Character Animation Basics: Combining Techniques in Adobe After Effects, Animate, and Photoshop | Gui Jorge Porto | Skillshare

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Character Animation Basics: Combining Techniques in Adobe After Effects, Animate, and Photoshop

teacher avatar Gui Jorge Porto, Designer and Animator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      The Final Project


    • 3.

      The Physics of a Bouncing Ball


    • 4.

      Introducing the Adobe After Effects


    • 5.

      Animating in Adobe After Effects


    • 6.

      The Graph Editor


    • 7.

      Animating the bouncing ball


    • 8.

      Character design


    • 9.

      Bouncing ball reference Part 1


    • 10.

      Bouncing ball reference Part 2


    • 11.

      Introducing Adobe Animate


    • 12.

      Animating frame by frame


    • 13.

      Animating in Adobe Photoshop


    • 14.

      Clean up


    • 15.

      Final composition


    • 16.

      Thank You!


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About This Class

In this course, you will learn how to animate a bouncing ball in After Effects and utilize it as a reference for crafting frame-by-frame character animations. My goal is to showcase how different software and techniques can be employed to create captivating animations, harnessing the strengths of each program.

Throughout the course, we will delve into Adobe After Effects, Adobe Animate, and Adobe Photoshop. By doing so, you will not only grasp the basics of each software but also learn to transition between them, opening up a world of possibilities in animation.

This course is designed for beginners as well as Motion Designers who wish to incorporate frame-by-frame animation into their workflow. Along the way, we will explore vital animation concepts such as timing and spacing, while also demystifying the Graph Editors in After Effects.

By the end of this course, you will unlock a realm of endless possibilities. It will also be a great gateway to the enchanting world of frame-by-frame animation. Join me on this journey, where you will acquire the skills to effortlessly navigate between these three programs, resulting in an efficient and enjoyable creative process.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Gui Jorge Porto

Designer and Animator



My name is Gui Jorge and I am a Motion Designer and Illustrator from Brazil!

I currently work and live in the UK and have more than 7 years of experience as a Designer and Animator.

I have already worked full-time and as a freelancer and in this journey I discovered the wonderful world of frame-by-frame animation. I fell in love and decided to specialize and focus my studies on it. As the best way to learn is to teach, here I am at Skillshare to share a little bit of my knowledge.

Follow me on Instagram @guijooorge and say hello!

Thank you so much for being here!



Meu nome é Gui Jorge e eu sou Motion Designer e Ilustrador de Belo Horizonte!

