened is you would have had the two horses on the side kind of clipped - off here, - not leading to a very balanced picture. - So this this composition looks a lot nicer, - even though she's a pushed a little bit further out. - It's given room for the actual horses here, - and you can see the horizontal golden mean lines here pretty much encompass the the major - interests in the photograph lug. - She's feeding some grass, - yet that's almost on that horizontal golden mean line. - And here's another example, - with flowers once again fairly close to the golden mean and thirds that rough region there - . - So interesting that to look at how close these matched to those rules, - even though at the time I may not have been thinking consciously, - it's like becoming more of a subconscious thing for me to balance the picture out and not - put things central. - Here's an example of where it's we have luck. - It tilted her eyes and effect, - and that's that. - You can see that the you got almost 2/3 of foreground and only about 1/3 of sky here. - So it's a good example of hats used in a landscape photograph and a little close to - Thursday and golden mean in this case. - Okay, - you probably starting to get the idea here, - so I'll just give just two more examples. - Quick. - Here's a bride shot I took in Hawaii and once again, - pretty much lining up with the golden mean her body axis. - It's like kind of closer to the gold mean like a face. - And that's that's the kind of interest of the picture. - If you look at this picture IDs, - it's the look of the face looking out to sea, - and that's where the I get strong, - too. - And it's on that vertical golden, - mean line, - and the bouquet is more or less just a little under that line as well. - And one more example. - In this case, - we have a sunset. - Now this is a case where you can bend the rules a little. - So, - like I say, - these air basic composition rules and to know them will improve your photographs overnight - , - especially if you weren't aware of them before. - But in some cases, - you actually want toe, - bend them a little. - And and the reason for the bending them in this case is I really wanted more sky because - three cloud patterns was so amazing. - So you can see that the third lines, - it's a little lower. - The band's kind of putting put fairly close to the thirds line, - and the top of the barn is kind of on that golden mean. - But you can see I've actually included more sky here because I wanted that traumatic clouds - . - I wanted more of the dramatic cloud specially at the top of the pictures. - But the bond, - having said that the peak of the barn here, - is hovering around that thirds golden rule vertical lines. - In that respect, - it is still having that balance rather than having it central. - So So as faras verticals go, - it's it is still lining up with those lines, - but not strictly on the horizontal plane. - But you can see it still makes a pleasing composition. - Just having that that bon off to the left on this course is specifically about digital SLR - ours, - and although all these composition rules will help you regardless of the camera using. - What I did is I pulled up a few focusing planes on certain cameras just to give you an idea - of how they relate to the gold mean. - So if I put put the thirds lines in the golden mean here, - you can see now with a cannon t two i, - which would be soon into the t three i if you play subjects close to those, - these four focusing points on the diagnose here diagonals from the Santa that's going to - put you close to the gold mean like verdict vertically. - It's pretty much on the thirds line, - but if you look at the horizontal golden mean, - it pretty much cuts exactly through those focusing lines. - So for landscape, - if you if you have the horizon line on those focusing points or on these focusing points, - you pretty much spot on the golden mean there. - And then if you put the verticals something on that position and a little in from that - outside position, - you'll be on the exact intersect of the golden mean there. - And let me show you something. - Other examples. - This is the Canon 60 D. - Once again, - Vidic, - the focusing lines line up with the vertical thirds but horizontal horizontally. - They line up with these golden mean lines, - so that gives you an idea for for putting your horizon lines on those focusing points as - well. - And here we have the Canon seven D. - So with the cannons 70 you find that the thirds lines line up with these diagonal focusing - points and horizontally. - The horizontal golden, - mean lines pretty much cut through both these rows of focusing points, - so it's gonna be fairly easy to line up your horizons with this camera. - And as far as being on the exact intersect off the golden mean lines, - it's a little out from thes diagonals that make up the center square focusing points. - And here's Canon five D. - Now here, - you to get to the golden mean into sick. - Do you want to be just a little out from these diagonal focusing points and just under - these vertical focusing points and that will give you the intersection so this gives you an - idea. - So when you're using your camera, - you can start thinking about which focusing points are going to create a more pleasing - composition now for Nik on uses. - Here's the D 3100 which would be similar to the de 5100 as well. - And once again, - these diagonal focusing points are are the spot to put things now like the cannons. - As far as putting your horizon line goes, - you can pretty much put its exactly on those diagonal focusing points, - either the top of the bottom. - But to get on the vertical golden means you want to bring it in a little from that. - So about 1/3 of the way in towards the centre from those focusing points. - And here's the de 7000 and here, - because you have so many focusing points, - you've got a little bit more of a choice. - So to put, - there's actually points that exactly on the gold mean lines, - and it's thes focusing points. - So they so if you take it from the center, - the diagonals that are two points away from the center on these four focusing points. - So if you want to lock on exactly on the golden mean into sections, - those of the points to use and then the thirds will be the next ones over for the thirds - verticals, - and for the horizontal line thirds. - It'll be just under these, - But these rarely will put you in the prime spots for placing objects that'll create quite a - pleasing image. - So I thought that would be useful just to when you looked through your camera just to have - an idea of where you're focusing. - Points are related to those thirds lines and, - in fact, - some cameras. - When you live you They may even have an overlay grid where you can show the thirds lines to - see how your pictures being composed. - But they usually don't have golden means. - So you just got to think about that golden mean as a little bit in from the third's, - and that will help your pictures overall. - So I hope you found that useful. - You can pretty much go out there now and put your camera in order, - because I haven't Coverdell the manual features yet. - But if you go out there and start thinking about those thirds rules and actually start - taking photographs bearing in mind those thirds lines and golden mean lines, - you will find that your composition will start looking a lot better fairly quickly and and - then it's just a case of practicing and your eye becomes more trained to that and you'll - stop being able to compose your pictures better now. - There's other things to consider with composition, - but I've basically honed in on these particular rules because they the fastest way to - improve your composition. - I mean, - there's other things like symmetry to consider. - And, - of course, - I mention space leaving space in front of your subject. - And and then it's just a case of artistic eye, - you know, - as you develop your eye for seeing what looks good. - Then you can start bending and breaking rules and coming up with compositions that are a - little bit a little bit new and may not exactly fit in with these rules, - but they still appealing to the eye. - But this this will really get you started so that you can practice right now and and see if - your pictures start looking better. - So thank you for listening. - And in the next video, - we're going to start on the exposure values and how to get the correct exposure 10. Exposure: Intro and ISO: - way in the next three videos of Siri's, - we're gonna talk about exposure now exposures a key value, - basically getting the correct light in your image. - Now there's three really important settings that go into exposure. - First is the ice Oh, - or the sensitivity of your sensor. - And we're gonna introduce that in this particular video. - And in the next two videos, - they're gonna talk about the other two really key features, - which are aperture and shut a speed. - So now if we go back to a photo triangle with, - we've covered the lens choices and composition, - which do with framing your image. - And now we're going to the next point of the triangle, - which is the light. - And in this first section, - we're dealing with exposure, - which is one of the components of the light in your image, - and the other is color, - which will deal with more in the white balance videos. - So now the first setting that goes into that E the exposure of your image is is the ice own - ? - That's the sensitivity of your sensor. - Now some people like to think of it is ah, - triangle with the ice. - Oh, - sensitivity setting the shutter speed in the apertures like a three way triangle. - But I like to deal with sensitivity setting I so separately because because I preferred the - theaters is the gain setting the gain of your image. - So if you in a scene, - that's where the lights too dark and you've you're not getting the correct shutter speed or - the aptitude you desire, - then you can shift that I so setting, - which is effectively said in the gains. - You can push that up so you have a more sensitive sensor, - and that way it creates a brighter image, - and you're able to use the shutter speed or the aperture that you desire. - These dear Solares actually have a built in light meter. - So when you're looking through the through the lanes, - you will see that this is scale at the bottom. - And if it's in the center position, - that's correctly exposed according to your particular exposure metering mode. - And if the arrow goes below the center line, - which is to the left, - then that will be an under exposed image, - and over to the right of the central line will be an over exposed image. - Now, - this is that that scale is kind of a simplification because it's a lot. - It's a little trickier than that, - because that just gives you the overall values. - Just a quick side point with the's cameras, - DSLR cameras that have different ways of measuring that light value or metering modes and - the the more technical way or they're more complicated way, - which most people leave it on, - is, - is where it takes into account like a grid across your image. - And what that does is, - if any particular points Aaron focus, - it takes into account and basically tries to calculate the best lighting situation based on - the values across the screed. - Now the other modes and these air name different things. - Depending on your particular model camera, - the other. - It will be sent awaited, - where the camera selects a section in the center of your view, - and that that central spot sort of varies in size, - depending on your manufacturers Well, - and what it does is a Texas three that region and tries to give the correct value for that - region the correct light value for that reason region. - And then finally, - you have, - ah, - spot metering mode. - Now that's just a smaller ring centered on your on your view, - so that's handy. - If you just want to point to some particular spot in your scene and get the correct value - for that, - it's Ah, - it's a more accurate way of just getting a point reading in your scene. - So actually, - that spot metering way is really quite handy if you you you know that there's a certain - thing in your scene that should be kind of around the middle middle exposure level. - In other words, - not not too bright, - not too dark. - But it's kind like that centrally exposed things like, - Let's say it's ah ah, - medium grey War or something and you're seen. - You can actually point your camera using the spot metering and two ways of doing you can - either lock your exposure. - A lot of cameras have this exposure lock button, - so you can actually point it that object or wall whatever it is and lock the exposure and - then reframe your scene and then take the photograph and then you'll know that it's it's - the photograph is gonna be exposed. - How you want and the other way is to use spot meaning to aim at a particular particular - section of your image. - with the spot metering and make a note off what the camera recommends in one of your modes - . - Like what? - The shutter speed in the appetizers? - And use that to send it in manual mode on your camera. - Actually set those readings and then you'll know that that will be exactly how it's exposed - . - But we'll go a little bit more into that when we start dealing with it shutter speed and - aperture by just to know that there are different modes of off measuring light that you can - get your DSLR camera users really important thing to understand about these dealers, - DSLR senses, - is how exactly they take the photo, - because that will actually show you what we are. - Sittings come into play and also to understand that the sense ah does not always captured - the full range of light that we've seen so good example here. - Like right now, - I've got the camera exposed to my skin tones more or less, - and but the background is fairly blown out, - and that means the cameras, - the particular chip that I'm using to capture this scene is handling the slide in the - foreground, - but doesn't have enough range to capture that sunlit buildings in the background. - So what's happened is it's just that goes beyond the sensor range, - and this is treated as white. - This for the sake of demonstration. - I'm I'm just going to show you quickly the scene without me in it. - But what I'm doing is I'm just gonna just the exposure. - So this is exposed correctly for me. - And now you notice if I stuck cutting down the light, - Reducing the light values eventually gets to a point where we can actually see the - buildings and the sky clearly in the background. - But the four grounds we've totally lost detail. - We've totally lost shadow detail. - So that's gives you a good indication that there's gonna be scenes where the senses just - cannot capture that full range. - When you take a photograph in certain circumstance, - especially when there's like a really bright light source like son, - you'll notice that you'll be in the situation where it's not always able to capture the - light, - the full brights to the full darks, - because the dynamic range of your sensor cannot cover that full range, - and so it becomes an artistic choice. - You know which part of the range you're interested in. - I mean, - I could say it's compromised, - but unready, - like thinking of is a compromise because really, - it's more artistic. - For example, - the silhouette silhouette. - It's an artistic choice to have the background exposed with the correct color in the - background, - but your foreground subjects totally black. - In other words, - you've lost all that shadow detail in the foreground. - So in that case is certainly not a compromise. - That's actually a conscious decision to portray the picture in that way. - So it's an artistic choice. - So now I just like to introduce another concept is is really key to understand explosion. - That's the hissed a gram. - I mean, - just show you where you find the sister Graham on the camera, - and it's when you display your images on your camera, - you'll notice there's there's an information button and in the info button, - depending on the model of camera, - maybe in a different position. - But they pretty much all have this hissed a gram view visible way you can. - When you turn that on, - you can scroll through your different images, - and it shows your graphical display off the light and dark pixels in the image. - So let me just show you on the board. - Exactly what that showing you. - So what it is is there's this is your hissed a gram display, - and on this end, - we have dark pixels. - So that is the point, - Sonya image that off dark and all points from the points of this point is the darkest pixel - possible. - So that's a pure Blackie pixel. - And on this end, - we have the lightest flexible, - the lightest pixel possible. - So on your sensor on your actual photograph, - that'll be come out as pure white pixel. - Now this range from the dog's pixel to the lives. - Pixel is the dynamic range of the camera, - and so that's what it's able to capture. - Now. - If you take a photograph off, - let's say a gray object and you just take a photo close up so well you've got is the gray - light. - You'll end up with a bunch of pixels straight down the middle here, - so that will indicate that you've just got grey pixels and and then, - if you have some shadow detail on that, - then the shadow detail will stretch down to here. - And then, - if you if you actually photograph that on a black background. - Then you'll have the black background pixels visible here and then. - Likewise, - if you have a light object in your scene, - the light object will be here, - and a pure white object will will show pixel values here. - So what you end up is with this curve in this curve, - showing you what light what value pixels you have in your image. - Now some cameras election split that into the different colors. - RGB. - So you can have a separate curve for each color. - But the basic hissed a gram is showing you dark to light levels and regardless of the - actual color of those pixels, - this is really useful. - Because when I, - as I mentioned earlier, - there's in your camera view. - Fonda. - You have that that little display, - which shows you correct exposure. - And then if for some reason you under exposed the little a little market moves down to the - left, - two under, - exposed and then you also may over exposed image and that little marketable show you by - moving to the right that your images overexposed, - and each point there is a stop what's called one stop so that would be one stop over. - Exposed to stops overexposed and likewise under exposed if he had that way. - But this marker shows you that you're when it sent. - It shows you that your images correctly exposed according to what the camera calculates. - But what it doesn't show you is is the actual distribution of that a lot. - And that's the point of the hissed A gram