Blender basic material and texturing | Widhi Muttaqien | Skillshare

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Blender basic material and texturing

teacher avatar Widhi Muttaqien, CG expert & entrepreneur

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Rendering engines


    • 3.

      Basic material and color


    • 4.

      Managing materials


    • 5.

      Color models


    • 6.

      Hexadecimal color code


    • 7.

      Introduction to texture


    • 8.

      Procedural texture


    • 9.

      Image texture


    • 10.

      Blending modes


    • 11.

      Image editor


    • 12.

      PBR workflow


    • 13.

      Alpha texture


    • 14.

      RGBA image


    • 15.

      Bump texture variations


    • 16.

      Adding height map


    • 17.

      Specular texture


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About This Class

In this course we’re going to cover the basic concept and techniques on how to use material, color and texture inside Blender. This course is not designed for complete beginners. If you really new to Blender, I suggest that you take the essential course first and or the 3D modeling fundamentals first before taking this one.

In this course, we will start discussing about rendering engines exist in Blender and how they will affect materials. And then we’ll move on to how we can create and assign materials to 3D objects. We will cover how to assign material to multiple objects and vice versa, assign multiple materials to a single object. We will also cover the essential theories about color models and also how bit per channel data affect color depth and the under laying theory behind hexadecimal color codes. After that, we move on to textures. We’re going to discuss different types of texture. Then we focus on how we can create procedural texture in Blender. Next we’ll learn how to import and create image based textures. In Blender we can have multiple layered textures, each with its own blending modes. By combining all of these features we can create a wide variety of texture effects that you can imagine. Next we will get to know more in depth about UV image editor and then the basic introduction about PBR or physically based rendering workflow, which is the trend in texturing workflow in the computer graphic world. After all of these lessons, at the end, we will have a hands on project on creating a lotus leaf object from a single face with the help of textures. We will add color texture and alpha texture. Also an alternative method using RGBA images. Then we’ll discuss about different types of bump texturing, such as using normal map and then height map or also known as displacement map. Then finally we will continue our hands on project by adding height map to it and then specular map.

After finishing this course you will have strong foundations of how material, color and textures work in general, applicable to any 3D software. Also you will have basic practical skills on how to work with material, color and texture inside Blender. So join now and take your 3D skill to the next level!

Meet Your Teacher

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Widhi Muttaqien

CG expert & entrepreneur


Widhi is an entrepreneur in creative industry. He has master degree in information technology and business management from Bina Nusantara University. Beside doing business he is also a lecturer in computer graphic related disciplines in President University Indonesia and Lasalle College International.

In his more than 20 years of experience in the CG industry he finished hundreds of projects with clients from all over the globe. He has been producing thousands of CG images and animations. His deep passion with computer graphic leads him to dive into 3D visualization, animation, game development, video and motion graphic.

