Certification in Editing and Proofreading | Prof. Krishna N. Sharma | Skillshare

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Certification in Editing and Proofreading

teacher avatar Prof. Krishna N. Sharma, CEO, Author, and World Record Holder

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction to the Course


    • 2.

      Introduction to Editing and Proofreading


    • 3.

      In-Depth Editing or Deep Editing


    • 4.

      Steps Involved in Editing


    • 5.

      Proofreading Strategies


    • 6.

      Understanding the Context and Scope of a Piece


    • 7.

      Breaking up individual points


    • 8.

      Making Sense of Individual Points


    • 9.

      Deleting Irrelevant Points


    • 10.

      Eliminating Rambling


    • 11.

      Eliminating Repetition


    • 12.

      Verifying the Facts


    • 13.

      Removing Contradicting Statements


    • 14.

      Finding and Adding Missing Points


    • 15.

      Choosing the Angle


    • 16.

      Creating Categories


    • 17.

      Creating a Narrative Structure


    • 18.

      Ordering Points within Sections


    • 19.

      Creating Narrative Turns


    • 20.

      Making the Piece Read Well


    • 21.

      Clearing Up the Clutter


    • 22.

      Arranging Paragraphs


    • 23.

      Creating a Jazzy Intro


    • 24.

      Creating a Snazzy Ending


    • 25.

      Making the Narrative more Evocative


    • 26.

      Correctly Introducing Every Person and Entity


    • 27.



    • 28.

      Checking the Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation


    • 29.

      Replacing Jargons with Simple Words


    • 30.

      Matching the Title


    • 31.

      Fixing Inconsistencies


    • 32.

      Addressing Trip-Ups


    • 33.

      Tracking Changes


    • 34.

      Useful Editing and Proofreading Software and Websites


    • 35.

      Proofreading Best Practices


    • 36.

      Finding Clients


    • 37.

      Marketing Yourself


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About This Class

A comprehensive course for business / technical writing, copywriting, email writing, content writing, blogging etc.

Meet Your Teacher

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Prof. Krishna N. Sharma

CEO, Author, and World Record Holder


Prof Krishna N Sharma – the youngest Vice-Chancellor in the world is 8 times world record holder educator, researcher and prolific author with 40+ best-sellers out of his more than 135 published books. Students in his courses are from 175 countries and are speakers of approx 50 languages.

He teaches health, wellness and spirituality for life transformation.