Hoje eu trabalho num estúdio no Reino Uni... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: The bouncing ball is one of the first animations a beginner should learn, and can also work as a starting point of way more complex animation. Hey, my name is Gui Jorge, and I'm a Brazilian motion designer and animator, and I work here at MediaNerd in the UK. I have been working as a motion designer for at least five years now. As a generalist, I have always used different softwares and techniques to support my projects, but working with frame by frame gives me zero limits on what I can do, and that's why I love it so much. In this class we are going to create the perfect bouncing ball animation in Adobe After Effects and use it as a base to create a character animation, frame by frame, we use Adobe Animate and Adobe Photoshop. In Adobe After Effects, you'll learn how to use the Graph Editor, which is the most important tool to control your animation and create a perfect bouncing ball. After that, I want to show you my approach to create the design of the characters we will animate, and you can create your own using the same method. When we have the basic shape of the character bouncing, we will go to Adobe Animate to create the run cycle frame by frame. We'll do the clean-up using Adobe Photoshop to give your animation a hand-drawing final loop. So you'll also learn how to work with animation using Adobe Photoshop. At the very end, we will go back to After Effects to make the final composition and export our final project. This class is perfect for beginners or even more experienced motion designers that want to start adding frame by frame to their pipelines, especially to animate characters. You'll understand the process that uses many different softwares to create a very cool animation. I'm super excited to see what you guys are going to create, so let's go. 2. The Final Project: Welcome to my first class in Skillshare. The final project of this class is interesting because we will cover many skills and techniques a good animator should have. Starting with the bouncing ball, that is the perfect exercise to understand the two main fundamentals of animation, timing and spacing. Of course, as we are doing it in Adobe After Effects, it's a very good opportunity to understand how the graph editor works. If you don't know what the graph editor is, don't worry, we will cover that. Bouncing balls are also very present in character animation, even if you don't notice at first. Actually, when we walk or run, for example some parts of our body, for example our hips, they do move similar to a bouncing ball. That's why we are using it as a base to animate character. Here's the plan. First, we will learn what makes a convincing bouncing ball. Then we will design a character and animate it's basic shapes bouncing. Using Adobe Animate, we will do the run cycle frame-by-frame using the bouncing ball as a reference. Adobe Photoshop, will be used to do the cleanup, which is the process of finalizing the frames of our animation. To do that, then you need three softwares, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Animate, and Adobe Photoshop. It is also important to have a tablets, especially when we're doing the frame-by-frame part of this course. That's it guys. There is so much to cover, so let's start. 3. The Physics of a Bouncing Ball : Welcome to this class guys, and let's start talking about some theories from our very good friend, Isaac Newton. It's important to understand physics. So when we see something wrong in our animation, we can guess why. Check it out. This is a basic bouncing ball. Now we are going to see every frame of this animation. When the ball is falling, the gravity is pulling it downwards. That makes the speed increase when it's falling. As the ball is getting faster, the distance between the balls throughout the frames is getting bigger. Of course when the ball is going up, the opposite occurs. The frames are getting closer and closer to each other. That happens because the acceleration aka gravity is pulling the ball in the opposite way of its movement. The bouncing ball is so important in animation because it helps us understand very well the two most fundamental concepts in animation which are time and space. Basically, time is about how long the ball takes to bounce. In this case, the ball takes one second to go from the top bounce and to get to its original position. Spacing is about the distance between each drawing from one frame to the next. No matter the technique you use, this is always the role of an animator, to manage timing and spacing to create the movement he needs. There are some details you can add to make your bouncing ball more convincing, and it gives us the chance to talk about an important principle of animation, squash and stretch. Squash and stretch are these deformations of the ball that makes the movement way cooler. When the ball gains speed, it stretches. When the ball touches the ground, it squashes. Is very important though to keep the same mass. It is nice to notice that the most stretches moment is right before the ball touches the ground, and when it does it goes straight to the most squashed pose. This very fast change of shape is what gives impact and weight to this animation. Now that you understand what a bouncing ball should look like, we are ready to animate it. We will do it using Adobe After Effects. 4. Introducing the Adobe After Effects: The Adobe After Effects can seem a bit scary when you open it in the first time, but everything becomes easier when you understand the basics. Welcome to After Effects. This is what you see when you open it. Just to make sure the layout I see is the same you do. Let's come to Windows, Workspace and check if you are in default mode. To make sure you can even click in Reset default to saved layout. You will see the same screen I'm seeing now. The first thing to do usually is to create a composition. The composition is your Canvas, where the animation will take place. You can create a new composition in three different ways. Clicking here in this big button, this is more one in here or going to new composition. Are you clicking the new composition? Here you can rename your composition. I will write composition Class 4. Here I can choose the size of the composition. You have some presets here, but 1920 by 1080, is that the full HD size, which I use for most of my animations. The frame rate is very important. This is how many frames per second animation is going to have. The most common frame rates in animation is 24. Here you have the duration of the composition. We will create a five seconds composition. The background color could remain as it is gray. Now let's hit Okay, now I'm going to show you how to navigate in your composition. You can zoom in and out, rolling your mouse wheel, or pressing Command or Control and Plus or Minus. My favorite way to navigate is holding space bar, clicking and dragging. This way you can move your art board. Let me show you now some of the main tools. The first one, shortcut V, is the selection tool to select and move the object. The hand and the magnifying glass are alternative ways to move and zoom in and out, but I always prefer the shortcut I used before. Now, let's see how we can draw and create shapes. If I click and hold on buttons that have this small triangle at the bottom it will reveal more options. Those are the shapes I could draw rectangle, rounded edges to the rectangles, ellipses, polygons, and stars. Let's select ellipsis, click and drag to draw. If you hold Shift, you draw a perfect circle. If you select Shift and command, you create the perfect circle from the center. If you only select command you create from this center, but without locking the proportions. Let's create a perfect circle then. Now with Selection Tool, I can select and move the position. Here I can change the fill color and here the stroke color. This is the width of my stroke in points. Clicking and dragging is a nice way to make it increase or decrease. Let's change my fill color and the stroke color too. Clicking on the word fill I can remove any fill or create a gradient. The same works for the stroke. Let's leave like it is for now. You should have noticed that since I draw any shapes on my Canvas, a new layer here is created. The zero is my timeline. I can select my shape by clicking here, by pressing Enter key, I can rename it. Let's write circle 01, click outside. Now my circle has a proper name. I can also change the color of my layer, clicking here, this is very important to organize my project, especially when we had many layers. Here's my projects tab, every asset that I use are important to After Effects will be here, videos, audios, images, everything. We can also see our composition here. The one we have just created is already there. I can also create folders clicking in here. I can rename Folder 1 and now I can click and drag and organize the project. If I select something and click on the trash, I will delete whatever is selected. Now, let's focus on the timeline. This is very important to understand how the timeline works. If I click and drag this needle, I can navigate through my animation. Of course there's no animation here yet. We need to understand this number here, which is the time my needle is at the moment and the number displayed here