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Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction: assalum aleikum. My name is really ma talkin. I am an entrepreneur and also on academic lecturer in computer graphic disciplines. In this course we're going toe. Cover the basic concept and techniques on how to use material color and texture inside. Lender. I must warn you, though, that this course is not designed for complete beginners. If you have basic walking skill and already understand how to model simple through the objects in lender, feel free to jump in and join this class. But if you really new to blender, I suggest that you take the essential course first and or the treaty modeling fundamentals first. Before taking this one. In this course, we'll start discussing about rendering engines exists in lender and how they will affect materials. And then we move on to how we can create in a sign materials. So through the objects we will cover how to assign materials to multiple objects and vice versa. Assigned multiple materials to a single object. We'll also cover the essential theories about color models and also how big per channel data affect color dep and the under laying theory behind Hexi decimal color codes. After that, we move on to take showers. We're going to discuss different types off texture. Then we focus on how we can create procedural texture in Lander. Next, we learn how to import and create image based tax shelters. In lender, we can have multiple layers textures, each with its own lending modes. By combining all off these features, we can create a wide variety off texture effects that you can imagine. Next, we will get to know more in there about UV image editor and in the basic introduction about PBR or physically based rendering will flow, which is the trend in texture in will flow in the computer graphic world. After all of these lessons at the end, we will have a hands on project on creating lotus leaf. Object from a single face with help off textures. We will add color, texture and offer. Take shelter also on alternative method using RGB a images. Then we'll discuss about different types off a bomb texture ring, such as using normal man and then height map or also known as displacement maps. Then, finally, we will continue our hands on project by aiding height map to it and then speculator map after finishing this car's, you'll have strong foundations on how material color and pictures work in general, applicable to any treaty software. Also, you will have basic practical skills on how to work with material color and texture inside blender, so doing now and take your through the skill to the next level. 2. Rendering engines: before we discuss about materials and shade er's and textures. There is something very important I need to mention first, and that will be rendering engines. Rendering engine is a piece off program responsible for converting or pretty objects and scenes into beautiful images or animations or real time graphics. In Lender, we can see a pull down lease, which is located on top by default. These are rendering engines available inside lender. We can see Brenda render blender game and cycles render in this list. If you insult our party renderers, you may even find more options in here than this default if you installed Blender 2.8, which is still in beta. When I record this video, you confine additional renderers called E V in this list. Now, understanding in what rendering engine you are working on is essential as materials and shade. Er's behave differently on each off this rendering engine quick explanation about Ace off this engine can do first East than Orender. This is the default in the classic rendering engine. It is perfect for non photo realistic rendering and for other types off walk that require you to export the model toe under software. For example, if we create really game assets that we want to export later to unity or gado or on really for example, then you should stick with this Ben Orender engine as it has basic materials that are compatible with most external applications. Second is the blender game engine. This engine is designed to create game directly inside Lender, so this option will actually transform Blender into a game engine like unity. The bad news is blender game engine is very limited in term. Off. Well, a lot of things. It is the least there. Philip feature in Vendor. That is why you almost never see commercial games published with blender Game engine, at least not today. Okay, now blender game engine used the same material with blender render engine. The last one is cycles. Render engine. This rendering engine is comparable to any modern G I renderers, such as very corona octane Arnel, etcetera. It is used to create beautiful rendering images or animations using unbiased, physically correct lighting simulation because off its physical nature cycles, rendering engine needs to use its own material data structure and she aiders different from what we usually have in the blender Render engine in lender. You can convert a default material toe a cycles material. But the bad news is all the modern game Indians, like Unity move to physically correct material system as their standard dislike. How cycles work. Their materials are not compatible with cycles material. At least that is the case by the time I record this video. So if you are designing them Assets for Unity game engine you saw stick with the standard materials. But again, the world of computer graphics move very fast. Who knows? In a near future, we can use cycles materials in lender and seamlessly conferred them to unity or on riel or the door or any external game engine outside lender. 3. Basic material and color: in three D computer graphics. There are several terms related to how through the object looks when render material shader and texture to make things easy. As a general guide, the term material is a collection off data, or parameters, which determine how three D object Luke Maxie Shader Shader is actually a program. It is a set off rules and logic to control how object will look against different condition so essentially to create a shader, you actually need to write some codes. The good news is there are many visual tools that we can use to create Shader as the replacement off writing the actual codes. This can greatly help artists or non programmers to create custom she aiders. And the less one is texture, texture is basically image that we place on a surface off pretty models. Okay, so that is the basics. Again, material is a set of parameters. Shader is a program on dexterous our images. In this lesson video. We're going to focus on material as you mentioned before. Material is just a set off data or parameters that we can use to define how three d object Look when rendered. Let's take a look at this chart in term off data structure. A material is the hub for shade, er's and textures and through the objects to the objects and use material. And in the material we can define the shader that we want to use and also the textures inside. One material within have multiple she aiders and also multiple textures. But at minimum, a material needs at least one shader. For it works, you can have a material without any texture. Okay, in practice to the artists a street materials like materials in the reward so we can create a material called would, for example, and a sign that material to any object that we want to make. It looks like wood, such as food and table Wooden door wouldn't breach etcetera. Then we can create another material named robber. For example, we can apply that robber material to treaty objects such as car tyres, earphone, bods to certain furniture components, etcetera. We can create material for gold chrome, wall, Fabbri, grass, water at said wrap. Basically, for every type off material we see in the real world, we should have material in the treaty is seen to represent it. Let's discuss how we can apply material toe treaty, object inside. Lender. Make sure that you set the rendering engine here toe. Brenda. Render. So we all have the same parameters. Walk with Okay. If we select the existing