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1. Introduction to the Course: Welcome to this amazing course on editing and proofreading. This program is to help individuals who want to improve their knowledge and understanding of writing, editing, and proofreading to practice it for the benefit of self and others. This concise program is designed keeping in mind that you may not have any prior knowledge about it. And you want to learn despite your busy shadow. So we have tried to avoid jargons as much as possible and have simplified the concepts and terminologies for you. This program is accredited and the certification is provided by the virtue of the academy international and autonomous institute under the virtual Society incorporated under the Act 2001 1860 of the garment of UP India. The validity and utility of the training is conditionally in conformity with the Constitution of India and the laws of the land under Article 19 1 t, Virtual Academy International provides continuing education for the individuals interested in self-development. 2. Introduction to Editing and Proofreading : Numerous departments and individuals are concerned with preparing documents for any industry or academia irrespective of their genre or goals. In general, it is observed that very few people can write up an articulated, eloquent piece with proper expressions of the writer's imagination. On the first take itself. In most cases, the write-up is refined and smoothened. Easily comprehend the writer's point. It is the editors responsibility to enhance a writing quality, whether it is one's own or self-editing, are it is done for others, which is called Professional editing. In the case of self editing, the writer is solely responsible for enhancing the quality of the piece. In contrast, in professional editing, a specialist is employed to improve the writer quantity before publication. Successful writing requires true, crucial aspects, editing and proofreading, in addition to other aspects such as preparation, planning, brainstorming, and revisions. If any of these aspects are mistreated, it may lead to an unambiguous and underdeveloped document. Editing should be done so that a writer can communicate his tarts across to the reader in a clear, compelling, concise, and constructed manner. Basic editing consists of spelling correction, punctuations, grammar, capitalization, and use of different words. However, in-depth editing is also required to produce a clear and successful document. 3. In-Depth Editing or Deep Editing: In-depth editing involves the promotion of lucidity and flow of the write-up. At the level of sentences and paragraphs. A significant change is made to the original piece to guarantee a lucid sentence and paragraph structure. A rational sequence of sentences within sentences. A simple, elegant and to the point phrasing, smooth change over from one sentence to the other. And proper use voice, I mean active voice and passive voice. Conversion of complex language into concepts easily understandable by the reader is the primary goal of in-depth editing. This helps in changing a more color lead right up into a more effective document. This would attract readers beyond this specialized domains of the write-up, thus appealing to a wider variety of audience. 4. Steps Involved in Editing: Let us talk about the steps involved in editing. It involves four major steps. First is the developmental editing, which is also known as content editing. Next is line editing. Third is copy editing, and the Final Four is proofreading. The developmental editing consists of dealing with issues related to organization of the write-up, the course, or the flow of the story. Sections or chapters, which means the number, length, and arrangement of each chapter, addition, subtraction of Chapter such sacra. It also includes what each character our parameter denotes or says. It also includes the dialogue, discourse, that discussion. How does the plot develop? How the plot bases around point of view of the write-up in each section. Developmental editing is responsible for major revisions in the write-up and rearrangement of chapters or sections based on the plot of the story are point of view of the characters. If we talk about the line editing, this type of editing centers around re-orientation of the following. Reputations in the words and phrases. Incomplete are imprecise sentences. When two or more independent clauses are complete, sentences are myths connected, which is also known as a run-on sentence. And words or sentences. Increasing monotony. Line editing is done to increase the flow and clarity of the write-up. For example, if two sentences are to be included, one after the another, and both are equally important. However, they do not get together easily. In this case, the editor plays around with the two sentences formation until the flow fluently. The third step, copy edit. This type of editing centers around, but not limited to the following domains, which includes punctuations and grammar, spelling distinctions. For example, the author is writing into UK English, our US English. So there has to be an exact distinction. Addition, our substitution of capital letters, addition or subtraction or hyphens. You know, making the words italic or bold. Also, when numerals must be used and when words must be used to denote numbers. Usually the copy edit features are and can be incorporated in the writing software. For example, even MS Word includes the grammar checks and the punctuation checks and the dictionaries. And these of course provide a standard layout to the text. They also provide consistency in the writer. There are different styles available for referencing, such as APA, MLA, Chicago, et cetera. And they have to be selected based on publishers requirement. For example, if you are not writing a fiction, you are writing a typical textbook or you're writing a research paper which require sort of rinsing. The publishers usually tell you what kind of referencing style do they require. Confusions occurring to be different types of formatting in case of semantics should be taking care of. Commercial software such as grammar R3 also assist in copy editing. The last step, proofreading. It is the final phase of editing before the write-up is sent for publication or submission. Proofreading involves minute revisions if required. On the following domains. Spelling errors. Homophones, homophones are the words that sound the same but are spelled differently. Punctuations and quotations. Missed words spatially, prepositions are consumptions, for example, are off, and the it redundant spaces between words. Proofreading is a phase which falls beyond the scope of technical editing. Hence, proofreading does not call for critiquing our review. Written piece. In-depth editing has to be conducted before moving on to the proof reading. 