Canva : Graphic Design Theory Volume2 | Jeremy Deighan | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome to Canva Course : Graphic Design Theory Volume2


    • 2.

      About Canva


    • 3.



    • 4.



    • 5.



    • 6.



    • 7.



    • 8.



    • 9.



    • 10.



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    • 12.



    • 13.



    • 14.



    • 15.



    • 16.

      Split Complementary


    • 17.



    • 18.

      Letter Spacing


    • 19.

      Line Height


    • 20.



    • 21.



    • 22.



    • 23.



    • 24.



    • 25.



    • 26.

      Rule of Thirds


    • 27.

      Golden Ratio


    • 28.

      Thank You for Watching!


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About This Class

Do you want to take your business and brand graphics to the next level? Have you ever wondered why some advertisements in social media stand out, while some you never even take a second look at? Do you want to catch your audience's attention so that you can promote your product?

What this course is about:

Canva Course: Graphic Design Theory Volume2 is the second part in a series of courses that are aimed to help you understand simple design theory for your business or brand. These ideas can be applied across multiple platforms, including your brand, eBooks, websites, social media graphics, presentations and more.

Canva is a very easy-to-use and free online software platform for creating stunning graphics in a very short amount of time. It's pre-made layouts and huge library of artwork make it the go-to graphics software for a lot of businesses and entrepreneurs.

What you will learn in this course:

This course will guide you through the basic principles and ideas that are in all sorts of visual media. You can expect to gain attention and an audience with your designs when you follow the simple procedures explained in these videos. The lectures include:

  • Information about Canva.
  • Elements of design.
  • Principles of design.
  • Color Theory.
  • Typography.
  • Composition.
  • Plus free updates and additions to the course in the future!


If you enjoy this course and want to learn more about the principles and theory behind great graphic design, than be sure to check out the other volumes in this series:

Canva Course: Graphic Design Theory in Social Media Volume 1

For more information on using Canva, check out my other course:

Canva Course: Beginner's Guide to Canva for Graphic Design

Jeremy Deighan

p.s. I am here for my students and I always welcome any feedback, questions, discussions, or reviews on my courses. Please visit my profile to see how you can contact me in the most convenient way for you!

Other Courses in This Series:

Canva : Beginner's Guide

Canva : Introduction to Graphic Design Theory

Canva : Graphic Design Theory Volume 1

Canva : Graphic Design Theory Volume 2

Canva : Book Cover Design

Other Courses You May be Interested In:

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Blog Title Graphic

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Twitter Header

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Twitter Post

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Pinterest Graphic

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Google+ Photo

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Wide Skyscraper Ad

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Email Header

Canva for Entrepreneurs : Infographic

Canva for Entrepreneurs : eBook Cover

Meet Your Teacher

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Jeremy Deighan

Online Instructor |


My name is Jeremy Deighan and I am thrilled to be an online instructor, helping others achieve their own personal goals. I have had quite the range of skills and hobbies through my lifetime. I really enjoy teaching and hope to provide information to others on anything and everything I know how to do! Please take a moment to check out my courses, and if you take any please leave a review and any feedback you have!

Art and Design

I have an extensive background in different forms of art and design. I have an associates degree in Computer Animation and I've worked with various production houses to create awesome content. Adobe Photoshop has been a staple of my arsenal since I was 16 and use it faithfully to this day.