so you can actually have an image that's that has - a bunch of pixels down here and then not much in the middle and in a bunch up here, - and it'll show as perfectly exposed. - But you may have lost detail here because some of this is unexposed. - But that's not gonna show you what is showing use that it's balances out the lights and the - docks. - But when you look at the history, - Graham, - you start seeing a better picture of what's going on, - and what it is is if you have a peek right here and then you have information so you curves - kind of running like that. - Then you have a good chance of cut off information here, - and you've actually what they call crushed the blacks. - You've actually all that detail that was in the dark area that there, - you've pushed it'll just to one single black value. - And likewise, - if you haven't, - if you have a an image on your hissed a gram like that and that's your curve like that, - there's a good chance of chopped off highlight detail. - So there's a bunch of information variation of light there that you've you've over exposed - the image and all that details lost, - and it's just showing as a white area on your camera. - So that's why those hissed a grams air useful. - So you this in some of the newer cameras. - Actually, - you can you can have a live you I'll actually swap to one of those cameras to show you. - Here we have the A Canon 60 d one of the new idea solares, - and this actually has live view where you can take a photograph and with, - rather than looking through the viewfinder, - you can just see the image on the LCD display. - So that way it allows you to bring up their test a gram in the info button and effectively - have a live update of what's happening on that hissed a gram so you can see if I aim it - down, - but making it down to the to the sofa. - You can see that the hissed a gram is indicating a total under exposure there because that - graph all the information shifted over to the left and has been clipped off. - Where is the fun increase? - The will slow down the shutter speed here. - Increased exposure. - You can see I can sent to that, - hissed a gram. - So now that'll be correctly exposed. - And likewise, - if I pointed out the window, - that's like, - totally every exposing now. - So for change that and sent to that hissed a gram, - its effects that stuck chopping a little bit of information off there. - So can there you go. - So now in that position there I've exposed and you got Shadow Dita away up there and not - much clipping. - So it's showing you all the detail out there correctly. - Of course, - there's totally out of Focus year, - so he's got manual focus. - So there we go, - that's that's are seen outside the window, - so that's very handy. - The it's worth just getting your camera and turning on live you and turning on that hissed - a gram. - I'm just pointing at different objects and different scenes and just see what what hissed A - gram. - It shows you and it starts giving an idea that this is showing you broke dark areas. - This is showing your light areas. - If you point at something kind of fairly gray, - it's gonna be centered around the middle. - So it starts giving you an idea of how how an image is composed of different light on dark - areas and how sometimes it's gonna be an artistic choice and where you exactly put that - curve because sometimes that curves not gonna fit fit on the camera. - Exactly. - Like, - for instance, - if I This will be like if I have my whiteboard silly silhouetted against the sky and I've - chosen to just expose for the sky exposed for the blue sky in the background that of - chopped off detail here. - So the whiteboard edge of the white was totally black, - the skies skies exposed correctly. - So that's a choice where I've chosen to throw away that information for the sake of a - silhouette and retained the background coloring. - So with experimenting, - just putting on that live you putting on history, - Graham, - display through your information and then just early, - just pointing your camera around and spend, - you know, - 10 minutes pointing at different areas and different light. - And then you can just start getting an idea of what that hissed a grand means and how much - more information it gives you, - then just your you're little exposure scale that's normally visible in the camera. - Okay, - so where does I so fit into? - Well, - like I was saying, - if you have an image and you've you've tried to expose correctly, - but you're not quite getting the settings you want, - let's say it's kind of up there. - It's a little bit of exposed. - You can shift the I so to a lower value, - and that will shift it down. - Now what I recommend with ice. - So I've done a bunch of tests, - and it's better to use the lowest. - I. - So setting so much of these DSLR cameras have a setting from LAX, - 100 100 being your lowest sitting and all the way up to, - like 6400 and some of them may even go away up to 256 k Um, - on the extended I simmered. - Now what I found is 100 Teoh say 800. - You're going to get reasonable images, - but beyond 800 you're really going to started noticing grain in the image. - The way I like to think of eso is it's like turning up the gain. - So if you imagine, - if you tuned into a radio station and the signal was pretty poor like and analogies and - you're in a situation with a low the lights, - not enough, - that's low light. - So the signals poor, - similar to having low light. - So you tuned into the radio station. - Then you turn up the volume, - which is like turning up to gain so that you can hear what's going on on the station. - And what that will do is you'll notice you'll get quite a static, - he see kind of noisy channel, - even though you can't make it louder, - and you could make it loud enough to hear. - But there's a lot of noise associated with that, - and that's the same with these cameras. - When you in the dark a light situation and, - you know, - been able to use the other settings that you want, - you can turn up the sensor to activity of the sensor, - so you turning up the gain of the sensor. - But the compromise there is. - You're gonna introduced more noise. - So you basically having less like coming in so you don't have a very strong signal coming - into the sensor, - and then you turning up the gain on that information, - and that's gonna expose more noise. - So very high settings like 6400. - If you zoom into the image and look at it on the computer at full magnification, - you're going to notice the speckled noise. - And I actually did a test chart with a scene where actually took the same scene with - different I so settings away from 100 all the way to 6400. - And the results are quite clear that the noise increases as you go higher, - and it's fairly linear with with photographs. - That's a little different when you're taking video and are going to that in the video - section. - And so that chart, - you can actually have a look at that j pig down underneath this video, - I'll have an option where you can actually click on the image and see the full size version - of that and build a Bella scroll across image and actually see that change of noise from - the low. - I sort of the highest. - So the best way to use I so is just use as much as you need to use the lows fellow you - possible if you're in a situation where you really wanna get a scene, - where the lights getting a little low and you have to use a higher I. - So if you if possible, - rather reach for a tripod and take a longer exposure in the shadow speed section, - I'll go a lot more into that. - But try keep your eye SOS in the 100 to 800 range mostly, - and that would That will create less noise. - So that pretty much concludes this video. - So exposure once again is an introduction. - Is the eternal the light levels of the image. - And it's the rial are getting getting that correct and choosing what's pleasing in those in - the range that your sense it can handle and the key settings for that are the sensitivity - of the sensor or the I. - So the aperture and the shadow speed So then the next video will go into aperture, - and that's a real key value for exposure and has some really interesting effects on your - images that are not just related to light levels. - So I hope you enjoyed that video 11. Exposure: Aperture: - second part in exposure, - Siri's would have three videos describing exposure and important settings. - The 1st 1 we spoke about, - I so and just gave your general introduction about what exposure is, - and we included the tool, - the hissed, - a gram, - a way of seeing if the images are well exposed before you taken end after you take it. - So a lot of cameras, - even the older ones, - will have it as, - ah, - an option to preview images and see the history Graham. - But in the new models, - with the live you display, - you can actually get a view, - hissed a gram view, - and get to see what exposure you're gonna take before you take the federal off. - In this video, - I'm going to talk about aperture, - but I just want to quickly give you, - Ah, - an overview of what happens when to the light path. - When you take a photograph. - Essentially, - what happens is with these cameras, - the light comes through the lens and it's affected by the optics of the lands, - and the first obstacle comes across, - or the first adjuster other than your focus is the actual aperture. - And that's the hole where the that lets through the light, - and then the light goes through the lens through the aperture. - And when you take the photograph, - this mirror actually pops up so you can see here we have the mirror off the camera and I'm - going to set it Teoh Bold mode year so I can actually show you what happens when you press - the shadow. - So you So you press the shutter and the mirror pops out of the way and exposes the center. - So that was the mirror popping out the way and in the shutter, - exposing the center and closing and in the mirror, - popping down those the things that happened to the light path when you take a photograph. - So the aperture is one of the first key things that affect the amount of light that goes - onto the sensor. - So the 1st 1 of the first things that affects the exposure now the best way to show you - what appetite is actually show you on one of these older manual lenses, - cause that actually allows you to change the aperture on the lens. - If you have a look in the center there, - you'll see a little dot, - and when I move the epitome ring. - You can see it changing so that on this particular lanes F 22 I just kind of strange. - It's It's the large, - because a ratio, - actually, - it's the larger number is a smaller aperture, - so it's kind of like a fraction. - So if it has a bigger number at the bottom, - it's actually a smaller aperture. - So F 22 is the smallest aperture, - and then we click it to F 16 11 85.6 and then 3.3. - So that's a large. - Is this particular Leon's goes? - That gives you an idea what approaches are, - so the smaller the number, - it's actually the wider and the more liked it leads through. - Lenses will actually come with an aperture. - Mention its maximum aperture. - So this lands is actually a A 3.3, - and it's actually a zoom lens and this one at full zoom, - it's actually 4.5. - So when it's at 70 millimeters, - when we won't remember that focal in video went through which seventies leg zoomed in. - And then, - when you turned over, - you open it up to 36 which is a wider view focal length. - Then this lens can handle 3.3. - So with us lands, - the the F stop varies according to the zoom level. - Now Ah, - you get other lenses like the one on here which has a fixed apatow fix f stop for the lens - . - So whether you're on 16 or whether you're on 35 the maximum aperture can stay at 2.8. - So this lenses Ah, - 16 to 35 if 2.8 lens, - which means 2.8 is the widest apathetic and have now that's wider than this one. - This one being 3.3 couldn't handle as much light is as this lands. - So having ah, - a smaller number there means you can actually open up the lens wider, - which effectively Let's more light light into your sensor. - So which lets you take photographs and lower light conditions, - and to get larger app, - it's just still you pretty much need to jump over onto prime lenses, - and this is a relative inexpensive 50 million prime lands, - and this is a 1.8 lens. - That means that the aperture on this can go all the way up to 1.8 so you can actually see - through at view there that it's quite a lot more light going through there. - The apertures a lot wider than that 3.3 lens. - So prime lenses were used a lot when you dealing with darker areas, - especially with luck event photographers, - when they're taking wedding photographs and they're in a church environment where flashes - may be prohibited. - Then if you get a prime lands that's wide enough, - you can actually be able to take photographs in low light conditions without using flash. - So that's very handy. - Just because it's letting a lot more light went on to your center. - That's basically what appetite is. - It's simple to understand that it's just the smaller the number, - the big aperture and the more light that gets laid on the film. - Now. - The interesting side effect of the aperture is the wide Apertura will have a very narrow - focusing depth at the point of focus will be very narrow, - and they will get blurred before and after very quickly and a narrower aperture. - You'll will extend the mount that's in focus, - but I'll go a lot more into that in the dip the field video in the focus section that - pretty much concludes what aperture is all about. - So to really experiment and understand aperture, - one of the simplest ways and effect when the ways are mostly shoot on these cameras is is - to take it off program or full order mode. - So if you take it off the Green Square or the green camera symbol, - which is the full order, - and the P off that and you turn it over to a V or a P mode, - which, - UM, - which is aperture priority now? - Yes, - in your camera manual tell you exactly what it's called. - It's usually a or AP epitope priority or sometimes a V aperture value. - In the case of the The Cannons here and now, - this is our first step beyond go shooting on order all the time. - So now what we've done is we've changed the camera into mode where if you look through the - the camera now and you move your controller, - which is usually on the top near the shadow button. - So when you actually rotate that now half, - press your shadow and rotate. - Now you'll see numbers in your viewfinder changing and the one closest to the to the scale - . - In this case, - the exposure value is the aperture value. - I need looking you manual to see exactly where that is. - In your view, - find about. - You'll see that now with this lens. - Aiken close the APP ritual the way to 22 then I can open it up all the way to 2.8 yours. - Lens may stop it four or 5.6, - depending on what said lens you have and what, - Zoom said. - And you have what you'll notice is in a particular city given situation. - If you choose the widest aptitude, - in other words, - the smallest number there that will automatically adjust the shutter speed accordingly so - it will give the small the widest aperture will let the most light in, - which will allow you to actually have a quicker shutter speed. - So that, - and if you just practice and you can change, - APA choose and just experiment with the effect it has on the shutter speed because they - basically balance each other out all the time. - And that'll pretty much lead us directly into our next video, - which is shutter speed care. - Let concludes the aperture video. - So we have. - We've dealt with framing our image and Now we've dealt with two of the components off light - which are dealing with exposures specifically, - which is the sensitivity of sensor, - which is the ice. - Oh, - and now we've looked at a picture, - which is the amount of light that the lens let's through to the sensor. - So that leads us straight into her next video, - which is the shutter speed, - which is how quickly the shadow moves and jump right into that one when you're ready. 