Cultivating Executive Presence | Vasco Patricio | Skillshare

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Cultivating Executive Presence

teacher avatar Vasco Patricio, Author, Executive Coach

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Course Promotional Video


    • 2.

      Principle #1: Initiative


    • 3.

      Principle #2: Appearance


    • 4.

      Principle #3: Salience/Vision


    • 5.

      Pillar #4: Transparency


    • 6.

      Pillar #5: Harmony


    • 7.

      Pillar #6: Grace Under Fire


    • 8.

      Pillar #7: Rigidity


    • 9.

      Pillar #7: Intellectual Honesty


    • 10.

      Pillar #9 Tension/Selectiveness


    • 11.



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About This Class

Have you ever wished to be more present when communicating? To draw more attention, to command more respect?

In this course, we break down executive presence into 9 key pillars. Each of them is an important dimension of presence in communication - and together, they can make you a communicator on a whole different level!

Meet Your Teacher

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Vasco Patricio

Author, Executive Coach


I have what could be considered an unconventional background as a coach. I don’t come from psychology or medicine. In fact, I come from tech. I created two tech startups that reached million-dollar valuations, backed by the MIT-Portugal IEI startup accelerator, afterwards becoming its Intelligence Lead.

After years of coaching and mentoring startup founders on talent management, emotional management, influence and persuasion, among other topics, I started being requested by executives and investors, like venture capitalists, with more complex, large-scale problems.

After years of doing executive work, I started specializing in coaching asset management professionals. With the signing of my first fund manager/CIO clients, I started adapting my performance and influenc... See full profile