I also have a history in live visual arts, specifical... See full profile

Level: All Levels

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1. Welcome to Canva Course : Graphic Design Theory Volume2: Hello, everyone. And welcome to this Canada course on using design theory and social media. I want to welcome you and also thank you for joining this course, and I hope you find it valuable in this course. I'm going to show you the basic principles of design theory that you need to know whenever you are creating any kind of images or graphics. And this could be for your website, your brand for social media for Twitter Facebook Pinterest. If you just watch this video and understand some of these key concepts that graphic designers and artists use, you will have a better understanding of how to really make your images and graphics stand out from the rest. And I'm sure you've seen the websites and images and graphics online and you just look at and their horrendous and you don't really know what's wrong with, um, But your mind says that there's something wrong with him, and it's because the basic principles of the design theory has not been applied to those graphics. So in this course, we are going to go in deep into um, what each of these principles are, and we will cover or wide range of things from the principles and elements of design to typography, color and composition. And this is what one of the courses looks like. We're I give a brief description of the topic at hand, and then I'd provide a couple examples that I threw together and maybe some photographs on some things that I'm want to bring up about that particular topic. And then I go in to provide some examples of graphic designs that I pulled straight out of Canada. And I use these examples to show you that, you know, these aren't ones I made. I just pulled them right out of here so I can show you why they work so well and the principles that are being used and they're a great resource. And it really shows you the power of this software to be able to pull together very quickly , a design that looks great. And all you have to do is just change out some of the information and you're on your way. But if you have these principles in mind while you're designing and putting this information together, then you're really going to stand out 2. About Canva: So before we get started, I would like to take a moment to look at. This program, called Canvas Camera, is an online tool that you can use to make all kinds of great looking designs. Now I have another course on how to set up this program and use it from beginning to end. I suggest you take a look and find that course and check it out, but basically I'll give a quick rundown of this software. What camera is is. It's a photo and graphic editing software that has a ton of pre made layouts that they use to help you get up and running in no time. And you can choose from these pre made layouts, which makes it really simple. Now, this is the main dashboard after you have created an account, and you can see here that you can easily select one of these objects and it will make a design for you. And if you expand this, they have all kinds of different things. In here you can make events. Ah, blawg and he booked graphics, marketing graphics, um, social media type stuff, different kinds of documents, such as presentations. If you're giving a lie presentation in ads. So we'll just go ahead and pick one of these real quick for this. Sorry. Hit the wrong button there. Um, for this, I've been using the social media graphic just cause it's pretty basic size to using, like Instagram, Facebook and stuff. But you could pick any one of these. Um, you know, you could make a poster. They also just recently added infographics, which is really nice to make those. Ah, if we collect this here, it will open up a new window, and this takes you to canvass designed dashboard. And here you can choose some of these pre may layouts, which I use in examples. In the following courses and volumes. You can add texts at backgrounds. You can upload your own images, and also you can pick from a variety of shapes and illustrations. Now it's free to set up an account, and it's free to use some of their templates and graphics. Sometimes you do have to pay for some of the graphics, and they are $1 each. And so what happens is they put this watermark with a Campbell logo on here, and if you use that element or that template or whatever, When you go to download this or um, yeah, when you go to download this as an image or a Pdf, you're going to have to pay for it, and it'll pop up, Ah, screen there for you to put in your credit card information. You can buy credits to make it a little bit cheaper and everything, but basically some of the stuff is paid for. But there is a lot of free stuff in here. So I wanted to use this software to show you that you don't have to be an experience or professional graphic designer to come up with awesome images and logos and things of that nature. So basically, what I've done is I've pulled information from canvas, such as their shapes and icons and text and pre may layouts to describe the fundamentals that I'm teaching in this course now. Like I said, if you want to go further deeper into how to actually use the software, I have a separate course on that, and I would advise you go look that up and and take a look at it. Um, it's it's definitely really helpful, and it covers everything about camera from beginning to end, and it shows some short cuts. So these courses all kind of go together. You have the course shown you how to set it up, and then this course here will teach you how to, um, use design principles to make those graphics awesome. And I really hope that, um, this helps you out. Check out this software. I love it. It's really great to use. It just integrates so well into social media. When you create one of these pre may layouts, if it says Facebook or Twitter, they're actually using the dimensions from those social media platforms. So you know that the dimensions are going to be correct, and that is just awesome in itself. Just toe have that at your fingertips, and they're constantly updating stuff, adding new stuff, So check him out and let's continue with the course 3. Direction: direction provides motion and directs the viewer's eye. So anything in your graphic design image that is pointing in a direction or helping move your audiences I around. The graphic design is considered as direction, so direction can be shown in multiple ways. Some of those ways can be with lines and arrowheads. They could be shown with images of directions shown out in the image itself, and it can be implied line of sight. So someone looking off into the distance this direction can lead the eye by placement of images or information. Also, so direction can be shown by the way that elements and graphics are actually placed within the design itself. So let's take a look at a couple examples, and here we have an illustration and you can see there's two kinds of directions going on here and actually multiple directions, which we can touch on seventh. Um, but the main tube is the way that the characters looking the character doesn't seem to be necessarily staring right at you, the viewer, but kind of maybe past you as if they he's standing on the road looking for a car to pass by so he can point the way. And then, of course, the other is the arrow pointing into the direction when you're looking at this to your right, and when you're using things like this, such as the arrowheads for direction, you need to be careful because you can guide the viewers line of sight right off of the page. Because the arrows pointing to the right and there is wider negative space in that direction and nothing else, there's nothing to stop the viewer from continuing their eyes right off the page and moving on to something else. So a good way to use this design would be to put some type of message that you want the audience to see right next to the arrow on the right hand side, with the negative spaces that does two things. It points at what you want them to see, bringing emphasis to that text or image, and it stops a viewer from letting their eyes wander off the page. This example works the same exact way, except it's a photograph instead of an illustration. But here we have the road with some extra marks on it, pointing toward an area down the road and This would be good the same way by adding text or elements in the direction that the arrow is pointing, so you might have an image of your car driving off that you want the person to see. Or maybe you have text, um, up there in the sky on the horizon that you want the viewer to read. So this is providing direction by pointing with an actual photograph and asphalt texture and what have you. So when are examples you can see here that we have a little bit of direction by The images in the background, such as this file were a reflection of this flower because it's acting sort of like an arrowhead and pointing down towards at the texts. The glasses can also be guiding lines, pointing in the direction to help kind to push your eyes back toward the image and also kind of block this aero direction going downwards. In this graphic design, the same exact concept is happening, except we're using symbols instead of any kind of image or photograph, So this looks like a badge. But it also looks like an arrow pointing down at the text says, providing direction that way, and then you have some hierarchy and direction going on with the way that detects is laid out here. Sometimes Texas emphasized in the middle, but here it's emphasized at the top and flows naturally downward, as if you were reading. So that's also providing direction by the placement. And finally, in this one, you have direction by the implied line of sight. So when you're looking at the photograph in the background, you kind of wander off in the same direction that the person in this photo is looking at toward that sunrise or sunset, or maybe often, to that city. And you kind of get the same sense of mood and feeling that the artist wants to portray in this type of image by letting your eyes go in the same direction that they want you to see . So when you read this text, you might then look at the character and then gaze off in that same direction and think about your vacation, says very powerful the way they've done this. So use direction in your designs, especially when you want to specifically point as something there's nothing easier than sticking an arrow right next to a block of texts and saying, Hey, look at this. So use those in your designs, and I hope that helps you out. 4. Scale: scale is immeasurable size, oven element in relationship toe other elements in the design. So what scale? You can use shapes and icons to help emphasize different elements of your design, and you can use scale and text to also emphasize what you want the viewer to see. Scale helps provide a certain mood with design elements and images based on what you're trying to portray in that specific design element or image. So let's go ahead and take a look here. So in this example, you have scale between the planets, but without anything else to really see around these planets or anything to compare to, we don't know the scale of these planets and how big we're talking about. So, for instance, we could say that this is the actual universe and these air planets within our solar system , and that is a much larger scale because now we're talking about hundreds of thousands of millions of miles away from each other. Or we could talk about your middle or high school science class when you would make those little dia Rama's of the planets a new Styrofoam balls. When you're talking about that, it's on a match Mawr average or regular scale than we're used to. Something about much smaller I should say so. Based on other objects interacting that within the scene, you get different scale things or larger or smaller, and with Onley these objects to compare to each other. Your mind is kind of left in your imagination fills in those gaps. Now in this image, the same principles air going on scale is being used to kind of portray this image. And at first glance, this almost looks kind of like a toy train, something that you would see on a local television station for Ah, you know something something of like a kids show. But when we see the people something that we're familiar with on a normal human size scale , we immediately know that these are real train cars. So now we have a sense of scale that this isn't a little toy city. This is an actual real life big city. So let's look at some examples of scale and designs, and these are the same principles. Here we have this design of Los Angeles, and we're on a large scale out on the mountain, looking across the city and seeing this large scale of the city and uncompensated the whole city in one image. We're not down on the street level or were not flying in the in the space looking down. But we do have a grand sense of scale based on this image. And of course, in this one, we're on a much smaller scale. Looking at a cup in this bottle. In this water, you kind of get a realize skill what, that actually glad the actual glass would be like and the size that it would pertain. So run a much more personal level here. We're not way above the city looking down. We're not also microscopic ants looking up at this stuff, but we're on that natural human scale where we could just reach out and grab that glass. It's almost in the same size and proportion of a normal glass, so it's actually like you could reach out and grab it. So scale is definitely helping in this photograph to portray the feeling that they want to get across, that you should stay hydrated and reach out and grab for that glass of water. And then finally, you can see scale in these icons and text. And with the Twitter icon now there, you kind of get a sense of scale. Now, if we were to take that Twitter icon and blow it up so that filled the whole graphic design , it would give you a kind of different feeling, and maybe the text would feel a little smaller to you. But since we have a smaller icon, the text kind of pops and stands out and is emphasized. But you still get a good scale of that Twitter icon and reverse Lee. If we were to take the Twitter icon and make it extra, extra actual small, it would give you another sense of scale in the design. So you scale in your designs. It can help bring contrast, and it can now guide the viewers eyes. Also, it also can provide balance. If something on one side of your design is greatly scaled above, everything else in your design is gonna have a lot more visual weight and pull the viewers eyes in that direction. That could be a mood. You're going forward. It can also cause discomfort and something you want to avoid, but it's all based on the ideas that you are trying to get across 5. Texture: texture provides a three dimensional look on a two dimensional surface, and this can be achieved a number of different ways with value with color, with shapes and designs, so texture shows the look or feel of a surface. It can add visual interest and provide contrast with other elements in the design. Some examples of texture might be something that is smooth or rough, silky furry or has a metallic texture. So here you can see this old style record player has some multiple textures going on. We have the texture of this bronze or copper bell and the way that that that metal kind of looks. And then you also have the vinyl record, and it's smooth surface and then the wood texture of the box. You can see the grains within that would, so there's a lot of texture within this illustration, and it just presents. Ah, very nice, pleasing, three dimensional look to the object. Now, if these were just shapes and solid colors, you would have a certain feel for this. It would look more like an icon or symbol, but when we start to provide color and patterns and