12. Exposure: Shutter Speed : - way. - Welcome back. - We've looked at two components now of exposure, - the ice. - So which is the sensitivity of the sensor? - And in the last video, - we looked at a picture, - which is the lens opening now. - The final component to getting the correct exposure is shutter speed. - So now what shutter speed is? - It's the speed that the shutter at the back behind the mirror moves at. - And what I mean is on the inside of a DSLR just behind this mirror. - When you take the photo like I showed you before the mirror flips out the way and behind - the mirror is the shutter, - which is actually a mechanical shutter. - And it has to curtains. - And what happens is is the first curtain moves out the way it's exposing the sense, - and in the second curtain follows it straight away. - So what happens is that exposes a sense of from the top to the bottom in a real quick - motion and the speed that that exposes the sense it is your shutter speed. - So it could be really slow. - For instance, - if I if I put the shutter speed on B mode bold mode now, - some of the some of the newer models won't have, - and the intra live models won't have to be bulb mode or the be on your actual control here - . - But you can access if you choose manual the M mode and actually keep scrolling the shutter - speed past 30 seconds, - which is the fast, - the slowest speed. - And then it will go on to bulb. - Okay. - Okay. - Salmon bold moaned here. - So what? - I'm showing you the mirror flips out the way, - exposes the sensor. - And as a let go that top curtain wall shut down block the sensor in the mirror flips back. - So on faster speeds, - that happens really quickly. - So you that shadow mechanical shutters moving so quick that you don't actually, - you just see like a flash, - and you mostly see in the mirror flip out the way so that shadow speed is and seconds - either fraction of the second or whole increments. - So entry level models usually have a shutter speed up to four thousands of a second. - So one over 4000 is the actual shadow speed, - which is a really small fraction of time in the more professional levels or enthusiast - models that could go up to 8000. - So 18 thousands of a second, - which is it is pretty quick. - And and then as that number gets smaller, - the fraction gets smaller in the time periods, - actually longer till we get up to second. - And then these cameras conduce all the way up to 30 seconds in most, - most models. - So you can actually have ah take a photograph and actually open up that shit shutter for 30 - seconds and expose that sensor for 30 seconds, - which is a really long time. - So in those instances, - you really want to use a tripod. - So essentially shutter speed is quite easy to remember. - It's it's just that how quickly that shut a move. - So in other words, - how long it exposes light on the sensor? - So now here we see how aperture and shutter speed both playing to exposure. - You've got the aperture, - which lets in a certain amount of light according to how large that aperture is, - and and then how long it exposes the sensor is the shutter speed. - So if you decrease that aperture, - in other words, - make the whole smallest a leading less light in, - then you have to expose the sense of for longer to get the same exposure. - And it really works that if you decrease the aperture bar full stop, - which is actually harming the mantle, - light that letting through, - then you have to double the time that you exposed the center for eso to give you practical - example. - If the aptitude is, - let's say, - 5.6 and your shadow speed is said to 1/60 of a second, - and that's your correct exposure. - If you take the photo, - that that's fine. - But then, - if you decide to make the aperture smaller by one stop, - which will be if eight so that's having the metal light, - then you need to double the time that you exposed to so that you'll be 1/30 of a second. - So it's kind of kind of strange because the number gets gets smaller. - Better. - It's actually in fractions of a second. - So it's actually 1/30 is is twice the amount of time it's 1/60. - And like I said, - that will go all the way up to when you've got very little like you'll actually be looking - at whole second increments. - Weaken, - sit the show for two seconds or four seconds to painting on your situation. - So in that case, - if you have ah to second exposure and you hard Merrill Light by shutting down the aperture - , - then you'll need expose the sense about four seconds to get the same amount of light onto - the sense that to get that same exposure now, - one thing that's closely related to to your shudder is the actual shooting mode they're - quite simple to understand, - and most cameras have have a least three modes, - and the first mode, - which is called the Drive Mode, - will be single shot. - So if I said that's a single shot now and I take a photograph even though I'm holding down - the shadow, - it'll only take a single image. - And in the next mode over will be continuous. - And now, - depending on your model, - your camera, - you may have a continuous and a high speed continues, - and high speed continues will be taking them at the fastest frame rate that your camera can - handle the fastest continuous burst rate. - So now what happens then is hold down the button, - see so took three shots straight after each other and continuous mode and that'll. - What will happen is If you hold down that shut, - it will take a many as the buffet can handle, - and that, - once again, - varies with cameras for some more handle but five and made some may even be able to shoot - off 20 shots, - depending on the particular camera you have before it. - It stops and basically gets all that information from the buffet puts it on the memory card - . - Now the other mode is the third kind of shooting mode is a timer mode, - and now, - with this particular model, - it's Ah, - Ken and five D. - This has a 12th timer. - So what that means is you. - You press the button and you notice is a little light flashing in that After 10 seconds, - it'll take the exposure. - So there we go. - So we have a shot after 10 seconds now, - and some of the newer model cameras DSLR as you'll actually have an option to sit that to - to second. - So if it's 10 seconds is great if you want to set it up on a tripod and you want to press - the button and you want to run around and be in the photograph yourself, - but sometimes you don't want it to be that long. - So you consider to a two second self timer, - so that lets you just press the button and wait two seconds. - It takes a shot, - and that's handy. - If you don't actually want toe, - push it with your hand and have that chance that you might move the camera. - And that's good for, - like longer exposures where you want. - Press the button and then you want to take your hand off the camera and then let it take - the photograph after two seconds. - So that way you're not pushing on the Cameron. - There's less chance of moving the camera getting camera shake, - so there's your drive modes, - so quite simple to understand. - And if you just look in your manual and find out where you can access those drive modes, - usually usually there's a button on the top, - but that will very. - Now that we've learned about shutter speed, - we can experiment a bit with shutter speed by turning a command dial to on cannons will be - TV, - which means time value and on Nickens a little bit more intuitive. - It's an S for shadow speed, - so now what happens if we said it to that mode, - and we looked through the viewfinder as we scroll out Come on button once again on the Nik - Cohn's. - It's gonna be on a lot of them on the back here on the cannons. - You have the command dark here, - so you half press the shutter and you scroll and you'll notice that what you're doing is - you actually changing that shutter speed. - And what happens is the aperture will change accordingly. - So as you make the shot of faster the APP, - it'll open up to the point where if you don't have enough light, - you can keep moving the shadow faster and faster. - And I'll get to the point where the shadow with the apertures at the maximum and it'll - there'll be some indication, - in your view, - find it'll start flashing and saying, - That's you know it's not able to get the correct exposure with the canons of just the - actual aperture value flashes. - And in the Nikon's, - the actual exposure bar might move, - move off to the the right and then start flashing and say, - Okay, - I can't get the correct exposure here under exposing. - So what I often do is even though you can put it on shadow speed. - Priority on your camera to take photographs and use the correct shutter speed I actually - mostly used in. - A lot of other professionals do, - too. - I mostly used aperture priority, - and I use a manual mode for photographs and the way I do it with aperture. - Priority Use said. - A lot of situations actually want the fastest shutter speed of a little in that given light - . - So rather than setting it to shutter priority that I actually said it to aperture priority - and I just dial it up to the widest apertures because I know that, - for instance, - this is, - ah, - a 2.8 lens. - So I just scroll it over 2.8 and leave it on that, - and it will use the fastest shutter speed that can in those like conditions. - And that could vary. - So it'll constantly adjusted, - said maybe 1/60 of a second or 1 25th depending on exactly where I am in the scene. - But I know are maximizing the shadow speed because upset it to as much light as I can. - So in some instances where I've I've said the apertures, - why's that? - Can so no that's as much light as I can let in, - and I find I'm not gonna get a fast enough shutter speed to what I want. - It may be either too slow, - and it's gonna blow if I move slightly and I don't have a tripod or for some other reason, - I want to free some motion with faster shutter speed. - Then in those cases, - that's when I reached to the Aisa and our incrementally increase that I so So that gets to - the point where I can use the shutter speed that I want. - Now that I've explained shutter speed and and we've looked at opportunity, - we've looked at shutter speed. - I've shown you how to go from your order mode, - and I've shown you going to aperture priority or a or a V. - And now I've shown you how to go on to shut a priority T V or s on the on the Nickens. - Now, - now that you've learned that you can actually turn over to manual now, - the difference of manual mode is it doesn't automatically balance out the shutter speed in - the aperture. - So it's a when you look through your viewfinder. - Now you'll notice if you increase the shutter speed immediately. - It'll start under exposing your image and you'll notice that actual exposure bar will move - around, - showing you whether you got correct or incorrect exposure. - So now it's not gonna automatically center itself to correct the exposure. - So now, - depending on your camera, - this one with this one. - When you in manual mode, - you move the control scroll here, - the command scroll button and your shadows. - Fetal change. - And then you rotate the command doll down here, - and that will change your your aperture and one of the tricks that a lot of people, - if they have, - ah, - Ken and five D, - you'll notice that if you have, - there's an off position and on position, - and then there's a second on position, - and that activates that control of for certain settings. - So if you just have it from off to on and you're looking through your camera and you're - trying to sit, - that you set the shutter speed manually and then you said you try set the aperture manually - . - It doesn't do anything. - It doesn't actually move your aperture value, - and that's because, - yes, - you need a set it onto that second position, - which activates that scrub scroll button. - So now if I move it up and down, - it's actually moving the aperture. - So we've got shutter speed aperture. - So now, - to get a correct exposure, - what you go to do is you actually have to scroll the appetite to what you want, - and then you go to show the scroll, - this shadow, - shutter speed toe what you want. - So let's say there's a particular aperture you want to say. - You want a very wide opportunity, - your first safety aptitude to the widest in this case, - I consider to 2.8, - and then I scroll that shutter speed so that that exposure values in the Santa and then I - have the correct exposure according to my scene and the metering mode. - You know, - it's like I mentioned in the earlier videos with Explosion. - I so maybes, - maybe using center weighted words, - it's biasing it 75% towards the center, - or or maybe just using the more advanced method, - which is evaluative or matrix metering words, - actually taking into account what's in focus, - and it's actually breaking your scene into little blocks in calculating the best exposure - for that in manual mode, - you can take the photograph corrected. - You said it sets the correct exposure and then you take the shot. - But then you still want to look at the history Graham to see if you actually happy with - that exposure and with manual exposure. - If you're not happy with it, - then you can just either. - Like, - let's say if I look at this and I say, - Well, - it's kind of kind of Ah, - Under exposing a bit, - I'd like to move it one stop mawr. - So what you can do there is. - You can either slow down the shutter speed a bit or you can open the aperture, - but in this case, - I'm already reached the maximum. - So in this case, - I have to use a slow, - a shutter speed, - and then I take another shop. - So with Manu exposure, - you can correct directly by moving the aperture of the shutter speed. - Now, - if you in the other modes, - that's that's a little trickier. - So, - for instance, - if I'm in aperture priority mode, - which is a wavy now, - when I take the photo, - the camera's going to automatically calculate what it considers the correct exposure. - So take a shop and so okay, - Well, - I'm kind of happy. - Kind of happy with it, - But I'd like to I'd like Teoh expose it a bit more like two. - Basically brought in a little bit. - So what happens if you try brightness but slow down the shadow, - speed the app, - it'll go down a little balance to that same exposure. - But what these cameras have is a mode where you can actually compensate for that called - exposure compensation. - That's basically saying, - OK, - this is what the camera sees is the correct exposure. - But I'd prefer to little lighter. - I'd prefer a little darker, - so exposure compensation allows you to do that. - So how it works is some of the cameras. - You can access it on the LCD display pending, - um, - in this particular camera, - what you do is, - if you have aperture priority, - you change the aperture at the top there. - But this bottom scroll by allows you to compensate. - So that way it's over exposed by one stop and I take the same shop. - Then I can have a look at the image and say, - OK, - well, - that's a little bit better. - It's a little bit too far, - and then you could take it back 1/3 of a stop and adjusted till you happy with it. - So now I'll actually show you on a newer model camera. - How this two ways that you can actually get that exposure compensation. - So I've got, - like, - the Canon 60 D again, - a more recent model camera, - and with this one, - when you an aperture value aperture priority here you can look through the viewfinder and - then compensate for exposure by rotating this dial down the bottom, - just like on the five D. - And that's actually visible through the LCD display, - too. - So you can actually look at that and you'll see you have to press the half person shot a - button for that to be activated. - So then you take your shop, - and then it will be over, - exposed by whatever amount unexposed. - But what is the value and you'll notice it'll stay there so that over exposure will keep - staying there till you switch off the camera or half press and adjust that back to the - center or under exposed again. - So that value. - So let's say you in a scene where you wanna under exposed by the whole stop and say you're - trying to do like a silhouette or something, - maybe even to stop to one end, - exposed for two stops. - You said it to that, - and you can take a shop that actually showed quite an under exposed image. - There. - Just show you. - So that's the idea. - Like I've got the window frame, - their silhouetted and if you can see the hissed a gram there. - But all the information, - a lot of information stacked against the back there in the middle. - Information is the blue sky there, - so that's under exposing it. - But I'm doing it if I want to dio silhouette, - and what happens is that'll actually stay like that. - So for now, - take a shot inside. - It's going to be quite under exposed all around. - So to get off that motor have to either switch the camera off or half press the shutter and - recent to that exposed exposure compensation. - Another way to get to that mode on these cameras. - That's probably easier, - because you can be looking through the viewfinder and you just half press and scroll that - thing to compensate. - But you can actually go into this quick menu mode on this particular camera and you notice - it's in the quick menu mode. - There's a bunch of different settings you can change directly here on this menu, - and one of them is that shows that exposure scale is the conversation. - So they're once again you can set it left or right. - So let's say you've under exposed by stop and you take some images. - Then you'll notice that it actually stays at that value, - whether you said it through the scroll bar compensation or where they said it through this - quick menu que menu, - then either way, - it's going to stay. - That values going to stay and tell you until you zero it so you can actually use the. - But in this camera can actually is the buttons or you control it, - too to compensate. - So sitting back to zero will be back to what the camera considers correct exposure. - So that sums up exposure conversation. - So you just need a look at your manual. - Find out where you said it for your particular camera. - This was just a quick introduction on how you can see that in the cannons, - but I want you to understand more the concept, - and then you can easily look up in your manual where to actually find those values. - And finally, - the last way I'm going to show you compensated for exposure is called exposure bracketing. - Now that's useful if you want to take a few images in a row at different exposures. - So that way you can compare which is the best exposure. - And it will also be used in one of the Goldmember videos called HDR, - or it's your I. - So how you find that on some of the older models? - That may be a menu options, - so you may have to get into the menus, - and here we scroll down to a E B, - which means automate exposure bracketing. - So if we activate that, - you know those who indeed this crowbar you can actually you get these two lines and they - separate by either by one stop or by two stops. - So with this camera you can effectively take three photos, - two stops under exposed normal exposure and two stops overexposed so those increments can - be anyway, - from from third of ah, - 1/3 of a stop to full stop increments. - Now, - in some of the newer models that can even go up to five stops difference. - Let me show you on a newer model. - What I'm talking about. - So, - like with this with this camera with the 60 D here, - I'm in my queue menu so I can activate that exposure conversation, - exposure bracketing. - And now, - if I scroll the top scroll, - uh, - it'll actually separate. - You'll see there's line separate now that showing it's going to take three exposures - separated by as much as you choose there. - That's actually allows you to separate them by three stops over and three stops under, - But you can actually shift that whole range so you can have you can basically shifted over - so they a normal exposure three stops under exposed in six stops under exposed advice. - First, - you could drag it that way. - It's a really handy feature for taking multiple different exposures values all at the same - time. - Now, - a little trick with that is when you when you do choose one of those modes, - if you have it on single shot, - you'll have to take three shots separately in a row and that it's better to put your drive - mode to multiple shots, - so that way you can actually hold it down, - and it automatically takes the three shots straight after each other, - so a much quicker way of doing it. - So that gives you a normal exposure and under exposed and over exposed. - Now, - another trick with that is, - if you're using a tripod in that and you want to just have those three shots go wolf - without actually touching the camera, - you should set your drive mode to time a self timer mode. - So that way, - when you do it, - you can like in this case, - I consider to too sick and self timer. - So now if I pressed the self timer, - it's gonna count down two seconds and then immediately take all three shots without me - having to press the shadow. - So we have, - ah, - normal exposure. - What the camera considered correctly exposed. - Ah, - under exposed. - You can see the hissed a gram moving that way and over exposed shot. - So that's very, - very useful tool. - So there's a some tips on how you can use exposure bracketing. - So now we've covered different different modes of exposing an image, - and the whole point of this course is really to get you to get off that order button and - the most creative