cube, then Goto Properties editor notice we have the step Aiken that looks like a metallic ball. This is the material panel where we can access off the parameters related to material notice by default. Our cube already has a material applied to it, and the material has a name material. As we can see here, we can rename the material by either clicking in here or by double clicking here. Let's change these toe. It's a plastic, not white. Now, if you wonder which part off this material are called shade er's well, this default material uses two different shade. Er's for displaying. Diffuse. It uses the Lambert Shader in here. We can see we have suffer another shade er's for diffuse that we can use and for displaying spectacular by default. It uses cooked or shader. We're not going to discuss shade Er's in this lesson yet. Right now, we are only focusing on material Now. If I create a new object. That's a a monkey head. We can see that the material is empty. So office early This monkey head doesn't have any material applied to it. In this case, behind the scene, blender actually apply its basic gray color material to any three D objects that doesn't have any material. So it is not really that the monkey had object doesn't have any material at all. But let's just assume that this object doesn't have any material as there is none that we can actually control inside the material panel. So how can we create a material for peace? Object? We can create a new material by clicking this big plus new bottle in here. So now we have a new material called Material. Let's rename the material toe Go, for example, and let's change the color off the material toe yellowish gold color by clicking on this button. Blender has a unique color picker like this. We can divide these into two section, the upper area and lower area. The upper area is where we be color of easily. The circle is where we define Hugh in situation, and the right strip in here is where we define the value are the brightness at the lower area. We can be color based on numerical values. Blender provide us with three methods for these RGB were the color is divine in red, green and blue channels at SV, where the color is divided into hue, saturation and value. And the less one is hacks which actually stand for Hexi decimal. Now, if you want to be coloring blender, I suggest that you always use HSV foreign putting numerical values. You can use hacks in here to copy paste color from render toe other application back and forth for RGB. Honestly, I almost never had a need to use RGB slider. Stupid color. This will be a very long explanation, which I will cover in later video if you are interested to know more about color models, so let's get back to HSV. You determine the color wheel. So if we click in here first on the color circle at the top area notices, I click and director you slider down here the color point or up here we're a circle around . Next is the situation situation. Determine how strong the color will be if it is set to zero like these, we can only have grayscale colors, and at the Poynter will go to the center off the circle. The rest one is value. This value slider is exactly the same as this vertical slider up here. The dumb of value is a fancy way off saying rightness or how strong that color produce light. If it is a 20 the color will be black as black means no light at all. Okay, so that is the basic techniques off making color in Lender. Let's pick a yellowish gold color for our material. Bring this value up until around 0.9 and then clicking here toe big yellow color to finish up. You don't need to press any button. Simply move away from this color picker panel. That's it. Now you might be attempted to press escape after picking a color. Well, you show them because if after you pick a color and then you press escape, all of your color changes will be discovered. So again, after picking a color, simply move your mouse away toe. Other location. If you use for the shop before you might be more familiar with square color picker instead off the default circular color picker Alhamdulillah blender. Provide this type of color picker. Also turn it on. You need to goto fall menu user preferences. Then go to the system tab. In here you can see the color picker pipe drop down lease, click on it and choose square as fee plus h option. It means that the square will be for situation and value and the street will be for Hugh. I click these safe user setting down here. So from this point forward, my color picker will be square. As you can see now if I click on this color box in a material panel, the color picker is square just like the default color picker in photo shop. 4. Managing materials: know that we know how to create a new material and apply a color to that material. Let's discuss how we can apply a material to multiple objects and vice versa. Apply multiple materials for a single object if, for example, we create a certain material, such as gold material for a certain object. But then inside or pretty seen, we have dozens off other objects which have gold material. Also, it doesn't make any sense and very inconvenient to create gold material for each off the object in scene one by one from scratch in lender or in any three D software such as three DS, Max Maya or even Unity Game engine treaty objects and materials are treated as different entities, so we can apply one material to many objects in scene. Let's see we create another object. Ah, you ve sphere in here. Notice it doesn't have any material as it is a newly created object. Let's say we want to use the existing gold material we created before to do that. Instead, off clicking this new bottom in here, click this small button at the left side. Norris Blender will list all of the existing materials in the scene. We have the gold material and our very first material, which is plastic. Got white material. Let's speak the gold material in here now, As we can see, we have two objects using the same material. Notice. If it's like this monkey object and quick this gold material, let's say changing the color to blue. For example. Not only this monkey had object has changed, but also this sphere. So this is something you need to keep in mind. Changing material will change the look off every objects associated with that material. Okay, so what if we want to have multiple materials inside one object? We can do this by preparing multiple material slots and assigned faces to them in edit mode . Let's see how we can do this. Let's create a new object clicking here, then shift a and just a cylinder for now. Okay, Now in a material panel, instead of clicking this new material button, click this new material slot button, which is this button up here? Notice we created a new sort, but we still have no material inside it. If we want to have to materials for the cylinder, we can click this plus button again. Now we have to material slots. Click the 1st 1 which is the top one. And then down here, click the material, browser or material is and then choose gold notice. Any material you put at the first slot will be applied to the whole object by default. Okay, Now let's speak the second slot. Then choose plastic Got white material. As we can see, nothing has changed on our cylinder for the second material. Slow onward. We need to specify which polygons or faces assigned to that sort in the edit mode. So press step to go to edit mode Goto face mode and then pick these face up here. Then make sure we are in second slot. Click this assign button in here. Now we have this face up here using the material in the second slot. Okay? One thing I need to stress out here is that this face up here is assigned to the struck, not tow this plastic white material huge different here. Notice if I change this plastic white material to the gold material, for example, we will have to gold materials now and the top face will change to the gold material also so again speaking faces and then using this assign button, we'll assign the face to the slog and not to the material itself. You can and later change the material to any material you want. Let me change this back to the plastic white material. For