is in this order; hour, minutes, seconds, and frames. If I drag my needle slowly, I can see the numbers changing. When I get to the frame 24, I have one second as 24 is our chosen number of frames per second. It is also important to know how to navigate the timeline to your keyboard, you can type Command and arrow to the left or to the right to go one frame each time, going forward and backward. If instead I hold Command and Shift together, and then the arrows, I will move the needles every 10 frames. Here in the right-hand side, we have some important tabs to preview is where I can play my animation, clicking play here. What I use the most here is the Mute button. Sometimes I wanted to play without sound and here I can say if I want it to loop or not. I also have here effects and presets. They are so many that I don't know and I'd never know every single one, but you have to know that you can find them here, even search by their names. Later in this course, we will have a look at some effects. Now that you are familiar with the basics of Adobe After Effects, it's time to learn how to animate in it. Let's go. 5. Animating in Adobe After Effects: Guys, now we are ready to talk about animation in After Effects. That's where the fun really starts. I already have my green circle here. I would like to show you those properties here under my layer. Inside Contents, I have my ellipsis properties, but we will talk about it later. Now I will see the options we have under Transform. We have anchor point, which is that little target in the middle of the circle. Properties like scale and rotation modify the object based on this point. You can see that if I change my scale, the size will change using the anchor point as a center. I have to use the move anchor point tool to modify it. If I hold Command or Control, the anchor point snaps to specific places. If I put the anchor point in here, the way the scale works is different. It now has the bottom as the center of the scaling. When you animate the rotation, the anchor point is even more important. How you press Command Z to go back, let's centralize my anchor point. I will hold Command for it to snap at the center. We also have position with x and y axis. You can move horizontally or vertically. At last, we have opacity that goes from 0-100%. It is nice to know the shortcut to review each parameter so you can see only the ones you want to animate. I will close everything, select my Layer and press A to anchor point, P to position, S to scale, R to rotation, and T to opacity, which actually means transparency. If I press P to reveal position, but I also want to animate scale, I will press Shift plus the shortcut of the property I want to see, which is S. Now I see position and scale. Now I will duplicate this shape pressing command D. We can see that now I have this Circle 2 here. I click and drag Circle 2 down knowing that if I hold Shift while I'm dragging, it keeps the same axis, x or y. I will select both at the same time, click and drag them here. Now I want Circle 2 to be a different color, so I will change the few clicking here and select an orange color. I will also change my layer color to keep everything organized. Now, let's animate the position. I will select both at the same time and press "P". Then I can see my positions properties. You might have noticed that all the properties have this little icon here. That means it can be animated. With both selected, let's click on this icon and you can see it's becoming blue. Now, we have this little diamond shape in my timeline. This is a keyframe. Now I can go to the time one second on my timeline. I'll select both again and click and drag holding Shift, so I will move it only horizontally. Now I would like to change my composition settings. Are you clicking composition settings? Change here from five seconds to one-second-and-a-half. One seconds and 12 frames, I'll click "Okay", and now if I go to the beginning and press the space bar, I see my animation. Remember that once you create the first keyframes, you no longer need to click in the little watch to create new keyframes. Whenever you move your object now the keyframe will be created automatically. You could also create a new keyframe by clicking this little diamond here. Great. Now I would like to select both keyframes of my circle tool and press "F9". Now we see that the little diamond change of shape. If I hit "Play", I see that the movement is different. To show you, I will select both of them and I want you to see this line that shows our ball trajectory. You see that there are small dots through out the line. Each of the dots is the position my object anchor point is going to be in at each frame of the animation. You can see it if you navigate through the timeline, pressing Command and right or left arrow. Every time you press, the anchor point is going to be in one of these dots position. In the green ball without F9 pressed, all the dots have the same distance between them. Different from the orange ball, you can see that in the beginning the dots are closer to each other, in the middle, they are far away, and in the end, they are close to each other again. What I just did, I added ease to my animation, is speeding up and slowing down. Now, the orange ball will start as low, gain speed, and slow down again in the end until it stops. The green ball has a linear movement which do not exist in nature unless it's the robot, nothing else can move like that. It is nice to say that both animations have the same timing. They both are one second long, but the spacing is different. The space is represented by the distance between the little dots. In the next class, we will talk about the graph editor. But for now, I'd like to show you how the graph looks like right now. If I click in here, I will open my graph editor. You cannot see anything because I haven't select my animation. If I select Position, I see the orange bar graph. If I select this one, you will see the green bar graph, which is very linear. This is the speed graph. We also have the value graph, but this is something to talk about in the next class. Guys, now we are going to understand better how those graph works and how to manipulate them to control the spacing of our animation. 6. The Graph Editor: We already saw how to create keyframes, but using the graph editor is the actual job of an animator. You will almost always 99% of the time edit the graph editor of your animations. Pressing F9 is almost never good enough. Let me explain that. Let's talk about the graphs. As you saw, I have to click here to reveal the graph and then select the animation I want to display. This is the speed graph of the position animation of the orange circle. The speed graph shows the change of speed through all the time. In the y-axis, I see they speed in pixels per second. The x-axis is the time, of course. So it is possible to see that in the beginning, my speed is zero, then its increases and goes to zero again at the end. In the other hand, if I click on the green circle, the speed is linear, never changes. So they both suddenly starts to move and suddenly stops are very unnatural movement. You can compare both. Now, let's focus on the orange circle. If I select this first point, which is the first key frame like this, those handles will show up and they will help me modify the curve. So let's click and pull. Now we see that the peak of my speed increases even more if I pull the other side as well. Now, the ball starts the movement is lower, it speeds up to a higher speed and then it slowed down again, is smoothly coming to a halt. Look how the orange ball have a nicer movement now, way more natural. Now, I will add the default easy to the green ball pressing F9, so we can compare. Now you see the ball moving with the fore F9 pressed and compare with the orange that I add to the curve. I personally always pull those handles in one way or another for all my animations. The default easy for me is this to a bit robotic. Now, let's select the orange circle and I will show you the other graph after effects has. I will click this button and select the option. Added value graph. This is just a different graph that displays the same movement the other graph shows. But in this case, we can notice that we have two different lines, a green and a red one. This is because this graph shows the dimensions x and y separately. The red line is x, horizontal, and the green is y, vertical. As this ball doesn't move vertically, the green line is a straight. Only the red line changes value. But okay, what this graph actually displays. If I press Command or Control R, I will review those rules here in my art board. Here I can see the values from zero on the top left corner to the last pixel of my composition on the opposite side. The same happens on the y-axis. Those are the values this graph refers to. That means each pixels of my art board has a different value of x and y. That's what the value graph displays. The variation of the position of each axis. We can say that when the line is horizontal, the value is not changing. The more inclined the line is, the faster the values are changing. So the faster my object is moving. So looking at this line, we can see that the movement starts slowly, gains speed and it stops smoothly. Just like we saw in the other graph. The different comes now. If I