murder, - really, - or that that shutter priority TV or s your aperture priority mode. - And in fact, - I usually sit on appetite probably most of the time, - and I just scroll the apertures to whatever I want. - And if I want a particular shutter speed, - then I'll actually keep scrolling the aperture. - Tila gives me the shutter speed I want, - so I find I used that most. - And then occasionally you'll want to use manual if you doing something very specific and - we're going more into manual modes and how to use those creatively in in the Goldmember - videos like Let's get creative. - But knowing had a set your camera to those three Mo's and experimenting with those modes is - really all you need, - because all these other special modes, - like portrait and sports, - are really just the camera deciding what's the best way of shooting those modes. - But once you have an idea of what shutter speed up channel that do you basically consider - those yourself according to that's basically taking the thought out of it. - So So, - for instance, - sports will use a faster shutter speed. - So really, - those special modes that you have on your camera are really for people who who wanted just - quickly turn it to something and not have to think about the sittings. - But to actually know what those settings are, - you find you won't even use those. - You'll actually be in the in the creative mode section of your camera more because you know - what you're dealing with. - So you're not just relying on the cameras, - suggestions for taking photos of where you want and then you find you've got a lot more - creative control of your photos so that with shutter speed being one of the key values, - the the point of understanding shutter speed is knowing the effect on your photographs and - essentially what it is is the shutter shutter is letting it in light for a certain - direction onto the centre. - Now, - if that's really quick on one hand, - you having a lot less light onto the centre. - But on the other hand, - it's able to freeze motion, - so it's taking a smaller slice of time. - So this is important. - If you taking like a sports photograph, - someone throwing a baseball or or swing a tennis racquet really fast and you actually want - that motion frozen, - then you really wanna have a fast shutter speed like 1/1000 of a second and beyond, - because you want a really thin slice of time to capture that moment. - And likewise, - on the other hand, - if he actually want some kind of blurring of the motion, - if you had that longer time period, - you've actually taking a longest slice of time. - So slow. - A shutter speed is the longest slice of time, - so things can move while that shutters open, - and that will actually create blurring effects. - So that's important for two reasons. - One is if you if you want a sharp photograph, - the shadow speed is important because when you're taking a photograph and it's handheld, - then there is a slight movement. - There's a chance of moving the camera slightly as you press the button, - unless you have a super steady hand. - So a good rule of thumb is if you look at what lens you have on your camera. - So in this case it's a 35 millimeter lens. - Then you do you want to have a shutter speed that's 1 35th of a second, - and that pretty much frees emotion. - So, - for instance, - if you have a 50 millimeters lens on your camera. - You want to set the shutter speed to at least 1/5 50th of a second. - So it's a general rule of thumb. - Unless you sort of really crazy with your movement, - that'll you should get a reasonably for frozen image and the other potential for creating - movement. - Blur is a moving subject as well. - So if there's if you're just trying to get people in their normal movements and that you - really want to be around 1/50 or above shutter speed just to make sure that whatever - natural movements someone has, - it's not gonna be blurring. - So to get a sharp image that doesn't have motion blur from moving the camera or the subject - moving, - it really depends on how quick that movement's gonna be, - what shutter speed you need. - So a real fast action, - like a race car zooming by you pretty much gonna need to set it to the faster shutter speed - that your camera can handle, - and that will give you a pretty frozen image. - And also when you zooming in, - Why that why I had that rule of thumb like if you have a 50 millimeters lens, - you want 50th of a second at least the same holds true. - If you have a 200 millimeters lens, - you want at least 2/100 of a second. - So because what's happening there is you zooming closer in. - So movements get exaggerated, - so you need a faster shutter speed to compensate for that. - Now, - some lenses actually have image stabilization, - so that will help. - You will be able to use slow shutter speed and still achieve a fairly sharp result because - they have lens elements that actually will compensate for that movement. - So that's why those lanes very expensive. - It's actually quite a complex mechanism that adjusts, - move, - adjust for slight, - for for the actual lens, - moving to allow you get a sharper image, - even though there's some movement of the camera when it takes the photograph. - Having said that, - if there's something there's a lot of movement in the scene, - image stabilization is not generated for that. - It's really for the movement of your camera, - allowing you to get steady of shots now in situations where you need to use a really slow - shutter speed and you having trouble holding the shot steady because he needing speeds - lower than 1/50 of a second That's when a tribal it comes in handy. - You need some steady surface so that you can have a nice, - stable shot when you release the shutter. - Okay, - That should give you a fairly good understanding of where shutter speed fits in with - aperture and I so to create your exposure. - Now I'm gonna show you a few examples and zooming on the pictures so that you could see - them at the full resolution and see what that effective that shadow speed is on the image - thing. - This example. - I'm going to show you some of the effects of shadow speed on on this little fountain here - so you can see how you have a really fast shutter speed. - It's gonna freeze that motion. - The water drops. - And with the slow one, - you're gonna get more blurring. - And I can show you the different speeds on how much blurring you get. - And I'm mostly gonna dear, - really slow shutter speed. - And because this is bright sunlight, - I'm gonna need a little extra help with that because it's gonna be too bright. - So I'm gonna have to set my eso way down 200. - I've got a polarizing filter on here But I'm also gonna add another item, - which is the A neutral density filters. - So this blocks out the light for about three stops, - so that really cuts down the light. - Let's use a slower shutter speed. - So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take a couple of the faster ones first and show you what - I'm talking about. - So here we go. - I'm using the lens hood here, - too, - because we're shooting kind of towards the sun and there's a good chance of lens flare. - So here we go. - We've got in this case, - we're gonna have it all the way up to I'm actually seeing the ice of higher here. - 6 40 distracting it really fast shutter speed on. - So they continue, - Really? - A lot of frozen movement there in the drops on. - Now, - let's take it all the way down to, - like, - 500 which is a kind of a reasonably shutter speed and fast enough for some action. - But in this case, - you can see it's still might here. - Slight better blurring. - So, - yes, - so the shot, - the droplets of frozen, - but not quite as much as the faster shutter speed. - May we take it all the way down to let's take it to 1 25th of a second and and a bit more, - very still. - And now you're gonna put on a tripod. - If you have a ball head tripod, - you could pretty much get in any angle you want, - but with this particular one actually have toe rotate the plate on it to be able to get the - portrait shot I want. - So that way. - Now, - when I place it in the lock, - I have more control over that shop because the content it this way and that way. - Whereas the standard plate position doesn't allow you to have those axes of movement I'm - using order focuses to lock on the subject. - I'm gonna go more into that in the next in the order of focus videos. - Okay, - so now we're gonna pull down the shutter speed to 50th of a second and 1/50 of a second. - Now with the lower speeds, - I don't the effect of me pushing the shadow because I don't have a remote with me. - So that alternative method is where you set your drive method to set a two second delay - using the timer. - So now can thats about two seconds that it takes a shot, - and I don't have to think about, - you know, - probably moving the camera. - Okay, - so that's 50 years. - Now, - let's get a little of that way down. - T 15th of a second, - 15. - 20. - It's kind of hovering between that, - Uh, - yet 15th of a second and we're at 22. - Okay, - so now to get Lois shutter speeds, - I'm gonna turn down the isil the way down to 100. - Said it 200. - Now, - we can get an eighth of a second now, - so we got eight of a second at F 13. - Okay, - great. - So now we're really starting to see that. - That water blurring. - Ah. - Now, - as I mentioned, - if I really want to get a long exposure and it's daytime like this, - we've got sunlight. - I can bring out in neutral density, - feel tick, - and that's gonna cut the light, - even mawr, - and allow me to even use the lower shutters feed than I normally would in these conditions - , - because now I've got the lowest I so here that I can go to, - So that's that's limited now. - And it's going to get to a point where I have the smallest aperture. - And then to really get slower shutter speeds in these light conditions, - I need to add something to cut the light down, - some adding that nudes neutral density filter. - We just put that letting sold on just so we don't get lens flares. - And now that's dropped it by three stops. - Drop the light quite dramatically, - and I'm gonna give you an extreme example. - I'm going to set it to F 22 smallest aperture. - We've got the smallest possible 100 a say, - and that gives me a shutter speed of and 1/2 seconds, - which is remarkably slow for a daylight shop. - Let's try that out, - right? - So that really gives you that effective off a long shadow speed and what it does with - movement. - We're going to get a little bit more into this in the nature videos as well with rivers and - Water force. - But that will certainly give you a good idea of what shutter speeds can do. - OK, - well, - that wraps this up and we'll have a couple of examples on the computer to show you and see - how there's worked out. - Now I'm - going to show you some photos with the fast shutter speed to show you how that freezes - movement as well. - A. - Slower. - And you could see the blurring effect if you have a slow shutter speed. - But sometimes that's useful. - If you want that if you want to generate that look of speed, - sometimes it's just a frozen image doesn't really portray speed. - So one of the techniques is to actually have a slower shutter speed and you track your - object, - whatever is moving. - And that way you get blurring in the background. - But you're objects frozen, - and that gives you much more of a sense of speed than just a totally frozen image. - So I'm gonna take some skateboard shots here and to show you what I'm talking about. - Okay, - so I'm pretty focusing and tracking, - so that gives us, - Ah, - a nice, - blurred background. - But the person's quite in focus, - so I'll just take a few a few more shots of different shutter speeds and show you what that - does 13. White Balance Basics: - OK, - in this video, - we're gonna be talking about white balance, - and I'm filming here in my little guru dio or garage studio, - and I'm going to show you some examples of taking photographs and how white balance to fix - that. - Now essentially white balance is the cameras attempt to get accurate color so that the - whites appear white, - the grays of pure gray and the blacks pure black in your photographs. - So it's trying to get the correct color without any color caste. - Now, - with your camera, - you can actually said it, - too, - to order white balance mode. - And quite often that does the trick. - And in most lighting circumstances, - setting it to order will actually get the correct color balance and the correct color in - your images, - so that objects are the accurate color. - But understanding a little bit more about white balance will help you in those situations - where you've taken a photograph and the correct color isn't coming out and you want to be - able to know what's going on so you can fix that problem and you find that outdoors. - The White order white balance does really well, - but sometimes indoor lighting can be a bit tricky. - I want to give you a quick overview off why there needs to be white balance, - and the reason is is different. - Lighting has different color tinges to it. - So, - for instance, - if you outdoors and you have direct sunlight that has a certain color eater, - it's mostly white, - but it's It has a certain color hue tude, - and in the case of sunlight, - it's considered a cooler color. - So on the other hand, - if you go indoors, - most light fixtures like a regular light bulbs, - which is an incandescent bulbs, - have a mawr orangey kind of warmer tint to that kind of lighting. - So, - under different circumstances, - different objects, - they're gonna look a little bit different according to how much color there isn't that - lining and what kind of color that is. - And then you get fluorescent lights and they can range from a little bit cooler than - regular light bulbs. - And then you can get all the way up to daylight fluorescence, - which are very similar to the sunlight, - and you can even get ones that are even cooler still. - So to give you a quick background lights, - a visible light is a really small section off what's called electromagnetic spectrum and - that goes away from radio waves with lower frequencies and then microwaves. - And then you go up into the infrared range and then higher frequencies. - You go into visible light, - and that starts up with red and then orange and yellow. - And as he increased frequency, - you get to green, - and then you head into the blues and then beyond blue. - You go into the violent range, - and then you start going out of the visible spectrum again into ultraviolet and beyond - ultraviolet. - You go into X rays and gamma rays. - What happens is if said objects are at a certain temperature, - they give off a certain wavelength of light, - and cooler objects will give a more red light and then, - as it gets, - gets hotter and hotter, - eventually starts giving off more blue light. - So when we're talking about our actual light sources, - like a light bulb, - the light bulb is not burning as hot as the sun, - so it actually produces a a redder light, - and then as it as you get to the sun. - Sun produces more blue wavelengths, - so it's a cooler light so low you looking at they all look pretty much white. - There's different tinges, - and you'll notice, - too, - if you you're in a room and you have a regular light bulb in the lamp. - It gives of quite a yellowy warm orange light. - And then, - if you switch that often and you put on a fluorescent light like you get in offices, - you'll find that that's a lot cooler. - It's It's more of a pure white sorts, - really less orange and red in it. - So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna show you some examples quick of how that work. - So I've got a few objects here now. - Why? - It's not always pure white, - either. - Like there's different things that are slightly different. - Tinges like some things will be a slightly warmer white would be more red in them, - and some things will be blue or white. - So here I haven't example of just a few objects gray object, - something with black and red blue and then two different wide objects, - as well as some white paper. - So I'm gonna set it to order white balance just to show you what that can do, - and we'll take a quick shot of that with order. - So there we go. - Order has done a fairly good job. - The lighting in this room now is I'm actually lit with fluorescent lights so it's closer to - sunlight bother than regular light bulb. - Now, - if you're finding that order, - white vans isn't doing the trick. - These cameras also have modes where you can actually set the white balance, - too, - to the conditions you're in. - So, - for instance, - you considered from order to sunlight, - which is the little son icon or shade. - Now, - shade generally is a little cooler than sunlight because you're getting some of the blue - from the from the sky, - but you're not getting as much direct sun, - so that's actually slightly cooler looking like a bluer light. - Then you get cloudy, - which is not as blue is shady light because you're not getting that reflected blue from the - sky, - but it's a little bit cooler than direct sun, - And then there's the in condition for the or the light bulb, - and then you get fluorescent light and and then flash and flash is usually somewhere close - to sunlight. - But the idea is you can actually said it to what you're using, - and sometimes that can be more accurate. - than the order. - But before I go any further, - let me show you what happens. - If I said it to the wrong light, - I'm gonna set it to indoor incandescent light. - I'm gonna take a shot of this again. - So this is said to a light bulb, - even though we're being lit by fluorescent bulb. - And then what happens is it comes out really blue. - So it's expecting to be lit by a warmer light, - which is a regular light bulb. - But it's actually lit by fluorescent lights so the resulting feather ends up coming out way - too cool or too blue. - So then, - if I said it over to just to give you an idea off shade, - which is one of the coolest kind of lights, - and then I take a feather, - you'll notice it's a little warm. - So in this case, - it's it's expected cool light, - but it's not that cool. - So it comes. - The image comes out warmer. - These these like presets for the white balance, - like fluorescent light incandescent light shades. - Son, - flash those settings, - actually, - based on a what's called a color temperature and the the temperature of light is in Kelvin - and you'll notice on your camera that there is actually a murdered where you can set the - light according to the Calvin level. - So it's a little K. - It's a K on your in your camera. - And if he said it to that, - the K on your white balance setting. - So if he said it to Calvin, - that allows you to actually put in the color temperature that you want. - So what happens with Calvin is you can take a photograph of your