texture, you start to get a sense of really what this is, and it just looks more realistic the more deep you get within textures and coloring and lighting. In this photograph, you can see two textures going on the texture of the wood surface. And before you can see the grains and the pits, the scratches, the highlights, the dole areas, and then you can see the texture of the phone here, the smooth and clean glass top in the metallic kind of side or plastic side. The nice, smooth detail there and varying textures in this photo helps make that phone stand out. You definitely get a sense of contrast going on within these two textures. In this scene, you can see that it starts really textured at the bottom and gradually moves less texture near the top. It kind of fades away with the mountains as it goes up, and this also provides contrast. So you have the textures of the trees and the grass and the sand, and then as you get near the top, it kind of clears up and really makes the contrast at the top. Pop out first. So you start reading that first this image, Of course, provides a lot of different textures also and gives just a nice, pleasant feeling. But in the background you can see multiple textures going on. We have the texture of the table in the wood. We have the wine glass, and it's smooth surface. You have the texture of the bread with its, you know, pits and holes and its crust. And then you have the smooth surface of the wine bottle and the label and then the cloth material, those air, all textures and they all define what kind of feeling that those objects have in the scene . And then finally, here again is another good use of using textures and non textures to create contrast. So we have this background of maybe this kind of chalkboard look that has some scratches and smudges and fates, and the text in the images and symbols are this high contrast white with no texture. So you really get the popping out of the contrast there and having two different textures or having a texture and a non texture really provides good contrast and shows that visual wait so you can use textures in your designs to do a couple things you can have them present a certain mood or feeling. Based on the texture that you're using, you can show something that is disharmonious. If you have something that we're used to seeing, it's textured, and then maybe instead it has a different texture on it. So, for instance, who knows if you had some kind of animal or creature that was made out of bricks or sand or something of that nature, they can provide a different sort of mood or feeling, and then you can use it as contrast when you're having things like this image, where there's texture and non texture, so use texture and you're seeing give your scenes some good feeling and definitely check out this element of design. 6. Color: color is used to express moods or emotions in a design and also helps to provide contrast. Color can be applied to backgrounds, lines, shapes, typography and texture. Colors can have different meanings, and it helps to know what your audience target is so that you're expressing the right kind of feelings with the colors that you're using to the audience. Color can also be identified by its color temperature if a color is cool or if it's warm and hot. And colors are also broken down into color schemes, which makes it easy to categorize colors and the types of design principles with these color schemes that we will discuss. Color uses multiple properties such as hue, value and saturation to describe what kind of color that is we're talking about. So let's take a look here In this first illustration, you can see that these file folders are breaking down a couple of different ways. Of course, you have the order of the shapes from top to bottom, and then you have the numbers 12 and three to separate them. But you also have color to separate them, too. This makes organization in the mind very easy and easy toe associate and provide unity within objects and elements in your scene. In this image, colors are being used to provide very high contrast. The very hot, warm reds against the very cold and cool blues helps make that bridge just look very striking. So color is definitely used here to emphasize the object or element that they're trying to show you. In this example, you can see color has been de saturated, and there's a monochromatic type color scheme going on here where it's essentially one color being used. That helps from the D saturation of the color and draws it to one type of value so that it is kind sort of one color. But you can see other colors if you look closely, such as greens and reds. But there is D saturation taken out out of the colors here to kind of give you the certain look and feel they want you to show of this craft workshop. In this color scheme, you might have a analogous tight color scheme where the colors are similar to each other on the color were. Now there is some greens here, some complementary colors that help make it stand out and look striking. But as far as the Berries go, they all fall within the same sort of colors. The hues are very close together, and it's highly saturated to really make that fruit pop and make you want it. Finally, here you might see a triad type color scheme or even mawr, where multiple multiple colors are being used, and each section is sort of divided off into different colors. Notice that no one person is wearing the same color clothing, and this helps provide balance and uniformity and helps really give the viewer and idea of the variation that they're going for in this type of photo. So color is a very strong and graphic design, and we will talk about color schemes to really dive deep into the sort of principles that will help. Give the certain moods and feelings you want to g o into your images. Because based on the color schemes, you can immediately come up with some great color choices instead of just wondering which kind of colors go together. So definitely use color in your images and graphics to provide contrast and emphasis where you want the viewer to look 7. Typography: typography is a design and style of text in your art, So this is basically the way that text is shown in a design. It's not just the words that are shown, but it's also how they're shown. What style What feeling in moods? A portray different types of typography within your design can provide emphasis or a focal point based on the different properties you use, such as its font style font height. If it's bold, italicized underlined, you can use bulleted text of typography to create list and help keep your text organize and easy to digest. Typography can also tell a story with its visual style. So let's take a look at what some different types of typography here and in this illustration, you can see they're using two types of typography, one which we would cause. San Serif. We're just basic blocks of text, easy to read, easy formatted, and then we have a kind of a script type front, I believe, um, maybe it's a specialty type fund, but you have a little bit of script at the beginning here. Then you could even say these EMS are a little bit serif, so we'll just say that this is, ah, display foreigner or specialty tight phones. But using the two different types of funds within this image helps make the words stand out and also using the different colors within the font. So this light blue in this red here we have in this picture typography being used, and it's got a nice little visual style to it, the way that it's kind of at a curve or angle here, opposed to these groups of Easter eggs. Now this is a serif font. You can see the Sarah's on the ease and the S is and things of that nature. So it's using just a thick, kind of bold ID serif type font to show this. But it's doing it done in a pleasing way within an image and not just text on the screen. So in the first example, you see the same kind of patterns two types of phones to different font styles, and one is more emphasized and hasn't more weight to it. Then one has a little less waiting. It's kind of thin and free for me, So having those two types of funds together provide the certain Loker feel that they're going within this certain graphic design image. In this design, you have different font sizes to help draw your eyes down the page. So at the top, the main thing they want you to see has a large font size, so it stands out the most, and then the second important thing they want you to see has the medium font size and then information they want to keep, but is maybe the least important of the other two they have in the smallest fought size, and it helps guide your eyes down the image. You can also see there's a little more weight and the first and second than the last one. Funds also have a classification called ding bats or wing dings, and this is when you type characters on the keyboard and each letter pertains to a symbol or image, and these could be doing bets up here. So it's an actual font class that you could download and use, and it provides a whole bunch of symbols and extra artwork, and when you hit may be the a key, you get this symbol, and when you hit the Beaky, you get this symbol in the Seiki, the symbol and the D Key this simple. So definitely check out ding bats when you are designing anything, because it opens up your art library to a lot more options. And then, finally, just another example of different front waits, font styles and font size is being shown in an image to kind of guide your eyes around the way that they want you to see everything in order. So fonts are typography. Infants are a big part of design, and especially when you're dealing with social media, where you're trying to portray certain types of messages, typography can be really easy to get that message across and knowing what the different kinds of font types and styles in the different weights can help give. You emphasise toe what you're trying to show in your designs, so used typography, but use it well and study it because it is a large topic and something that it could be an entire course all to itself. 8. Proximity: proximity refers to the grouping of elements to create harmony and balance. So in your images, when you put a like things together, you're creating proximity between those objects or elements, and doing show can really help guide the viewer and create organization within your graphics. Sometimes you want to put unlike things together, to kind of create a little bit of chaos or draw attention. But let's take a look at how this is. So in this simple example, you can see in the top left hand corner. There's proximity created between these four squares, and they're group together based on their shape, even though they all have different colors. You can tell that they belong together because they all have the same kind of shapes going on in the bottom right hand corner. You can see we have different shapes, but they all have the same color, so you could guess that these shapes belong together based on their same color values. Now you could mix and match these two groups together, and it would create a little bit of chaos because some of the colored squares would be was some of the red objects, and that might be something that you're going for in this image, you can see some coffee beans that are tightly grouped together to create this nice, appealing image, and there's a little bit of chaos with the way that they're rotated and randomly thrown on the table. But you can see that they are all closely related together Now. If we had some different kind of beans or nuts or something else on the table and just thrown in there, then you won't have as good as proximity. Everything would just be mashed up together. But if we had maybe some different kinds of beings, but nicely stored over here in the corner, you would have the proximity of those to each other and then of this group to itself. In this image, you can see that text box have been grouped together to create nice order and easy to understand. This just helps draw your attention, makes it nice for the viewer, and you don't have to think too much to kind of put this image together. In this image, artwork is using proximity to create kind of this top border, and these little flowers that they have going on here even have their own kind of spacing where the bigger flowers air at the top, in the little flowers or at the bottom. And they all have this nice space in relationship between one another. And this is all proximity to this graphic and the way that they've got to Slade out kind of balances out the image because you have this bottom border here and this creates kind of a top border. And then finally, here you can see relationships of proximity working where you have the text blocks groups together on the right hand side and the Times group together on the left hand side. He can also see things like the times have a certain color to them where the text has the certain white value to them. So this helps distinguish the two different types of information that they're giving here. You know that these air times based on the numbers, the colors and the grouping of them, and then you know that these are the cities based on the white value and also the grouping of them. So proximity is basically the distance of elements in relationship to one another, and it just helps creating a like objects grouped together to create organization balance and harmony within the scene. It also helps differentiate between different groups of elements, so you can show that you have two opposing types of groups going on and your graphic designer image. So use proximity when you want to try to either create chaos or create order, and it will definitely help guide your views attention by what your group together. 