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1. Course Promotional Video: Hello and welcome to this executive presence course. My name is logical Patricio. I've been an executive coach for around ten years with clients in some of the top institutions in the world, from companies like Johnson and Johnson to top European hedge funds, banks like large bank and the Baath more in what I want to share with you in this course is a framework that I've developed to become more present as a speaker, to commend more attention, to obtain more respect, and to just cause more of an impact when you walk into a room and everybody notices. The major goal of this course is to make you a more present communicator. It is by the end of the course, you will be seen as more charismatic. Your command more attention, your command more respect, and people will just notice more. You all know some actual techniques to really make this happen in terms of structure, we only have one major module in specific with nine lessons. And these nine lessons are what I call the nine pillars of executive presence. I've developed my own framework which divides executive presence into nine simple principles. You can adopt each one of these individually, but together they really pack a patch for each of these are both covered the theory and some practical ways to make it happen. For example, one of the pillars is tension and selected ones. That is, how to come across as more and more powerful, some actionable ways. Or for example, to use more intense eye contact to speak with a very serious tone or similar ways. Or for example, transparency, sharing more in being more personable will make you more present. So for example, you can share emotions, you can even share false. And there are certain circumstances in our share both the theory and actionable techniques for all nine pillars. You may think that this course is only for executives and it is beneficial to them. But I would argue that it can be used for anyone who just wants to become a more present communicator. Because sure, these techniques were born in the boardroom, but they can be used for many purposes in life, causing a client earning more respect from your friends or any other situation, you don't need any tools or specialized knowledge to enjoy this course because it's mostly about social skills and how to improve them so anybody can benefit from it. I would argue that this is the only video horse that you are going to find. It concentrates these executive presence techniques in such a simple but such a powerful course. I haven't seen any other markets. But then again, that's why I created this one in the first place. We also have one class project for this course. Very simple. I want you to take one technique, one of the key pillars, and tell us how you are going to use it. For example, saying, Hey, this afternoon, I have a meeting with my boss and I am going to leverage the power of tension and selectiveness I wanted to speak with. I'm going to use a more serious whites and I'm going to use intense eye contact not to intimidate, but just to command more presence in if you feel comfortable, share it with us so that we can provide feedback, but also congratulate you. If this list sound like the course for you, it will be an absolute pleasure to have you as a student. Are you excited to become a better speaker and communicator? Then let's get started. I'll see you in a minute. 2. Principle #1: Initiative: Let's talk about Initiative, being a person of action. This definitely makes you more present because people see that we're just more active. You may be reading other people, but even if you are just by yourself doing morphemes, volunteering for more things, just taking more action makes you more present and more respected, which the co-worker, one of the biggest components of presence is taking action, initiative, doing something, especially when others want. If you are the type of person that takes action, when others are passive, you were going to be more memorable in people. We'll pay more attention to you. There are actually several subcategories of initiative that we can master. First is work initiative. This is being the type of person that asks for more work. Goes the extra mile, just does something they don't need to. If you're in normal conditions, that is where that is recognized. It's not toxic culture of overwork, for example. But in general, the more you do, the more that you are recognize and appreciate it. Then social initiative. This is taking action in social situations. Going to speak to other people when they are alone at an event or a conference, or adding value to a dying conversation or introducing other people, and so on. Then decisiveness. This is actively making a decision. When everyone else is paralyzed. It's literally the signing something when others just count. Then autonomy as well. This is the capacity to keep taking action and doing work or any other type of action without needing the approval or the input of others being independent. Finally, freedom is a specific one. It's about doing what you want, not what others want you to do. It's not just starting a conversation, but making the effort to talk about a topic that really interests you or the other person. It's breaking the mold, expressing yourself, not impressing others. Initiative is the type of thing that is easy to take when it regards people or work that you already know. If you already do with projects, then another good project isn't really that much initiative. It's the standard initiative is going from good to great. So if you already speak with the people that you know at conferences, that's led initiative. Initiative is making new connections. In short, it's when you leave your comfort zone that you can obtain the best results. This is also the difference between just doing something in actually adding value. It's the difference between doing work and doing work. The coin gloves, or between talking in, talking about something that the other person loves. In this is especially important to convert followers to action. If you're a leader or you're presenting an idea, or just trying to drive action in others while taking action yourself is pretty much a prerequisite, leading by example. In fact, practicing, doing things outside your comfort zone is a great way to develop initiative. For example, networking with people that you don't know yet. We're welcoming that person that nobody knows yet. We're pushing others to do that failing. It could be then sooner or taking on that new task that nobody else wants to do. In short, it's doing things that you don't need to, but you choose to. In people notice that in particular, freedom can be considered a type of initiative and an important one for presence. It's the initiative to do things your way and express your personality in specific, in a way. The, especially when others may not be doing that. Although it can be considered a part of the vulnerability principle, which we are going to cover. In short, you need to be vulnerable in order to express yourself. But more than that, it's a type of initiative because you have to actually make that effort to express yourself. Freedom in specific can be manifested in different ways. First, your actual image in quoting, being unique in what your show. Another is being playful in relaxed in interactions versus being stiff. In short, taking the initiative in having the freedom to say more than just the minimum required investing energy into an interaction when you didn't need to. Then having the courage to state your opinions or your initiatives or your projects, even if you know that you are going to risk criticism of them and so on. What are some examples of initiative? The first is going the extra mile. Some of the people that climb the corporate ladder the fastest are just pure hard workers. They do more than others and they do it more times. That's it. Then having value. Inserting an interesting topic into a conversation also counts as initiative. Specifically selfing that will enrich the person's life, such as knowledge of history or good places to travel to, or to stay at or salon, making an effort to add value to the other person. In finally, there is such a thing as too much initiative. Remember, initiative helps with problems, but there is such a thing as being too present. If you do too much, you may risk making others a look bad or stepping on their toes. You will be more present than ever for sure, which will also invite retaliation. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that initiative is simply doing things in this specialty when others don't. That's it. Taking action. There are countless types of initiative, but usually we're talking about either social or professional initiative. Either you do more in terms of social situations, speaking with more people, making more introductions, having more useful topics, or in professional terms, by taking on more responsibility or doing more work. In finally, a big component of initiative lies outside your comfort zone. It's easy to say or to do what you already say, or do. The gold allies in doing more and more, then watch who actually do. So as we see, initiative and action are great ways to make you more present, especially when other people are not doing anything or when they don't want to do something. It can be social, it can be professional, or on any level, just taking more action at the end of the day makes you more present. 