subject, - and then if you feel I can't come out a little bit too warm, - then you can compensate for that, - but changing the setting so I can go into back into the menu. - I can set that Kelvin level to exactly what I want and what it is is warm. - Alighting is around the 3000 level, - so very warm, - lining like fireplace. - More lighting would be like around two just under 3000. - So for said it to that, - and I take a photo this should it comes that way to blue. - It's expecting really warm light, - and it wasn't that warm, - so you end up with a much cooler image, - and so now if I change that Calvin level somewhere in the middle range, - which is direct sunlight, - which is about five to 5200 Kelvin. - So set it to that, - and then I take it photo, - and that's fairly close. - That's fairly close to what the actual color should be in this image. - So now, - if I take it up to the color temperature up to all the way as high as it can go, - which is 8000 well, - let's Let's me go with a 10,000 which would be very cool. - Shade conditions, - shades usually around 8000. - But this I'll put a sedative 10 to show you. - So it's expecting really cool light now, - and I take a photograph and the image comes out way too warm because it's expecting much - cool light and the light was actually warmer, - So that's the effect it has. - So the good thing about Calvin those you can't take a photograph, - and if it's a little warm, - a little cool, - you can just go up or down accordingly. - So so if your photograph comes out a little too cool, - then you can just set the temperature a little higher. - And if it comes out a little too warm. - Then you set the color temperature to a little lower, - and then it'll it'll even out. - The real benefit of having Calvin is if you're shooting with more than one camera. - Like if you're doing an event where you have 23 photographers taking photographs, - you can actually set each camera to a certain Calvin setting for your whatever the - environment is with its in a church or for outdoors. - So you consider Teoh unknown Calvin like, - let's say, - said it to 3000 and you said all your cameras to 3000 so that color will be the same on all - your cameras because the white balance has said the same. - So it's really handy for those kind of situations now. - Another thing these cameras have deslauriers have is an option to shift the white balance. - So if you in a mode where either auto or one of the other modes we have chosen fluorescent - or shade or any of those preset modes then and you take a photo of the object in this case - , - I'm going to sit it to shade so I'll take a photograph. - So it's expecting quite cool lighting, - and the images come out to warm so I can go into into the menu system and I can choose - white balance shift. - And this, - says Axes. - It has a blue to amber access, - and it has a green to magenta. - So in this case, - I want to cool my image down so I can use the joystick. - You have to look in your camera manual to find out how yours works. - It's usually works with with the scroll button or the joy pad here, - or of some kind of joystick. - So I consented all the way over to the blue side, - so that's gonna make the image cooler or more blue. - And I said that And then I take a shot again and you can see compared to the image before - that was warmer. - And now we've got cooler light. - So that's handy if you If you've used a setting and you just want to warm up the image a - little, - it's a way of just warming it up or cooling it down. - Depending on how your photographs come out or if it's a little too green, - you can pull it down down the magenta scale and bring a little bit more warmth and remove - some of the green from the image. - So that's a really handy feature. - The white balance shift or bracketing once again, - just like the other camera showed. - You have green, - magenta and blue amber scale. - So that way you can shift shift, - make the image a little warmer, - moving into the amber scale or down into the magenta. - Amory will really warm up image. - Or alternatively, - you can go over to the blue scale if you want to cool down your image. - And so very handy the white balance shift mode. - If you just need a warm up or cool down your image. - So that's that menu and to actually said it, - you'd warm it up and then you'd hit set. - And that white balance setting is correction has said in that for ready for your next - photograph. - So I'm going to show you some examples on the computer off correct white balance and in - correct white balance. - See, - what you want to do is when you taking photographs, - you wanna have it fairly accurate because there's limits to how much you can adjust the - white balance on the computer. - Okay, - here we have trivia Barn Cat, - now This is correct white balance, - and here's an incorrect setting off tungsten or indoor lighting. - And here's a incorrect setting off shade, - which shows you much warmer image because it's expecting it to be a lot bluer light and our - next example. - Here we have a more subtle example. - So here we have the correct white balance, - and here we have fluorescent setting, - which is not a lot lower. - And Calvin, - if you look at the Calvin values. - And finally we have daylight, - which is a little higher in temperature, - so results in a a warmer image because that is expecting blue light as well. - So most times you want to get accurate white balance, - but you can actually play with the white balance to get some nice creative effects. - So in this example of turned the Kelvin all the way down to 2150 so is expecting a really - warm lighting, - and it's an outdoor scene, - so it's basically blown out. - The blues made a really a really cool image, - but it's kind of cool because it has that, - like electric blue effect. - And then if you turned up the contrast and I turned up exposure little. - You get this image that's quite quite artistic. - So it just gives you one example of how you can play with the white balance to create some - kind of different artistic look. - So now, - next video we're going to look at, - I'm gonna talk about white balance bracketing, - which is another option for trying to get accurate white balance and custom white balance, - which is a way off getting perfect white balance in your particular situation. - Because sometimes you might have mixed light or unusual lighting circumstances and custom - White bunch really gets gives you pretty accurate color for those situations. - So jump into that next video and learn how to do custom, - white balance and white. - Thank you. 15. Custom White Balance: Welcome back in this video, I'm going to be looking at two things. I'm gonna be looking at white balance bracketing, and I'm gonna be looking at custom white balance. First of all, I'll just talk about white balance. Bracketing now in the menu showed you in the lost video. There's an option to shift the white balance so you can either make it more blue if you want images cooler or more amber or more green, orm or magenta. So it's a way of correcting. And you can do along any access in that range to make your images cooler or warmer. Or put a little bit of color in the images that you want, depending on which way you want to go. So that's really handy. Now in that same menu, let me just go into there with the joystick. You can move that color balance little daughter around that issue correct for the color balance, but also you can actually scroll, scroll the scroll bar here, the savings bar, and you'll notice you see those. There's little white bars separating, so you end up with three dots on your scale here and what that allows you can use either one the top one on the bottom one. And what that allows you to do is take three exposures with different white balances at those three points. So let's say you want to take a cooler shot, a middle shot and then a warmer sharp. You can set it say your three little dots are on the blue amber axis, so we're gonna get a cooler shot, a shot in the middle, which is what the camera considers the correct white balance for the particular setting you have, particularly in condition you have and then a warmer shot. So once upper set and take those three images, so now we should have a so it's quite subtle. But we've taken one normal, slightly cooler and slightly warmer, so that likes let you fine tune it with bracketing. We're getting a little warm, a little cooler or, alternatively, a little green, a little bit more magenta in those images. Okay, now I'm gonna show you how to do custom white balance. Now that's really handy when you're in a situation where the cameras is really not doing a great job of getting the white balance. And there's two ways of really doing it. There's one way you photograph great hard, which is this is 18% gray card, which you can buy relatively cheaply. If you take a photo for white card, then it basically under exposes it to get it to the gray level and then tries to correct for the color. But if you take a great card, then it'll Utkan take a photograph and it'll be the correct exposure, and then it can correct for the gray. My concern with using a white card is, if you're over, exposed the image, then there's actually not enough color. And if you blow out the white card and make it too bright, there actually isn't enough colored information in there. It basically clips it to four white, so it doesn't have the color information to correct, because if you shoot a great card, then you know it's gonna be in the middle of the exposure straight away. So how this works is you take a photo at any white balance setting, so you basically fill the frame with the great card. So this is the light conditions. I want to take it in and so fill the frame And then I take the shop. So that photograph I took their becomes your reference frame, and you can't see straight away if it's kind of warmer or cooler because it won't look pure gray in there. And then what you do is you choose custom white balance, and then that allows you to select that image you've just taken. So you hit Anto and then it warns you that you need to actually set that custom white balance on your camera settings. In this camera, I have together top there and said, Mark White balance too custom, which is that little symbol there. So then so now. Now the cameras going to use that information from the photograph of the great card. If the lighting was slightly warped, slightly red, warm, the image of the great card will get is gonna have sort of warmer tones and have, like a red or orange casts color casts of the camera will correct for that to make this great card perfectly great. So now for take another shot of that great card and you look through the camera, you'll notice that now you have a perfectly great image. So now, once you've set that custom white balance and you take photographs of any other objects in the same lighting conditions. The white balance would be perfect. So now if I take a shot of my little sit here, you see it's spot on color. So that's that's totally accurate color now, using that information from the great card too effectively calibrate the white balance of the camera. Now there is another way of doing it, too, which is one of my preferred ways of doing it when I'm out outside and on location, and that's using an expert disk. And that's this little object here. It's basically a filter that fits in front of your camera, and it has this diffuse agreed on it. And what that does is if you clip it on the front of your lands and you want to set this to manual focus because it's gonna have trouble order focusing with that filter in the front. There it's It's not gonna let you take the photographs ascended to manual focus. And rather than taking a photograph away from the light onto the object like we do with the great card with the expertise she actually face, it to the main source of lighting. So if I face it this way and I take a shot and you can see it gives you a nice and this case has come out fairly accurate because already took a white balance with the other card . But I'll redo that just to show you. So now if I choose custom white balance again, actually does look a little blue in this case, and I select this image. Then we ready to retake that shot with the custom white nuts so they would go fairly accurate color. So that's custom white boats Now, the way you said it varies with different cameras. With the cannons, you generally take the reference image. You choose custom white balance option in the menu to actually select the image. And then you make sure that your white balance mode is set to custom, and it will use that information now with the Nickens. They have what's called a pre set white men's preset and with the niklas you just pointed at your object and select that, and as long as you frame it within the time frame, frame your gray object, or in the case of the experts. You can just put the ex POTUS aiming at your lighten. Hit that white balance preset mode and it'll take a reading and that information gets stored in the cameras. It doesn't actually take the photograph now. Also, with the Nickens, you can select white balance from another image. So if you've taken a photograph that has the correct white balance for the particular light that you're in, you can actually choose to select the white balance settings from that image. So if you just go through your manual, you'll find how to do that as well. Just gonna show you one way to understand how the camera corrects with the custom white pounds. So if I take a shot of this great card now, go into the actual image. So that's our great card reference image, and I call up the info in some of these Dear Solares, you have the hissed a gram, but another's. You actually have a color history, Graham, and that shows you the red, green and blue levels, and you can see how they not lined up because the color balance is incorrect. So we have way too much blue in this image, so that really shows you OK. The cameras, recognizing that the light was was incorrect. So what custom white balance does little correct for that. Soon after a gun to my menu and I sit custom white balance to that image. Select that image and it's warning me. I need to set the white balance to custom and are sick. Select custom white pounds. And now when I take a photograph with the great God, you'll see the difference. You'll notice now that if I show you a preview of that image with With the red, green and blue hissed a gram Xiang, you'll notice the red, green and blue line up. So that's basically pure grain outs corrected for the color cast on the lights. One thing about the white balance bracketing. That's an option that you can choose as long as you don't have a raw format mode chosen. So if you just on J pig mode, then you can actually choose that that white balance bracketing Now The reason I do that is because when you in camera raw mode and I'm gonna go more into this in the file formats video, but usually with these dear Solares. You can choose J pig only mode, and there's different settings for how fine or how large a pig you want to take. And the other option is raw mode and the Nickens and the cannons. They have different file names for those rule modes. The role file format allows you to actually change your white Bannon settings on the computer afterwards, so you can take a photograph and then decide. OK, I want to choose a different white balance mode for that image later. Now find that works great. But this times when there's limits to how much you can set that white balance and raw and still get accurate color so it's best actually use the great card or the expert disk. If white balance is critical and you really want to get spot on color, or at least said it to the correct kind of lighting conditions in your white balance settings like Senator daylight or fluorescent lighting, or whatever lighting you end said it to that at least try. Get close with your white balance, and then it's easier to correct that on the computer afterwards. So I have that gives you a good idea of white balance and how to deal with it in your camera. Now. This particular video was to give you an overview of white balance to give you an idea that there's different modes, that you can set your white balance, too. And you can shift your white balance just to make you images little warmer, a little cooler, and you can set them to an actual color temperature, which is the temperature of your light. And that's in Calvin. That's handy for synchronizing a few cameras to the exactly the same white balance. And then finally, we spoke about custom white balance. So with the custom white balance, you can either photograph the great card or photographed your lighting conditions through the expert disk. And that allows you to correct for any slight color variations you have in the lighting that you taking your photographs in. There's certain situations with difficult getting your correct white balance, and one of those situations is if you in a forest and there's lots of green leaves and like filtering through the green leaves. So what happens is if you take a photograph of a great card because of all the green light hitting the gray card and use that as a reference for custom white balance. What you're gonna find is you have seen will actually be unnaturally warmed up because it's gonna take into candle that extra green light on the on the great card, and it's gonna compensate for that so things will start looking a little bit too magenta re . So in those situations, you may actually have to go on to the Calvin setting and correct for that either said it to particular Calvin or do that correction way. You can take out some of the magenta because it's basically creating too much magenta trying to compensate for that cream light so you can actually push it up, push it up to the green side of the scale, and that'll actually beam or the lighting that, in certain circumstances to we don't want perfectly accurate color. You actually want to have a bit of warmth. So if you're in a situation where you're trying to take scented photographs and you actually want some of that warmth from the silent, you don't want everything to look pure white because in a sense, it's situation. Things do have a warm light over them, that orangey sort of light. So you want to actually capture some of that warmth in your image. And so if you take the photograph and you finding that it's you've lost a lot of that warmth in you can do that either. Set that Calvin setting to a cooler light and their little compensate by making a warmer image or year actually, just do that white balance correction where you can drag it over to the amber side to give you more of that for the sunset. Said to auto, This is white balance set to daylight, which is pretty close to auto auto. Using a fairly good job. This is white balance set to shade, which is expecting much cooler light so the image comes out a lot. Warmer white Belen sit too cloudy, which is