5. Proofreading Strategies: Specific strategies should be followed for efficient proofreading and editing. And here I'm going to share with you these very powerful strategies. One, writing should be done, keeping plenty of time on hand for the whole process, including Editing and Proofreading. If appropriate timeline is followed, it is more likely to finish the write-up on time with minimal errors. So don't rush yourself. It is a process and it takes time, so keep plenty of time on hand. Also, keeping aside the write-up for a day or two before proofreading. As the writer is more likely to notice structural mistakes in the write-up is very important. So when you write it down, let it cool for a day or two because otherwise you'll be in the same zone and you will not be able to notice the mistakes. So you let it cool down for a day or two, and then you start the proof reading. Take the assistance of resources available both offline or online. For example, dictionaries, rave sides, handbooks and reference books, Citation Guides, class notes. Even you can engage the consultants. So take the assistance, you don't have to be shy about it. List out the mistakes that the writer usually tends to make. This way. While proofreading, the editor can keep in mind those specific mistakes and may as well notice them quickly. For example, if you always forget to remove this pace before comma means there shouldn't be any space before comma. But as a writer, if you keep doing it very frequently, keep it in mind. Once you keep it in mind as an editor, are, as someone who is self editing. You'll quickly notice these mistakes. In fact, many softwares give you statistics or report at the end of the day that shows what are the kind of mistakes you as a writer frequently make. And it also helped you improve yourself. Proof reading using a hard copy of the writer is also very good way many people find it easier to notice mistakes. When me, if I do the proofreading on hardcopy, it becomes quite easier for me to notice the mistakes. Proof read the document by reading out loud. Specific errors. Grammatical mistakes were same sentences structure, the blood flow and typos are easily noticed when it is proof read silently. But when you read it out loud, then you'll be able to understand. The flow of the text, the flow of the centers. Very well. So reading out loud as very good. Yes, you can do it silently. You may be able to notice the plug flow, but most of the time I have noticed, if you read it out loud, you'll be able to notice it better. Article, ask someone else to read it out loud and then he just listened to it. And you'll be able to notice the mistakes. Fragmentation editors of sentences are easily noticed. If the document is read backwards, focusing solely on the texts without giving importance to the meaning. You see sometimes when we read, we actually don't read. We just look at the sentence or we look at the bunch of words and we automatically make its meaning. But when you read it backwards, then it becomes easier for you to look at the fragmentation errors of the sentences because then you're not making, making sense of the sentence. You're just looking at the worst one-by-one. Lookout for punctuation errors. Add the sentence level, commas, semicolons, full stops, a run on sentence as quotations, hyphens, et cetera. But look out for the punctuation errors, correct, referencing a citation, it is paramount for a document and the data it presents. The citation format should be correct, along with the name of the authors, document titles and other details. Amy quotations inserted in the document should be double-check for any mistakes. You see the quotation is something someone said. So you should keep it in the document exactly as it was said without changing it. Obtaining feedback from other people may also provide different insights and perspectives to the peace that the author may have missed. Otherwise, this helps in improving the write-up and develop as a writer. Bid one's own proof reading strategies, or without always relying on computer or software assistance. You see there are numerous errors that a softwares are computers may miss while editing a document. Sometimes they may suggest you to change a word or change or restructure sentence, but it's you who exactly knows if this kind of restructuring is required or not. And then let both the document and the proofreader arrest for a day or two. Editing after relaxation may make the proofreaders vision more clinical and perspective. You'll be able to re-edit it better. So always, once you finish a document, let it cool down for a day or two and do it again. This way you'll be able to improve your efficiency as a proofreader. 6. Understanding the Context and Scope of a Piece: Information or data that assists in making a literary peas that creates sense, is referred to as context. It helps in providing meaning and clarity to the Rutan piece. It develops a connection between the reader and writer through a more profound knowledge of the documents, purpose, and goal. The backdrop of a setting. Our state of affairs relating to what is happening is given by literally context. Contexts can also be the history of corrector used to inform the audience about his or her traits or qualities. Sometimes, context is noticeably defined, while others require extra attention to the written piece. Hence, each author must know the term contexts, and how it should be used in a literary work. Scope of a piece is the limit that the author informs the reader beforehand, which denotes the deliverables and expectations of the piece. The write-up score must be fixed early so that the author does not go off track while narrating a plot, distressing into a different plot or corrector. In such cases, the written piece becomes to wait and confusing after losing the audience's interest. Hence, the author should always understand the scope of the writer and stick to the product within the scopes limit. 7. Breaking up individual points: It is to keep in mind that the audience is people who go through a lot of readings daily. Hence, redundant and unnecessary write-up, extrapolating the plot should be avoided. The most significant sections should be highlighted to get noticed. Breaking up individual points to trim unnecessary rambling are essential, are, are of course required for easy understanding. Complex points of views must be broken down and trimmed into unique points, each portraying their own points of view for increased acidity and ease of understanding. 8. Making Sense of Individual Points: In this fast paced world with very limited individual time period, he or she who can make sense first wins. The best way to make sense is to break down each idea into portions easily understandable by the audience. Bulleted points are the easiest way to portray this. However, there are other techniques as well. For example, internal fascinations. Convince the audience into continuing reading the write-up that they are already reading. For example, you can say, by reading this document, you can learn for counter productive activities that will improve your business. So see, it is a kind of fascination. There's also external fascination usually used in sales documents. They Jen, degenerate curiosity among the audience. Go accessing them into the quick purchase of a product or similar action type. For example, if we talk about physiotherapy, we can say learn the amazing rules approach to improve neuromuscular facilitation in stroke patients. They're also authority bullets. The authority bullets provide evidence supporting the argument that can turn a piece of monotonous factual information into an attractive reading. For example, you can say almost 500 people out of 100 thousand individuals suffer stroke in India every year. So say it, it becomes, a bit of, it becomes beautiful, it becomes attractive. It's not very monotone snows saying that almost these many percentages of people get to know you are beautifying this factual information. There's also Bullet chunking. It is easier to read bulleted points rather than dense paragraphs with lots of information, compounding sentences. It is also very good. Back then they are broken down into simple bulleted points. They increase the usability of the written piece. So yes, you can have a very big sentences, compound sentences, a whole chunk of information in there. But most of the people shy away from this. Most of the people don't like to just go into that chunk. They want bulleted points. So you chunk them into boilers. And there's also cliffhanger bullets. Cliffhanger bullets, teas, and foreshadow what's coming up next are in the near future. You can also use cliffhanger bloods to lay the groundwork for an upcoming promotion are launched or spatial content event. For example, you can say next week on XYZ blog and learn to techniques to create beautiful paintings. Yeah, so you somehow foreshadowed what's coming up next. And this is what makes the write-up very beautiful, attractive. And of course, it makes sense of individual points. 