3. Principle #2: Appearance: Let's talk about your appearance naturally, the way you dress, the way you behave in this sophistication that you seem to have are naturally going to make you more present. But it's not just about the image, but other elements like credentials, introductions, references, and more. So let's take a look at the different elements of appearance. In order to have more presence and to be heard more easily, your words need a heavyweight authority. You probably already know that if you just present yourself better people or nourishing more and pay more attention. Granted. But in specific, this is usually performed through three main methods. The first is your actual image looking the part queen, sophisticated, professional or whatever the specific circumstances value, then your credentials. This is having facts that gives you permission to make claims, either experience or your university degree or another title. This takes an imaginary checkbox in the person's mind that gives them permission to trust you. And finally, your confidence and behavior, including your reaction to others. By this, I mean, this is called acting high-status, using intense eye contact, silence, speaking with power in the moment. Among other aspects, we'll go into this later on in the principle of tension and selectiveness. But for now, just realize that it's possible to have a generally bad image, but still be present if you conduct yourself with power. Or you can have an amazing image, but seemed like a bush over. And you're not going to be present specifically, as we'll see in a minute, the way that you react to other people is a big indicator of your status. Additionally, there may be other types of what is called display the authority that reinforce your authority. This point, authority simply means having your authority, your results, or credentials, being stated by someone else, and not q. Having a words, having social proof, having associations with big names, having someone introduce you on a stage. Benefiting from the halo effect, where because you're good at something, people assume that you're good at. Other things are all forms. This plate authority, these are examples of not you contributing to your own presence by external factors doing it for you. Besides both your logical demonstrations of credentials and authority in your, in the moment, confidence or charisma. And neither important aspect of your appearance is your reaction to whether high-value people. By this, I mean the following. High-status people have a tendency to stifle others, to make them retreat or to become hesitant, high-pitched, scared, afraid, or inauthentic? Yes, people imagine for a moment that you're a low level employee and the CEO of the company walks in and says Hello, Immediately, you freeze up in your retreat into your mind. This is a low status behavior. On the other hand, if you think you were high-status as well, if the CEO walks in, your polite, we say hello, but you hold your ground. Maybe there is some tension, but it doesn't affect you. You don't kill the tension. So having that capacity to remain neutral in the face of their high-value people conveys that you yourself, a high value person as well. Usually, people behave like this due to their status, but you don't need to. You just need to act like this. In other words, even if you are grass, right? And you have a lot of indicators of authority. If someone of high status walks in and you immediately retreat into high pitch mode, you just gave away your whole presence just due to that reaction. Your reactions count as much as your actions. If you are wondering how this is done in practice. While it's simply consists of just removing the person from the pedestal and treating them as equals. Because when you consider someone to important, you're objectifying them in a way, not treating them like a person, but seeing the person in them. The person behind the facts and the appearance reverses the effect. In fact, one of the biggest signs of high-value is casually talking and challenging high-value people when the CEO oxygen, There's two types of people. One of them freezes up in tries to save things to please them. The other one is relaxed and even says possibly to the CEO, you are quite crap today, did you sleep well? Which one do you think conveys high-value? Exactly. What are some examples of appearance and authority? The first or theaters. Not literally theaters, but the concept of a theater. And theater is a type of situation where appearance is all that matters. For example, a security theater, such as the security checkpoints at the airport. Nothing is actually done at the end of the day. They don't protect you, but they do seem to do it do to the image. In these cases, appearance is literally everything. Then image as an afterthought. In some industries, such as financial services or the legal profession, image is an afterthought. The dress code is a mandatory prerequisite before anybody even recognize as you or even talks to you. And less naturally, you are an exception, but then you can do whatever you want. In finally, appearance can be an instant boost. In most situations in life, simply improving your image with professional clothing or a queen log, or just being more relaxed with high-status people will immediately make you more respective. Just wear professional clothes like a work suit or a queen shirt to the supermarket, or when walking around and just notice how differently people treat you. What are our key takeaways here? The first is their appearance, has three keys. Image credentials in confidence. You can improve your appearance by dressing better, invoking cleaner, by having more credentials, or by just behaving with more confidence and status. All three of them count. Then display the authority can help display the authority, as the name says, consists of your value in authority being communicated or display, not by you but by others. And this is frequently used as a persuasion weapon because when it's a third party talking about you versus you doing it, people assume that it's n biased in finally, don't forget your reactions to others, especially people of high-status. Reactions. Counters match as actions. If you dress very importantly in your WACC dominant. But the moment that in other high-status person creates tension, then you crumble, then you've lost all your presence and vice versa. Reactions are as important as actions. So as we see, appearance is important. It's not just about your image, but also how other people treat you or they're respect to what they say about you and even your actual social value. That is, how do you react to other people who have, how do you behave? You behave with confidence. You behave like someone who has value or of lower value. All of these elements combined into appearance, which can really make you a more present communicator. 4. Principle #3: Salience/Vision: Let's talk about savings and vision. Although these seem to be two different things, they are faces of the same whole series is about how much you stand out, how creative you are, how different you are, unique, you are. While the vision is about having a strong vision for the future, the way the two wants to see the world, your world in a way. Let's take a look at ceilings and version. Two, intimately related components of Brandon's are both how much you stand out and the capacity to sell your vision. The stronger that both of these are, the more influence that you have over others. In a more memorable you will be. There are naturally many factors that come into play here. But two key ones are salience, envision. As we mentioned, how much you stand out and how much your version of the future stands out. These are not always necessary to pitch something or convince someone, but they help with numerous things. For example, they help you resist and persist in the face of objections. Because if you stand out more or you have a stronger vision, your last question, they help you maintain a strong frame even when you whack the results or your proof. Because you just believe in that vision so much. They also help you keep motivated and stay positive in the face of challenges relying on that strong vision. In finally, they make you more likable in approachable due to the positivity, motivation, and inspiration that you leverage. Serious itself is the name says, is about standing out from others. There is no need to have extreme salience. You don't need a where a gold suit to work or have a ridiculously expensive car. Although it does help, but just standing out somewhat. We'll go a long way already. And this can be achieved in multiple natural or artificial ways. First, you can dress more elegantly, especially if there is anything distinctive about the clothing, such as specific Cufflinks or a suit with a specific cat or something else that makes you stand out. Another is having a different accent or different mannerisms. This is usually something that you can actively change. But people, they just have different accents or that use specific words or expressions that are different, do stand out more. After that. Having unique points of view on topics, sharing extravagant, different ideas than others makes you more memorable while also knowing different languages or knowing about different industries than the one that you're working. This makes you have knowledge that other people usually don't have. In finally, idiosyncrasies, small things that you do in a different or unique manner. Maybe you're the type of person that never drinks coffee, or maybe you're the type of person they're only drinks coffee with sugar. Or maybe you only drink coffee from a given brand. Or maybe you only drink coffee in a super specific interval of 30 minutes in the whole day, and so on for any unique habit. So as you see, it's all about having a unique point of view or a unique approach to life. We can even consider that vision itself in a way is part of the Syrians because it's nothing more than having a unique perspective on the future. Namely, a big component of cellulose is unpredictability. It's about being the type of person that just can't