9. Proportion: proportion is a size of an element relative to other elements in the design and proportion helps achieve harmony, balance and order within a design. You can also make an element disproportionate and emphasize or draw attention to the focal point of that disproportion in your design. So let's take a look here and here. We have a funny illustration, and you can see immediately that the body is disproportionate. The legs seem a lot longer than they should be and the body as a lot smaller than it should be. And we get this from our natural sense of proportion to the things around us and everyday lies and humans Characters. Figures are the easiest to spot when something is not in proportion because we're so used to seeing people on an everyday basis. So in things such as cartooning, adding disproportion really help straw emphasis to a character and can make that character unique. So the character could have a very big head or very small hands or a very long torso and having proportion relative to its own body. You can draw attention to the different parts of the body of that character that you want the same is true and design. You can make things scaled and size differently to show proportion and disproportion and have something very large and a scene that is, you know, everything else is very small. So here we have a nice, balanced, harmonious proportion picture. And when you were dealing with everyday objects, things are usually going to be in proportion because they're made that way, and that's how we see them. So when we have this table here with the computer, the coffee, the earbuds, the pens in the notebook, everything is nice, organized in proportion, and it's pleasing to look at nothing is really drawing a 10 year attention too much based on scale or size, however, say we took the pen in the bottom right hand corner and we made that pen three feet big. Then you would get a difference sense of feeling based on the proportion of the pain relative to all the other objects in the scene. It would look kind of silly to have a pen that large when you know that the computer, the coffee, the earbuds and everything else in the scene, or of natural regular size that we're used to seeing. So in the first example, we have nice balanced proportion in this cake, and you can see that it's just a regular cake, and all the Cherries on top are nicely proportioned to everything else. You can also divide up the scene and into layers as the cake is in the layers and the proportion of the different parts of the image breaking up that scene now. Same as with the pen analogy. If one of these Cherries were extra large, it might create a different kind of style or feel to the image, especially if you could prove that that extra large cherry was riel. Then you begin to wonder if that's a real cherry that is really, really big. Then we must be talking about a very small cake so proportion can help show scale and can either draw organization and unity or create chaos and draw attention. So here's an example of where disproportion has been used to kind of draw all attention. And aside from any colors or anything else going on here, the quote quotation marks are disproportionate to the text because you know that if there were normal quotation marks to the text they would be, ah, lot smaller, and they would fit nicely in between those blocks of text. But here they have scaled up these quotations and made the size a lot larger and have made them disproportionate to the actual typography on the design, drawing attention. So with adding a little color and heading some scale and disproportion, you immediately see this image stand out right away, and it helps draw your attention on inward to read the text that they want you to see. And finally, here's an illustration of a character and you can see some proportion going on with the cloud inside of the head, and it gives you an idea of a little brain storm going on if we remove the character and you just had the cloud, you don't know what the scale is, too. Any other objects within the scene, so you might actually be up in the clouds. It could be really big when you had the character's head and you see the proportion of the cloud to the character. You can tell that this is a little mini brainstorm going on inside of the head. Another cool feature is that the I that they used at the bottom. That little image is also pretty much in proportion to the head. I haven't moved it, but I would say it might be a little bigger to draw a little more emphasis. But basically it's the same size as the head and kind of connects those two together. 10. Rhythm: rhythm happens when shapes, lines, patterns or layouts, or used to create movement in the design and patterns, especially, can really help create this rhythm and movement by creating this visual aesthetic of seeing something that's moving even though it's stationary. Rhythm can also be achieved on a page by the placement of elements such as in a magazine. When you have an image on the left hand side of the magazine and then a block down, it's on the images on the right hand side and then the next block down. It's on the left hand side. You're creating a rhythm of the eye bouncing back and forth down the page, and this helps just guide the viewer's eye and create uniformity within your design. So here's just a basic pattern of some lines, and it creates a sort of rhythm. And if you were to stick a basic block or rectangle in the center, you could break up the rhythm and create contrast for what you wanted to say, or an image you wanted to show while maintaining the rhythm of the rest of the design on the outside. In this picture, you can see rhythm being used by these beads and actually the colors of the beads kind of helped create their own rhythm. Also, you get kind of this curvy way form and the way that it's kind of drawing your eyes around the image and in this style of wave. So let's take a look at some examples in In this image, there's actually a little bit of rhythm to the way that the typography has shown. So you have the most noticeable text here, and then the second, based on its size, would be these words in these words. And then finally, at the bottom, you have the date, which is a little smaller. So you have this natural rhythm of bouncing from middle top down middle of top down when you're reading that based on the emphasis and typography they used. There's also a little bit of example of some movement and rhythm going here in this pattern at the bottom, and these also are creating some guiding lines shooting up toward the text for you to read , and this image you can see also that they have the same type typography, rhythm, but you can also see a pattern of movement going on in the background, this diagonal kind of wave happening, and it just kind of makes your I'd bounce diagonally between the corners back and forth, checking out the checks that's in the center. And I really like this one because it's creating rhythm in a circular motion based on the images that they used. And they even use, um, images in the background, which are a little contrast ing toe what is going on in the foreground. But it helps create the spiral rhythm, and I think that that starts you off in the direction, like as if it's a clock and this is throwing you in this direction. And then your eyes kind of wander around these images, checking everything out, looking at the different design elements, and it's creating a circular rhythm and drawing you kind of like a spiral back into the middle of what they want to see, since it's a food website. This also shows movement that its active that it's, you know, cooking with passion and movement, and throwing the spices and chopping up the things and and plenty of movement going on. We're not talking about a stationary type of skill. We're talking about a skill that has a lot of action movement and rhythm going on and that is portrayed in this circular design that they have going on here. So use rhythm in your design to help guide your viewers eyes where you want them to go. You have to be careful because if you create rhythm that leads off the page, you will guide the audience away from your image or design. So make sure when using rhythm that the rhythm is going in line with your focal point and what you actually want the viewer to see. 11. Unity: unity creates a feeling of wholeness by using the same colors, graphics and fonts in your designs and images so you can use unity to create organization and a pleasing aesthetic to the viewer. And you can also make things not unified and create chaos or disruption or draw attention to things in the scene. But using unity is a very good idea, especially when dealing with things such as branding, because in your brand you want a unified look. You don't want to give the viewer mix impressions about your identity or your business, so you use the same logos across all platforms. Use the same colors in your brain across all the images and social media graphics that you create. So when choosing something such as a brand identity, make sure that you try to pick out a couple key colors and maybe one or two key fonts that you will use to keep that same aesthetic throughout your brand and keep that unified look. So here we can see we have unity in a couple different ways. In you have the circles which circles air, creating unity because you can identify that these are all group together based on their shapes we have the text is all the same, so we have another level of unity and we have the colors of their chosen, which is also creating unity. So if these percentage circles were on a website but they were spaced out, it would create, still create a unified look because you can group them together based on their appearance, their shape, their typography, their colors and so warm. So you unity is being used here to help create a pleasing aesthetic. Look. In this image, you can see that unity is being used by the corks now. It's also a rounded shape, but they're all miss colored, yet they all go together. They have the same kind of texture, and they're the same object, the same relative size scale in proportion to each other. So it creates a unit. It creates a sense of unity and the way that they are arranged in balanced. In this image, it helps create a little bit of organization and and columnists and Peacefulness because of the unified nature of these alike objects in the scene. So let's take a look at some examples on this is a pretty basic one, but basically you have unified text with the color and the farm type. And as you can see, it's using the same thing all the way down the page. They didn't use the second type of fun. It's creating one unified look with the message they want to get out. There's also a bit of unity going on in the background with the windows and image of this building. They all kind of look the same, and it creates a pretty basic pleasing image to look at without too much chaos going on in this image, you kind of get Ah, different different properties of unity here, which is really nice. This image works out really well with the way that they've grouped everything together and had a cohesive, unified look. So, for instance, you have the chocolates, and they all have the same kind of color. So they're all kind of brought together same general texture. You know, they're chocolate and the wrappers that they're in. They also have the same kind of texture look and feel. The gold color of that wrapping for those chocolates is the same color that is used in the text, so you've now unified the typography with the wrappings of the image. You even have shapes that are creating unity. So the shape here that is blocking out this Texan creating some white space has the same kind of shapes that you see in some of these chocolate images. So you've created a little bit unity with even this, like as if it's ah, it's Ah, little chocolate package also. So this image is doing a great job of creating you. Unity, harmony, balance in all kinds of other things within this image. And it is very strong and really helps drive what the message they're going for into your brain. And here we see the same thing, another beautiful image that is using unity to draw everything together. So you only have a couple of basic colors and they're using across the whole image. So the red that's in the cherry is the same red that's in the border. That's the same red that is in the typography. We've unified the colors. We've created a consistent brand look, based on the colors that were trying to portray. Now you might have this cupcake sale, and if you were to go to the restaurant, and maybe their colors were bright green everywhere. It might throw that branding image off a little bit. Might make you feel a little uncomfortable because you remember seeing this image. But when you get to this this bakery, it's a completely different look and feel than what you're thinking. It's not this nice, fluffy cupcake reds and pinks and whites kind of place. It's maybe, ah, vibrant greens and yellows and oranges kind of place, and it might bring you some discomfort. However, if you walked inside of that bakery and all of their logo and branding and packaging had the same pinks and reds, you're creating a unified image. Look and feel, and you want to use this and your graphics and images as much as possible. If you have a brand or business or you're just starting out and you're trying to get your image across so that people recognize you don't throw them mixed messages by having things that are not unified. Create that cohesive brand and consistency so people know what to depend on when they're trying to find you 12. Repitition: repetition creates patterns and visual consistency in your design or images. It can help guide your viewer through the image or design. This is especially true and Web design. When you use the repetition of framing to create visual consensus, see down the page. So, for instance, if you had a BLAWG website, the repetition comes from each block post that is posted on the main page. That feed is creating repetition. You have the same title. Look, the same body of, ah, the introduction. Look in the same thumbnail or image for that specific bog post, but it's laid down the same format every time you post a new one. It looks the same on the main page. It creates repetition and patterns, and it makes it easier for the viewer to digest and understand. The more they see it and the more they come back to it, it can definitely make um, images and graphics pleasing to the viewer and add continuity between objects in the scene . So here you can see a basic illustration where repetition has been used within the leaves. To create this artwork, they have the same color, the same shape and varying sizes But the repetition of these leaves kind of moves. The viewer eyes around this tree in this image. In this photograph, we have repetition of themes, style of wood here, this texture. So you have this a dark wood texture, toe light to dark toe, light to dark that creates repetition. And when you're viewing this down the page, it makes it uniform and easy to see Now. If he had blocks of texts in these lighter areas, then you would easily understand that as you went down the image and it would become easy for you to read. Now you can also break up repetition to draw, to draw, focus or focal point of emphasis to something. So if one of these, like, say, this one was a light one, it would throw that repetition off and draw focus to that design. Same thing if you were to rotated a little bit. It doesn't have that straight horizontal, and then you get down here. It's rotated that is going to draw focus, so repetition helps create things in order. But you can also stop the process to draw focus to whatever you want that person to see. So in this example, you can see we have the repetition of both these side patterns and also these page breaks. So there's some repetition going on with that page. Break this one and then at the bottom. So when you come down here, you have the same feeling and you get some movement with this pattern of repetition bouncing the arrows down, kind of telling you how to read this they look like little arrows and on both sides, boarding this saying Read this downwards and the repetition and pattern there is helping to create that for you. In this image, repetition is being used by the framing than style of photographs. He's de saturated gray scale kind of images on the right hand side, and you just kind of read these top to bottom, going down by the repetition of the framing elements around them to kind of keep them the same and put them together. And finally, here repetition is used within the artwork within the actual shapes that we have going on here. So we have some similar dark green leaves, and then we have some similar, like green leaves. We also have these little starburst sitter this pinkish and purplish color, and you can find those throughout this design. They just didn't stick him at the top. They kind of sprinkled them around and a nice, balanced and pleasing look. But they're creating repetition and pattern, by the way, that they have used the's starburst throughout the image. So it helps create uniformity and balance, so use repetition to help the viewer. It makes it easier for them to digest information when they start picking up on patterns. So if you have an infographic and the title has a logo, well, when you get to the second title, that second logo needs to look similar. That second symbol should look as similar to the first symbol. When you do that, you're creating a pattern, and then the viewer knows what to expect. They start understanding and processing the information quicker and easier because they start seeing these patterns. It's natural for us to see patterns in every day, and it is used in design all the time, so definitely look out for patterns in that is repetition 13. Monochromatic: a monochromatic color scheme occurs when Onley one color is used within the design. So that means if we have a red, we're just using values, different values within that red to create the contrast. But we're sticking within the same