9. Deleting Irrelevant Points: In this has the word with a short attention span. The author needs to avoid redundant, irrelevant information with too much verbiage. The following points must be taken into consideration. In this case. Basic points are, take your audience into consideration, right to the point. All the sentence length should be varying. Long sentences with too much information must be avoided. Have a variety of sentence lengths, but watch out for too many details in long sentences. Stay on the plot track. Do not discourage content by digressing Yost yourself. Edit, read out loud, really read, review, dig feedback from others over and over again. Get rid of unnecessary explanation of apparent verse and avoid pointless modifiers. The important objectives, adverbs and details. Do not explain an obvious point with too much information and imagination. For example, do not write, stand on your legs bent with both feet, one yard apart, hips bent. The next straight towards subpolar edibles band and back lifted Institute. Simply write my friend, imagine yourself to be in batsman position in the game of cricket, as simple as that. So don't over-explain an obvious thing. Avoid filling up the piece with too much unnecessary information so much that the main idea remains concede are lost. And of course, avoid and delete a repetitive verbs, add redundant power afterwards. 10. Eliminating Rambling: Rambling is a significant setback in writing. Rambling consists of decreasing from the main topic into some other domains, irrelevant to the written piece and an uninteresting for the audience. For example, one studying biology, John came across the extension of dinosaurs. Speaking of biology, the biology originates from two words, bios, which is live, and logos, which is steady. You see here the person the author has degrees west. The main strategies to avoid rambling are read out loud the written piece to notice any written density or digressing from the original plot. Right? Your article within the word limit and count the words. Otherwise, sometimes you may get emotional. You can write a 1000 pages document with the essence of only ten pages. So set your own word remit. Avoid too many conjunctions and tone down. The phrases. 11. Eliminating Repetition: Repetition and redundancy are common problems that most writers tend to make frequently. During most narrations. Repetitions may occur at the sentence level, our ad, the article level. The following strategies need to be employed to avoid repetitions at every article level. First, avoid stating the facts are points that have been already discussed. Avoid using the same headache he more than once. And avoid redundant information by sorting out the information relevant to the article. The following strategies need to be employed to avoid repetitions at the sentence level. Use different transition words. Avoid using the same pronoun over and over again. For example, they say it that they would come again. Avoid stating the obvious, for example, the result and discussions chapters contain the results of the experiment. So you see darn state what is already obvious. 12. Verifying the Facts: With numerous misinformation cases floating in and around the audience. People hardly know what and home to believe and who not to. Fake news or trawling a wide spread to degrade and unattractive report or document. Hence, it is more important than ever to check the facts and report authentic details in their write-ups. Despite their domains, accurate and verified facts will improve the marketability of the written piece. It's product. In contrast, unverified are fake facts reported may lose reputation and customers. Internet trolling are even legal. Aftermath ads. 13. Removing Contradicting Statements: There are different types of contradictions. Explicit contradictions. For example, I cannot hate anyone and not hate someone at the same time. Next is implicit contradiction. For example, if a is the brother of B, then B is the brother of a. Next is. Another implicit contradiction is whenever I swear to perform something, hereby obtain an ethical compulsion to perform it. Next is apparent contradiction are no contradiction such as, I like her in a few ways, but I hater in others. Being logically consistent is very important in writing. You see all the examples I gave to you. They must be really confusing, right? I cannot hate anyone and not hate someone at the same time. Are I like her in a few ways, but I hate the others. So what do you want to say you like or not? So you see, so being contradictory creates a lot of confusion amongst the audience regarding the corrector, our plots real purpose or objective. Hence, the author needs to put Trey his or her character or plot with clarity. And without any contradictions. 14. Finding and Adding Missing Points: Often it is found with many authors that due to specific common writing related problems, such as healthiness and writing digression from the actual topic and inefficient editing. Many additional points related to the plot of the story or document remains missing. Particular strategies to avoid them are read out loud. The whole written piece to identify any missing point. Take feedback from others regarding the written piece. Different perspective may provide the missing point. Stay on the plot. Do not degress. Once finished, reread the document over and over again to find any missing point. And lastly, let the document rests with the author for some time. Are fetus finished? Relaxation after writing may stimulate new ideas into the writer's mind. This helps identify any missing link. 15. Choosing the Angle: On many occasions, authors are invited to write on an angle. Still, they are not given any direction on which the written piece should take. The direction should take the way. This is where the angle comes into the picture. Angle tells us precisely what to write. And therefore, choosy an angle is of utmost importance. And angle may be different for different writers or persons, for the same subject or set of questions. For example, we asked a group of persons to write about the instruments in the garage workshop. Each one would likely to come up with an answer on the same subject with a different angle. For example, one person may write, my garages full of makeup items I bought for a business startup. In contrast, another me, right? I liked repair tanks in my garage. And hence, I have new when up-to-date instruments in my garage. And angles should include an element of surprise to grab the