be figured out. This alone is a heavy component in presence. In short, the more that people don't know how you will behave, the more attentive they're going to be. Two, what you do and say, this is evolutionary things that don't stand out. Getting North. Things that do stand out are paid attention to because they can be dangerous or they can be a valuable resources in you are going to seem to be one of those two. Some people actually use and predictability the wrong way by being unpredictable in terms of mood swings or aggression. Thinker, ******* bosses, you never know they're going to be in a good mood or a bad one. Or also possibly employees who are flakes. They can keep quitting existing projects or starting new ones, and you never know how they're going to behave. In those cases, these people have presence and negative type. Sure. But they are present. You are going to remember them and they do cause a reaction when they walk in the room. So what you wanna do is be in predictable, in a good way. In terms of creativity and personal reactions. Sometimes you do what's expected, suggesting a different approach. Sometimes you do exactly what's expected. Sometimes you find the positive in something and accept it, or sometimes you focus on the negative risks. You go into detail with a lot of debt. So people can never truly figure you out or put you in a box. Region itself usually has two important dimensions. The first is the strength of your own reality, and the second is being honest with yourself. Let me elaborate in terms of the strength of your reality. This comes down to being able to find your own path in life, in gather your own conclusions. Even when you're going against the majority. It's how much you believe in that version of the world. Even if other people don't. In a way, it's having the courage to fly blind, to detach from group think, and believe so much in your personal point of view that only that vision of the world matters. This is usually reinforced by just having more life experience or just deciding to believe more in yourself. In terms of being honest with yourself. It's all about having your vision and not the vision of somebody else. Being honest about what you truly dislike in what you truly like, instead of being persuaded by others. In this consists of being comfortable and confident in your own opinions and approaches. If you truly believe that you should push a different initiative or a project in someone raises an objection. Are you going to convince them or let them convince you? So creating your own reality is about detaching from others. And being honest with yourself is about believing in that detached vision. One question I commonly get with executive clients is that there's always a tension between the logic and emotion in this other specialty. If you are a very logical person and you may be trying to pitch something that doesn't even exist yet. In is just division. In, in these cases, you may ask yourself things such as, how can I sell or pitch with emotion? Or what right? Do I have this cell, this emotionally when there is no proof? And for this, there's usually two approaches. The first is the bet on yourself to decide to do it. So something may not be possible already yet, but it will be in the future. So you sell in the present what you are going to achieve later and you decide that you're going to make it happen after you sell it, you're reversing the order, just like Bill Gates with basic first-year cell. And then you find a way to deliver what you promise in the first place. The other method is to use what I call just the five emotion. In short, as long as you consider that you will make something happen, you can give yourself authorization to use a Beta of emotion when selling. Because a lot of logical people think that selling with emotion is too exaggerated. It's being snake oil salesmen. So in this case, you give yourself authorization to just use just the five emotion, which is a little bit of emotion that is supported by the logical facts or projections that back it up. Both of these can help you sell with emotion if you're logical. What are some examples of Syrians and vision? The first Silicon Valley, putting aside the matter of whether technology is good for us or not. At the end of the day, analyzing just the founders in Silicon Valley. It's easy to notice that they all have presence with a very clear vision. And they stand out due to that vision. Such as Bill Gates putting a computer in every home or Steve Jobs. A big part of the presence of Silicon Valley billionaires is all vision. Then playfulness. The reason why playfulness in jokes work so well with some people is because they're unpredictable. Nobody is expecting them. They're just expect you to say what you need to conduct a meeting, whatever it is, and go away. So this is a type of initiative, but it's also an predictability. And Serbians because you stand out from others. Another specific example, which is a personal anecdote. In my past corporate career, as an European, I met a lot of people that will speak German or French, or Spanish or others. But I decided from an early age to where Japanese, although it's more frequent now with the rise of anemia and other Japanese impulses, it's still not very common for a corporate worker in a European company to know Japanese. So in every single position that I would be in, I would surprise people just by knowing very basic Japanese. I did not want to stand out due to this. But in every situation would be the guy who speaks Japanese. This is an example of how you can be more present by being more salient even if you don't want to. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that salience and vision are two useful weapons for presence. If you both stand out and you have a clearer vision for the future than others do. You will be more present period. Then being unpredictable in specific is a great type of salience. And predictability garners attention in terms of the meaner words or actions. You don't let others figure you out. Just make sure it's not a negative type of unpredictability. Finally, having your own strong reality is important. Having a strong vision derives from having a very clear definition of what the world is to you in how you see it. In refusing to accept anything else besides it, which usually entails self-belief and solve it life experience. So as we see, CMEs and vision are both very important. Cmes is about standing up, being unique, being creative, being unpredictable, and so on. While vision is about sharing with others, what is your view of the world in the stronger that it is, the better? 5. Pillar #4: Transparency: Let's talk about the transparency, which at the end of the day is about sharing. It can be about sharing emotions, sharing problems, or others. When you share more with others, you seem less artificial and you see more credible. And in fact, when you share floss, for example, you don't seem insecure for doing it. In fact, you see more confident because you can admit them without any type of problems. So let's take a look at transparency. Transparency or vulnerability, which can be a synonym in this context, is important for presence. Look, there is always a dichotomy or a spectrum between being vulnerable and being defensive. You can share a lot of little or nothing. And the key here is that the more transparent you are to a reasonable level, at least the more power you will have. In the more authentic you will see. You'll wanna give off the impression of having nothing to HIV, which creates peace of mind. And it shows this affects not just your verbal communication, but also the non-verbal and subconscious ones. Patrick Lencioni's has the concept of the naked leader being fully open. So you assume that everybody makes mistakes as awkward situations, and it's all fine. So you can admit yours as well. Versus hiding these elements. In persuasion Psychology, there is even the concept of adversary transparency, which is a very powerful technique. It consists of volunteering information against you, which makes you more of an authority. You're sharing negative things about yourself that you do not need to. This makes you more credible and authentic. We can even go deeper here and split transparency into a set of key principles itself. And you can work on some of these or all of them. They all contribute to presence. The first is emotional transparency. This is having no problems in showing emotion. Smile if you need to, be angry, if you need to. A caveat here is that I don't mean being emotional at others. So don't scream at others or be angry at them. I mean that when something affects your emotionally, take a moment if you need to, and don't hide it from others. Hiding it from others, You just makes you seem artificial. Then, as mentioned, adversary transparency, being honest about your mistakes were about better options than yours. Showing that you don't treat yourself differently in the true, prioritize the truth, even when it goes against you. Then non-resistance, not being stubborn in resisting things that cannot be stopped when something happens, taking it well, and moving on. Naturally, there are always phase that you may want to change, but if you can, just accepting them and moving on. Finally, self-acceptance, accepting your floss and not being blind to them. The more that you don't accept yourself, the more defensive you will be accepting them. And even accepting that some people may be better than you at different things. Whether another project may be better than yours and not having a problem with it. Because this way, you're not defensive and you're more authentic. Shifting from being defensive to being vulnerable is usually done on two different levels. Professionally. The first is an individual, one being someone who cares less