try to select the keyframe like I did on the speed graph, I don't see any of those handles. To see then I either have to separate the dimensions of my position. To do that, I come in position, right-click and go to separate dimensions. Now I have two parameters, position x and position y. I will turn off the y position as we are not animating vertically. I just click in the little watch. So now I select both keyframes of x position, press F9 to have the default ease. Now I see that the curve is now similar to how it was before, but now I can see and edit my handles. I really recommend you now to play around with the curve and watch what happens in your animation. For example if I drag this handle down like this, what's happens? The orange ball will stop suddenly like if it's bumped into a wall. What if this handle goes down? So the ball goes back before going forward. That's because the line goes through values in the opposite direction of the movement. So that's nice for you to see what's happens in the animation. Trying to understand why based on the graph. Just have fun, play around and you're going to learn a lot. Knowing how to use the graph editor well is what makes a good animator. Overtime, we will also understand which graph is better for each situation. When it comes to bouncing balls, we will be using the value graph because we will focus on the y-axis. Usually value graph makes more sense to use when we have to separate the dimensions. In the next class, we will finally animate our bouncing ball. 7. Animating the bouncing ball: Now you already know the tools we are going to use to animate our bouncing ball. As you know that the ball will gain speed when falling and lose when going up, we will need to figure out what this graph will look like. The best graph to use for that is the value graph, because we are going to separate the dimensions as we will concentrate only on the y-axis. I will create a new composition, we will name it bouncing 1920 by 1080, 24 frames per second and duration of 2 seconds. Gray background is all right. New composition created, now let's make a circle. I will select the color before creating it, click and drag, hold the shift to keep the proportions, I will centralize the ball using the aligned tab on the right-hand side, we will name it ball 1 and change the layer color to green. Now I will create a black rectangle to be the floor of my animation. Now I have to lock this rectangle to avoid clicking on it by mistake. But first, let's name it, color the layer dark green and I will click in this little padlock square, so I no longer can select and move the floor. Let's drag my ball over the floor and I will press "P" to reveal my position parameter. Right-click, separate dimensions. Now we will create a keyframe only for the y-axis. Let's put the ball in the initial position, hold the shift not to decentralize it. Now I want this ball to take 12 frames to hit the floor, so on frame 12, I position my needle, I drag it like this holding shift for it not to happen until the ball touches the floor. Now when the ball goes up, it doesn't reach that same position because it has lost part of its energy. If I took 12 frames to fall, I want to take, let's see, 8 frames to go up so I will go to the frame 20, click and drag, I think this high is good. Now the ball took eight frames to go up, it will take the same eight frames to go down. If you want, you can press Command or control side arrow to write eight times frame 28. Then I drag my ball to the floor, what I can do as well is as I know, that this keyframe here is where the ball is touching the ground. I can simply copy Command C and Command V and I will have the ball in the same position. Now, I want the ball to take six frames to go up, going a little lower than before and six frames ahead, I would drag or more efficiently, I will copy and paste the keyframe which the ball is on the floor. Now I want to take only three frames for is more or less bounce goes up just a little bit. Three frames ahead, copy and paste the keyframes of the floor. If I hit "Play" by pressing space bar, the ball is moving. But it's still very robot kit and unrealistic, let's have a look at our value graph. We can see here that the position is changing in a very linear way, there is no acceleration. Let's click and drag like this to select all the keyframes in my graph and I will press F9 to use the default is. Hitting play, I can see that the ball is moving like a spring, not really what I want. Let's think, if we know the ball will be gaining speed when falling and losing when going up and we already know that in the value graph, they're more inclined the line is, the faster the ball is moving. I want to start slow having the curve more horizontal in the beginning but at this point I will being the highest speed so it have to be very inclined here. Now the curve is getting more and more steep from the beginning until this point. From this point, the ball doesn't, it slowed down. It changes directions very drastically because of the impact. In this point here the curve is horizontal that means the ball has stopped. If I hit "Play", I see now that the first bounce looks really good. Following the same logic, I will add it to the curves of the rest of the animation. Now I can hit "Play" and my bouncing ball is working nicely. Now I'm happy with it, It's interesting that as I separate the dimensions, I can now animate the x-axis without changing anything in my vertical animation. If I create a keyframe here in the beginning of my x position, I can change the number and at the end, I will move to the right. I will press F9, the last keyframe, so here's my ball bouncing and moving in the x position. I already have the arcs of the movement. Now we are going to design the character and I will prove to you that bouncing ball has everything to do with character animation. 8. Character design: Character design is a big topic, but in this class, I would like to propose a simple and fun approach to creating characters. The idea is to combine simple shapes to create something interesting. As we don't have any brief in our clients, we can create the character we want. We can even let the shape tell us what the character should be. Let me show you what I mean by that. Welcome to Adobe Photoshop. Let's name the file here Character Sketches. The size will be this, 1920 by 1080. I would like to make sure artboard is activated, color has to be RGB, and let's hit "Create". Now, let's select the brush tool. I can choose here which brush I want and the size up here. Size will be 12, hardness, 100. Let's change the color. I always like to sketch using a very light blue like that. Now we are free to draw. We can also use the eraser, shortcut E. To delete this all, I will press Command or Ctrl A to select the whole canvas, backspace to delete, and Command, or Ctrl D to turn off the selection. Now let's press B to go back to the brush and I like to draw some circles like this. I would draw a second one here. The idea is for it to be very sketchy, no perfect lines. By looking at this first combination of circles, we can already start to imagine a character from it. Imagine if we had some legs like this, arms. This could possibly be the shape of our first character. We could later add details in a very quick way. Now it's the boy wearing shorts. This is an example of what I would like us to do. We will play around with different scales of circles, combining them together and lead the shape tell us who the characters could possibly be. Have a look. How you'd say that contrast is very important to create interesting silhouettes for our characters, so it is nice to have this small and big circles combined. For example, if I draw a character with the two circles more or less the same size like this, it is way less interesting than when we have very contrasting sizes like this one. This could be a dude with cool hair. I would say that he is way nicer than this one. In this one, I have some ellipses shapes which can be used as well. In this one, I used three circles instead of two. It could become a very strong guy. No, we just need to play and see what we find. Keeping the drawing very simple, we just need to create variations in shape, contrast, and position. As my artboard is full, let me press Command or Ctrl minus to zoom out. I'd like to have another artboard. To do that, I select the move tool, shortcut V, click in the artboard 1, and click at this plus sign here. Now I can have a second artboard. We see that here in our layer tabs, I created a new group artboard 2. But to draw anything, I need to create a new layer by clicking on this little icon here. Now, with the layer selected, I can draw, I press B for the brush, position the screen by clicking and dragging holding Spacebar and let's keep drawing. I could also use this Lasso tool to select and head position my shapes. I select like this and I use my move tool to move the selection. Command or Ctrl D, I deselect. I can select a specific part as well. Selecting the move tool and pressing Command T for transformation, I can change the positions. When I have many shapes, I can start looking at them and see what each one could bring me. Let's then go to the first artboard. Create a new layer on top. Change my brush to black, and you start drawing over my favorite shapes. I have a strong