attention of the readers. For example, for herpes in the modern loved column of the New York Times, Catlin Calvert, person angle in the first line. And she writes, I have never liked Ben. I like guys. The author, surprising her audience with a vanity that grasps the audience's attention into reading more. Thus, instead of uttering anything that comes to the mind, a writer requires an unpredicted way of approaching a plot. 16. Creating Categories: Creating categories is another significant aspect of writing a piece. A category instantly reveals to the audience what a section or pieces about and makes it easier for the audience to find related posts. The categorization can be done hierarchically with a primary aim to make it simpler for individuals to locate the information they are searching for. Subsequently, they can choose what they want to read by choosing a section. If an author is writing a scientific paper, he or she might categorize the paper under the following categories. Introduction, literature review, or literally to survey or review of literature, materials and maters. Results, discussions, and conclusion. Important points to consider while creating and assigning categories. Our plan out the categories for the written piece in advance and write your peace within those categories. Consciously think before adding any new categories is very, very important. Otherwise, you can just derail your whole project. Ensure that the categories that are used are the ones that are used widely in similar documents. This helps people in searching within the document utilize appropriate categories only within a certain acceptable number. The written piece should employ clear and to the point, wording or phrasing. Be consistent. In anything you do, either capitalisation or spelling, are putting in hyphens, be consistent? Utilize familiar terminology for your audience. Technical jargons for an academy of professional audiences, okay? But sometimes some technical terms are, of course not in the context, are not important for the general audience. So make sure if you're writing for a general audience, Don't use these jargons. These Jordan's keep them for the Academy and professional audience. There are also some important points to avoid when creating and assigning categories. Different categories, which are synonymous. For example, do not include both categories. Choose only one. Cabs and fill-ins, suites and desserts. So you don't have to create two categories, suites. And second is deserts. You need to make sure that you are not becoming to wait or to, to, to specific using both the acronym and the full title. So make sure you choose either you use the acronym, are used the full title. For example, SLP versus speech language pathologist. Make sure you choose one of them to specific categories. As I said, don't be too specific. Categories that are valid for only one domain. This should be avoided even long sentences. So you don't have to write in the category many important news from our material science team. No, you can just simply say material science news. Redundant categories must be avoided. And of course, pointless categories just for the sake of categorizing, must be avoided. 17. Creating a Narrative Structure: Narrative or story structure, often called storyline or plot line, is the organizational skeleton of a story or plot. There is a beginning, the middle portion, and the ending in every story. All these three portions have to be convincing to the audience on their own. However, these three should also work in clear consumption with each other to make the story attractive. Through the years, repeated writers and bleed writers have created different frameworks to create a narrative structure. These frameworks vary in how they present a story, but each framework is equally proven to be a useful tool for writers. The narrative structure of a plot can be divided into five categories. One, linear plot structure. Hearing the events are presented chronologically. Second is nonlinear plot structure. Here in the events are presented outside their chronological structure or chronological sequence. If stories are told out of order, which is non chronologically, they may tend to confuse the audience and thus they have to be in the written beautifully with different plots tied together convincingly. There is also parallel plot structure here to a more storylines move forward concurrently. They may intersect somewhere. For example, Charles Dickens, a Tale of Two Cities, or may not intersect at any point. For example, Netanyahu reaches the mayor's tongue. The circular plot structure is also another kind. Hearing the story ends where it started as a sequence of events carrying the plot forward, eventually leads back to the original place or state or event. For example, you can read Cynthia relents long night moon. And there is also interactive plot structure. Hearing the Mars Ultor as per the requirement and urges of the audience. For example, children's book series, Choose Your Own Adventure provides different experiences for the readers, depending on the various pages that turned to. The following three points are to be considered while framing a narrative structure. These are, what is the protagonists character are? Is the narrator in the first place, a person, the first person, or the third person. What are the significant events in the story? And how many perspectives are featured? If a writer can adequately answer these questions through these questions up to the satisfaction of the readers delight. They have created a story with a strong narrative structure. 18. Ordering Points within Sections: Academic documents generally contain lists that arrange the writer to present the audience with a quick synopsis section. Formatting lists. Although are of different types, certain general principles apply to all of them. That is, they are developed in a parallel manner and should be consistent. The types of less farmers are run unless this list is built in as an element of the gender texts. These elements are separated. They are separated either by a column, as you can see on the screen, are with numbers. Again, the example is on the screen. There are also vertical lists. At least a complete sentence describing a summary of the List point should be proceed a vertical list. This list does not usually required bullet points at the beginning of each point or a punctuation mark at the end of each point. The example is on your screen. However, if all the entries in the list are complete sentences, then it has to be followed with a punctuation mark, for example, full stop or comma. For example. By using the bullet points, you can see the example on the screen. You can make pizza easily by following the steps given below. And here you can see the full stop at the end of it. They are also vertical lists, punctuated as a sentence. When the list is too long, are co-related to be presented as one sentence, you can use a vertical list that is punctuated like centers. You can see the example on your screen. Vertical lists with subdivided items. If the requirement is that of an elaborate vertical list that looks like an outline, numbers or letters are used to provide a more logical order. For example, look at your screen, the following topics will be included for the interview. And he, you see a vertical list with subdivided items. 