red throughout that color wheel. So if we take a look at what this looks like, you can see here three circles, all using the same red except one, has tended a little lighter, and one is shaded a little darker. It's click on one of these circles and take a look at this red, and you can see in a monochromatic color scheme were staying right here. Within this line, we're not deviating too much in the hue to the more pinkish colors or the more orange colors, but we're staying within this line, and the other two circles are basically just representatives of that same red. This one's just a little darker, but it's the same red, and then same with this one. It's just a little lighter. Move down this way, a little more de saturated in a little lighter. So if we take a look at this image, you can see this is ah, monochromatic color scheme, and it just gives a certain kind of look. Now typically, monochromatic color schemes can look flat. They really made this one pop really well. So I really like this image using the same reds and just using different tents and shades to get the image in. Portray that those water of droplets there. So in the first example, you can see we just have a basic flat pink image. You know, nothing fancy here. Um a lot of designs are I don't want to say this is the end. All be all but most of them weren't aren't going to be completely monochromatic because to create emphasis, in contrast, you can use color to really help make designs pop out. So I say the majority of designs that aren't white value are solely white or solely black, like, say, typography. You're not going to see a whole lot of monochromatic because you're going to see, you know, emphasis and other colors to make the images stand out. But we'll look at some more examples here. So here's another one like a sky you can see in the background the blue with this, you know, it's the same thing. Different values, creating the image. We do have the high value white toe show the text. But pretty much everything in the background is, ah, monochromatic color scheme. And finally, you can see one here. I can't cheat a little bit on this one because obviously this stems or going to be green, but the way they've de saturated this, it kind of kind of makes that green fade away into the same kind of read the way they have adjusted this image here. Um, if we look of here on this side, you can see you know, a lot of these images are going to use multiple colors. Now this is cool. You can see this image here. You could. This is monochromatic. It's all using the same values, but it's t saturated. So anything this de saturated is pretty much going to be monochromatic because it's in great scales, only using, you know, values of blacks and whites. But a lot of these other images you can see they're going to use a lot more colors, so we'll take a look at some other color schemes. But monochromatic is basically when you're using one color within the color wheel 14. Analagous: an analogous color scheme uses adjacent colors on the color wheel and design. So when you start with your red, you can then go a little bit in huge your left and right so you can have more orangey reds and more pinkish reds. So here are three circles, and this pretty much shows that point. We start with this base. Fred. If we look at this on the color wheel, you can see it's right here. Head about three o'clock, and then if we look at this next color, you can see from the three oclock position. We've moved down into the kind of the oranges colors and then saying with this color, we went in the opposite direction and used some more of the pinkish colors. So we're staying within this adjacent realm right here and with analogous colors. You can have them tightly grouped together and high saturation Zand values, or you can have them spaced far apart, and one good thing to do with ease is usually have a couple of colors that are less saturated and then your main emphasis color be very saturated or with a you know, ah, high value to make it stand out. But analogous is when you're grouping in the same kind of color realm right here. Or if you're talking about blues, that would be the blues and purples and Thiel's or, you know, the greens and yellows and maybe a little light blue. So if you look here, you can see this is hitting that blue spectrum. We have some of the purplish blues and some of the greenish blues, and it just creates a nice kind of feel, keeps the colors, um, together in in uniform and isn't too vibrance in your face. But it just provides a very nice feel. Now, if you were to put text over this, you could maybe pick like this light green with the high value and it could pop out. Or maybe this purple against this background, and it would pop out so you could use colors within that analogous color scheme to add variety to your design, but also keep it within the the same color scheme, but just changing out values and what have you saturation. So here's a good first example where you can see here that it's using that same red, purplish kind of area of the color will, um, you know it. I got so excited. I love this image, some parts that it does have green in it, and I noticed that now, but let's just, you know, forget about the green. But if you're looking at the design itself, um, with those strawberries in the background, you can see that this is a good example of analogous colors. Got the red, the purples, and it's matching the same colors. Aside from the green Abha. Jai's about that. Well, maybe we'll use this one in the later, later sides and show you what what this color scheme would actually be. But I just I love this design, and I just love that how they use these colors and pulled the colors directly from the image. Here's a better analogous color scheme, and you can see here that it's got some more. It's, you know, has its base orange color, but then it has some more. Reddish orange is colors and some more yellow colors, so it's using that spectrum of red, yellow orange, kind of same within that that group to create this image. And finally, here's another example of where they've used the typography and the images with the background image to create the same kind of analogous color scheme going into kind of the greens, a little bit blues and a little bit of yellows and bleeding colors between them to create this image in it. Creech. Just a nice mood in a nice feel. So that's analogous colors. That is, when you have adjacent colors on the color wheel next to each other, and it provides a really cool look. You see a lot of analogous color schemes and designs. 15. Complementary: a complementary color scheme uses colors across from each other on the color wheel. This color scheme is very common in a lot of design graphics, social media, brain ing, and it really creates a lot of emphasis because you're using big contrast two opposite colors across the color wheel. So when you have like an analogous or monochromatic color scheme, your may be creating a little less de emphasis and a nice, pleasing, uniform kind of feeling. But when you use complementary, you create this great, vibrant energy in a mix of opposite colors, which really helped make your design stand out. This is especially true when you're have a background text and you're using two different complementary colors, and these also worked good when you have a dominant high intensity saturated color and then maybe um, less saturated colors, that dominant, dominant color will really be emphasized and stand out. So if you look at or read here, you can see that this is at this position about three o'clock over here, and you can see that color red there now across from it or these blue colors, so that would be its complementary colors. Same thing you know, yellow, blue, green, pink. Those kinds of things create, um, really good contrast with the way that you're using opposite colors and it doesn't have to be perfect. They Converium off a little bit, but it's basically it's opposite color of the color wheel. So here we have an example where we have the blue and then opposite of its color wheel would be this these yellow windows. And it just creates this kind of, um, energy about this this image and just really helps, Um, get your brain moving when you see these contrast in colors. Okay, So in this example, if you watch the video on the analogous colors, I made a little mistake by putting this image up because it does have the green in it. This is actually a complementary color scheme because of that green. Now, um, I was pointing out in the analogous color scheme that it, you know, was using the same like colors for the image and the design here. But, um, it's also has these green leaves, and these greens are they are on the opposite end of the color will from these dark purples and reds. So this is a great complimentary color scheme. And the good thing about this image is it. It doesn't really take away too much. I think the way that they've also used shapes and emphasize the words here. It pulls you into the middle and you read this. You don't notice the green too much, but it really adds a nice little flair to this design. Here's a good general graphic design image of a complimentary color scheme where you have these two colors here, this kind of orangey color and this other kind of blue green color. If I click on this, I can show you. So we have this this base color here. And if you look on the opposite side of the color will you would see that kind of blue green color somewhere around this area right here So you can see that that is a complementary color scheme and you can see what it does in the image. It just helps provide contrast and emphasis and make the image pop a little more than a monochromatic or analogous color scheme. In same thing going on here, here it's got a good balance and mix of the two complementary colors, the yellows and oranges and the dark blues and light blues. And it's got a good mix around the whole image, and it just it's so vibrant and it just really, really stands out. And, you know, it looks great. It's a great wage show office design. Now they use the high value and shapes and other things to draw your intention inward. So your mind just goes kind of, you know, it goes, goes wild with these complementary colors, but you still come back and focus on the words and the images. So this this is really making your brain active when you see these complementary colors in this design. 16. Split Complementary: a split complementary color scheme splits an opposite color into two parts on the color wheel. So when you have a typical complementary color scheme, you have two colors, one on one side of the wheel and the opposite color on the other side of the wheel. Now, if you were to take either one of these two colors and divided on the color wheel and break it into two colors that are adjacent to each other, you would have a split complementary color scheme. So let's take a look at how that is. So here we have this red, and as you can see, it's at the three position here. Now. The other two colors chosen are a blue and a green down here, and, as you can see there being split equally, the complementary color scheme would be this kind of teal blue. But if we were to take that split in an equal parts, you end up with a darker blue and a darker green or more more blue and more more green, I should say so. That's a splint complementary color system. So say we were to start with the yellow, then we might have a purple or lavender and then kind of a blue green, um, cava teal, blue color. Or if we did green, we would have like a red and a purple. That's a split complementary color system. So let's see how that looks. And here we have on the color wheel. We have this yellows and oranges as maybe our main color. And then we have purples and blues, greens and dark blues, as are split complementary. So let's just see if we can take a look at that real quick. I'm going to go up here and just select one of these so you can see. Okay, now scrolling there. OK, go. All right. So as you can see here we have these yellows and oranges, which would be about right here on the color wheel. And then we also have If we were to look at that split complementary. So if we had a yellow orange color right here, it's complimentary. Would be about right here somewhere in this blue. Now, if we split that, we get kind of a more teal blue and more purples and darker blues so you can see the split complementary here. The orange is your base color. Yellows are your base colors, and then it splits between the purples and the chills, and it just adds a little more vibrance to the image. Ah, it changes it up has a little more variety than just ah, standard complementary color system. So in our examples, you can see here that we have a base color of this pinkish. And then you have these these yellows and greens as your split complementary color system. Creating this image. And they've used some values to create the techs and blends. Nice to get a very nice together. Everything's kind of de saturated. Nothing's popping out too much, though. This has a good split, complementary color system working very well, then, in this one, you could have your blue blueberries as your base, and then you have your reds and oranges and yellows. That spectrum kind of become your complimentary color system, see, So if we had, like blue for the blueberries Ah, it's complimentary, would be orange and there is orange in there. But if we split that you would also have the yellows and the reds, and you can see those that red strawberries and yellow down here and up here, so it kind of encompasses that whole spectrum of the reds, yellows and oranges. And then finally, here's one. That's, Ah, very good example. If we take a look here, kind of covers everything up, but ah, you can see that we have this kind of orangish color right here. And then you have a green and the blue. So it splits green and blue and creates this complimentary color system. Where has a lot more yellows and oranges your base colors, but then creates contrasts and emphasis with its complementary colors to create these text box, and it goes together because it's nice, appealing color scheme. 17. Triad: a triad color scheme is three colors equal, distant from each other on the color wheel. The's usually tend to be very colorful, playful, bright and, if not done correctly, it can be off putting, so you don't see a whole ton of designs. Using this, usually once you start to get into the triads and qualities, is pretty much a free for all for color. When graphic design is concerned because most designed you typically try to stay within one or two colors and complementarities work really well. Try has become very colorful, and once you start entering that realm, you might have soldiers start using all the color palette available to you. But you have to be careful that it doesn't become money when you do that. So as you can see, we have our red, green blue, which is just a basic triad. These aren't, um, split complementary because they are at equal distant from each other on the wheel. They are not split ah, in half. So the red, instead of being a teal in a dark blue um, Tillis blue color, it is equal distant red, green, blue, same with um, cyan, magenta and yellow and you can see the triads happening there. You could have other triads, so you might have orange this teal green in this kind of lavender color also. So let's take it. Look at some examples. You're not gonna find a whole ton of examples, but here's a really good one. You can see the equal greens, blues and reds being used in the image and the way they've used the saturation and values they've made. Certain colors stand out more than other. So, of course, that red is much more saturated, higher values and intensity to make it really popped. And you see that person versus, you know, staring at the grass for too much or the sky. Here's one that's kind of goes and uses adjacent colors around the triad. But the general, if you look in the middle, you can see the science magenta yellow triad going on where we have some science here, yellows and then your agendas. But then it also breaks out into adjacent colors around there, so it's using Ah, a wide range of the triad in this image, and the colors work really good. And here they're using that yellowish color toe provide contrast and emphasis on the deejay there. In this one, we have the blues, the reds and the greens, but the color wheel. Instead of being that dark blue, it's it's offset to conduct foolishly, so you get a little bit of, um, more lime greens and orangey colors because it's it's a triad. But it's rotated a little bit as far as the Hugo's on this image, and I just threw this one in for fun. You know the science Regency yellow again? Um, it's got a cup that's got an extra color in there. But like I said, once you start getting into the Triad squads, you really get into really colorful images. For instance, if we look at this one here, same thing. Um, once you get to the Triad, you start just adding more colors, and that's usually what you're going to find in designs. You just got to be careful with your values and saturation is to make sure that you're providing emphasis to the things you want the viewer to see in your scene and not taking away with just too many colors at one time, so you'll see most designs try to stick with 1 to 2. If they go into three colors, it's usually split. Complementary. Um, once you get into try, as they become very, very vibrant, very playful. It's good for things like, um, kids stuff, um, you know, such as this image where you want something very colorful. 