guy. This could be an ET. Same thing, this other side, new layer created. This one could be a nag. I'm actually just having fun. It feels good not to have a client so I can do anything. This one, for example, is a country guy with a big belly. Now I can hide the blue layers and have a look. Here they are. Now, to make a proper drawing of my favorite guy, I will create a new artboard, create a new layer here. I think this one here is my favorite because he has this big belly and I think going to look very funny in the animation. Let me make sure this layer is selected. Copy, Command C, and place on this other layer Command V. Let's press Command T so I can scale him a little bit. Now here's my main reference. Let's create one more layer. Select the light blue again and you draw him again, very roughly. Now it's time to start the finalization. Always creating new layers for that. Now I will do a more polished drawing. It is important to pay attention to the amount of elements and details the character has. Every element, we will increase the time of the cleaning-up phase. Let's reduce the opacity of the drawing here. Create a new layer. Here I have a person of color library that I'm using to select the colors for the character. I want to select a different brush to give it a little bit of texture. I really like those dry media brushes. I will pick this one, change the size to 15. Let's make sure this black line layer with low opacity is above the layer I'm going to paint. Now I can paint and still see the lines. I always like to put different colors in different layers in case I want to change some colors. So every time I use a new color, I add a new layer. Naming the layers is also a good idea. Right-clicking, you can easily change the size of the brush in case you want to fill up bigger spaces. I really like to leave some imperfections in my drawing. This is actually the beauty of it. Now, I will create one more layer to add details. Some good tip is also to press R to rotate the canvas. It will give you a better position to draw. Here is it, our final character. Now, let's save the images as a reference for the animation. Let's change the opacity of the black line drawing. Drag it here. This one, I will delete. This other one, blue, I want to keep because it will allow me to see the basic shapes of the character. This is the image I will save now. I will go to File, Export, Export As, make sure I have selected only the artboard I want to export. I don't need any transparency. Export, select the folder, and name it Character Reference. That's it. Well, it looks like we already have a character to play with. Now we are going to take their shapes and make the bouncing ball with them. So let's go to Adobe After Effects. 9. Bouncing ball reference Part 1: Now we are taking our character design to After Effects and recreating its main shapes there. Let's see how we do that. Here we are again in After Effects. Let's create a new composition. Name it, live the size 1,920 by 1,080. Make sure the frame rate is 24. The duration I would like to be one second and one frame. One second will be the duration of one cycle of the run. That's why this is the duration of our composition. We will import the image we created as reference. I can right-click "Import" file. I find the image character reference. I can drag it to my art board. We will create some basic shapes with his body. Let me centralize this blue rough drawing here. I will block this layer by clicking this padlock, so I don't move it by accident. Instead of ellipses for the shape layer, I will select the rounded rectangle tool. I can draw and while I'm still holding the mouse, I can press up a couple of times and I will change the corners of the rectangle. It's now rounded. That's what I wanted. Let's change the color now to something like this. I will change the mode here to multiply. I can see through my shape. Of course, it doesn't need to be perfect. It is just a reference. Let's make sure we click outside the shape, so I will deselect it. Let's draw ellipses. This time I will change the color first. I will draw the belly, hold the Shift, so it's going to be a perfect circle. Finally, I will do the same to draw the head. Those are the three shapes we are animating here as referenced for the run cycle. Let's create a reference for the floor which is really important, so I will press Command R to review those rules here. Then I can click and drag from the rules to bring up a guideline. I can hide my reference image leaving only my shape layers on the screen. I will also add a background color. Let's select the rectangle, make it white and press "Okay". If I double-click the rectangle tool here, I will create a rectangle exactly the size of my composition automatically. Let's organizing name all those layers. I would like to focus first on my body, let's hide the two other layers. Press "P" to reveal my position and separate the dimensions. Let's animate the Y position. Let's drag the body here. I think this is the highest point to be. In the frame 6 it would be in the lowest point. Always having the floor as reference. I copy and paste the position I want; every six frames up and down. At one second the position needs to be the same of the frame 0, so the loopy will work. That's what we have for now. I will select everything and press "F9". Go to my Graphs, make sure I'm using the value graph and edit the curve as we saw in the previous class. We have the first shape animated, and we can already feel a little bit of the roofing of the run cycle. Let's do the same with all the other shapes. [inaudible], this is what we have. One important tip. When a character moves, not every part of his body moves together. In this case, we would like the movement of the belly to be delayed compared to the main body. In animation this is called follow-through when secondary parts of the body like the hair or tail moves in a different timing of the main body. To do that, I will select all the key-frames of the body by clicking position and I will drag then two frames ahead that create the sensation that the bell is soft and is following the body. I want to do the same with the head, so it doesn't move exactly at the same time of the body but instead of two I will drag the key-frames only one frame ahead. We can watch and see what we have. After watching it I decided to have the head a little bit higher at this point here, so it shape doesn't merge completely with the body. After editing it, I can simply copy and paste this key-frame to the other part of the animation when the head is in the same place. Brilliant 10. Bouncing ball reference Part 2: That's it, our basic movement is done. Now I just want to add the less detail which is also easier to do here in the after effects then in the frame by frame part of the project. Let me visualize again my reference because I would like to create a shape to be the hat. I will create a rectangle like this. Let's change the color to blue. With the rectangle selected, I will draw another rectangle like this. Here's the reference for my hat. Let's click on the layer and press R to review rotation. I will rotate it a little bit and position it over my reference head. Remember to name your layer and make the layer yellow. Now I want to pair my hat to my head so when the head moves, the hat goes with it. I will click at this little icon on their pairs and link and drag it to the head layer. That's it. I will hide my reference again. When I hit play, you can see that the hat follows the head. Now I need to add a little bit of movement in the hat itself. Let's press P for position and add a keyframe where the head is at the highest point. Now I press Shift R, so I can also see the rotation. At this point, I do like the hat a little higher. Here at the lowest point of the head, I would move the hat like this and rotate it a little bit like this. Now, let's copy and paste all those keyframes. To complete the loop, I will go to this time here, copy and paste the true initial keyframes and drag it one frame ahead. This is the animation we have now. Now I press F9 with all the hat keyframe selected, open my curves and in the value graph, I would like the rotation curve to be similar to that bouncing ball curve we saw before. In the position curve, as we didn't separate the dimensions, I will choose to use the speed graph instead of the value graph and do something like this. Now I want to do the same thing I did before, the laying one frame of the parameters I have animated. Let's select all the rotation keyframes and drag them one frame ahead. That makes the animation a little bit more fluid. As this blue guideline will not be rendered, I need to draw a reference to be my floor. This time, I will select the pen tool, shortcut g. I can change here the stroke width. We will make it three pixels. Stroke color can be black. Here, clicking on Fill, I can remove any fill. Now I click here, hold shift and click here. In the other side, I will select both points of the line and position it like this over my guide. Now we have the timing of the animation dawn and it looks very good. The only issue here is that we did everything in 24 frames per second. But as we will do things frame by frame in the next step, it is very advisable for us to make the animation on twos, which means a drawing every two frames. In this