19. Creating Narrative Turns: An interesting plot would require twists and turns to keep the audience hooked on. However, thinking out or writing these twists are much harder than reading or seeing them in movies. Several strategies need to be considered while developing a twist plot. First, approach your story as a reader. While creating a plot, it is advised that the writer constantly puts himself or herself in the reader's shoes. And imagine what the reaction would be upon, unrelenting and revealing the twist. Additionally, to fight obviousness in the plot, it is advised to imagine the complete contrary of each twist are termed that the writer has taught off. Suppose the story obviously starts to lean in the direction of a specific outcome. In that case, it is advised to share it in the absolute opposite direction and see what turns out. Use subtle misdirection. Direct audience's attention subtly away from a possible plot wrap. It would surprise when the writer reveals a plot twist. There are many tools you can use to achieve misdirection. For example, a red herrings. Please free clues or information intended to guide the audience in the wrong direction. There is also a tool called dead ends, strongly dismissed the ending that the audience taught off. There's also misguided attention. Cautiously drop. Genuine hints are signs in the scene where the audience should not pay much attention. Employ even subtler foreshadowing. For sure the shadowing is an essential constituent that goes before any superior plot pressed. It includes dropping exceptionally subtle signs that hint at the tourists to come. Allow the characters to create the plot twists. Avoid trying to deliberately produce plot twist, and permit the correctors to direct this to reinstate free writing, which consists of letting go of one's tarts and reservations and merely letting the words flow freely may be employed, in this case. Ensured your twist is believable and necessary and makes sense. If a plot twist as outlandish, it will not make much sense leading to the readers disappointment. Thus, the writer must ensure that the twist is believable. No matter how sudden, shocking and unexpected it may be. Make a twist in the plot. Inside a plot twist. This process includes conveying a twist in the plot, which the audience will think as the tourist. But then back it up with an even more remarkable trust. The audience will not expect another deep seated revelation just after another twist. Develop a subplot with more weightage, then the audience thinks. Subplots which sit nicely alongside the main plot, provide curiosity, distraction, disagreement, and character development. This builds and attractive avenue for plot twists. Develop, applaud to be then unexpected ending. Avoid always producing a happy ending. Not all characters need to live and flourish. Or the hero or heroine may not always save the day. In fact, drying the deposit may work as it may be against the audience's expectations. Maintain the pace even after a plot to us. Only the build-up to a plot twist is not enough. The narrative after the revelation of the twist is equally important to maintain the interest of the audience. The plot flattens after the twist. It will be disappointing for the readers. Test the plot twist with beta readers. Test a plot twist with actual Battalion Dennis, take their feedback, look at their reactions, and improve further. 20. Making the Piece Read Well: It is the responsibility of the author to make the narrative read well. It means minimum errors in the piece with effective writing, creating twists and turns are hooking the audience to the piece. Additionally, proper facts and references must be included. Making the piece read well means two things. One, it should look as if the article has been edited and proofread val with no mistakes and smooth storyline transitions. And two, it should look as if the writer has read the facts and ideas properly before incorporating them into story. 21. Clearing Up the Clutter: Some points to be considered to avoid cluttering in the written piece are given below. Sketch your content. Avoid or removed jargon. Keep it simple and concise. Short and sentences or divide longer sentences into to avoid unnecessary verbiage. Imply contractions. Avoid or remove. Extra punctuation. Use the active voice. Avoid redundance. Proof. Read the piece by someone and tidy up the content. 22. Arranging Paragraphs: A paragraph is a collection of co-related sentences that maintain one main part. A paragraph consists of three pieces in general. The topic sentence, body sentence, and the concluding or British sentence, which links to the next paragraph or section. Although there are many ways to organize paragraphs, some are given here. One, narrative. Write the story chronologically from start to finish. Descriptive. Give precise information regarding an object or a feeling arranged to look are by the team. Process. Step by step. Give details on how anything works, maintain a sequence. First, second, third, classification, divide into sections or give details on the different parts of a subject. And illustrated. Provide examples and give details on how those examples reinforce the point given in the piece. 23. Creating a Jazzy Intro: It always pays to make the written piece colorful and exciting. Starting with the introduction, some strategies to be adopted. Our start with a warm and personal voice, which appeals to the human nature of readers. To create a jazzy intro do not over the line towards kindergarten cheerfulness. Avoid too much use of web famous acronyms like BFF, BTW, etc. Make it vivid with richness, texture, storytelling, anology, Kanner and metaphors. Avoid fancy. Nancy Chisholm. Keep word choices to the plain and straightforward. For example, do you have penchant for traveling using liking instead of penchant? I think that will be a better idea, isn't it? For real-time connection with the readers, talk about the ongoing problems and insecurities. A little vulnerability is okay. Do not cross over the line from vulnerable to a train rack. 24. Creating a Snazzy Ending: Although the ending of a plot can be an agonizing and exasperating experience. Everyone wants the idle conclusion that balances the plot and fulfills this tourist point. Few ideas related to this are a neatly packaged resolve ending where they are known speculations and doubts to be asked. The unresolved ending is the oppose it For result ending where the plot is left unfinished and this 2D arcs are unknown based on the Scripts information. This encourages the readers to use their own imagination to create an ending of their own. The implied ending. The conclusion is not implied explicitly in the piece. This is attained by hiding information. Our dissemination, multiple justification in the air to allow the reader to make their own decisions. Twist in this tool is tale. Ending catches the reader's by surprise with a completely unexpected turn of events. Tie back to a plot created in this way, we'll start and finish in the same fashion. The end is exposed first before the writer describes the details of how that ending came to be. 25. Making the Narrative more Evocative: To make the write up more evocative, the narrator often assigns subjective impressions meaning to the objects are areas with the dramatic metaphors to illustrate the idea or experience. The specific points to be remembered during evocative narration are consciously decide on the instances and moments for evocative narration. Evocative narration is not always good for every instance. In a story or every story. Reinforce the narration with substance. More substance will reduce any over-hyped created through evocative narration. Strong imagery is mandatory. Raw metaphorical imagery will create a more evocative relation. Search for occasions to show what was emphasized in the evocative telling. 