not quite a school, is shade said, the images not as warm. This is when the image is set to indoor like both incandescent light, so you can see it's making apt overseen a lot cooler a lot, lot more blue in the image, and this is setting the white balance to fluorescent regular fluorescent lighting so this is setting it too high temperature fluorescent light, which is a a much cooler light. So when you said it to this, it's expecting cooler light. So what happens is the image ends up being warmer. So this is a scene with custom white balance, which is creating I much more accurate image and a little bit of warmth because it's the sun started to sit. So hopefully that helps you out with just trying to think of white balance. And I can say that the beginning of the off this video Siris on white balance that if you shoot on, order white balance most of the time, it'll give you correct color. But knowing her white balance works and how to correct for it is handy in situations where colors critical. So in the next series of videos, we're gonna go into focusing, focusing techniques on get the field. So jump into those 16. Focusing Basics: - I Welcome back, - we hear it's Silver Lake, - which is north of Seattle, - and I'm gonna be talking about focusing in these two videos. - This first video we're going to go through focusing methods, - order focus methods as well as manual focus. - And then in the second video, - we're going to look at the really important concept of depth of field, - which is a way off isolating your subject from the background and really has to do with how - much of your scenes and focus. - So starting off will go through auto focus methods and then manual focus. - But all lenses DSLR lenses come with an order focus mode, - so you have a switch here. - We can switch between manual and order. - Focus. - There are some dedicated lenses, - professional lenses that are manual only, - but in most cases, - a kit lands and a lot of professional lenses will have an order focus mode. - Now, - with the order focus mode, - there's there's various types of mode on the actual camera itself, - and on this camera, - excessive tear through a F dedicated A F menu, - which is order focused menu and the different kinds of modes that most cameras have will be - a single shot mode where it's when you press the button. - It'll choose an order focus point just for that single shot, - and it will take the shot so it basically locks on one so doesn't try track or anything. - It just locks on your object ones. - Then there heaven ai focus one, - which is kind of artificial intelligence. - Basically, - it tries to calculate a few objects moving. - If it's not, - it'll just take a single lock on. - Otherwise it will try. - You serve M O to follow it, - and then I have a the servo mode, - which is autofocus server, - and that's like a tracking mode. - So that way, - if you're if you're objects actually moving, - moving in your scene, - it'll try. - Keep a lock on, - so it'll just constantly adjust the order. - Focus to try. - Keep your your subject and focus. - So there's the three modes. - Now in the camera itself is autofocus, - Point said it uses to determine what point in your scene is going to be in focus now. - Different cameras have different amounts of order, - focus points, - and there's a key difference between entry level models and some of the more professional - ones, - and it's The intra level models usually have only one cross type point in the center, - and that allows the camera to detect vertical heart or horizontal changes, - in contrast, - to lock onto and the other that focus points will only take contrast on one axis, - so it doesn't look on as quick. - So, - for instance, - if you have a scene where there's changes, - an abrupt edge horizontally, - it'll lock on fine, - but vertically. - It won't, - whereas the cross type points will lock on either way. - So they more advanced points and the more professional models have more of them so they can - lock on things really quickly. - What it is is when you look through your viewfinder and you half press the shutter release - button in the order. - Focus points will activate. - If you've got order, - focus on your lens. - So the default for most cameras is will use all the order focus point so that if you click - on there, - it'll basically jumped to Mawr or one order focus point according to a objects idol, - try automatically detect which object you're interested in the scene, - which is fine for like a quick shot way. - Your subject distances about the right distance, - but in some instances that that's going to get that wrong. - And in fact, - that's not my favorite way of using order. - Focus points. - The other way is where you can actually half press, - and then you press set on. - This camera has it there. - It's the symbol that allows you to shift that order. - Focus point and usually shifting in your scroll. - Either the scroll button down there at the top, - the settings button. - And you can either choose the center one you can choose or any of the other order focus - points or all of them. - So if you choose a particular order focus point like let's say we choose that that top left - hand side one. - It'll only use that to look on. - So if you know your subjects only gonna be in the top left hand sort of section of your - image, - then that's fine. - You can just use that point now. - My best method is to just use that center one. - And the reasoning behind that is especially on the entry level cameras, - where you've only have that single cross type point in the center. - That's your most effective order focus point. - So you bear off using that more than the other ones, - because it's gonna lock on quicker in more situations. - So when you're using just the Santa one, - you don't always want your subject in the center. - The image like I spoke about in the composition video sometimes you wanted on the golden - means, - which are just in from the third's. - So if you just use that Santa point, - it's gonna miss your subjects. - Gonna focus on something in the background. - So what you do is you half press. - You aim straight at your subject. - It's I'm focusing something down. - There are half press, - and that's locked on that object now and then. - I can reframe and fully press the shutter, - so you want to keep that shutter button half pressed, - so basically half press it locks on, - reframe and shoot. - So that way you can actually focus on whatever you want and then reframe the image - executives you want and then shoot, - and that's the way I use it. - Mostly it's well, - you mostly used auto focus. - There is another way to where you can actually hit the A f on button on your camera, - too. - That's another way of locking it without half pressing, - so you can just look at your seeing half hit that I f and it. - And the focus stays the same set for focused on something real close, - like my hand. - Hold that if button down reframe hit it, - but you do have to hold that button down. - So it's another way instead of half pressing. - It can also just locked with the F lock button. - So that's how I use order. - Focus points. - And I think that's the most effective now onto manual focus. - Manual focus can be really useful if you have time to get something in focus and then press - the button. - But sometimes it's hard to really see whether there's some things totally and focus even - through the viewfinder. - It may look clear, - but it may not be perfectly sharp. - I use a hybrid method most of time where are actually switched to order, - focus and then using just that sense in a point, - lock on something and insist Emanuel. - So I know that whatever subject I'm interested that have locked on, - that's where the focus point is. - So that's really useful if you can't really tell through the viewfinder. - If you've got a sharp focus. - So you leave it up to the cameras, - ability to lock on to lock your focus and then switch to manual, - and then you you know that that's always gonna be in focus. - So that's really handy. - Now. - What's nice about some of the new DSLR models is you have a live mode. - So instead of using the order, - focus points through the lands. - You hit the life button, - and what that does is it gives you now a live scene update. - You notice that in life murder there's actually a little box and that shows you where your - focus point is. - So now when you look on the scene, - it lock on using that square, - and then you can hit take the photo. - But I find that really slow. - And in most, - the canons, - a particularly slow and Nickens might be a little improved over the cannons and that - actually laid attract better. - And with the live view mode, - there's actually different order focus modes. - To this, - there's just the live mode which locks on with square, - this faced face detect live mode and there's a F quick mode now how f quick mode it works - is you have your scene framed. - So what happens is, - as you press the button is the miracle flip down. - It'll use the regular order focus points. - It'll focus, - and it'll flip back and put you back in live view mode. - Because the way live you works is the mirror actually flips out the way when you live you. - So when you look through the viewfinder, - you don't see anything because that mirror is actually in the way over the prison system. - So you're not looking through the lens. - You're looking at what the sensor is seeing, - so they'll low the live view mode. - Regular order. - Focus on Live You is super slow. - There is something that I really like about it, - and that is the manual mode. - So now this is where manual focus is really handy, - and I used to send a lot of shots where I can put it on a tripod, - and I have time to sit the focus point exactly as I want for a scene reshot or or like some - of the time lapse videos that you'll see later on in the Gold Members area, - and how that works is you can have your scene framed like that. - But now we said it too. - Manual mode, - which isn't that useful because you still don't have much of a view to see what's going on - . - But what that mode allows you to do is you can actually hit the zoom in button here, - and you can go three times magnification or 10 times. - And now that showing your real zooms you of what's going on. - And that's super useful because now you can. - You're a 10 times magnification. - You can get a really good focus on your object, - and then you flip back to full view. - And now you know that you've actually locked on that, - that a little portion of you're seeing, - you know that that's accurately focused. - And then you could take your shot. - So that's Ah, - great way off, - combining manual focus with live You. - So that's one of the most useful things. - I think of having live you focus mode is actually just using it to zoom in and manually - focus. - So one of the things I mentioned in some of the preview videos for the Siris was I used - manual focusing a lot, - and that's that. - Attention now use it with autofocus. - First lock on at a certain distance and then hit manual focus. - And that's really good for those situations where you waiting for a sudden event to happen - ? - So the timing is unexpected, - but you kind of know where it is, - and then you can have that manual focus ready. - And then it's really quick. - You're really not waiting for that order focused to kick in before you take the photo, - you can just take the third instantly. - Another way of improving your chances of getting your subject and focus, - especially with manual focus, - is to make sure you have a broader depth of field. - Another is more of your scene and focus, - and that leads us straight into the next video. - I'm going to show you what depth of field is and the three major settings that affect the - depth of field. - So jump into that video when you ready and learn how to handle dip the field. - Thank you 18. Depth of Field : - way covered the basic focusing methods recovered order, - focus methods, - and we've covered manual focus. - Now I'm going to go on to the really important concept dip field. - Now what depth the field is. - It's the amount of your scene and focus from the point of view camera, - so that when you focus on something, - there's a focus point. - And then how much before and after that focus point that's in focus is called a depth of - field. - Now it's not. - Ah, - a sharp cut off, - either. - It's basically it becomes gradually more blurred in front of that focus point and in - gradually more blurred afterwards. - So it's kind of more of a curve rather than a sudden sudden cut off so it can look really - sudden. - If you focusing on a really close object and the depth of field very narrow, - then it can look like there's a sharp cut off. - But it just means that's compressed. - The depth of feels compressed, - so it's really the amount of your scene that's acceptably sharp, - so it looks sharp enough. - But as you get to the edges of the ranges that actually does become bloede. - Now there's three main things that affected the field, - and it's a picture. - It's the distance to the actual object, - the focus point. - So the distance from your camera to the point of focus. - That's the next thing that effects how broad your depth of field or narrow dipped the field - is. - And the final thing is the focal length of the lens. - Now there's a lot of people who get technical about the focal length issue, - and they say, - Well, - if you have a wide angle lens and you take a photo with the wide angle lens and then you - take a photo with a zoom lens or a telephoto from the same spot, - Technically the depth of field is the same if you have the same distance and you have the - same aperture, - but in this course are more interested in what the final result is. - And the reality is. - Technically, - the Matt might be the same amount of blur on the objects, - but with the telephoto, - you zooming in on the image, - so you're taking a small little piece of the image. - So things look more blow because he actually magnifying that blow. - So it's really about the final result in the image So when you look a telephoto shots and - you see like a really blurred background in the person's nice and sharp, - then effectively, - that's a really narrow depth of field. - Whereas if you have the same shot with a wide angle, - more of its and focus in the Blur is not zoomed in on. - So it's effectively. - Looks like Maura's sharp, - so it looks like you have more in focus. - So it's really the end result of your photograph rather than the technicalities. - So what I'm going to do here is I've got a little scene set up here. - I've just got those flowers on that little post, - and I'm going to show you the difference with different APA. - Choose first. - So I'm gonna focus on the the front object, - and I'm gonna change the appetite and you're gonna see the difference in the dip. - The field, - according to the EPA, - just setting and what it is is a narrower aperture or a larger F stop number will actually - make mawr and focus, - so you'll get more of your scene and focus and ah, - wider aperture or a lot of smaller F stop number will actually narrow that dip. - The fields only a small part of your seniors and focus. - So I'll do that. - First, - I'm going to set it up so that we take furthers off that front post flowers at different - aptitudes, - and you'll you can see the difference. - And then what I'll do is I'll actually change focus points, - and you can see the effect of focusing closer or further away on the depth of field. - And that will really show you that as you move away from the camera, - the depth of field actually gets larger and against a point where you'll focus to a point - where dip the field will go all the way to the horizon or infinity, - depending on your appetite settings. - And so I'll show you that first, - and then I'll show you with different focal lengths to see how that actually affects tip - the field. - So let me get these shots here, - some some I'm using aperture value, - so a V mode so that we can just immediately change the aperture and not worry about the - shadow speed. - It'll automatically changed the shadow speed for us, - and I'm using a focus. - I'm basically using my focus points to lock on that flower. - So here we go. - Lock on. - Okay, - First shot. - So that's a 2.8. - It's a really large aperture, - and you'll notice that there's a really narrow dipped the field. - So I'm using a wide sitting here, - so we're gonna start on focal length of 24 millimeters. - So and then I'll show you after how zooming in makes the difference. - Now, - once I've locked on this flower, - I'm actually going to shift over to manual focus. - So that way we can not worry about trying to get automatic lock on. - We've ready locked on, - so we just leave it on that. - Now I'm going to shift to somewhere more more in the middle. - I'm gonna set it to eight. - And now I'm gonna set it to if if 16 and then finally, - if 22. - And now what I'm gonna do is I'm actually gonna set it all the way back to 2.8 and show you - what happens to that depth of field when I focused further away. - So I'm using 2.8 because it's quite a narrow depth of field. - So I want you to see how that expands as you focus further away in the distance. - Okay, - Now I'm gonna show you shifting the focus How that dip the field expands. - So now we're gonna focus on that second host. - Okay, - so that's the second post. - Now we're gonna lock on the third post and the show, - and finally, - we're gonna lock on the boat. - And now I'm gonna change lenses and actually put it a larger focal length lens on so we can - show you that fake more dramatically. - So now I've actually got a 72 200 millimeter lens. - So now this is when you really start seeing that depth of field effect because you've - zoomed in on the scene. - Mawr, - you focused in more. - So you see the blur effect mawr of the depth of field. - Okay, - so we've got a larger focal length lens on here. - Now I'm gonna set it 201st to show you the effect. - So now we're seeing we're seeing a little bit of blur with that in the front of that pillar - . - Now that we've said it 200 the flowers a sharp but just the front of Hillary noticing the - blurring effect more. - Now we're not Zoom it all the way in to 200 millimeters, - which is the most that the slings could go if focal length of 200 and we get the flowers - sharply and focus. - And now we can really see that the front of that pillar is actually totally out of focus - because we've zoomed in on it. - So we actually seeing the blur effect more. - And, - of course, - the backgrounds totally blood. - So for rarely getting an isolated subject. - The trick is to focus relatively close, - so closer that you go the narrow the dip. - The field, - using ah longer lens or telephoto lens with higher focal length, - will compress that depth of field because he zooming in, - effectively