18. Letter Spacing: letter spacing is created horizontally between letters. So basically, this is the space that you have between letters and doing so, and typography can make the word seem scrunched together or nice and open and widely spaced apart. So it's good toe, understand letter spacing and typography because it will provide different kinds of moods and feelings based on how you space those letters apart from each other. So here you can see we have a simple block of text in the top. Text is pretty evenly spaced. Um, it might be a little closer in the bigger text, which has a little more space, and doing so just creates a little bit of contrast and helps make the text stand out. Ah, lot better. Also, when you have wider letter spacing, it's easier to see from further away. If you have a bunch of text close together and you're standing at a distance looking at a sign or poster something of that nature, it can make it a little harder to read. So if you're trying to relay a message letter spacing is something you want to try to keep in mind when designing and what you're designing for here we can see a natural letter spacing happening on this sign, but it goes into the same idea that from further away this will be very easy to read their using a easy font style. And they have a lot of spacing between the letters. So if you're driving by on the highway, this is very legible and easy to understand. It's also being created naturally from the construction, but they may have put that letter spacing in there on purpose just for the point of trying to make sure that people can view this from a distance. So in our first example, you can see again some different letter spacings going on where the text at the bottom has a basic natural letter spacing that you would see in type or copy, and then the main text that they're trying to show. That says Lighthouse has more spacing in between the letters. This creates contrast makes it easier to view and the things that we pointed out before here you can see somewhat of a difference where you have the basic letter spacing on the text, on the bottom and at the top, and then the biggest text is either the same or it's even a little tighter. So they brought it in a little more to give you a different kind of feel and look to their logo versus having it widely spaced apart. So if you were to Spacey's all way to the edges, it would provided a different kind of field than when there nice and tight together like this and also making it bold bigger helps it to stand out even at a close distance. If this was a surfer script font, being very close could be hard to read, even though typically, script fonts are made to be touching one another because it is like because cursive handwriting. So you're you will have to play around with the scripts to see how they look. And then finally, in this image, you can see that they've used letter spacing to create some symmetry and balance. So they have equal letter spacing so that these letters all kind of lined up with each other nice and evenly, and that creates a different kind of mood and fuel than if they were just spaced out on their own. So definitely take a look at letter spacing in your designs, and you can use it to provide contrast. Um, you could make things really stand out if you have something that is widely spaced. Um, it looked disproportionate and definitely make it stand out. Same things. If you if you bring it in close together, it will give Ah, different kind of feel. Maybe something that feels a little tighter or, you know, um, them brought in in that man or so definitely check that out in your designs. 19. Line Height: line height refers to a vertical spacing between lines of text in your text box. So this is basically how far the words are separated from one another vertically. So let's take a look at that. In this first example, you can see that the first bit of text has a lot of spacing between the next block of text and as you go down, that spacing gets smaller and smaller. So between these last two, you can see that this spacing is a lot smaller than this spacing at the beginning. And they're actually using that in this, in this design to move your eyes down the block of text. Creating spacing like this makes this word standout. Also, it's bigger and has more emphasis. But one of the ways that they're building contrast and emphasizing that word is also bites . Letter buys line height. So here you can see they separated this and then the next. Most important, they've had a medium separation and the least important alot Biff separation, and that's how she also creating movement and motion down the page. Doing that and you could even continue to create more movement and motion and kind of vote , maybe a wave pattern if you started going back up again. So if it was medium and then big and then medium, small, medium big, you would actually create a kind of movement as someone was reading that it would feel like they were going kind of in and out or up and down on away, so you can use these kinds of things to play around with your design. Try different things, but mostly it's to get text to stand out and make it more legible, or bring it close together and make it feel tight and squeezed. Dictionaries are a good example of text with moderate line height, but a little more on the closer together side because they have a lot of information. They want to pack it in, so the line spacing gets to be a little smaller so that they can cram in a little more information on the page. So let's look at some examples. This is an image with some moderate, decent line heights where each one is evenly spaced. It creates a nice balance, unified image, and it's just really easy and pleasant to look at its not too close where it's cream together and you can't read the letters. It's not too far away where it feels kind of spacey or areas its at a nice line. Height proportioned everything else right there and then this one. You can see it's a lot bigger line height, but it's still even. So it's still balance and create some nice harmony, but it gives you a breath in between these words it it kind of gives you a pause instead of just running them together. You get the live and then laugh and love. So you have that actual kind of breather with the line height that they've used here. And this is sort of like the example at the beginning, kind of in the reverse, where they started out, scrunched together, and as it goes on, it gets wider and wider. And just like with the live laugh love, it's kind of the same thing they're having. You read the text quickly, and then they kind of slow you down throughout the text with the line height. So you read this first block fast, and then medium. You kind of slow down and then you take that break before you read the last and wisdom, And it kind of gives that kind of feeling. Life is a constant change of beauty in wisdom, and it just kind of makes a nice flow. So use line, hyphen, your designs. It's another important aspect of typography. And to make things look good, you really want to understand the principle, basically create space to bring openness and give the viewer arrest with their eyes or bring it close together, a smaller line height if you want to really make it seem crunched or scrunched together. Um, you know, if you had, um, you're an insurance agency doing advertisement, you have a car dropping down on your text. Maybe you would have a very small line hunt heights with all that text you know, crunched in and smushed by the car. And you can give that feeling in your typography with the line height 20. Italics: italics are unique characters with a slant designed into the type, and I tallis sizing something can create emphasis or create a focal point of where you want the viewer to see. This is also very common in copy and type, especially in things such as advertisements or email marketing. Social media, where the type will of a paragraph will all be regular. And then you'll have one little phrase and that type italicized. And this brings a little more emphasis to the text without making it to a parent's or two. Um, you know, using like Heavyweight, that's too bold. Or to contrast it, just as a little variation to show that this is maybe a little more important point. Um, and it also in copy and text in books and things of that nature, especially when you have paragraphs. It seems like it's people do that just kind of say, like, Hey, I'm gonna let you in on a little secret So all this stuff is important, but really pay attention to this little snippet if you take anything offs away so I tossed can bring emphasis and be very helpful in your designs. So a lot of these examples are pretty much going to show the same thing, which is that the main point has been italicized to show contrast against everything else and bring more attention to it. And so, in this first example, you can see the main point being here is I Tallis sized Now. Script generally doesn't have italicized function. Some do. Some don't because script is typically written and kind of a slanted kind of four met, so sometimes you will find it. Sometimes you won't. But when you're talking about italics, it's very common in your basic font style, such as Helvetica and Times New Roman things of that nature. Here's just a little image I threw up where they're using this corner tab, and they're showing a little bit of importance by showing this. I tell a size. So if they have their main header or their main title here, the same font size and you had to choose between the two. While this corner tab might be a little more important, it might say something like, you know, contact us or click here for something special. So they're just bringing a little more emphasis by adding it in italics right there. And like I said, all three of these examples are going to be about the same. So this will be pretty quick, but same thing here. You know, Biggest point is in script or slanted form, which could be italics conveyed as italics. Also the same thing here. And you can see I couldn't find a whole bunch of designs with variation in this. I mean, that pretty much the same thing throughout, um, and the same thing here. So let's go ahead and just take a look here. Not kind of show you. Maybe I can give you an example of what I was thinking about where you can see that. Yeah, we'll click this. This is kind of the layout that I've used for all of my things. So I just click this design here to pop this up. Man says it makes me feel guilty that anybody should have such a good time doing what they're supposed to do. And if we wanted to draw out certain ideas out of this sentence, you could I Tallis eyes it and make it stand out. So, um, if you wanted to emphasize man, it really makes me feel guilty. Oh, you know what? Working out would have to change the Sorry about this. We'll have to change the text. But I just want to give you some ideas of what I'm talking about here. So just make it Helvetica. So it makes me feel guilty, and I can put a tallix on. And then when you read that, you can see that that that portrays a certain message in the text being shown. So it makes me feel guilty that anyway, should have such a good time doing what they're supposed to do. So you're bringing out the guilty feeling of that text. Now, if we decide, maybe we change a different phrase. Um, the aim. I should have such a good time doing what they're supposed to do. It makes me feel guilty that anybody should have such a good time doing what they're supposed to do. It brings a different kind of message, so that's italics. You can use it to bring emphasis, and it's great because it's just a little variation. So it's not like heavy fart weight changing the color or, ah, high contrast ing value. It's just a little bit of change in the type to show emphasis or a focal point 21. Justification: justification refers to the alignment of the text, so this means that it can be left justified. Center to the right or true justification, where you have alignment on both the left and right hand sides of the text that you often see in books and magazines. Justification is used to follow the form of an image or page and can help with the flow of what you're trying to say. It can also create hierarchy or emphasis when it centered, or when you have the justification made in a certain way to draw attention. So let's take a look here. So here you can see everything is center justified. We have a nice, even center alignment going on here, and it creates a nice, pleasant view and the easy hierarchy to read. And then you just use the emphasis based on the other objects to read this and the order order that you should and as mentioned before, um, true justification when you have alignment on the left hand side of text walk and on the right hand side of a text block, I am what this does is that actually changes the letter spacing where you have Maurin less spacings between letters to get to that look. And this is very common in books to create a nice border of white space around the book it creates. Yeah, uniformity, easy to read. Nothing particular stands out so you can just indulge in that information, and we just have some basics. Examples. The 1st 1 of course, is a center justification for an image like this. They put it right here in the grassy area so it would stand out against the white value of the text. But it's just nice, and even in the middle, it creates a balance. It's easy to read, easy to understand. There's nice line height. So this is just a pleasing quote, type style image that you see often and they are commonly center justified. Here they have a different kind of feel with the way they've moved everything to the left and created more visual weight on the left hand side. Here, you can see it's a little more out of balance, and then with the right hand side. So that's a left justified alignment. And here you can see a right justified alignment where they're trying to balance the image . Um, balanced the image of the Earth and the sun by putting the alignment to the right hand side . So creates kind of this nice even balance across the image those both vertically and horizontally. So basically, justification is just used to follow along and image. It's great for websites, especially when you have things like an image. And then you have the justification