in a way, learning to let go. So being able to see the sharing of emotion as something that powerful people do, in that defensive people don't. Top performers are not restrained. They are free to express the emotions that they wish. In the second level is a cultural one. Being in a corporate culture that allows mistakes in, doesn't crucify someone for admitting failures. In this case, it's not that much about changing yourself with changing the culture around you, or gauging whether you actually fit in this culture. In the long term. If you were surrounded by defensive individuals in nobody is going to be transparent. It doesn't matter how much you are transparent individually. You're not going to change a lot. And naturally, people can be on either side of the transparency spectrum, all or nothing. So some people in, especially in high pressure industries, such as financial services, are u2 high-strung and they admit none of their mistakes. You can insist for half an hour, They will never have met even minor effects. Or in terms of what are called the infamous archetypes. The four types of personalities, fast or slow, combined with being logical or emotional. Different types share different amounts. And archetypes such as the nurturer, there is slow and emotional, will tend to share everything and admit every single mistake. While a Dominant who is fast and logical where we've met nothing. So the idea here is somewhere in the middle, but slightly tilted towards emotion. Because if you share nothing in here too defensive, people just want to review. You pretend that you feel nothing and make no mistakes, but nobody is actually going to buy that. On the other hand, if you share too much, you'll seem weak or needy, or even a questionable either in the face of others. Naturally, this balance is never easy. But a quick question that you can ask yourself is, for any specific given situation, will sharing this make me seem more or less powerful in on top of that. In some cases, it's even a matter of perception. Maybe you share too much and you may seem weak, but you just have so much confidence in so much self-belief that you'll look others in the eyes and you convince them you're not being weak, you're being honest. It's always about asking yourself. We'll sharing this make me seem more powerful. But can I also frame it in a way that makes me more powerful? What are some examples of transparency? The first is saying, I made a mistake. Top-performing leaders have absolutely no problem in confessing. What did it wrong? Because they've made their peace with it. And they know it's not a problem. There is no insecurity. They want to do better, but they're not going to guilt themselves, saw themselves now. Then empathy. In situations where a project fails or something bad happens, everybody is going to feel bad, but nobody has the capacity to be the first to say it. So asking, Hey, there's this feel bad, doesn't it? Is something that a great reader would do, acknowledging the hip and then moving forward. Finally, taking the hips. Transparent leaders are the type that don't get hung up on specific things that occur. They take the head and keep moving forward right away. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that transparency is power. Low performers are usually defensive. Wall. Top performers are usually open and have no problem accepting their flaws and emotions. So by being transparent, you signal being a top performer subconsciously, whether you actually are one or not, then you can be transparent about multiple things. Your emotions and your flaws, however, are the two most common types. In finally, there are multiple factors here that define how transparent you will be, the culture of the company that you're in, your own personality type. And others. Just remember, you don't need an extreme and you shouldn't. A small amount of added vulnerability is enough to make you more present. So as we see, transparency is important for pretzels. You want to share a personal part of you. It may be emotions, it may be false. But by doing this, you step out of being artificial or too stiff. You become more human and therefore you become a present. 6. Pillar #5: Harmony: Let's talk about harmony. Harmony is all about congruence in your body, the outside and the inside act in the same way. What you want to have is you want to have that sensation that things just align. You don't want to seem too stiff or weird or analyzed. Let's take a look at how harmony can increase your brother's harmony, which in this case, we can also call congruence, is a simple aspect of presence. It means that all parts of you are alive, both internally and externally. In short, when you're not finding yourself internally or have obstacles, you are free to express yourself. For example, the state of quote unquote flow when you're just doing things in, don't even realize that time is passing is a perfect example of harmony. There are no obstacles and things just 12, That's harmony in action. To illustrate this, let me illustrate the opposite. Imagine someone who's lying in their body language is just all over the place. It doesn't match what they're saying. Maybe they can't walk you in the eye, or they're rushing their words or their rambling to try to convince you or in any other shape. But the outside just doesn't match the inside. The sub communication doesn't match the communication. In that case, there is no harmony at all. There is an inner battle being fought at some level in what you want is the opposite. Now, unsurprisingly, harmony itself can be manifested in multiple forums and they are all equally important. The first is comfort and familiarity. Being completely at ease. Even when speaking with strangers are in different settings or other conditions, you are not usually used to. Comfort is easy to create in specific contexts. For example, speak 50 times for the same crowd. And you'll be more comfortable with a crowd. But in more general terms, it's about acceptance. Every time there is a new experience and accepting it, even if it is and predictable and different. This will make your harmonious in all types of conditions. Then acceptance and non-resistance. A good segue to the previous point. This is about not resisting events or fighting negative circumstances. And deciding to just go. The mental resistance around something is precisely what prevents harmony and creates obstacles. Then encapsulating. This means isolating the different aspects of your life to not let the mass with each other. Not being worried about work problems during a presentation or with personal problems during work or any other variation. It's about not being in your mind or cognitively taxed when presenting. It's giving yourself permission to let go during the duration of this presentation in setting preoccupations aside so that you are free to say what you need. In specific, in my communications coaching, I've noticed that obstacles to harmony can usually be grouped into three major layers of factors that affect harmony for executives and senior leaders. External, shallow, internal, shallow and internal deep. External, shallow factors are things such as being uncomfortable in your current clothing, being under slept, sitting in an awkward position, being bothered by an irritating sound, and so on. There are external and related to your body or the environment. And usually small things. Internal shower factors or the equivalent in your mind. Small mental things. Being irritated at someone, being anxious with a small money matter, anticipating a small negative event, and so on. Small things in your mind. In finally, there are internal deep factors. These are deep questions that affect all of your communication work and possibly everything else that you do in life. These are questions such as, do you believe in yourself? Is this career track the one that you really want? And whether you actually like the people that you work with. These are things that are more long-term, but they can really impact your belief, your confidence in everything about your communication. What are some examples of harmony? The first is the role of sleep and exercise. Although they will be considered physical shallow in this category, because they are a minor in physical enroll. They are not to be discounted. Lack of sleep or lack of exercise is enough to make even the best speaker awkward than harmony is binary. This is a specific type of principle that either you have or you don't. The other ones are sliding scale, but this one is a light switch. You either have it or you don't. If you are 99 per cent harmonious, that means that you're not there are still some kind of obstacle. You have to remove all roadblocks to have full Armani. Then harmony gets better with experience. As with many aspects, harmony gets better with time and experience. It's much easier to be comfortable with a crowd that you know, then with strangers or unfamiliar building. In the longer term, you just get more experienced and not letting things stop you in life as well. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that harmony simply consists of having all parts aligned. The internals, the haptics, and the kinetics. How you think, how you gesture and how you move. You're comfortable, you're relaxed, and you're not finding yourself, then there can be both physical and mental roadblocks. Any of these can cause lack of harmony and you have to handle both. Physical elements in particular are usually less serious, but not necessarily. In finally, there is no middle ground. And like other principles, harmony is binary. Either you have it or you don't want there is at least one impediment. You are not harmonious yet. So as we see, harmony is about congruence between the internal and external part of yourself. You don't feel like any part of you is finding you actively. Everything is aligned in, everything is in flow. 7. Pillar #6: Grace Under Fire: Let's talk about grace and their fire reason. Their fire, as the name says, is about not reacting when you're swept in the face or attack or insulted in any way, you don't show any reaction at all. This makes you stronger and therefore more present. Let's take a look. It's easy to seem confident and the sizeof, when there is no opposition in things are easy. But here's the thing. Your actual reaction to serious opposition, to objections in hard circumstances count more. In this is reflected in the principle of grace and their fire, which is especially important for executives. In short, grace under fire means being calm when others attack. It's not about the initiative that should take. It's about how you react to weather's attacking you or trying to stop you. You have to be the type of person that keeps their cool when you take a punch in the face. That shows no reaction. Because look, we all have a tendency to become quote unquote, effective. When we get a reality check, we feel wounded. Someone tells us that we're not getting that position or that promotion or that salary adjustment. And we walk around like a wounded animal, at least metaphorically, you can see that the person is effective and they're not normal. So the goal here is the opposite, to seem indifferent in desensitized to those events so that they don't even a factual anymore, as they say, never let them see you sweat. There are two initiatives that you can take here at the same time to increase your capacity to perform under pressure. And you can work on either or both. The first is desensitizing the good old rule is that the more you face something, the more comfortable you become with it. So, for example, the best way to be comfortable with being criticized and doubted is to be criticized and doubter more often. Or the best way to lose stage fright is to be onstage more often. And so on. The more that you are exposed to something, the easier it becomes to deal with. The second example, which I really like is to make it a personal rule to learn, to force yourself to remain cool when emotion is in the way. And to learn to keep your demons and check. In short, you don't allow yourself to freak out. Having a rule such as, no matter what happens, are, always remain calm. And you will be at blindly as if it is a core rule. You literally talk to yourself and you tell yourself, I don't allow you to freak out naturally. This only works if you really believe it, but if you do, it can be immensely powerful. It's a prohibition. You're telling yourself that you can do whatever you want, but you cannot panic. So we've mentioned general long-term form of being centered in still under pressure. Naturally, working on experiences, confidence, etc., is good in the long term. But taking care of your physical reactions in the moment is also important. You want to make sure that during a presentation or dark or communication, you don't fall into traps such as first fidgeting or rushing things, or maybe being query anxious or distractive. For example, with things such as your cell phone or email. Because the truth is, although long term grace under fire is important. So people realize that in general, you have presence. In some cases, you're in the moment reaction is everything, especially with politicians or high-profile people, where someone can over-analyze one single reaction and just talk about it for weeks or months. So you want to have a perspective that we're being sober and calm regardless of what happens. Even accepting in graceful, having your game face on is the Stoics would say, remember, if you don't react, you only have the problem in front of you. But if you have a negative reaction, now you have two problems, both the problem and your reaction. What are some examples here? The first, our boardroom stabbings executives are some of the most experienced people in terms of Greece under fire. They are stab in the back by many people, in many cases in the front. And they have to just react with a smile, keep the quorum, and keep going. Another example is sheer force of belief. Many executive clients of mine force themselves to stay calm by simply forcing themselves to believe that it's the best way and not allowing themselves to do anything else. Remember, emotion gets you nowhere. In finally, remember, only the outside counts. As with many things in life, it only matters what your show. You may be the most anxious person in this moment, but if it doesn't show, then ultimately it doesn't matter. You're not forbidden from panicking or freaking out in the inside. You're just forbidden from showing it. What are our key takeaways here? First, it's all about not reacting to others. Grace under fire can be described, is not reacting to the attacks and intensive others. Simply objective, we acknowledging them and moving on, then experience and we'll both manner. You can achieve grace under fire by both experiencing adverse circumstances more often, or just by forcing yourself to not react when something does occur. In both are valid. In finally, both the short-term and long-term situations matter. The goal is not to be the type of person that reacts either in the long term, but also right here and now, they're negative conditions. So as we see, race and the fire is simply about not reacting, you can cultivate more grace under fire, but just experiencing more suffering. Or by willing yourself to not react under any circumstance. 8. Pillar #7: Rigidity: Let's talk about rigidity. As the name says, rigidity is about being rigid, about solving demanding, for example, to be called a certain way, we're only being available at certain times or any other area of life. Being rigid makes you more memorable, which makes you more present. Let's take a look. Rigidity. Put simply means tolerating only a few specific things from other people. In a way, the more things that you are open to them, less power and presence that you have. The more specific in even the more extravagant or weird which wire, the more presence you have. There are three main manifestations of rigidity. The first are specific rules. In short, having specific rules in terms of how others engage with you. Maybe are the type of person that only takes calls between ten AM and two PM or that only attends a meeting if they have a written request for that never compromises their principles for political favors, or that has specific dietary restrictions or the weeds. All of these make you more specific in almost more customized as a human being. Another point which could be considered a variation of the previous is having high standards. And by this, I mean demanding a lot from others, but also yourself, demanding a lot in terms of actions or behaviors or results. And this is also manifested in other principles such as adverse transparency, which is having high standards in terms of the truth, regardless of who benefits without. In finally, another manifestation of rigidity is personal boundaries. In short, it's telling people to their face on sorry, but I don't accept this or I'm sorry, but I'm not going to do this. So it's about not being a pushover and being very queer about what you don't tolerate. Having high standards and specific rules. If you think about it, both comes down to the same principle, which is that you don't just accept anything and you have very specific ways of waiving we're working or being. In fact, these are the types of people that others may call, quote, unquote high maintenance. They were pretty demanding. And that's the opposite of being very accepting of anything from anyone. Remember, there is no right answer as a human being, I'm just talking about presence. If you're the type of person that has a very strict code of conduct, and it tolerates only a few things. You're not better or worse than others, but you are going to be a lot more memorable and respective. That's for sure. Also take into account that the more specific you are about what you accept from others and yourself as well, the more polarizing you become. Because look, when you have strict demands, not everybody is going to accept them. Some people will be immediately repelled. And that's fine. Because the other ones that accept them become much more loyal. Imagine someone in a company that is extremely rigid, that says, Please send the documents in this format only our won't accept anything else. Well, some people dislike this absolutely. In talk trash behind their back. Sure. But the people that are accepted are going to be completely loyal and completely align with this person in when they walk into a room, yeah, everybody is going to notice the presence. Maybe because they hate them or maybe because they love them, but they are not going to ignore them. This type of rigidity is literally at persuasion principle. By being more rigid, you exclude some people, but you further qualify the others that do accept those demands. In terms of personal boundaries, being able to stand up for yourself in politely defend yourself. Something that is important in social situations, short, but also in the social component of work. For example, defending an argument, convincing someone skeptic, not tolerating unethical behavior, and so on. In executive presence. This is known as the capacity to show TIF. Just like an animal. You don't sound what we accept someone's negative behavior. The moment that they cross a boundary, show that there's going to be a problem if they insist urine need to be very aggressive. Though. You want to think of the concept of suppressing fire. For example, in the military. You just want to defend yourself in the same proportion in return, but not actively attack anyone. So whatever someone froze Acho you for the same thing in