case, we will have 12 frames per second. It will make more sense when we go to Adobe Animate. But for now, I will just need you to know that having 12 frames per second instead of 24 means cutting half the amount of work we are going to have. As I need this animation to be actually 12 frames per second, I will add an effect to change the frame rate to my whole animation. To do that, let's right click somewhere here and select New Adjustment Layer. Adjustment layer doesn't have any shape but any effect you add to it will affect all the layers below it. Now, I will add an effect called posterize time. To do that, I will go to my effects and presets tab, type of posterize time. I can find it here and drag it to my adjustment layer. This effect allows me to change the animation frame rate. Here where I have 24, I will change now to 12. Now, when you hit Play, you can see that the animation moves a little differently. That's because now we have less frames per second. Now it's time to export the video. Let's go to File, export, add to Adobe Media Encoder Queue. It will open the Adobe Media Encoder. Let's click here to see my settings. Make sure you select H264 which will generate an MP4 video. All the rest should be fine. Here, I choose where I want the video to be saved. Press Play and done. 11. Introducing Adobe Animate: It's time for a Adobe Animate guys. Let's click in create new to create a new project. Here I have the size of my Canvas 1920 by 1080, frame rate 24. Click create. I will give you a super quick overview of this software before we animate. Here we are. First command or control plus and minus to zoom in and out. Holding space bar, I can click and drag and move the art board like this. Here we have the brush to draw. Remember that everything we draw here in the Adobe Animate will be a vector. Here I can change the size of the brush. The smoothing is also important. What's affects the lines you draw making it is moved for. Of course, I can change the brush color like this. It's interesting to notice the difference between the brush which I just used and the pencil to the one below the brush. When we draw with the pencil, you see that it has the color of the stroke, not the fill color. Obviously, I could click in here and change the color if I want. Here as well, I can change the size of the stroke. Let me delete everything to show the difference between the brush and the pencil. Here, I draw with the pencil, here I draw with the brush. If I select the white selection tool by clicking, holding this black one here, and selecting the white sub selection too, discourse or selects the point of the drawing, not the whole shape. If I click on the line created by the pencil tool, I can control every point individually. The brush is different as it draws a shape, not a stroke, it adds so many points and need to be possible to have some control over the drawing. That's why I never use the brush when I'm sketching my frame-by-frame animations, I only use the pencil. I also have the eraser to erase. I can also draw shapes like I do in after effects. Just clicking and holding and select what shape I want to draw. When I create it, I can click on a specific stroke like this to change its color. I can change the fill color. If I select everything like this, I change all strokes at once. Let's select and click delete or backspace to delete it all. Now we will talk about the animate timeline. This little square I'm seeing here is one frame of my animation. As you can see now, that I deleted everything I drew before, this little circle is empty and gray. If I draw anything, a little circle becomes black. Now, you will learn the three most important keys to work in Adobe Animate timeline, F5, F6 & F7. F5 extends the frame you have selected. If I press it many times, this is what happens. I extend the drawing I did throughout the timeline, making it less longer in my animation. If I have my needle at this point and press F6, I will create a new key frame, but the drawing will remain the same. Now, if I modify my drawing by editing the curves, I can do that by pressing V to activate my selecting to clicking and moving the lines like this. I can see that from the previous frame to the next, the drawing changes as if it were animated. At last the F7 that also creates a new key frame, but a fresh and M2,1. I like to use the shortcut dot and comma to navigate forward and backward through the timeline. It is very handy when we are animating frame by frame. To delete the frame I created, I can select them by clicking and dragging and pressing shift F5. I only kept the two first frames. Now, I will click the frame. What's makes me select the whole drawing and I press backspace or delete. Now I have an empty canvas again. That's the basics of Adobe Animate. Now let's import the videos and reference we have and installed the frame-by-frame animation. 12. Animating frame by frame: Now we will import the reference video and talk about run cycles. Now we will become seven meters. First, let's import our references. Go to File, Import, import the video, choose this third option here, click Browser, select my animation reference video, next, next, finish. Here it is. I will right-click on my layer properties. Here I can rename the layer, video reference. Remember not to use any space because animate doesn't support that. I will reduce the opacity to 25. Let's block the layer. I don't click and move it. Now, I will click here to create a new layer to import the design reference. Let's go to file, import, important to stage, and let's find and select our lovely reference. I will drag it to the side. Now, I also want to reduce the opacity the same way I did before and name it. I'd like to align his feet to the floor. Now, I will also draw a floor over this one. Let's create a new layer, double-click to name it, and with this line here, selecting the black color for the stroke, I simply click and drag to draw. If I hold Shift, it will be a straight line. Then I will press V to activate my selection tool. Click and drag to reposition it the way I want. I want to block all those shapes so I don't move them. Now, let's see how the run cycle traditionally is. Remember that our animation will be very cartoony and exaggerated. Well, here we have to think at the lowest and highest pose of the character. We have the lowest pose, which is when the character hits the ground, and the highest pose is when he's in the air without his feet on the ground. Other important pose are right before the character hits the ground, and when he stretches to get impulse. Let's start drawing the body of the character because we already have a clear reference for that. I will create a layer and name it, body. Now, I want to create my blank frame here in my timeline as we are animating on twos. I want to have a drawing for each two of those spaces here, 1, 2, and here. Pressing F6, I would like to create my new keyframe. Let's do that until the end of the timeline. This very last keyframe here will have the same drawing of the first frame. This way we complete the looping. Let's go to the first keyframe, select my pencil, choose green as the stroke color, and the stroke size, two points. Now let's draw the body over the reference. Keep an eye on my design reference here. I will leave the beard for later. That's basically what my body is like. Now, I will do the same for all the frames I created. Pressing Comma and Dot is very useful because I can quickly flick through my drawings and see how consistent they are. You don't need to worry about stretching some parts of the body like in the neck here, this will make the animation even nicer. Because in the run cycle, the body bounces twice. At this point here, we can simply copy the same frames we draw before and paste them ahead. Check it out, I can select all those frames, hold out and drag them forward like this. If I activate this looping button here, I will see this blue area here that determines what part we are going to watch when we play the animation. I can see that the looping works. If I hide my reference, this is what I have. Now, let's think about the legs. I will create a new layer for that called legs. We'll create the keyframes as I did before. Now, I want to draw the position that I find the most important. The position where the character is in the highest point right before touching the ground and the lowest point of the movement. This is how the leg would be like at the highest point of the body trajectory. Here, when it is in the lowest point, the leg will be crossing each other. To help me, I will turn on my onion skin. Onion skin is this tool here that allows us to see a couple of frames before and after the frame we are drawing on. This helps a lot when you are animating to determine how many frames ahead and behind me want to see. Use those blue and green lines here. We need to pay attention to which leg is behind. To identify that, I will make a shadow in this leg here. In this movement, this leg will be here, and this other leg, like this. Now, I will draw the frame before this one, right before the leg touches the ground. It is good to have a very stretched leg. Now that I have two frames between this empty one, the onion skin will help me a lot to draw the leg between them. I always like to have my knee as a reference. I don't want the knees to be in the