to the left up against the image on the page and then maybe have an image on the right hand side, and then you justify it to the right and you create this kind of movement and flow. Things that are centered usually create harmony and balance and symmetry. It's easy to digest and understand, um, were used to seeing things justified to the left. So it's common to see things that are lying to the left when you're reading. When you throw something on a line to the right, tens of bringing a little more focus because you don't see it as often, and then you know you have your butt book justification. If you want to create a night of border around your image and keep it in a nice template and format, 22. Case: font case refers to the pattern of capital and non capital letters and type, and this could be shown in upper case lower case or a combination of both. Now typical English grammar requires that the first letter of the first word of a sentence be upper case in case can also provide emphasis and contrast. So using case is going to dictate what you're trying to get across to the viewer. If you know that the first letter of a word in the English grammar language especially be capital and you intentionally make it lower case, you're saying something specific about that design as well as if you put everything in uppercase. You're making a bold statements and really trying to get your point across. So here we have this first image where you can see the most emphasis is, of course, the big letters. But it's also all uppercase, drawing more attention to it, and then the name is actually done in a combination of uppercase L and then lower case letters to try to give that more, you know, homely feel. You also see all uppercase when you are trying to show something from a distance because it's a little easier to see and make out the letters when you're aware that they're all supposed to be upper case. Once your mind registers that and you know your upper case letters, then it becomes very easy to make out something from a distance. So typically, billboards, signs things of that nature that you want people to see from afar. You will definitely see upper case letters. Now you can use this in social media to really also make your images stand out when someone is scrolling through and they see all caps letters, then, of course, they might pay more attention to that. Now you've got to be careful because, as we all know, if use caps all the time for everything, you're not emphasizing anything at all. And therefore you kind of drowned out the viewers attention. So you want to be very sporadic when you're using all uppercase letters. So let's take a look at some examples, and here's one of those images where it is all uppercase letters in using all upper case, big, bold letters like this just presents a very strong image and style, and it kind of goes along with the words here. Unexpected kindness is the most powerful, so that powerful was kind of being brought into this image with the upper case. And here they have used a combination of different kinds of Kase capital non capital letters where actually they start off with lower case letters and go to all caps for their main information. They want you to see and then drop it back down to lower case and then all caps again and then lower case. And this kind of creates a mood of feeling emotion. And, you know, when you have everything lower case, it's kind of the opposite of having the upper case letters where it's bold and powerful. This is a little more, you know, nicer, easier, um, tight toe to read. So having Seattle friends and lower case kind of kind of brings that friendly attitude to it. It's not in your face. Hey, we're friends. It's just like, Hey, look, we're all kind of friends. Let's hang out. So it puts it in a nice lower case format, and then here they have kind of did the reverse where they made the most bold thing all lower case, and then the second thing that they want. You see all uppercase, which is a very interesting style, and it brings a kind of different mood to the feeling. And because they still used a larger font size and a little more emphasis and wait, they were able to make the wild stand out more, even though it is all lower case, so it creates a different kind of field. So definitely tried different kinds of cases in your design. Upper case, lower case, all uppercase all lower case and try an experiment to see what kind of different moods and feelings that you can get by using those different types of cases. 23. Similarity: grouping like elements in a design creates similarity for easier classifications. So anything that is put together by its size, shape, color, value, texture or patterns creates similarity because the mine is able to say that those things are like based on their color or based on their value or based on their texture. And it makes it easy for us to classify objects in the scene based on their similarity to one another, especially if you have multiple groups of different things. So you know that this group belongs to this thing, and the your second group belongs to another, another part of the design. So let's take a look, see what we're talking about here. So here we have similarity. I mean, these air all, you know, metal balls, and they're all the same size. So you know, they all go together. But they've also created contrast by making this ball at an angle and coloring it read. So these air group together and these air similar to each other, and you know they go together. But you have this one kind of off to the side, and it's bringing emphasis to itself by having that contrast of the color and the angle at which it is going. This is just a picture showing similarity of these po PRI or leaves, or what have you of the different colors. And having them online like this creates a nice kind of balance to the image, and you are able to group the items together so you're able to group the pinks and purples and oranges, and this is based on its shape, texture pattern, but also by its color. And the color divides these out into separate sections. So you're able your mind is able to take the similarity of these, but still know that there's contrast ing differences based on their color. So in our first example, you can see that the similarity happens between the font type that the sale font type in the 30% off font type are the same, and your mind it is able to classify those two things together because it can see its sees the similar properties of one another. So what they're doing here is they're giving you the most valuable information by making sail the biggest, boldest thing to stand out and putting in a certain fun type and then duplicating that further down the design. In the percent off, it's easier to know that Hey, there's a sale going on and this is how much you're getting off. If this was not the same fun type, you would still pick up the information, but maybe not as quickly. You might not gravitate toward that. First, you might look at one of these other things, but since you could see the similarity between the two font types, it's easier for you to register how much of a sale you're getting based on what they want to show you. Here we have similarity based on the images of the people, and they're all different kinds of people wearing different colored clothes. But their similarity in the images there are photo filters being used on all of the images . That's the same, giving the same kind of look in effect. They're all people, so you are able to group that together, and it creates just a easy classification and just balances out this image nice and neatly . And then this is an easy one to guess. You have the similarity in between the icons and as you can see, they're all the same color and the same size, and they even have a circular pattern. There are none that really have. Like a square border. This one has a little bit of a different Um, not exactly circular on the outside. But the inside is circular. So you group those together. You know that those icons sort of mean the same thing. This is real big with things in such as websites. And when you're creating your branding that you have similar, um, colors and looks and feels across all of the design elements that you're using on your website, you might create a type of icon like this and then use that same kind of icon throughout the whole website so that people know that when they see that type of icon, they know what that action is doing. If you had one button with one type of icon and then another button with a completely different color and shape and then 1/3 and fourth and so on, you might start to confuse the people, and they can't put that information together because there's no rhyme or reason. But when you have similarity, it makes it easy for people to digest the information and take them exactly where you want them to go. 24. Closure: closure refers to the closing or opening a graphic elements in your design, and this could be multiple things. It can be typography. It could be shapes. It could be layouts. So, for instance, it could be a shape where just a marker to is shown. But your mind and imagination puts the pieces together to try to guess what that shape is. So good thing about closure and also specifically leaving things open ended is it It can make the view or think about the design, and it can also provide imagination for the audience. So let's take a look here. So in this instance, we just put a couple shapes up on the screen and without telling you, you might be able to guess what it is. You might not be able to guess what it is, depending on how you're looking at it or how you're thinking about it. There's no text, typography or l other elements to judge against, so we really don't know what this shape is. It could be two DOF birds kissing, sitting on maybe a lake. Or maybe it's a beard, which is what I usually see when I first look at it, But leaving it kind of open to your imagination lets the viewer's mind run wild, and that could be very invigorating for the audience. Here's an image that has been left kind of open to guess what is going on in the scene and this control you in and make you think about what's happening now. If you were to supply some kind of paragraphs or text underneath, you could explain in detail what's going on. But with this image, you can immediately grab someone's attention and they start wondering what's happening. Are they coming into this place or they going out of this place? Is a Caetano a train, a sewer? We have no idea what what's happening between these two characters. There's a lot of negative space going on, which is creating this kind of feeling of your very unsure about what's happening. So and here we have some some open ended design elements to try to draw the viewer in. So that works in this design and a good company with good branding and and, um, you know, just just really good in their marketing will do things like this where they will present you. Maybe a question or they'll throw something out there that you don't even know what they're talking about. This can be an advertisement. Second, being commercials, I've seen it on social media. Where the first time you see it, you're just left wondering what? What? What do they mean? What was the point of that? But then maybe later, down the road they used same colors and schemes and brand ings and similarity and things of that nature to make you realize that it's the same company and they're bringing this story along and bringing you for the ride. So for this blue versus green, what's your favorite? Well, when you see that in social media, you might just pick one and then wonder welds that was pointless. But then next week you see something else with this company using that blue or green or showing a statistic. Or, you know, maybe they're doing some type of survey and they say, you know these people we found out like the color blue versus these people, and then they start promoting their brand or product. So this is kind of like an open ended question where they're drawing you in with the design , but kind of leaving you guessing. Same thing with this. They've used a bamboo. We kind of forced. He seen where you kind of tucked away in hiding and they call it the Secret Sale. We'll give you a clue at the stroke of midnight with that generates curiosity and really makes you kind of think like, oh, what's going on? You know, I really wanted want to check this out. I need to be around at midnight waiting for them to tell me what's happening and then that that person they've got you, they've got the audience that they want and you are coming back to to see what they have to offer and hopefully buy whatever product or service they're offering. And then this is just a type of design that you see most often where there is closure. You know exactly what's happening. There's no guessing we know who it is is Dave's doughnuts. We know what they're promoting. A breakfast special. We know what their product. They're giving away two doughnuts and get one free. And with the donuts around the image, there's there's no guess here. You just know what it is. So closure can be really fun, especially when you take things away from the design to make the viewer guests or use their own imagination. Sometimes people don't like to think they just want the fax. Just give me the facts. I need to move on. But then, other times people like a good story. They like to think about things they like to imagine. So when you are using images of people, but it doesn't show their faces or it shows their silhouettes or you're using shapes. But the shapes aren't completely formed. There just kind of open ended. You can really draw in the user in the audience and use that to your advantage. 25. Hiearchy: Hi RG defines the order of elements in which a viewer should look. This could be used in typography, images, shapes and placement of elements in the design, and it really helps establish unity and organization. The mind likes things to be somewhat organized and easy to process. We don't want to think too much about something for too long, or we'll lose focus and attention and look away at something else. So when you're doing design, especially for, say, social media, you want to grab the audience attention quickly and keep them there long enough to give them the information that you want. So in this next design, tell me what you see first. Sorry, Went a little too, too far there. But most people are going to see the number one first, and we're creating a hierarchy in a couple different ways. Here. One. We're using the biggest image to try to portray that. We want them to see that first, we're using a no number system of 1 to 3 to tell the viewer this is the order that you should look at thes it. We're using sizes, as I said, biggest to smallest, and I'm also using guidon lines right within the design to kind of direct you. So I'm kind of pointing at the 21 points at the two and then the two points at the three. And this kind of shows a hierarchy of how I want you to look at this image I want you to see. The one first is biggest and boldest, and then I want you to see Number two and then number three, and that's hierarchy. And it just it provides an easy way for a viewer to digest information, especially when you're talking about Texan typography. Here's another image. Then what did you see? First, my guess is would would be the bright yellow cab in the middle of the design and the same things that I used in that number example is going on here. We have contrasts of the yellow against every other color in that scene that is not yellow . It's Brighton bold. It's centered in symmetrical, and there's also guiding lines pointing right at it. So this might be a great image for a cap service to, you know, explain to people immediately what their services about, and then maybe you could put some underlying text up here in the top. But you could immediately grab someone's attention by saying, Hey, look at her big yellow taxi cab and then you kind of gays off and look at everything else. Did you notice the one way street sign first or the trees in the background? Typically, most people are going to either look at the big buildings or the taxi cab and the taxicab being most prevalent in the top of the hierarchy list. So let's look at some examples, and they're all gonna be kind of the same. Same format is you're gonna have big bowl texts, and that's what you see. First, it's got the most emphasis and wait, it's the largest. And that's what they want you to know first, that there is a sale going on the other Texas pretty much the same size, so you can kind of read it as you wish. But as far as I go, I read the big text and then immediately what's underneath it, showing the 75% off sale, and then this week of June, I pretty much ignore this stuff at the top. But that check mark kind of brings me back up there just to read the whole thing. Time for a mid year sale? Up to 75% off, of course, Higher. He's going to be used in things such as lists and recipes. When you're telling some someone to do something in a specific order, follow steps. 