the opposite direction, which we don't actively do anything. And here's the thing. Consolidating a trade, such as enforcing personal boundaries, can be a bumpy ride. So you do need to experiment with it. Everyone goes through a journey. There will be times where you could have defended yourself, but you didn't. And there will be times where you defend yourself to violently and you didn't need to. So you want to learn to strike a balance here. In terms of drawing boundaries. You want to clarify. What are the most important things for you when defending yourself? Because the fact is you will face opposition on dozens or even hundreds of ideas or initiatives or just personal elements. For example, not wanting to go to the same place for dinner or having the vacation idea that your spouse doesn't like, or the retail clerk creating a problem for you, not accepting a discount that they promised, or hundreds of variations in hundreds of situations. So your rule of thumb should be to establish which are the most important elements for you and defend only those. For example, let's say that innovation is critical to your company survival. You may draw a boundary on that. And that alone. If someone challenges you on a personal issue, for example, you might pass. But if someone underestimates the importance of innovation, you wrote alive, That's one option. It's also a matter of being taken seriously, especially if you're the type of person that frequently resorts to humor or you care about those two match, then people may think that you're a pushover and you need to correct that assumption. You want to convey the idea that you're not to be screwed with. Otherwise, There's going to be consequences out of curiosity. This is also very important in abusive cultures at work. You want to draw the line in, stop whatever type of behavior it is immediately or the person will continue it. The longer than it takes for you to draw the boundary, the more that the person will think they're true, just consent it. What are some examples of rigidity? The first is being the weird person at work. Sometimes someone labels somebody else is weird because they have specific hobbies. And unfortunately, that's a type of destructive label that can spread like wildfire and really compromise the person. But in reality, it's also a good sign that the person is different and will be more present. So when you have someone, it's an introvert or a nerve, and they actually become a speaker or start to communicate more openly. They are some of the most unique people possible. Then we have the concept of honorable. Rigid people are usually very strict and they focus on honor or hard work or respect or others. People that are less attached to ideals are usually less present and less rigid. You don't need to take this to an extreme and BSL Act. But just having strict ideals makes you more present. In finally, drawing a boundary is as simple as saying, I'm sorry, but this is not for me, although few people do it. Drawing boundaries on others makes you stronger in someone who is taken more seriously and people will not ignore you or underestimates you later. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that rigidity works by performing specific activities in tolerating specific activities from others. That's it. It's almost as if your behavior is just customize. Then idiosyncrasies or unique traits and behaviors are something that makes you more present. You may be the cat lady or the 80s cinema addict, or any other variation at work in all of these contribute to making you more memorable. In finally, boundaries, manner. Personal boundaries are one of the highest manifestations of rigidity. If you don't force someone to stop, then you are a pushover and less present. So as we see, rigidity contributes a lot to presence. You can be rigid in many areas of life from the hour that you choose to have lunch yet or drawing personal boundaries on others. But all of these are going to make you more present because you are more unique in more memorable. And people may think that you just quirky or even demanding. But in either of those cases, you are going to be more present. 9. Pillar #7: Intellectual Honesty: Let's cover intellectual honesty. This is definitely a big component of presence, and it's all about holding people accountable to the truth and the facts. Even if you have to be a little bit unpleasant in order to do it. But notice, intellectual honesty is about calling out to other people but yourself as well. What's the clock? One of the elements that most conveys presence is the capacity to keep intellectual honesty in the face of pressure or temptation. In other words, do you stick to your principles when you face opposition? And especially from powerful people such as superiors, it's almost a personal boundary on the truth. Do you enforce it or not? In any position? There is always a tension between being agreeable and being honest. And the answer is not always obvious. On one extreme, you have radical honesty, which is about sticking 100 per cent to the facts and never sugar coating anything. But this can be extremely disagreeable. Like some European cultures where you literally tell someone You look like crap or you are very competent at this. We're very true, but not very agreeable. In on the other hand, you have people who have the 0 backbone and they switch their opinion, sometimes even in real time, based on the influence of others. So what you wanna do is you want to have a backbone which you do want to sugarcoat things sometimes, in other words, you want to be slightly tilted towards being more honest and less agreeable. That makes you present naturally. Being on the extreme of being radically honest will also make you radically present. If you tell people to their face that they sack or they're corrupt or they're boring, you will be present. But usually that's not what we aim for, right? We don't want to maximize presence. Even if you ruin our relationships. We just want you to be a little bit more present in there for a little bit more honest and less agreeable. Your goal here is to be the type of person that has a reputation for sticking to the truth. In the face of pressure. You don't have to be aggressive, you just have to hold your ground. You will tolerate query twists of facts or the truth due to politics or emotion. A way to describe it would be that you're not expected to convert other people, but you are expected to at least the finger point. This is especially important in the beginning of any professional position or any relationship. It's shifting from that agree with everything phase where you're very plastic and very fake to the welds get real phase where you can really speak honestly with someone, even if you challenge them or disappoint them a little bit. So we've covered personal boundaries in the past, what you tolerate, and what you don't. And as we stated, intellectual honesty can almost be considered a personal boundary about defending the truth. In short, when someone wants to abuse the truth, do you hold them accountable? Or do you just cave? Something which will make you much more trusted and respected in terms of intellectual honesty is using it on yourself. In other words, you stick to the truth even when the person that you have to call out is yourself. As we mentioned, this is the concept of adversary transparency. In short, volunteering information against you that you didn't need to, which improves your trust and likability because it gives off that feeling that you really are committed to the truth and not to offend anyone politically, not even yourself. Your perspective should be one of, I will call anybody out publicly if they're being the original and if they don't obey the truth, even if that someone is myself. This may mean if meeting that you are wrong or saying that you could have done something better, or even admitting that someone else may be better than you and a better choice for something. This will make people go from thinking this person is being this way with me, to thinking this person is being this way with everyone including themselves. It makes it less personal because they realize that you're not doing this based on emotion or likes. You're doing it based on the truth, regardless of the person. What are some examples of intellectual honesty? The first is emitting. I'm not good at X and secure. People tried to pretend that they're good at everything. But people who are confident in believing themselves, on the other hand, are free to admit what they're bad at. They are the first ones to say, I only know how to do these things, but I do them very well. Marketing experts, their account burn has a quote that I love where he says, I'm ninety-nine percent useless, but in those one per cent, I am dangerous. Another example is simply saying that's wrong when someone makes a mistake. This statement seems so simple, but it's so hard to adder in practice, especially if it's at work where the superior, almost nobody does it. Unusually, this is one of the defining factors. In a healthy company culture. The top performing companies not only allow employees to criticize superiors, but they demanded superiors in a healthy company. Just hate when their subordinates agree just to be a yes person. But in toxic cultures, that's what they expect. Criticism does not occur under any circumstance. And finally, another example is that saying the truth becomes harder, the higher that you're quiet on the corporate ladder, the higher you are in terms of position, the more yes people you have around you. In the last honest criticism, you will encounter. Ceos in particular have almost 0 honest feedback because everybody's putting up a show in some way or another. The twist facts, they don't want to be fired. They don't want to challenge the CEO. And the few people that say the truth are absolutely loved by executives. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that there is always a balance between being transparent and being present in neutral need extreme transparency. There will be very uncomfortable for everyone. You just need to be slightly tilted towards transparency. A little bit less likable in more honest, makes you more present. The second is that intellectual honesty is powerful because it passes on the impression of always defending the truth. You stick to the facts, whether it's for you or against you. In finally, adversary transparency is the name given to being honest about things that are not helpful to you and they didn't need to share, but that you decided to share. Anyway, this not only makes you more present, but also more credible and objective in the eyes of other people. So as we see, there's always a spectrum between being polite and not telling people the truth to their face or telling the truth in being a little bit unpleasant in intellectual honesty is about sliding a little bit towards that end of the spectrum. You are going to be a little bit less pleasant, but in return, you are going to be a lot more present because people know that you stand for the truth and that you don't tolerate anything else. 10. Pillar #9 Tension/Selectiveness: Let's talk about tension and selectiveness. The more tension that you create, the more present that you are as a communicator. For example, just adopting a more serious tone of voice and speaking slowly and with less words makes you create more tension. For example, if I say, Hey, I'm here today to talk about tension immediately, you can see the tension that I'm creating, intense eye contact. Few words and powerful words. There are many ways to greet tangent and you don't actually need to be intimidating, but it's turning up a little bit will definitely make you more present. Let's take a look. There are two twin principles that contribute to presence, which are tension and selectiveness. In a way they are about not taking things easy, being serious, being the person that speaks a little and there's a little. But that doesn't says the precise right things. There are few actions or words are very selective and this makes you more present. There are three main manifestations of this. The first is in-person in Tennessee. In towns, eye contact, direct tonality, holding awkward silences, and more. Being intense as a person. Not necessarily intimidating, but holding your ground, being a force of nature. After that, can selectiveness and minimalism. This means not doing a lot or speaking a lot, just focusing on a few key things and doing those rights. Few tasks at work, a few words, fewer interactions, and so on. If you think about it, people who have less value or dressed in themselves alas, just to ramble on dry dozens of things and never commit to anything. It's almost like they're constantly trying to prove themselves and nothing is ever enough. This is the opposite. Sync only a few words, but surgically selective, doing only few things, but doing them well. You need to do more because you don't need to convince. After that comes silence and cadence. This is specifically for interactions. Knowing how to say a few things, but making those specific things very engaging. By both leveraging silence and creating rhythm. You can emphasize a word by talking about it for ten minutes. For example, if I wanted to say that sub communication is important, I can say, so communication is important. It does this, it does that. It's also this. It's also about a lot of people use it. But as you see, I'm trying too hard. I'm rushing. Or I can use just one statement and say, sub communication is important. I use silence in our US emphasis to convey the same exact idea and with a lot less words. Or it can even use the tonality. I can say sub communication is important or sub communication is important. So there are several variations by leveraging, pauses, a few words, and the rhythm. In a way, if you think about it, all of these elements are subconscious behaviors of powerful and high-status people. Because the walk, when your time is scars and you're not bound by status, you don't need to impress, you don't need to convince. Then you will automatically, among other things, first of all, never tried to please anyone speaking freeway. Then never have to speak too much because you don't have to convince anybody. Rambling on comes from believing that you haven't convinced the person yet. So you have to do more. If you never need to do more, You never ramble. And finally, never having to do too much or speak to match because you don't have to prove yourself. You only say or do what you really mean because you trust that it has value. You don't need the person's validation. So you will become minimalistic by nature, deciding to only say and do the essential things that you want and nothing else besides those, because honestly, you don't need it. What are some examples here? The first are in town stairs. The most aggressive and confident people can hold eye contact for long periods, which is a type of tension. But the secret here is that you don't need status. Anyone confident enough to do it can hold eye contact. You don't need status, you just need to believe in yourself. Then the absolute rule. You may wonder why it is that aggressive and unpleasant people get so many second chances in life. In many cases, it's because others can't hold the tension in the cave when there is a confrontation. So by using tension and being selective, a lot of people that don't have value pretend to have value and they push forward. Finally, the example of frame battles. A frame metal means that between two people in an interaction, each one is afraid, their view of the world, and the person that is more intense in beliefs in themselves more imposes their frame on the other. Think of a buyer and a seller. The seller has a frame of, I'm helping you and you need me. The buyer has a frame of your bothering me. You're trying too hard. And the one of these two, that is the most intense where we impose their frame on the other. Tension in selectiveness help you when framed battles. What are our key takeaways here? The first is that tension and selectiveness both contribute to presence. You can be intense and hold attention. Or you can be selective in how you speak and act. Both are related and contribute to presence. Then it's all about power. Both tension and selectiveness are about having power. You're taking run the behaviors that someone of high status in real time would embody. And finally, in many ways, these principles embody minimalism. You only say or do the minimum possible because you don't need to do or say more in you went the other side, fill in the gaps. So as we see, both tension and selectiveness make you more present. Tension is all about holding tension in the air, not killing the tension, not doing something to make others comfortable, being comfortable in the middle of that tension. While selectiveness is about doing less things in seeing less veins, but we have more meaning. Both of these communicate that you have power, even if you don't have power. This type of cell communication or behavior is the behavior of someone who has power, and therefore, you appear to be more present. 11. Conclusion: We are now at the end of the executive presence course. Let's take a moment just to cover all the topics, the nine dimensions of executive presence that we've covered so far. We are now at the end of the executive presence scores. Our major goal here was to illustrate the core principles of executive presence in specific, how elements such as being more rigid in more specific in terms of your actions make you more present. How not reacting to weather's as well is having harmony above your insight and you're outside, both contribute to presence. How transparency or vulnerability in terms of your emotions and even your floss makes you more present and powerful and not the opposite. Or how elements such as having a clear vision, clear standards, and, or standing out from other people, also help. To achieve this. We covered nine key principles of presence. The first was initiative. How taking action, especially unique action in especially when others don't make you more present. Then appearance. How your actual image counts. In terms of making you more present. Not just your clothing, but your credentials and your reactions to people of high-status. Then savings envision how standing out helps you be more present, and how having a clear vision contributes as well. Then transparency. How being open about your flaws, what you feel in other aspects contributes to making you more authentic than harmony. How aligning both your inner and outer components makes you flow more in sound, less artificial. Then grace under fire. Not reacting to other people's attacks or just negative situations makes you more present after that rigidity. Y being more rigid and specific in terms of your standards, URI, the man's personal boundaries, makes you seem stronger and more memorable than intellectual honesty. How sticking to the truth, whether it's for you or against you, makes you more credible and more present. And finally, tension and selectiveness. How being selective and minimalistic and how you act and what you do in holding the tension makes you seem more powerful and more high-status. With this, we close the executive presence course. Thank you so much for watching. And with this, we reach the end of the executive presence course. I really hope that this course is going to help you take your communication or persuasion to the next level. And definitely be a communicator who commands attention, who commands respect, and who is more present. Thank you so much for watching.