middle. In this case, I would draw it slightly closer to the previous one as the movement is gaining speed. I can use the same principle for the other leg. In this case, I can even draw over the previous one and just move and rotate like this. If I watch just this part of the animation, I can see that the leg's movement is working fine. Now in this frame, the background leg is crossing the other so let's draw it like this. The belly is hiding part of the leg, but that's fine. Here's the moment when the body stretches so I want a stretched leg. Remember to pay attention which leg is in the foreground. From this moment on, the video reference is no longer very important. Now, as I know this is the highest point of the trajectory again, I know that my leg will be in a similar position to the one I had before but inverted. The leg in front is not the leg in the background and vice versa. Something like this. Here again, I will have pretty much the same pose, but we've inverted legs like this. In the frame right before this one, as we saw before, I will have a very stretched leg before hitting the ground. Again here, I can take advantage after having those two frames to draw the one in the middle, always making sure it is a bit closer to the previous frame. Now here I have the legs crossing each other again. The background leg is being covered. To draw the only frame that is missing, I want to copy the very first frame, Control or Command C, and paste it in the very last one, Control or Command Shift V to paste it in the same position we had before. Now I can see it using the onion skin and use it as a reference to draw the missing frame. I can even imagine the arc trajectory of the leg to draw the leg between them. Now, hit Play and see. This is looking good. I can now fix some details I would like to fix. The hardest part is gone. Now it's time for the arms. You need to know that the arm swing in opposite direction to the legs. Right leg is in the back, right arm is in the front, and vice versa. Creating a new layer, name it arms. This is the first position. I will press F7 here, pressing F6 every two frames. Now, I will draw the key positions of the arms when it's crossing the body and when it's in the extremes. Now I will fill the gaps using the onion skin to assist me. The drawings that are getting to the end of the trajectory have to be very close to each other for us to have a smooth movement when the arms stop. Hitting Play, this is our arms movement. Now, we are only missing the hat and some other details. Let's create again a new layer, name it details, and create the keys every two frames. Remember I can rotate my canvas by clicking this button here. As the shape of the head will not change, instead of drawing it many times, I will just press F6 to create new frames but keeping the drawing I have so I can just reposition and rotate it in every frame. It's ready. We have our animation. Some people would want to draw a more refined line over those drawings before taking it to Photoshop for the cleanup. But I prefer to go straight to Photoshop to save some times. There, we'll be able to use any brush or texture we want. That's it guys. The animation is ready, but it's a sketch for now. Now we have to redraw each frame in Adobe Photoshop. Let's export our video. Now, let's render this animation. I would delete all those last frames. They are not part of the main loop. I will select them all and press Shift F5. Now, I have to select my reference layer, the video, and the design reference. Right-click and select Guide so they will not be rendered. Now let's click on File, Export, Export Video Media, here I select where I want the animation to be saved. Make sure this box is ticked. Hit Export and it's ready 13. Animating in Adobe Photoshop: Finally, we will talk about animating Adobe Photoshop. Photoshop is a nice tool because it allows us to use any brush or texture in our animation, different from Adobe Animate that only does vector. Let's make a quick overview of how it is like to animate using Photoshop. I will create a document here called Animation Clean Up. 1920 by 1080 is the size, but this time make sure artboard is not activated. We need the color mode to be RGB and hit "Create". First, I will go to Windows to open my timeline. Now I will have my timeline down here. All I have to do is clicking "Create Video Timeline". Now you can see that I have my layer zero here and my layer zero is in the timeline too. Here is the zoom of my timeline and here I can see my seconds in frames very similar to what I see after effects. But before I do anything, I have to set up the frame rate I'd like to use, so I will click in this menu here and click "Set Timeline Frame Rate", and here I can choose the frame rate I want to use which is 24. Now I will position my needles at some point of my timeline and we'll create a new layer, so you can see what happens. Click down here to create a layer. Now I have a new layer that was created at the point my needle was. That's something important for you to know. Now I can click and drag it to the beginning of the timeline. I want to show you now how the scissor tool here works. If I click, I will crop the selected layer at the point my needle is. In the layer panel, as you can see, I have now a Layer 1 copy, so this one here is the Layer 1 and this one is the Layer 1 copy. Now, I want to create more layers by cutting them with this scissor. I just need to select the layer, position my needle and click on this scissor. This way I keep creating new layers as you can see here. The cool part now is that if I click and drag this layer downwards to be on the same line of the other one, I automatically create a video group here in my layer panel. That means that when I have the layers in the same line of my timeline, they are grouping together in here. If I do the same with the other one, it joins the group. This make the work here in Photoshop more organized. To draw one of the layers, I need to select it either in the timeline or in the layer tab, it doesn't matter, and also make sure my needle is over it, otherwise, I won't be able to draw anything. For example, if this layer is selected, but my needle is here, I cannot draw as you can see. Dragging my needle here, now I can draw normally and of course, if I draw in this frame and drag the needle to the other, the drawing disappears because the next frame is empty. If I want to draw here, I need to select the layer. Now I have a drawing each frame and that's how we create animations. Bear in mind that you can easily adjust the layers' duration, clicking and dragging the edges or cutting them as we saw before, and of course, every time I cut, I create a new layer. I can cut as many times to have as many layers as I want and of course, they will all be here in this group. That being said, you can already see that by changing the order of my layers in my layer tab, I also changed the order in my timeline and vice versa. Now, let's increase the zoom. I would like every layer to occupy two frames in my timeline as our animation is on choose, so I will make sure I adjust it properly. Every two frames, a new layer. Now I could come and draw something different on each frame. Position the needle and select the frame and draw. Now I can hit "Play". Oops, the problem is that my animation is doing five seconds which is the default. Let's reduce the size of the layer zero. This layer zero by the way is my white background. If I delete it, you can see that my background is now transparent. Control or command Z to bring it back. Now hitting "Play", you can watch this crazy and random animation I created. This bar up here also allows me to control the duration I am playing in case I just want to watch a specific part of the animation. That's the basic of Photoshop timeline guys. Now we are more than ready to clean up our drawings. 14. Clean up: Now it's time to finalize every frame of our animation. Let's start. It's time for the clean up. First, let's import the rough animation, File, Place Linked, and select the video. Let's press here to confirm, and now I can already press space bar to play. Now, I also need my designer reference here, the same way I will go to File, Place Linked, and select the reference. It was placed a little bit later in the timeline, because it is where my needle was. So let's grab it to the beginning, and here you cut it and delete this other part. I would like all my reference to have multiply as blending mode. I can select both here and choose multiply. Let's move my design reference. I will press V to select my move to click and drag it here. This one will be the final look of my drawing. Now, it would be helpful to reduce my video opacity, so I will just come here to do that. Now, let's lock them. Click on this little padlock. Now, I cannot move them. My preferred way to work is creating all the empty frames first, so then I would only concentrate in my drawings. All I need to do is to bring my needle to the beginning, create a new layer, click in here. I will go two frames ahead, and click this scissor, so I will cut it. Drag it down to being the same line as the other frame, what makes me create automatically a new video group here. Let's name it to body. I will draw my body here. Now, I want to cut the layer every two frames to make it easier. I want to click here on this