now, we can also create a new material for selected faces using the methods we already discussed . I believe you already understand this by now, but let me just show you to make things more clear. Let's say I want these two faces toe have blue colored material. We can select this one, hold Schiff and select this one. Then create a new material slot. Now click this new but thin rename this new material toe, for example, metal that blue change the color to blue and the less step. Then forget to click the assign button in here. Now these two faces are blue based on the third material have just created. Sometimes we need to create a new material, but the new material will be closely resembling on existing material. Instead, off making the material from scratch, we can duplicate the existing material, rename it and make some small changes to see how we can do this. Let me create a new object in a scene. Let's say a Taurus. We want the stores toe, have a plastic luke, but with the green color before we already have a material called plastic got wide. We just the material for this box in here. Just assume that we already make some parameter changes on this material that make it looks like a real plastic. Now we want this material also for the tourists but with green color to do these first like the total object again. Then in the material panel, click on this materialist button, then choose plastic dot white from the list. Now, if we change the color in here toe green, this will change the color on the box also because essentially they are both now using the same material. In our case, this is not what we want. To duplicate this material to a new material, we can click on this plus button notice. Blender will create a new material based on the plastic doc white material and name it plastic Dog white 0.1 We can rename the material toe plastic green for example, then change the diffuse color toe green. If we click on the materialist again, we can see in this scene we have two plastic material. Plastic dot Wife on plastic got green, so that is how you duplicate material. After creating and experimenting with materials, you may end up with so many materials that you never use. For example, let's say I change my mind. I want the stores toe. Have a new metal material with red color. We can go back to the material panel and click the least, then just metal about blue, then duplicate. We name it toe metal that read and change the color to red. But then we changed our mind again. We want a new wood material for the stores to create a complete new material not duplicating from previous material. We can click on these X button to remove the existing material, then click new rename it to would. Let's give the material brown if you scholar. Now, if you click on the material lease, we can see that blender actually keep all of these materials we created before. Even there is no treaty objects associated to them. We still have the plastic green and the method or threat material in the memory. But notice something different about these unused materials. They all have a zero number in front off their names. Now, this is very important for you to remember. These zero numbers mean that this material does not associated to any object in a scene in lender. Objects that are using the materials are called use arose off that material. So these materials are called zero user materials. When you say, if your blender file on an ACSI and if later you open your blender file again, all of these zero user materials will get perch or removed. So to recap, if somebody asks you, how can we remove a material in lender? Well, the answer is we cannot remove it directly. What we can do, though, is to make it a zero use of material by not assigning the material at all to any object in the scene. Then lender will remove that material when we start a new session. Okay, until this point, you might start thinking, What if I have a zero user material that I like and I want to keep it? I mean, for example, let's say we have created this plastic got green material before, which is now a zero user material. If we know that we will use this material later for another object, it just that we haven't created that object yet, and it's already past our bedtime. We just want to save the file and take a rest and continue the work in the morning. What we can do to see if this material is to assign a fake user to this material. To do that, we can select the material first, temporally on any objects material panel in this case, the plastic dog green material there. Notice in here we have this after lateral button. Click on this button to assign it a fake user. Then we can switch the material off this object back to its original material notice. When we click on the material lease, we now have this material's name preceded with the F letter, which basically stand for a fake user in this condition. If you save the file close and reopen blender blender will not perch that material 5. Color models: in this lesson video. We're going toe cover color models. Now I want you guys that this lesson and the next one will be theoretical. And if you want to skip ahead, you can do so without any problem. But if you stick around, you may get some additional insight about how color works in the real world and in computer graphics. It will be beneficial later if you need to work with graphic application outside lender color. It's one of the most important aspect in creating beautiful art and design. There are so many colors and color variations exist in the world. For centuries, we as human, have tried so hard to uncover the secrets behind colors. Why is this so important for us? Because by knowing how colors actually work, we can later capture them, store and digitize them, reproduce them or display them precisely. We need to simplify the colors to its basic components, which are called the key colors. Using the combination off this key colors, we can reproduce any color everyone. This is what we call the color model. So basically, color models are methods off describing collars using a combination off key colors or using a set of parameters. There are at least two types off color model that we need to know as an artist or designer . Light based color models and big hman based color model. Light based color models use lights as the color producer. All devices that produce light used this color model, for example, our computer monitors, smartphone screens, television projectors, etcetera. There are two light based color models we're going to discuss in this lesson video. They are RGB and HSV. Okay, unlike the light based colors, the Pickman based color model use things or pains to produce color everything that this printer or painter used. This color model, the pigment based color model we're going to discuss in this video is C M y Que. Let's discuss the light based color models first and then later. The Pickman color model RGB, as I mentioned before, is the color model for lights. RGB stands for red, green and blue. Using these three key colors, we can produce any color we like. If all of the colors red, green and blue all turned on to its maximum strength, the output color will be white and if none off the RGB colors are turned on, then the output color will be black, so basically in RGB color model, black means off or no lights at all. If only red and green color turned on the L put color will be yellow. If green and blue are turned on and read it off, then the output color will be science. If red and blue color are turned on while the green color is turned off, then the output color will be light purple color. If the strength off each channels are uniform, then the output color would be great scale colors. Other colors can be produced by controlling the strength off each channel. Okay, so that is RGB color model now, although RGB is the true color model off lights using already be Toby color is very un intuitive. If we need to select certain color, we need to do a lot off gassing and try and error process. That is why a new light based color model was introduced, called HSV HSV, which is stand for you. Separation and value is the