26. Correctly Introducing Every Person and Entity: Everyone remembers a well-written character. Hence, introducing a corrector is very important for our written piece. Citations for introducing characters effectively are given here. Do not get carried away by the physical appearance alone. Focus on the personality and actions. Attach a specific unforgettable trade to the corrector, which offers insights into the corrector or personality of the character. For example, a character who sleeps facing the door only. In this case, the audience may infer that the character may be used for being in danger. A backstory of a character is essential. This reinforces the belief of the audience in the corrector. Whenever the audience sees a character in action, for example, doing either routine tasks or interacting with the external world. It gives the reader a sense of who they are. Immediately introduce the main characters are protagonists, so that the readers can quickly get emotionally attached to these characters. 27. Referencing: Referencing permits the writers to give due credit to other authors and researchers contribution towards his or her own work. Critics should be given to those from whom ideas or techniques may be borrowed or inserted into the writer's own peas. This way, the writer acknowledges and shows respect towards the intellectual properties owned by the contributing authors. Additionally, referencing provides another way of supporting the claims made by a writer through the works of other published literature. There are numerous standards tiles in which referencing can be done. For example, APA, MLA, Vancouver, et cetera. Certain publishing houses may have their own specific styles as well. However, all the references should at least include the following information. The name of the author or authors, publication years, and if possible, of course, the exact date of publication, the full title of the reference. Additionally, the following publication related specific information must be given. For example, for the books, the name of the publishing house, the editor's name, and the city of the publication. For articles or essays, periodical or booking, book's name in which the article or essay appears. For magazines and journal articles, volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears. And for the sources on the web, the URL where the source is located. I've given the example of wonder friends on your screen. 28. Checking the Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation: Spelling, check and grammar a crucial as it gives the structural information that helps the audience's comprehension. Additionally, punctuation is significant because it helps the readers make sense of what the writer conveys through his wordings. Numerous reasons are evident as to why a careful examination of the written piece must eliminate spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and incorrect punctuation. Some of them are given below. In most cases, the first impression is the last. One needs to portray an excellent first impression with the professional write-up that can grab the reader's attention in the first place. Proper spelling, punctuation, and grammar can quickly generate confidence in their readers by correcting the ideas that the writer wants to convey. Reputation at stake. Suppliers and publishing house tend to trust those writers are companies which can adequately convey their ideas and communicate. Business credibility and writing ability are at stake if one cannot avoid the silly and basic mistakes. Evade, misunderstanding and miscommunication. Inappropriate use of grammar and punctuation and spelling mistakes will create confusion in adequately communicating with the audiences. In some instances, it may lead to misunderstanding. Communicating effectively. Spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and inappropriate punctuation hinder the audience's ability to properly comprehend the author's message. Hence, the author has to be meticulous about avoiding these mistakes. Avoid any legal lawsuits. Grammatically incorrect articles or write-ups may convey the wrong message to certain readers, which make qx them in suing the author or the publishing house. Hence, the author and editors have to be extra careful about any document errors before final communication. Make your business standard high. Bad grammar slope is spelling mistakes and in appropriate punctuation affect the repetition of the author, editor, and the publishing company. In this age of tough competitions, the authors have a very short time duration to impress the readers. Poor grammar and sloppy mistakes add to their voice. With the audience losing interest in the article. Increase productivity. Most companies have written guidelines or documents to instruct the employees must avoid any grammatical or spelling errors to correctly portray their image and message regarding the working of the company. Spelling checks and grammar checks in writing softwares may be employed to a certain extent to collect the document. However, entire dependence on these software should be avoided as they sometimes cannot differentiate between the correct and incorrect words to be used in a sentence to convey the message. For example, there, T-H-E-R-E instead of their T-H-E-I-R. Hence, meticulous proofreading is a must for every document. 29. Replacing Jargons with Simple Words: Use of complicated language in a document to impress the audience is termed as jargon. It is advisable to the writers and editors to make their write-up as clear as possible to the readers to easily understand the author's message. However, the writer must use all the technical terms required for the article and avoid any unnecessary bombastic word to convey the narrative. For example, let me give an example of an statement from physiotherapists are a physiotherapy clinic that is marketing in differential therapy or IFFT. Now they can write, if they're writing for a general audience. Into financial therapy is useful. Inhaling, occurring any pain due to problems in the know. Hearing. A differential therapy is the technical term that must be used in the document. However, the same sentence, if written as inter phalangeal therapy is crucial in conventionally manage the neurogenic aches or pains implementing at the node edge. Now, this will certainly lead to jargons and will make no sense to the general audience. 30. Matching the Title: A matching title appropriate to the article or write-up is paramount to the argument that develops in the narrative. It helps in convincing the readers about the topic and developments in the story. A strong title also indicates to the reader, are an examiner whether the answer to the question that they were searching for has been answered or not. Additionally, one of the main aim of the title is to grab the reader's attention and make them curious about the main idea behind the story or article. Since the title enjoys a privileged position in the write-up, which is of course top of the document with bold letters. It is paramount that it expresses the author's message clearly and correctly. Article is the argument that is conveyed through the narration. 