12345 Make sure you put these ingredients in this order. 12345 That is creating hierarchy. And this is just the easy example of showing what we're creating. The mojito. Mamba is the name of the drink, and you know, they're just saying, Hey, this is the lime season. Maybe that's their branding that they have going on at their bar that were lime season. And they show that green throughout the whole season or something of that nature and then a basic hierarchy going straight down as we would read to show you the ingredients to make the mojito Mamba, which looks pretty good, by the way. All right, let's look at the last example, and here is a great example of hierarchy. We are typically drawn to images first before text, so the viewer really grabs your attention right away with these icons. They're easy to understand. You know what they are. You know what they are supposed to be? The similarity and continuity between these and good balance. This is a great design because it really draws your intention in with the images and then continues that hierarchy by giving you the information they want in the order based on the font type and size. Excuse me, No font type, but for the font size in this example. So the Sunday brunch being the biggest things and then the name of the place reservations and then the time the time is a little bit smaller. It's still important information, but they wanted to make sure that you knew who was presenting it and where to call for reservations before they give you the information about the time or price. So that is hierarchy. Um, you really need to use it in your designs almost all the time. You can not use it and create some chaos, but you might draw the viewer away very quickly when you have good organization and hierarchy in your design. And that doesn't mean everything has to be perfectly symmetrical or anything of that nature . It just means that you need to show the viewer what they want, what you want them to see in a good, logical order. So if you're trying to sell a product or portray a service, make sure that you explain that right away and get that viewers attention and then give them to details later on. If you emphasize the details first, they may might get lost looking at the details and never really read anything, so make sure that use good hierarchy in your designs. 26. Rule of Thirds: the rule of thirds is an easy composition layout to help draw the viewer's eye and the way that this works as you divide your designed by thirds both vertically and horizontally. And then you place your main focal elements along the intersections, and this is just another compositional trick. Now it's done, Ah, lot in film and video and photography and images. It creates this aesthetic to the I that is just so pleasing, and if it's just a little bit off, it doesn't matter. If it's a lot off, you can really tell, and the image will look unbalanced and uneven. But when done correctly, it just really gives this extra dimension to the image. Now everything does not have to have the rule of thirds. Um, you can definitely just use a basic block blocks in the center center line type stuff, but take a look at the rule of thirds and try to incorporate it in your designs and also look out for because you'll find that it is everywhere. So, basically, in this image, what we have here is our image is divided into thirds but thirds Ah, horizontally and vertically here, so as you can see it creates these nine blocks and then what you do as you make your main focal Ellis elements where we put these red dots. So wherever these red dots are, you could put your text or your image or your main character, and that is going to draw emphasis. And a good trick is to balance these out. So you could have, you know, one focal element here and then your secondary focal element down here. And it really creates a nice uniform, harmonious, balanced image. So here we have an image and you can see that the hand on the phone hasn't been placed in the center of the image, and that was done purposefully. This is a rule of thirds in action very easily. Now, bear with me. I'm going to go out on a limb here and try to do something a little different in this video and see if I can actually draw and show. You know, this is gonna be a little wiggly and sketchy, but I just want to see if I can kind of get the idea across to you. So if I go to about 1/3 mark and I draw that down the image and then I come over here and this is just a rough estimate. Of course, this isn't going to be perfect, but I just want you to see what's going on, and I go across horizontal lines are a little harder, and that's probably about 1/3 right there. You can see pretty much where he is touching and where the phone is. That is where the rule of thirds is coming into place. And you can see in that image that they're using that rule, the thirds compositional effect to draw your attention there on energy, it just looks better. If he had his hand right in the center of the screen, it would feel okay, but it doesn't have the same kind of depth that an image like this does. Okay, lets try another one that worked out. All right, So here, um, this one you can kind of see, it's pretty much balanced across, you know, the whole image. But ah, you can see that the free gift is kind of a lining up with the rule of thirds. So let me see if I can draw this again for you. So this is our image would probably be somewhere somewhere who I did not mean to do that. Sorry about that museum up. So, um so you know, it would go. It creates kind of a border in this image for the free gift, and you can kind of see how that's working. And it's also creating an alignment tool for the free gift image. And is boxing that in? She's really cool. So again, this isn't perfect. But this kind of gives you how the rule of thirds here is being used to box in the free gift image. They didn't place it directly on the circles, but they did use it as an aligning tool to try to get that information in there. And, you know, I could probably drew this a lot better, but that kind of gives you a good idea. Let's look at one more here. How many? Ah, two more. I'm sorry. We got two more looking. Ah, this is same thing. I won't take the time to draw, but you can kind of see the same thing going on here. They created kind of this border, and you can see that you know the pencil. Here's lining up with that rule of thirds, and there's one shooting across creating this division here, which is really nice. This edges lining up on that third line there. That third. And I mean, it's just they've used that set up in composition to really drive home. This this layout in just the way that they've composed this image together and then Fuzzy think I'm fronting to use us image in these tutorials for a while now because I think it's just so silly, but ah, I figured this would be a good one. So let's draw on this one, see what it looks like. Okay, so ah, third is probably gonna be about right here. You can always start to see what's happening. Ah, uh, So I think I went a little high on that last one. I think it would actually hit the I. So you can actually see that, You know, that would probably be going right there, lining up middle of the forehead right here in this image. So they placed the cat at the rule of thirds intersection and kind of balanced it out with the typography on the top, right and created a very nice, evenly balanced, uniform, kind of kind of image, and it looks great. It's a really pleasing image, and it's using other things in it, such as guiding lines, you know, as we talked about before. The cat's eyes are looking up. Um, there we go, zooming in again. Um, but you know, the cat's eye is looking up at those letters guiding your eye up there. So this has a nice, very good compositional type quality to it. So that is the rule of thirds. Um, pay attention to it. Start looking at photographs, films, video and see how the rule of thirds is being used. You'll find it everywhere. It's ah, big thing. When you have two people in a scene, you can have them at the rule of thirds intersections and no create a nice, even balanced composition, especially if they're carrying on a conversation or something of that nature. So that is the rule of thirds, and I hope you enjoyed that 27. Golden Ratio: the golden ratio is a proportion found in the natural world and many everyday designs and photos. This proportion is one by 1.6, and you find it a lot and images, typography, layouts, grids and all over the natural world as faras ways and, um, stems and leaves and twigs and seashells and all kinds of different things. This proportion, it's just. Once you start doing the research on it, you realize that it's everywhere, and because of that, we're used to seeing it. And it's a natural, pleasing look to the human eye. So let's try to look at this proportion. This is called the Golden Ratio. The divine proportion, the golden spiral. It's heard a lot of different ways, but its basic forms. Let's just look at some typography, and if we have 20 size fun and that is your your one, and then the 1.6 of that proportion would be a 32 size funds. So to create a nice, pleasing aesthetic looking your designs, you can use this golden ratio and use these numbers. An easier way of thinking about it would be a 10 point font and a 16 point font this is that just doubled so that I could make it a little bigger and show you what it would actually look like. But that would be the golden ratio and typography. And you can immediately create a pleasing look just by following that having your main title 32 points and then your secondary title, you know, be 2020 points. So again, you know, I just want to throw open illustration of nature. Uh, I definitely encourage everyone to look further into this information because it goes well beyond what I can explain in these short little lessons that I'm trying to accomplish here . But I wanted to put it in here because designers use it a lot. It's done a lot in branding, and at the end I'll just kind of show you some some designs that it is used mostly in. So, um, but in nature, it's found all the time. That proportion now in my examples, it's kind of tricky to really show you this, because the way that the proportion is the size of it, I've been using the square images for the Social media post, and the image for the divine proportion is more of a widescreen type shot. It still works. And you can see that in this first image very clearly. But I didn't want to warn you that this might not be the best example. So definitely check this stuff out when you get a minute. And if you have any more questions about it, you can definitely asked me. But if I align this up and I made this divine proportion image of little bigger and centered it, it blinds up beautifully. I mean, you see this line cutting off the lighthouse here, and then you see this this next cut is right there where the break meets that top piece. And then you can see that window is kind of cut out from that piece there, and it's just working beautifully. This line goes across and creates a separate section from the lighthouse in the bottom piece, and that is found a lot in designed more than you would probably know. So I'm trying to do my best to show you that. Here, let's take a look at another image. Same thing with here. When I blew this up and aligned it to this image, you can see the proportion being cut evenly here and here. And then I placed the arc here, which once it gets around, you can see how it arcs over the words and back down and a nice pleasing manner. They have drink up here and they didn't cross past that line. And the way that they placed that K it kind of follows that same same guiding line of that Ah, golden spiral. Now, the last thing that I wanted to talk about was branding because companies love using this and their branding and see if I can remember a bunch of them. But I know Toyota Twitter Apple a lot such Aziz the iCloud image. Um, what are some other ones? The BP gas station. They all use the divine proportion or the golden ratio. If you go online and you look up golden ratio Twitter icon, you will see that this bird has been made up of those proportions. So if we had complete circles here, the head of the bird, I believe, would be the one and then the body would be the 1.6. And to create the wings they use like the 1.6 in the 1.6 over and over again and so on, and they use that to create the branding, and it's maybe a little over used in some circumstances. Don't try to go out of your way to try to use it all the time because a lot of the times you can end up just making your designs look bad. But it's something to keep in mind that it is found in nature, and we're used to seeing it, even though we don't realize we're used to seeing it. So I hope that provides some insight onto the golden ratio for you. If you have any more questions, started discussion and I can upload some or images to really show you what it's all about, so hopefully that helps. 28. Thank You for Watching!: Hey, everyone, I want to thank you for taking this course and taken the time to really sit down and spend some time with me and understanding these principles. I really think they're gonna help you once you see them. It's stuff that you see every day. But once someone points it out to you, it makes a lot of sense. And hopefully you picked up some tips and tricks that maybe you didn't know. Ah, we learned a whole lot in these lessons, and I just really hope that you can take this information and use it in your own business and brand, Um, we've gone through a lot of these images, and now that you see these images, you might look at them in a completely different way and understand really what the artist was going for when they were putting these things together. Um, everything from composition and color to the tight being used, or the shapes and the borders. So they all play a big, big role. And people are really trying to use this stuff to to direct your attention and provide information more than you might have thought of in the past. So, um with this knowledge. I hope that you can take this. Use an easy program like Can va to go out there and start making awesome, stunning images that you can use toe Wow your audience. And that's really what you want to do. You have a message you want to get across, and graphic design and social media are there to help you get that message across images, text. They all worked great and providing that. And so, hopefully these principles are something that you can use and take into consideration when you're making your designs so that they just make much more sense to the viewer. So I hope you really appreciate it. If you have any questions, please leave comments or feedback. I will be as prompt as I can to answer them, and I hope you'll take care. Thank you.