derivative color model from RGB color model. It is like based color model also, but unlike RGB, which defied color into three main colors. It just fi use color characteristic instead to define the color output. First issue. This Hill Street will display the color wheel. It is called the Color Wheel because it actually rotational value from zero toe 3 60 degrees, we can see that the red color in here is actually the same with red color. In here, the saturation value controls how much color present as opposed to gray scale colors. If we set this to maximum value, the color will be at the strongest value. And if we start is 20 there will be no color at all or basically makes everything in grayscale spectrum changing the situation. Slider is the same as dragging the color pointer up here, left and right. The V's lighter in here is for value. Another software. Some time it is called B, which stands for brightness or L for level. So basically, HSB and HSV and H s L are actually the same thing. The brightness value controls how much light is being emitted from the color changing his value. Our brightness slider is the same as dragging the color pointer up here up and down If we set this all the way to zero, we will have black color because in light color model, as we mentioned earlier, black means dark or no lights at all. If we set this all the way up, the color will be at its writers. The third color model is C M y que color model. Unlike the two color models with discussed earlier C M y que is Speakman based color model . If you own a color printer, most likely you already familiar with C M y que. Because the in cartridges off color printer are based on his color model a long time ago, we used to think that the key colors off Higman or pains are red, blue and yellow because a lot of colors can be produced by mixing these three colors. Some art school even still teach these concepts until now. Although you can achieve a lot of color variations with red, blue and yellow pains, you cannot produce all of them. Scientists already discovered that Pickman ski color are more likely to be C am. Why K C for science color. I am form, agenda color Why for Yellow Color and Kay well K is actually stand for key color. But because Malsky colors are considered as black color in printing industry, we can safely assume that K is for black. We need black color as sigh in magenta and yellow colors. When mixed together, can only achieve brownish mud color. They can never achieve black color without a dedicated black ing. In this course. Because we're focusing on creating game artworks, we'll never need to touch CM like a color model. Why? Well, as we all know, video games are always be displayed on screen Weatherby TV or computer monitor or tablet screen or smartphone screen. Etcetera. They are all used light based color model business. Why also in render or unity, you will not find same week a color picker like the one you can find in photo shop. 6. Hexadecimal color code: When working with colors, you will often see people share. Cholera is using this hex additional codes, especially if you're doing where design. Most likely, you already used these hexi decimal codes to define colors in HTM l. R In CSS coats. If we open lenders color picker, we can see the hex tab in here where we can input color or copy the color In Hexi decimal called format, usually in other graphic software Hexi decimal color code receded with the harsh mark or sharp symbol like these. In this video, we're going to discuss the under laying structure off this hexi decimal color codes so later you can use them confidently and be able to change the color just by tweaking the numbers. Quick explanation. First, this hex A decimal codes can be divided into three groups, each with double digits, so the 1st 2 digits are actually for red color. The 2nd 2 digits are for green color, and lastly, the third to reach its are for the blue color value. Okay, you might be wondering by now how come we have these numbers and letters or make stuff like this then standard RGB eight beats per channel images. Each channel will have a digit, and in each digit we can have value off zero or one. Now, if we divide these eight bits into left wing and right wing, we have four digits at laugh and four regents at right. Because you have for probable spaces and each with two possible failures, we can calculate the maximum number off variations we can have and that will be toe power by four equals toe 16 variations each. Okay, so each wing can have value between 1 to 16. But if we start from zero, we get 0 to 15 values. The idea here is how can we write each off this wing with only one digit not for digits like this, As when we are using binaries or not using two digits like this as when we are using decimal. The answer is by writing the value in Hexi Decimal. So what is actually Hexi decimal? Well, we all know about decimal right? We cant from one toe, three up until nine. Then after we reach, then we actually doing a loop. Here we are back in zero, then 11 12 13 etcetera basically using decimal for each 10th value. We are looking accounting. Order this behavior mostly because we as human half 10 fingers. Now, just imagine here for a second. Let's say you encounter on alien race that has 16 fingers instead off them. How do you think they will come? Numbers using their Seymour system. Not likely. Big tins. They will use Hexi Decimal system has a decimal system loop. Accounting order. Not when it reached the amount off 10 but when it reached 16. Now, if we borrow this system, we can use only one digit to refer to the value off each off this wing. But wait. We still have a problem here. We don't have number symbols greater than nine. How can we symbolise number 10 11 12 until 15 In Hexi Decimal. Been well. We can hack it. We can use letters instead. So as decimal ghost like this. 1234 until we reach nine. After that, we have 10 11 and so on. In Hexi Decimal, we have 123 Up until nine. We still have the same symbols here. But when we reached 10 we used later a then B for 11. And so on until F for 15. When we reach 16 then we have 10. So then in Hexi, decimal value is equal to the amount off 16 in decimal values. Okay, so by using the system at one digit space, we can have minimum value off zero, which is equal with the amount off zero also in decimal and the maximum value off half, which is equal with the amount off 15 in Decima. So now, with only six lead, it's we can define any RGB colors that we like Sometimes. You will also encounter three digits color value or also known as Web safe colors. Please don't be confused with these codes as basically they are double values. So, for example, if we have 37 A like these, the real value for this is actually 3377 a double three double Stephan and double A. Now Web safe color is legacy off the old days standard when computers still have limited colors and also limited bandwidth. Nowadays, they really not important at all. Sufferer hints when walking with Hexi decimal values, when all of the value zero either six digits like 000000 Aurelius 000 Using Web self color format both off this numbers mean black, as in RGB color model. No light means black if we have all of the value said toe half such as F f f r f f f f f f . This means that the color is white. Why this is strongest color as all of the RGB channels are settled, its maximum values next. We also can tell if the color is gray scale, and that is when each number off R G and B values are identical. So, for example, 12th 12th 12th like these or for E for E for E or C C. C. All of the's are grayscale color values. 