31. Fixing Inconsistencies: Inconsistencies in the article or story are one of the main reasons why the readers are suddenly drawn out of their intriguing story line. For example, if the narration of this story is taking place in a particular city until a certain point. And suddenly in the middle of the story, the author mentions a place which is in another city. Then the region was certainly just be off. I mean, the reader will be suddenly taken out of the story due to this inconsistency, the reader may lose interest, be confused, or suddenly generate a wrong impression about the author and the sturdy due to this mistake. Additionally, inconsistencies due to hyphenation, for example, long term versus long term. And due to capitalisation like Viking and Viking are also to be considered and rectified. Another inconsistency is mixing up straight quotation marks with curly quotation marks while writing quotations. In many cases. Another inconsistency is rent. Some words are used in italics at the same time, the same verse in other plays are not used in Italian. Although many softwares are available to detect these. However, proper manual proofreading is mandatory to avoid inconsistencies. 32. Addressing Trip-Ups: Most individuals are more adept in listening and speaking a particular language when compared with reading or editing. Thus, it is advisable to the writers to have someone read aloud the narration once they have prepared the draft. In that way, the brain registers certain information and notices discrepancies which the writer can later rectify. Additionally, by listening to the story line while being read aloud. The author can also judge whether the various plots in the story line, our ordered, as per the storage requirements to generate maximum curiosity and empiric among the audience. Moreover, the readers also required a smooth transition from one subplot to the next. Reading aloud the script also helps the auditor in judging these transitions. Most importantly, spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, sentence fragmentations, and copy paste errors maybe noticed due to this trial. 33. Tracking Changes: It is important to keep track of the numerous changes made to the original draft by different reviewers to notice that developments in the write-up and to understand the changes made to the document over time. Two different arguments, writing and editing software such as MS Word or Adobe Acrobat contents, a function called Track Changes. It permits the author to keep a record of the changes made to a document. These amendments have been made by different reviewers and are recorded document through this function, the author can litter on manage these changes by accepting, rejecting an editing based on the writer's own judgment. Whenever track changes, function is on and any editing is made, it will appear as colored mark up. If a text is deleted, the text will be crossed out instead of disappearing. If any additions are made to the text, it will appear as underlined. This allows the receiver or author to see the changes that have been made to the document. Additionally, adding commence function is also present, which appears as balloons outside the margin to creating notes and annotations. At any point did the write-up. Comments of the author or reviewer may be inserted in these balloons, and these appear at any point in the document wherever they are required. The comments maybe added, edited, or deleted based on the requirements of the river, are the author. 34. Useful Editing and Proofreading Software and Websites: There are many softwares which are very useful for editing and proofreading. Here on the screen you can see the list of these softwares. 35. Proofreading Best Practices: Let us talk about proofreading best practices. Specific strategies have to be employed effectively proofread a document. They are proofread backwards, starting from the end of the document towards the start of the document. Some superficial errors maybe noticed this way by not focusing on the meaning of the article, start reading the document by placing a ruler under each line. This way, the eyes will be able to focus on a manageable amount of text to read. The author should look for mistakes that they tend to make it repeatedly. The same type of errors may be looked for in the present document. Search for one kind of mistake at a time. Who wants Ton search again for the next type of mistake? Let the documents set our incubate for a certain period. For example, at they are too. There should be a gap between writing and proofreading. Find out when a particular person is almost sleepy are the point of time when the person is the most alert during the day. Proofread at a time when you are the most alert person. Read aloud while proofreading. This will help notice errors related to ordering. Ideas that transition between subplots and even grammar and punctuation errors have many rivers, some from same domain and some from other domains. So let me reverse. It. Reviewed the document. It helps in noticing errors, detecting sentences without clarity, avoiding jargons and most importantly, sloppy errors. Proof read through the document many times, searching for spelling mistakes, grammatical errors, and in appropriate punctuation. Use software facilitating spell checks, grammar checks, punctuation checks, and even pragmatism checks, however, do not be entirely dependent on the software. Take assistance from grammar and punctuation handbooks. If unsure about a certain case, our sentence. 36. Finding Clients: Numerous waves services are available nowadays offering proofreading and editing services for web content, e-books, papers, books, novels, articles, or magazines. These services also can check spelling, grammar, punctuation in addition to editing and proofreading EDI document. In addition to direct content, direct contact with editing and proofreading individuals or firms, web services such as fiber, Upwork, scrubbing, D, et cetera, also provide these services. So you have to be sure if you really want to get into this and it Thank you an expert or you have become an expert, then you can go on these websites, create your account, and find the clients. Are if you are a person who wants to get things done for someone, but you don't want to do it yourself. You can again go to these websites and hire a particular expert in editing or proofreading. 37. Marketing Yourself: If to be successful as writers, editors, proofreaders, the readers must go through a read. Maximum content edited or proofread by you are missing individuals. In today's world, it is done through marketing and advertisement. Marketing oneself is paramount towards one success. Spatially in this field, the marketing can be done through the numerous social media platforms available nowadays, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Instagram, et cetera. Individuals can post various write-ups are prologues to as 2D line in these social media platforms that they're friends and colleagues can read and share them with others with maximum publicity. Youtube content may also be developed for advertisement and marketing. If applicable. The most important thing is that marketing or branding is the perceived value. So showcase your value as much as possible. You've finished reviewing or read, reading, or writing, or editing or proofreading a book or content posted out there so that people know that you are on your toes, are working and improving yourself day by day.