drop-down menu, and make sure I activate enable timeline shortcut keys. This way, if I press the arrow keys, I can navigate through the timeline. That means I can select my layer, cut, walk two frames to the side with the arrow and cut again. I will do it until the end of the video. The left over I can simply delete. Now, I already have all my frames created for the body. Now, I have already created all my empty frames for the body to make our life easier. I also want to duplicate that a couple of times to draw the other parts of the character. To do that, I will select my group, hold alt, click in and drag it. Now, I have the body copy, which I can rename to Leg1. I will do the same to create the frames for the whole character. Leg2, Arm1, and Arm2. Head, beard, hat. Finally, a layer for the details on top. Now, I have all my layers created that means I can simply draw. I just need to be careful, because I need always to draw the right parts of the characters in the right frame. It is also good to have my reference video on top of everything, so I can still see it lines when I'm drawing. Now, all I need to do is to select the right frame and paint my body. If I press the key I, I will select my color pick two, and I can pick the color for my reference, b for the brush. This is the brush I want to use, but you can use your favorite. Size 50 for me is good. Now let's paint. Pressing r. I can rotate the canvas, which is also helpful. When I finish one frame, I click on the next and continue the process. The same way we did when we were sketching the animation, I would like to repeat the six first frames of my body animation, as we know that they loop. What I will do is selecting my six last frames. I can click in the first one, hold shift and click in the last. Delete them by clicking this little bin, click "Yes", then I will select those ones here. Hold Alt and click and drag them like this. Now, I already have the body done with a little bit of time saved. I forgot one of the frames. No problems, I will paint it, and replace the one that is later in the timeline. Now, let's animate the head. Same process of before. Sometimes I like to flick through my animations, press the arrows keys to see how it is looking. This way I can identify and fix some details here. If I hide my reference video, I can see how the final drawing is looking. As we did with the body, the six first frames of the head can also be duplicated. Let's go to the head, same logic. Then the beard. Finally, we will draw the legs. As I have Leg1 and Leg2 in different layers, I need to make sure the right one is in front of the other. In this case, I want the Leg1 to be my foreground leg, so Leg2 should be behind the body. Be careful because it's easy to drag it inside the body group. What is not what you want. Let's draw all the legs now. Now to make my background leg, I would like to use a darker tone of this purple, or even this black here, so I will differentiate the legs. Let's select the Leg2 layers and start painting. You may notice that sometimes, in this cleanup phase, identify and fix some issues that I didn't see before like the position of the leg when it's crossing the other. I changed the pose a little bit disobeying my reference. This is not the most recommended approach, but it usually works for me. Legs are done. Let's draw the arms. Knowing that one of them has to be behind the body, I will drag the Arm2 down behind everything. Now, I will select the Arm1 layer and draw. Now finally, the final details. As the eyes are small elements, it's easy to be inconsistent with their size and position, so I always like to flick through using the arrows. Alternatively, I could also rely on the onion skin, which Photoshop also has. I can click here and enable onion skin. I could hide my reference and choose this onion skin skin transparent, to see where the previous drawing is, and draw the next eye in the right position. Now, it's all done. Let's shrink all the folders, hide my reference layers, and hit space bar to play. Look how cool this is looking. The very last thing I would like to do here is to draw a floor. I will create a new layer, cut the end to have it the right duration. Delete this part, and now in any point of my timeline, I can simply draw my floor. I will turn on my reference again. I will click and drag holding Shift, so I will have a straight line. Name it Floor, and drag it below all my drawings. Now it's ready. Guys, that's it. The animation is done. Now, we need to take it to after effects to make our final composition. Especially because, this animation here is one second long, we need to make it longer in order to publish it. Of course, we can even add some effects there, to change the background color, so I going to show you how. 15. Final composition: Now, the very final step, let's make the final composition in Adobe After Effects. We are finally here, creating the final composition for our project. Let's import our PNG sequence, so you can see how it works. Let's right-click Import file. Now, I have to find my images sequence here in this folder Clean up. Here they are. All I have to do is click in one of them and make sure the PNG sequence box is ticked. Click, "Open." Now, we have this PNG sequence here but the after effect is still doesn't know in which frame rate we want for those images to play, so let's right-click separate footage and main. Now, we have this 30, which is the default frame rate. We want it to be 24, so let's drag this sequence here to create a new composition. This new composition has the exact size and duration of the animation, one second long. If I press the space bar, I can play and watch now how it's looking. I'd like to reposition the animation a little bit like that and I will create a shape layer with the background color I want, my libraries here. Let's click on the rectangle to remove the stroke and make sure the few is activated. Let's choose the few color, maybe this green here. Now, double-click in the rectangle tool and now I have this shape created. Drag it below and now we have a colorful background. I will rename it, change color to dark green, and lock it. Now, let's add some texture to my background. To do that, I would create an ellipsis. I will hold Control or Command to create it from the center and choose a slightly brighter greener color. Now, I want to apply an effect to the ellipsis. Let's go to the Effects and presets. Search for Gaussian blur. Click and drag the effect to my ellipsis. Here, together with my Project tab, I can see the properties of the effect. I will increase the blurriness. Click and drag the number to the right. To avoid these weird lines here, let's deselect the repeat edge pixels. Now, we will change the blending mode of the texture. Let's choose Dissolve. Now, we have a cool texture here. Let's name the layer, change the layer color to green, and put it behind the character. Now, I want to create another rectangle in the same color of my original background. I will draw the rectangle like this, it'll hide the bottom of my texture like this. We will name it Floor. Feel free to align this floor to the line we have. You can reposition the texture, increasing, reduce the blurriness. Whatever you want. That's how it looks. You can even select Dancing Dissolve, instead of just dissolve, so the texture you move a little bit. The only problem we have now is that this video is only one second long. This is too short for anyone to watch it. That's why I will increase the composition duration. Let's go to Composition, Composition settings and I want it to be 10 second long. Click, "Okay." Now, I have a way longer composition. All I need to do is to unlock the lock layers, so I can stretch the background and textures until the end of my composition, the animation, I can simply duplicate it, press Control or Command D, drag it to the right. You can zoom in to certify that you don't have a gap between those layers. Now, I can duplicate again, both at the same time, and do the same until the end of my composition. Now, we have a 10 second long composition with our animation. As I want to publish it on Instagram. I always like to have the square animations, so I can go to my composition settings and set the size to 1080 by 1080. Now, it's more suitable for my Instagram account. Now, we can hinder the video. To do that, let's go to the File, Export, add to Adobe Media Encoder Queue. Here we open Adobe Media Encoder. He's the animation. I can click here to see the settings. I always choose H264 for social media animations. Here we can change the name and the location where the view will be saved. I always press Use maximum render quality. Now, we just need to hit Play and cheer on, we have our animation. Congratulations. 16. Thank You!: Guys, this was an exciting journey, we covered so much. Thank you so much for getting to the end of this class. I hope you realize that first, animation has no rules, no limit, you can use all the softwares and techniques available to you at once and take advantage of the best each software can offer us. I really want to see what you guys are going to create. Please, upload your product here, and I will be seeing comment on every single one. To get inspiration, have a look at those other characters I created using the same process. I hope you found it fun and I will see you in the next one.