7. Introduction to texture: as we mentioned before. Textures are basically images. Usually we use textures to make three D objects look more believable. For example, with the same model, which is this basic cube we can make. It looks like a brick wall by adding a brick texture twit. Or we can make it looks like a wood by adding a wood texture to it, so you can see how important textures are in look development, whether before render to the animation or for three game artworks, we can divide picture into two different categories based on how it was generated. First is static or non procedural textures, which are images in a form off external image files, as we all know, such as J pic file, the and you file etcetera or even video or movie file. Such s FBI, M. O. V and and before different software named them differently. But for now, let's just name this category as image picture. The second type of texture are images generated by program. These images are not exist in a form off image files, but produced dynamically by a set off programming algorithm, we can easily change the look off the image generated by tweaking some parameters again, Different software may call it with different names, but the concept are still the same for our course. We're going to call this type of texture as procedural texture. So again, in our term image textures are textures exists in a form off image files or video files. They are static in a way that you cannot simply tweak parameters to change its look or behavior. Procedural textures, on the other hand, are dynamically generated images created by a program, and we can control the looks of it on the fly simply by changing some parameters. In reality, CD artisans combined this image textures and procedural textures together to create complex picture effects. There are even special software, the flop specific for this task, such as Substance Designer, which can be used to mix and match both off this texture types and Brett them into a single file for convenient. But this will be outside the scope off our course. Now, If you're working in an industry that produced rendered images or animation such as for architectural, physically station or fistful effects, then learning procedural texture is essentials. But for game assets, the Flateman, if you're using blender, you really want to focus on image, texture, not procedural texture. Why? Well, because procedural textures are software specific. They cannot be transferred to external software easily, like image pictures do. This is not blender specific problem, but all three D software are like that. So even if you do want to generate procedural textures for game, then you should do it in a game engine. Such s unity not inside blender but still learning procedural texture in lender can be useful if you bake them. The term baking in computer graphics means we are rendering the textures, but the results then start right into the image textures off the treaty objects. If right now all of these still not make any sense, don't worry. We'll get there eventually in Charlotte. In the next lesson, we're going to focus on procedural texture first. Then, after that, we'll cover image texture 8. Procedural texture: in this lesson video. We're going to focus on procedural texture for this lesson. We'll still be using blender under engine, so make sure Brenda render engine is like that at the top. If blender render engine is active, we can manage textures by going into the texture panel in here in a property's editor, notice If I changed is toe cycles. Render, for example, the texture panel looks very different. Of course, cycles render engine support both image texture and procedural texture, but the approach is very different. So again, for now, make sure we use blend Orender engine to create a texture. First, you need to select an object. For example, this cube remember that material is the help for textures, sh aiders and through the objects. So make sure our object already has a material. Currently, I am using the Default Cube which already has a material. So we are good to go. Okay, Next Goto texture panel. We can see in here we have three modes for texture and vermin, material and brush. We want to walk with texture for material, so make sure we are in material mode, which is this middle icon in here Then in a texture panel, we can see this list, which basically are texture slots. These slots work more or less like photo shops layer, but in refers, so anything you put at the bottom will actually come for what you have at the top. Notice blender already create a texture for our material, but it is empty as it is said to none in a type field. Let's remove this texture by clicking the X button so we know how to create a texture from nothing. Okay, now let's pick the first slot and create a new texture. By clicking on this new bottom, we can name our texture in here or double clicking on the name up here in it actually is. Let's just name it example. Okay, we can specify the type of texture by clicking on this pulled on lease notice. We have so many textual types available. All of these textures from Wood box all data until blend are all procedural texture, except to off them, which are these two textures image or movie and environment map. These two are aesthetic or, as we call it, image textures, so basically you need tohave external image files or video files to use thes two textures. Notice how the icons are different. The procedural textures half this red checkered pattern while the image textures have photo like icon. Okay, let's speak very annoyed. Procedural texture. For now, in a preview section, we can see the texture. It's a plane image or applying s a material or both. Also, if we go to material panel, we can see the material actually already changed like this, but we don't see it in a very few. Well, this is because we are in the default shading mode, which is the solid mode. If we switch to rendered display mode now, we can see the Verona procedural texture on the cube's surface to switch back and forth between solid and rendered few. You can use she if z shortcut okay while in rendered display mode. As we can see, we have this dark area and if we zoom in close enough, we can see this seam lines and distorted texture. Now to fix the dark areas this dark areas is due to the light source position that we have currently in our scene. If we press shift Z again to go back to solid mode. You can see the lamb object in here. This is what actually emit light and costing the shadow on these sites off the cube. Now, when tweaking textures, you generally want to see the texture without any light or a shadow interfering. The way to do that, we can go to the material panel noticed. Down here, you see shade lis option. Turn it on. And as you can see in the material preview and also on the treaty, few the color off the material become flat. No light nor a shadow can affect it Now. Next, let's focus on why this texture is distorted like this. This distortion happens because the texture used UV mapping by default. Yeah, are to the object. Doesn't have any proper You feel mapping. Okay, you might be wondering by now what issue? Fee mapping. Don't worry. We're going to cover this in later videos. For now, let's go back to a texture panel scroll until you see this mapping section and co ordinates field, we can see by default. It is said toe UV. If we click on it, we can see so many options here. What's so great about procedural texture is that most off them can be generated in three D space. This global value in here, for example, means that of Rhona. Procedural texture will be mapped based on a world for the space. You can also use object in here, which essentially used through the space also, but reference locally to the objects transformation. I'll be global for now. With this option, you shouldn't see any seems or texture banding, although the three D object doesn't have any property you fi mapping. Next, we're going to discuss how we can control procedural texture in a texture panel where we can see the section named Ron Oy in his distance. Metric pulled on lease. We can change between different algorithms to produce the pattern. For example, we can just Manhattan in here to produce more diamond shaped pattern. We can just change each half to create more square like pattern. So many options you can try in here. For now, let's go big toe actual distance. Don't. Here in the coloring section, we can pick precision, for example, our position and outline. As we can see, we can create interesting textures just by playing around with the parameters. Now I'm not going to discuss all of the parameters on all of the procedural textures in Blender