noticing that depth of field more not necessary, - technically compressing it. - But you're going to notice it more in your photograph and then having the large aperture so - large Apertura large focal length and closer focus that gives you the narrowest perceived - depth field. - So that's really the best way to isolate your subjects. - Now I'm just going to shift over to get to the next column, - just to show you that distance effect again. - First of all, - the 100 they would go short of the next one, - and I'll take a shot of the third post, - the fourth post and finally their boat. - Now I'm gonna set it to 200. - Same thing. - I'll go to the second post. - I'm just focusing on the front of the post cause we saw a zoomed in. - Now we can actually see a difference between the front and the back of the posts. - Third post, - fourth pursed. - And finally the boat. - Okay, - so now you can see when I focus on the boat with the 200 millimeters lens you can actually - see. - The background is actually out of focus. - So now I can really show you the effect of that aperture on this. - So now I got to the other extreme. - I'm just going to show you extremes because in between, - we'll just give you sort of halfway between those values. - Interestingly enough, - this lens can actually do 32 rather than 22. - So we're going to actually be able to narrow down there that apertura even more and focus - on that flower. - And here we go short of that, - and short of the second post, - sort of the third post short of the fourth post and finally showed of the boat. - Okay, - so from that one, - you can see now that we've chosen the narrowest Africa, - and as we focus further away that dip, - the field spreads out of it. - And then finally, - we were focused on their boat. - With the narrowest aptitude, - you'll notice the background. - There's a lot more sharper, - a lot more in focus. - So what? - It is Israeli. - There's a point where the focus point that you get to where you're depth of field will - stretch along the way to the horizon. - And that's the broader step that field you can get in the shop and that actual focus point - that. - So when you said it to certain aperture, - the focal point that you focus on that allows it to be sharp. - All the way to the risin is known as the hyper focal distance. - So it's Ah, - that's what you use if you really want your entire Sina's as much of your scene from from - in the foreground all the way to the rise and in focuses, - you picked that hyper focal distance and really, - it's It's a case of really putting the apertures small as you can and not focusing too - close to the camera, - and it pretty much covers that region. - So that should give you a good overview. - Off dip the field and different focusing techniques. - And later on in the editing videos for gold members, - I'm going to show you how you can actually selectively blur parts of the image. - There's limits to how much you can sharpened. - If Sunday's totally blurred, - you really can't get a back and focus in the computer afterwards. - But you can shop in the image to some degree, - which helps just those points that a little bit out of focus may look a little sharper then - . - And also there's another technique where you can actually take photos of a scene at - different focus points the same scene, - and you combine those images and you create a hi dip the field image. - So it's basically stacking all those images together and using the best parts. - Best focus points off that image. - So what that does is it creates an image that's like just about everything is in focus, - even though you couldn't do that when you first took the images, - so just stacking that information, - But I'll go into that in the in the more advanced editing video. - So thank you for joining me in this video, - and next week you'll get the flash videos where we'll give you the flash basics and talk - about using flashed abuses. 19. Flash Basics: - Hey, - welcome back. - Now, - these next two videos, - we're gonna be looking at flash photography. - Now, - this is really gonna be an introduction. - I'm not gonna be able to go through all aspects of flash photography because it's quite a - big subject and there's entire courses that are just based on flash photography. - But what I want to do is just give you an introduction, - give you some of the main scenarios that you would want to use. - Flash. - And in the second video, - I'm gonna talk a little bit about diffusers, - which is one of my preferred methods of using flash. - Now, - essentially, - there's three particular scenarios that you want to use. - Flash one. - The obvious one is when there's not enough light, - it'll and you actually need to add light on your scene. - So if you remember, - with the photo triangle, - we have the light corner down the bottom left hand corner, - and we've dealt with exposure values like aperture, - shutter speed and I So which going to those light values And now And we've also looked at - white balance, - which is to do with the color in that light corner. - And flash is another way of actually adding light, - so that also goes and feeds into exposure. - It's a way of adding, - like to your scene where there's not enough light. - So the first scenario is adding light to a scene that doesn't have enough light Already. - The second scenario, - which people know about a little less, - is fill flash, - and what fill flash is useful for is if you have a scene like here. - I have this scene with the statue of a Al, - and there's a lot of light coming from kind of the back corner from the side into the back - . - But the front of the AL is not very well exposed, - so I'm going to show you how that works in this particular scenario. - But fill flash is great. - If you have outside light, - that's a little strong. - And and this shadows that you want toe balance out so you have a strong light source and - the other side there's kind of too much shadow. - So grateful portrait photography where you I actually want to reintroduce some light. - One way is to actually use a reflector, - which I'll show you a little bit more about in the portrait videos in the Gold Members area - . - But a flash is a useful tool to to just fill in that that dark shadows and the other - benefit to of filth fill light is sometimes in a scene, - like if you're taking photographs of someone under under trees or something, - where there's a lot of the green light coming down. - Sometimes it's really hard to get the right white balance in that situation, - where his flashlight is very close to sunlight. - So you're going to get a much better color balance if you use that flash to fill in. - So it'll take away that green casts that you quite often get under under trees and close to - vegetation. - So really a good way to just bring in some better light saturation into your scene and the - third use for flashes sexually freeze motion. - One thing about a quick flash from these flash units, - Whether it's on the camera, - a pop up flash or it's a dedicated flash unit, - the light that pulses out is really quick. - So, - for instance, - on your camera you may only be able to go up to 4/1000 of a second or 8000 with the most - more pro models. - But a flash burst can be like in the range of 10/1000 of a second. - So in a scene where the Ambien lights quite dark and you want to, - like, - freeze emotion of something that flashes really useful for that because Israeli a quick - burst of light. - So even if the if the some immune lied in the scene, - you can actually shut down that Ambien light a bit by shrinking your aperture and making - the scene, - doc and then using that flashed actually freeze the motion off of your subject. - So I'll go into that as well. - So we'll go through those three scenarios, - which is the most common uses of flash photography. - Okay, - now it's getting really dark, - and we're getting kind of an interesting sky in the background. - We got a sunset starting to happen. - So now we're in the situation where the light is really too dark to get photos with the - camera at a decent shutter speed. - So this is the time we want to introduce more light. - So what I'm gonna do first, - let's take a short of a little model Dini here without a flash and just show you what's - gonna happen here, - can you stand up, - missy. - Okay, - so obviously it's trying expose, - and it's we're seeing blurring from the shadow speed being way too slow. - So that's not gonna work in this light to just take it without a flash. - So now we'll pop up that flash and we take another shot, - and that's great. - And we're getting some of the background lighting in there, - so that gives you some idea. - So but we also getting quite a slow shutter speed. - Now, - what I like to do in these situations is actually got manual. - Okay, - so So what we'll do is we're gonna a minute, - the sky in the background. - I'm just gonna put it. - I'm just gonna put 1/3 of the stop below the background lighting because I wanted to make a - little bit more dramatic, - that background lighting. - Let's get a little bit lower here. - Okay, - that's better. - Cajuste natural. - Small, - Say happy to eat the Berries. - There we go. - There goes. - So that's giving you more of an idea is the third of his stop is giving that much more of - that sky color in the background, - so that's looking a lot better. - And then Dini's quite well exposed. - So this is really example of using pop up flash and straightforward shooting at the subject - , - so you'll notice that it's fairly flat lighting because we're looking. - We were aiming straight. - The flash is fairly close to the lens, - so the light is really hitting straight from the camera cameras perspective. - So we having fairly flat light. - So let's try it with the with the external flash. - Now, - the beauty of the external flashes, - we've got a little power so it can actually stand further back. - So the thing with these proper flashes, - they don't They don't have the same powers and external dedicated flash. - So you have to be kind of within 10 feet away if your subject to get a reasonable shot. - Whereas if use the dedicated flashed you can be almost triple that distance that list. - You actually stand further back and use a telephoto. - So now, - with a telephoto on the camera, - you can actually get those nice sort of portrait shots where you zooming in on your subject - with the nice shallow dip the field, - and so that dedicated flash unit will let you stand further back and zoom in with those - shots and still have plenty of light, - so I'll show you how that works right now. - Okay, - here we go. - We have the telephoto lens now, - and let's try that with zooming in. - Can you stand up this just for a minute so I can get the sky in the background, - please? - Okay, - that's a little better. - And what we can do here, - too, - is we can go into a quick menu, - and there's a flash compensation here. - So what I'm gonna do here is we're gonna set it to through the lens, - and then I'm gonna sit flash conversation. - Will they take it down a couple of stops and try that out? - So let's tried over the couple of stops down. - Yeah. - The guy said, - We're looking a bit more normal there, - so I'm going to just pull it up just a fraction. - So we'll go to just one stop. - So we're just doing fresh compensation. - Just one stop down. - There you go. - That's different. - So what, - I'm going to show you first is with just for the pop up flash these pop up flashes air - useful for close distances se up to like 10 feet, - but not really useful for anything beyond that. - But in our case, - we're fairly close, - and I'm just gonna use aperture priority. - So it's going to force it to be too 50th of a second, - because that's my flash synch. - And we'll just get a feel shot here to show you what I'm talking about. - Get a nice low angle. - OK, - so that's our flash up. - So I'm gonna show you without a flash. - Okay, - so that's without a flash. - So what we're seeing here with this image is we're seeing the sky, - and it's lost a lot of detail in the sky, - and it's trying to expose for the L, - but you kind of get a lot of shadow detail in the bright highlights. - So you're missing something in between there. - And now take a shot off the AL with the with the flash pop up flash. - Okay, - Okay. - So you can see the proper flashes really filled in some of that color. - So we're getting seeing a lot more of the wood detail on the front of the hour here that's - in shadow. - But now the other trick is you'll see the sky's not a lot better. - So what? - I would tend to do with flash instead of order exposing. - I said it a manual exposure. - And what I do then is I'll actually point at the sky and I'll put it like a couple of stops - too low. - So let's make sure I says on his legs we can get, - which is 100 because I want to be able to have the slow enough shadow speed here. - So what we have to do now to get 2/50 of a second is I have to shut down that capital the - way to F 22. - And what I want to do is I'm actually gonna under expose the sky, - but one stop just to show you that effect. - So this is what will happen without the flash under exposed by one stop. - Obviously way too dark. - So for pop the external flash on now, - I'm going to just under expose the sky by 1/3 or 2/3 of a start and try that. - Okay, - so there we go. - We're getting a much more interesting look. - Now we've got the the AL it up, - and we've got this sky looking more dramatic because we haven't over exposed it. - So that gives you an idea how you can actually get that sky looking the right color because - a lot of people have problems. - They use fill flash during the day, - and they've got maybe a nice blue sky in the background. - Or we're even like sunset, - and they wonder why it just graze out whites out the background. - That leaves all the detail, - and that's usually cause it gets blown out. - So if you meet a for the background, - get a reading on that, - especially with manual exposure, - and you just take it to one or 2/3 of a stop under exposed. - So we know the sky's gonna have plenty details not gonna blow out, - and then you leave it on that setting and manual, - and then you focus on your subject. - And then you can get a nice, - detailed background sky close to the correct exposure but also getting some exposed correct - exposure on your subject as well. - So that's great for a lot of portrait shots. - Two and weddings and things like that. - We just want to fill in the subjects they don't get harsh shadows, - which is very flattering. - So here on the courts and I'm going to show you that freezing power of the flash because - the flashlight is so quick, - the strokes so quick that we can actually use it to freeze action. - So I'm gonna take some tennis shuts here, - and we're going to see how how much you can actually freeze it. - So normally in these light conditions, - it's getting quite dark. - We would be using a really slow shutter speed. - And in this case, - with the flash, - we can get much faster than mood would be able to if we were just taking without a flash. - So well, - we'll show you that effect right now. - So what I'm gonna do to I'm actually in a pre focus and then flip it over to manual because - I don't wanna have have the order focus hunting in this kind of like condition hunting for - focus, - because that's going to slow it down. - And I want to be able to have an interesting shot as quick as I can. - And we aren't through the lens mode here, - So the flash is actually using a reading through the lens to get the right exposure. - So we're gonna go manual exposure because if I said it to these conditions, - it's gonna said to really slow shutter speed. - So I really just want to set it to the flash sync speed in this particular flash off around - 2/50 of a second. - So we're not going to try include any background ambient light here. - We're just gonna go. - Actually, - 2/100 of second will be fine for this. - And then I'm gonna sit the aperture to quite quite big just to trial it a little light. - And so we've got 2.8 year It was going to take a taste show first. - Okay, - there we go. - That's so that's what we want. - We want the background. - Totally. - Blackwood. - Just one. - Really isolate the subject in this case. - Okay, - lets try. - Surf shop. - Okay, - so a little late there. - So now we're gonna I'll take a few shots here and just try to get that timing right. - Bulls higher than I expected. - Really? - That was better. - Just get a few more until we get it right. - That was close. - Whoa. - Seem close. - It's like just before or just after. - Okay. - Just a fraction too slow. - There really difficult. - Not easy getting the perfect timing here. - Oh, - that is not bad. - that was not bad. - Pretty much got bowl contact on that one. - So what I'm gonna do now, - quickly is I'm just going to show you there's a thing where you can sink it before you can - either sink it with the first curtain. - It's where the flash to shoots and then the shutter stays open a little bit and then closes - . - Or you can shoot second curtain, - which is the shadow opens. - And then just before it closes, - it flashes. - So that way we can, - actually, - if there's any motion blur with the longer shutter speed with second curtain, - what happens is you have the movement, - you get a blur of movement, - and then it freezes just before the shadow closes, - which is more natural. - So you have the motion object frozen with the blow after the movement. - If you go first shadow, - it's the other way around where you actually have a blur before you moving object, - which doesn't quite look natural. - So I'm gonna set that in the menu quick for second curtain there, - shut a curtain. - So here we go. - We're going to custom function in this particular camera shutter curtain, - and the shot occurred and sink, - and we can either choose second curtain of first curtain. - So here we go. - We're gonna set it to second curtain, - and now I'm going to set the actual shadow speed a little lower. - So we get some kind of motion blur happening in the background. - So we're actually said it quite slow to, - like, - 20 year for the 20th of a second. - We're going to see some kind of blurred motion and then the frozen flash shop. - Okay, - let's get a couple of shots like that. - Can we just get a lock on focus first, - Okay. - Oh, - that was close. - That was close. - A mask being close. - Yeah, - it's pretty close. - Okay, - great. - So that wraps it up. - E. - A little experiment was talking about how flash Frieze motion and I got a little set here. - And what we're gonna do is we have that water there that I've put some food coloring in. - So we have a nice red water there, - and I've set up my camera here, - and what I'm gonna do is a Mexican a Although this pop up flashes that popped up here, - I've actually said it in the men used to fire an external flash. - This