because that will be too long and too boring for you to watch. And also because the truth is, I don't know much off the technical details behind each off the parameters. Like why this is called Manhattan on this one called baby Care. Really, I have no idea. My advice is just go play around with it, experimenting with these different parameters. There are two more things that I want to discuss in term off procedural textures. First is determining the colors and second staking textures. Let's change this paranoia, texture toe a different procedural map, Let's say would notice by default. It doesn't look like a wood at all because you white and purple color strips on this Teixeira. Now, this white color is actually the diffuse color we have in the main material. So if you want to change it, you need to go to the material panel clicking here and induced light brown color, for example. Okay, now, the purple color we've seen here is the color that actually driven by the procedural texture. So go back to the texture panel. Scroll down until you see this purple color. Click on it and change these two dark brown color. Now we're starting to see a would like color, although the pattern is still doesn't look like wood at all. Let's fix this in a wood session to strike. This will make both side off the line. Persons age become smooth but sharp at the center, then to spring noise in here. So we have some nature around ing noise on the wood pattern, then change the excise value to 0.2. Why does 0.2 also an increase? Disease size, value to tree. Now we have better looking with texture than before. As you can see, sometimes you need to tweak a lot of things in procedural texture to get the look that you want. Okay, the last thing we're going to discuss in this video. It's layering. We can stake texture on top off other texture. For example, let's create another procedural picture on top off this wood texture. To do that, simply click this anti texture slog below the wood texture, and then click this new bottom. Then let's speak starchy for example, change the mapping co ordinates to Global as before. And then let's change the basis toe, bro. No crackle, and that's in front the color. By selecting these wool out option up here, we can change the color to perhaps dark, brownish color. I know this doesn't make any sense right now. How come a wood texture is tight like stones? Well, the point off this lesson is that you can stake a texture on top off other texture and create more complex and unique texture from it. 9. Image texture: in this lesson video. We're going toe coffer image textures unlike procedural texture, where the image generated dynamically by a program image, texture, use external file such as JPEG tiff or PSD file etcetera. So for this lesson, I prepared to image files. One is a brick texture, and another one is this roof tile texture. If you want to use your own, Teixeira, go, I have to do so For your information and a disclaimer about copyrights. These images are not made by me. I don't know that from textures not come this side is my number. One place to go looking for textures. They provide low rest textures that you can don't know and use for free. But you do need to register toe donut them the pro tier account. We let you download higher resolution version off the images, Okay, back in lender. So like everything and then delete them. We're going to start from nothing and then create a new cube. So Schiff a mash Cuba before you do anything else noticing the parameters. There's an option called generate U V s turn this option on. We're going to discuss about UV in the next lesson. but for a quick insight. Essentially, UV map is a method or scenario off blessing to the images onto the objects. We don't proper UV map. Blender has no clue on how to place the image texture onto the treaty object surface. Alhamdulillah, all Amish object in lender, has thes generate you fist option so we can start fasting image texture without the need to create custom UV map before, for example, let's create a monkey head in here. Notice. We also have this generate you feast option again. We will discuss you feel mapping in there in later lessons. Let's focus on adding and managing image textures for now, before tweaking material and adding Fisher's just like before, make sure we are in blend Orender engine Now to add an image texture, you first need a material. Remember, as we discussed earlier material works as a hub for textures, sh aiders and through the objects we don't a material. You won't be able to put texture onto the object, so I go to material panel first, create a new material. We name it toe breaks, For example, make this material shed lis, then goto texture panel. These buttons will switch between different texture modes. I've mentioned about these buttons before. Basically, this button is used when we want to attack Sha Tau the environment such as for big, round or sky etcetera. This is not men for three D objects surfaces at the far right, we have brushed texture. This is also not for three surfaces. This is for creating custom brushes when we do texture painting for textures that we want to use inside the material. We need to select this one at the center. Now notice. If I click on this monkey object, it doesn't have the texture material mode up here. We only have environment and brass special mode. Well, this is because if we go to material panel, this monkey had object. Doesn't have any material? OK, so again, if you want to add texture to a treaty object, make sure it has a material and that the texture panel is correctly set to material texture mode, which is this button at the center. To add an image texture, the process is almost identical with the procedural texture. Pick a slot and then hit the new button down here. You can name your texture to any name you want. I'm going to name this brick texture. Then, in a tie pulled on lease, make sure it is Sato image or movie. Now, if they said toe image or movie, meaning we are using image texture. Now we can see down here the button toe. Open the image fire we want to use. Click on it. Select the brick texture, but I provide or use your own if you want to. Now we can see the brick texture in the pre few section up here, or if we go to the material panel to see image texture in the treaty. A few we can either go toe rendered display mode or use more chipper mode, which is material display mode. Remember when we used a procedural texture before? We cannot see procedural textures unless we are in rendered display mode. This is because procedural textures needs to be calculated. First image textures, however, are already exists, so they are simply need to be displayed without any pre calculation. Therefore, we can see image textures in material display motor. Okay, guys, so that is how you add image textures in blender. In the next video, we'll coffer in their techniques to stack different type off Cheshire's and blended colors between them, 10. Blending modes: we already know that in blender we can stack textures on top off another. What we haven't discussed is in lender, we can actually spec different type of textures. Together, we can stack an image texture on top, off a procedural texture and vice versa. Basically all textures, whether B procedural or image texture, can respect in this actually, spaniel, I believe you already know how to do this, but let me just show you just to make sure. For example, we want to add another layer off procedural texture on top off this break image texture. Click on this lot. Create a new texture. Change the texture type toe. Let's see clouds in here because we are now using procedural texture. We need to change the treaty few display mode to render so we can see it in a city. Few. Now we get this same. My transparent portable clouds on top of the brick texture. Let's change the basis to sell noise and then change this size Toe 0.5 Next, we can change the color. Don't hear toe black. As we can see, we have this style I stature on our cube object as the result off mixing the brick image, texture and a cloud procedural texture on public fit. If, for example, we want to hide or shows