particular model, - which is the 60 de Canon 60 d, - actually allows you to go into the flash control menu, - and you can actually said it to fire an external flash. - So what you do is you go into the flash menu and under the built in flash menu there, - you can actually said it too. - Two wireless function. - So basically, - I'm using the wireless mode and I'm sitting it if just fire the external flash. - So what I've done is I've actually sit up seen here with the flash back there, - actually have it on an old camera because I wanted really loaded the floor and I didn't - have a stand that was low enough. - So I have the flash there, - so it's gonna shoot light from that angle so slightly from behind, - and then I have a little reflector over there, - so that's gonna pull some like backwards. - So we're going to get a bit of light from both angles coming from behind, - and I've actually said it in them. - I've actually said it to manual exposure here, - so we've got 1 25th of a second, - so really made it actually said it so that when I take a photo straight out, - it doesn't actually light up the background enough. - So there we go. - I'm just having it. - So shoot. - So for frame. - So it's totally black. - So the shutter speed of 1 25th of a second and aperture if nine and we're on 1 60 a. - Say those a really not good enough for the sliding situation. - So it's too dark to even show anything without a flash, - which is what I want because actually want a pitch black background for this particular - shot. - So what we do is we pop up flash and I'll just tell you test shot. - What amusing is amusing That self timer. - So when I pressed the button clicks away and maybe go so we can actually see how subject - there now, - which is the bowl. - So basically, - I want to really dark shot with just the bowl showing, - and that's working for me. - So now what I'm gonna do is I'm actually going to set it to 10 seconds, - and I'm gonna drop some items in the water so that you can see the effect so that you can - see the effect off the flash freezing motion. - Here we go. - We're going to go into drive mode, - and I'm gonna set it to 10 seconds. - So that'll give me time to drop some items in there. - And I wasn't gonna just dark in this a little bit, - so I'm going to switch off the light here. - It's gonna get a little darker. - Just something in a minimize So minimising the ambient light to So it's really just the - flash effect coming into play here. - And so here we go. - Great. - So a nice little splash up cu So the coughing about the flash countdown it goes, - it does that 1st 9 seconds or sun and does it really quick timing just before it actually - takes a shot. - So unless you know that it's about a fire that's really handy. - So let me do a couple more of those. - That was pretty neat. - This time I'm gonna drop a a Corning single acorn. - Okay, - that was a little soon. - Let's try that again. - So it is a bit of trial and error with this kind of thing. - You wanna to get the timing right? - Okay. - So probably acorn in midair there. - Let's do that again. - Okay, - too soon again. - Okay, - Just get a few more shots. - That was a nice one. - Okay, - great one. - It really gives you that idea of splashed down cu right. - I can't. - I'm just going to set up another thing. - I'm gonna pulls it there, - get some more light on the scene. - Okay, - So I'm gonna pause it there and I'm going to do I'm going to change the orientation of my - camera so that we have a portrait shot. - I'm gonna put a glass there, - and we'll drop some things into just a glass. - So we have more of a portrait shot, - so that should look interesting to Okay, - so me get that set up. - Okay, - so part two here, - we're gonna try it now with the A little glass of order with some green dye in it to see - how that comes out. - Okay, - so I'm gonna switch your found main line again and make things nice. - And dr and let's try the red ball first to nice quarter radical one that one Heads, - Try a couple others driving in a cone. - Okay. - A lot of splash with the little with the water. - Here. - See how that looks bad. - Okay, - so you can see you can get some really fun shuts using flash to freeze motion of off - different things and much more effectively than using a fast shutter speed. - And the reason being is you introducing a light concentrated in one area so you can just - freeze it. - So if I was to use a fast shadow speed for one, - I wouldn't be able to use it for us at the speed in this situation because it's really not - enough light. - And if you are in a situation we can use a really fun shutter speed. - It's quite hard to get a dark enough background so that what you want frozen in the - foreground is not sort of competing with the background. - Where is in the situation here We can like, - aimed the light the way we want it, - which is really one of the benefits of Slash to so that we're not lining up the back. - And of course I'm putting black cloth there as well, - which was here a lot darker, - too. - But if I was to just shoot with they onboard flash in this situation, - I'll show you what that would do. - I'm gonna switch our external flash off here and for going to the menu quick and put the - flesh setting so that it's it's disabled. - The wireless function. - Now if we go into now, - if I shoot and take a shop, - see what happens now if we use the pop up Flash waken light are subject, - but because we're getting a lot of flash in that direction, - we actually lighting up the background, - which has started, - look grain out rather than pitch black like we like. - So that's really the benefit of pulling the flash off the camera. - You can really get the light where you want. - And so that wraps up this session about using flash to freeze objects. - So that gave you some inspiration to go try out some flash work yourself, - using flash to freeze. - And also really to think about whether you'd want to actually get a external flash to build - experimental a bit more. - Because the pop up flashes are a little bit limited in this area, - that kind of sums it up. - Okay, 21. Flash Diffusers: - I think I mentioned earlier. - The activity is just gonna give you an introduction to fashion recovery. - It's certainly different avenues. - You can go down just like wireless flash technology itself. - I mean, - there's so many settings and ways of using it, - which very between each model camera, - too. - So I'm really just going to show you the concepts here. - And depending on your camera, - you can look up further settings in your camera manual like you may have a model that - allows you to do wireless flash photography straight from the camera. - So if you wanted. - If wireless flash photography and you don't have a camera capable of doing it, - you can get these attachments to your hot shoe that allow for a wireless sync to wireless - flash. - So even if your flash is not capable of doing wireless flash photography, - you can have a adapter that fits on your hot tune in another dept. - That fits on your flash, - and then they can talk to each other wirelessly. - So we've gone through some basic concepts of using flash just in situations where it's too - dark or to freeze motion and fill flash. - Now, - one of the preferred ways that I like to use Flash is using with some kind of diffuser. - Now what that is is you somehow soften the flash look now a little bit of background about - lightings important here if you have a really small point source of light, - like the sun. - Although the sun's huge when it's a long way away, - it's effectively a point source. - You get really sharp shadows, - and if you get a little pop up flash to that. - So it's a quite a small, - slight source to so you also getting quite sharp shadows from that, - and even an external flash will lower. - The actual flash head is a little bigger. - It's still prone to quite harsh shadows. - So the idea of diffuses are to soften that, - and to some degree, - you can use an external flesh and bounce it up to the ceiling and use the ceiling as a big - reflector, - and that gives you softer looking light. - But one of my favorites is to actually use a diffuser on the flash, - so I'm talking mostly bad external flashes year. - So this is my external five a. - T e x for a cannon. - So you get these diffusers that fit on top of the flash head like that. - So what that does is instead of that small surface area, - you can now actually aim that up and that becomes your light sources. - So you're getting it further away from the lands, - and you've got this nice, - larger light source, - their plastic bouncing off the room, - too. - So that really gives you more light coming from different directions, - which takes away that harsh shadows. - Look. - So what I'm going to do now is I'm just going to show you examples of first of all, - a flash shot with just the pop up flash. - And then I'm going to show you just a example of how you can use this. - This is actually part of this diffuser. - You can actually put something in front of your pop up flash to diffuse the light little, - and I'll show you the effect of that. - And I'm gonna put a external flash on top here without a diffuser so you can see the - results of that. - And then finally, - I'm gonna put a diffuser on, - and that way you will get to see how much difference of defusing makes. - And in the final step, - to really getting more control over flash photography and getting more creative flash - pictures. - It's just start moving your flash off the camera, - and that's when you need some kind of cabling system or wire system where you can have the - flash away from the camera and be triggered. - And so that way you can put the flash anywhere relative to your subject. - You're not looking at just front own flash photographs. - It can get some nice, - more interesting sidelight. - So So let me show you a couple of those examples. - So I'm gonna first of all used the pop up flash. - And I'm going to use myself as a subject here, - and it's pop that up. - So that's how you activated in this camera. - You actually you actually prop it up like that. - And now pop up flashes activated and I'm going to set the self timer mode. - So we got 10 seconds and the flash is going to go off. - Okay, - so that's straight flash. - So that gives you an idea of pretty much straight front lighting. - Quite harsh and pretty much the deer in the headlights. - Look, - Now I'm gonna show you with the little bit of a diffuser on the front. - You can actually get diffuses that's attached to the hot shooting, - various kinds that slip on. - But I'm just gonna put this over here just to give you an idea of what a diffuser does. - Now, - of course, - the pop up flashes still limited you really close to the lens and is limited to how much - off a light source you can create with the pop up flash. - Okay, - you will see the difference. - Okay, - so you can see now it's softened the light a little. - So compared to the previous example where it's kind of court glaring. - Now you can see the lot lights a little softened and the skin tones a little bit better. - And now we're gonna put the external flash on without the diffuser. - So let's try that out. - Will pop down the internal flash the public flash there, - and we're slide on this external flash we're in position on. - So I'm just using e t t l, - which is just calculating the lighting required through the camera. - I've actually said the camera here to manual tooth 2/100 of a second at F 2.8 because I - want that really shallow depth of field and 2/100 of a second, - which allows my flash synch to work. - This camera can actually up to 2/50 of a second, - but to to hundreds fine for our purposes here. - Okay, - so now we're gonna use the through the lens flash and let's get that ready. - Okay, - so no diffuser, - external flash. - We got quite harsh lighting, - but there's a benefit to having that flash slightly removed from the lens center, - but still quite stock lighting. - And that's now that that's the point of the diffuser. - We're gonna add that diffuser now and see how it can soften that light quite a lot. - Okay, - I admit diffuser. - Now, - these diffuses you can actually I tend now with these particular diffusers, - I tend to turn the flash sideways, - and that's really useful when you're just shooting on the fly. - When you I use this a lot in waiting photo is actually this is my favorite method because - in a wedding situation, - you a lot of the time, - it's kind of shooting on the run. - You don't have time to set up lights and things like that. - So you really want to have your diffuser with you all the time on camera, - preferably. - And although you can get much better lighting, - you don't often have time with these winnings to do a dedicated set up with lights. - So that way you so you can shoot like that. - And so the light sources slightly high. - It always looks strange if the light source is just too low. - Shining up like that really looks odd, - because we're not really used to seeing a lot of light coming from below rather than above - . - So you get that gives you more of that horror look, - so it's better to have your lights likely from above. - And when you shoot sideways like portrait mode, - you can just shoot like that landscape and then portrait. - So that way, - your light source is still a little bit above the lens, - which is much more flattering. - So they're really handy to shoot like that, - and in a waiting situation that's really quick. - Could be taking a few shots like that. - Flip over to that. - Take a few more shots. - Okay, - let's hook us back in here and show you what I'm talking about. - Okay, - so now we have our diffuser on and Let's retake that shot with the diffuser on the external - flash. - Okay, - so you can see much softer light. - Now, - I'm gonna take one more there. - So now you can see, - like, - instead of the without the diffuse that where we have that really stark deer in the - headlights. - Look, - now we have much softer look, - that diffuses bouncing off the ceiling. - And it's creating a bigger light source above your lens and making for overall a nice, - softer shot. - Dean, - he's gonna help out with a couple of shots here. - So what I'm gonna do now to is I'm going to just take one without the diffuser again so you - can see that difference. - Okay. - Look at the camera, - missy. - Okay, - so this is OK, - there we go. - So you can see that harsh lighting. - And now we put the diffuser on and a mitt up ceiling like that on going to show you how - that can do. - Portrait's really easy to. - I'm gonna take it off here because this is really how would use it If I'm doing a wedding, - I'd be just hand hand holding the camera here. - And I usually wouldn't be using live murder. - I'll be through the lens so I can get a bit of quicker focus happening. - Make sure diffuses on tight. - Okay, - So this is how I would really be using it in a waiting situation. - I'd be locking on. - Okay, - so that's that's how I would use it. - And then if I want to do a portrait shot, - just flip it over like that. - You can look that way a little bit, - miss, - just look up to the light. - That's it. - Good. - Okay. - And now, - beauty of this is, - if you don't need to turn it down a bit, - we can just go into the cumin. - You here and down here, - we have a flash compensation. - So there's 10 that flash down a bit by stop and try that again, - huh? - Okay, - that's probably a little too much now, - because now we've You can see that hissed a grams too far that way. - So let's take it back up to just 1/3 of the stopped down. - So going to flash, - take about 1/3 of stock off there. - Let's try that. - There we go. - So that's looking a bit better. - And just take it back up to full flash. - Seems to be about. - Right. - Okay. - Goodbye, - miss. - Yeah, - They can see much softer light around, - uh, - gives a much more flattering look. - Now, - what I'm gonna say is the benefit off using off camera flash now so you can actually take - the a man flash unit off here. - And now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna put it back on the tripod so it can have the camera - held in position. - Okay, - So okay. - And we're gonna have ah, - Dr Modoff, - two seconds. - And here, - I'm going to go quickly into the menu. - And we said that Flash control to external. - So there we go. - That's external flash menu. - Enable. - Great. - And now we gotta pop up the flash so that we can use the external sitting. - Just look into the camera with you, - Okay? - I'm gonna get a little bit higher there, - and then look me Just look into the flash quickly said out our main flash unit to just we - said, - our main flash unit to slave. - So now we can basically get, - like from any angle. - Now, - using this is a slave unit. - There we go. - They can see we start getting more interesting light. - Now Okay, - let's try one from this angle. - Okay? - Look at the camera, - Miss. - Tell it to look towards me. - You can see how it starts. - Giving that interesting kind of sun looks sunlit look, - but not too harsh. - Like normally, - a son would give much harsher shadows than this. - So this gives a really flattering light having a diffuser. - So let's try one more from up here. - Great. - Okay. - Now, - can you stay that side and that you stated? - And I look up towards be just like that? - Yes, - I understand that. - Your head in that position. - But look up towards me. - Stand up. - Sit up straight. - A little bit every day. - That's it. - Okay, - let's try that with a little bit of a smile. - NYSE. - Yeah, - missy. - Lovely. - So that really gives you an overview of how using a diffuse on a flash really gives much - more flattering light. - And I'll talk. - Talk about a little bit more in the portrait. - Better portrait's video in the Gold Members section. - And like I say, - there's with flash. - There's so many settings and things to do with that. - Really? - You want to look at your cameraman, - you'll see what your camera manual has a Sfar. - As flash modes go, - you can use the pop up flash for a fill flash and occasionally and scenes where you fairly - close to your subject. - But like I say, - not the most flattering light. - So it's good to have some kind of diffuser or, - better still, - getting an external flash with a diffuser, - so that gives you the basics of flash. - So now we've covered all three points of the triangle. - We've covered our composition and perspective. - We've covered their light corner, - which is exposure, - color and all the elements going into the light or the tonal values, - which is all the exposure settings. - And we've covered focus, - and we've looked at dip the field and using fast shutter speed to freeze and slow shutter - speed to blow motion. - So that way we've got the whole fed a triangle covered, - so that gives you a good grounding. - So now we ready to leap into more creative years old. - Okay,