often texture from our texture stack, we can click this check symbol in here we can show or high to break image, texture or the clouds. Procedural texture. When staking textures, we can control how blender makes the colors between these stacking textures, using an option called blending mode. If we scroll down until we see the color a section, we can see a pull down lease called Glenn, and the default is said to mix now to see how this blending modes in action, we need more complex image than this car procedural textures. So let's go up and change the texture. Type toe on image, texture by juicing image or movie in here. Then let's open our second simple image texture, which is the roof tile image. Because we don't have any procedural texture, we can now safely use the material display mode in a treaty. Fuel. Okay, let's scroll back down until we see the blend pull down list again. This makes mode in here simply means that the image in this texture will block the image texture below it. Remember, in Lender, the staking order is re first, so this roof tile texture is actually on top off this brick texture. Therefore, we only see the roof tile texture in a three D view. If you use for a sharp before makes blending more is actually the same as normal blending mode. OK now. Besides mix blending mode, there are two other blending modes commonly used in computer graphics, and that will be multiply and screen multiply will not block the image below it, but in step, blend the colors to make them darker. As the result, we can still see the break texture, but darker multiply blending mode will make the color in the current image become opaque and bright color. Become transparent. We can see the light grace colors in the roof tile are almost invisible. Okay, now screen is the reverse version. Off multiply. It blends the color by making them brighter in screen mode. The darker the pick sauce, the more transparent it becomes, and vice versa. The white or the color, the more opaque there will become. There are other blending modes you can find in here But mostly they fall into inner multiply family, which make things darker, or screen family, which make things brighter. For example, subtract in here. It's like multiply. It makes things darker and add. It's like screen. It makes things writer lighten its like screen and darken. It's like multiply off course. There are subtle differences between them. I recommend you to try an experiment switching between these blending modes yourself again . In my workflow, I mostly used three main blending modes, which are makes multiply and screen. 11. Image editor: when working with image textures or images in general will be dealing a lot with a special editor called the UV image Editor. To access it, you can click in here in the Editor Selector and just UV Image editor from the list. In this editor we can open and few images, we can create new images we can paint on it. We can fuel render result. We can save images in two different formats, etcetera in term, off UV mapping This editor, we let you at it, you feel layouts and can awfully your you feel a out on top off the texture that you want to use. Now, in term, off you feel mapping and new fee editing. We're going to discuss these in later videos. Right now. In this lesson, we're going to focus on essential stuffs when working with UV Image editor. Another common way to access the UV image editor. It's not by changing the treaty. If you like these, let me bring back in a three D a few editor First. If you need to see both the three D few and the UV image editors at the same time, we can wreck this corner control at the top right and create a new area at the right side, then change the editor type to UV image editor in here. Now I use this matter a lot as originally, My screen a solution and my monitor is very me. But when I'm doing screen recording like these, as I only use smaller area off my screen, do you, I quickly gets too crowded. I figure that for most laptop computers, which have smaller screens, this can be an issue also. So for these scenarios, I recommend you to use multiple screen layout to switch between three D few and UV image editor. To do that, click the plus button in the screen layout section and name this one their fault. The UV image. Don't give it a name, which start from random letter as blender will sort the screen alphabetically, and we want this new screen precept position to exactly after the default screen layout. Okay, now that we are in the new screen layout, change that really few editor to you, The Image editor. We can even remove the timeline editor down here by dragging this left bottom corner control down okay to switch between the two screen layouts. We can easily use the screen switching shortcuts and that will be controlled. Left Arrow and control. Right arrow. If we press control, laugh in the UV image editor. We are back in a default screen where we have our very few editor. We can see the world the fault. I'm here. And if we are in this default screen layout, pressing control right Aero will take us to the default. The UV image screen where we can see the UV image editor. If somehow you don't like switching screen like these, you can also use the function keyboard shortcut toe access. The UV image editor simply hover your mouse on the area you want to switch and then press she f f then to access the three D. If you again, you can press shift at five. Personally, I prefer screen switching method for a small screen size, like when I am in this video recording resolution so you will see me doing screen switching a lot in future lessons in the UV image editor, we can see a pull down lease in here which say's few the easiest. The moat button a quick explanation off what this modes can do. Fue is used when we need to see images, pains issues if we want to draw or pain on the image and mosque is for creating wrecker shapes to be used in video composite ER. We're going to focus on Lee on a few mode in this lesson and pain mode on later lessons. Now changing mode will not only alter the header down here, but also the two shelf in this editor. So yes, just like the three d few editor, UV image editor also have a to shelf and a property spent Presti to show or hide the tool shelf and press end to show or hide the property span. All the shortcuts are identical with a three D few editor, so you should remember them easily. Notice In few mode, the two shelf displayed is set off tools while in pain. More. With this brush tools like this open existing image. We can click this open button in here file browser editor will open up and in here we can just browse for the folder we want to access. If you want to see the Tom nail off the images. We can click this button up here, select the file and then click the open image button up here. Now we can see the image in our youth. The image editor Toe open another image. We can click this folder Aiken, and then just browse and select another image flick the open image button. So currently we have two images in a scene or in the memory, although we are not using them for anything particular. If we need to switch between these images, we can click on the image at least button in here. Render will display all opened images in the memory in this list. If we have, like hundreds off images opens in lender, we can quickly overwhelmed by them. This is where the search box up here come in handy. Just type the world or part off the world off the file's name You want to target, and blender will filter them in this list. So like the emails you want and you ve image every time we will show the image beside opening. We can also create new blank image in lender. To do that, we can click this plus button in here. Render will prompt us with this new image window in here, we can name the image, change its size, give it a base color, make it support, offer transparency or not. Have it fill out with default textures, which usually useful for of passing tax. So or you feel mapping size and the less one. Whether toe have ordinary eight beats per channel or 32 feet per channel. Let's name the image red and change the color to red just for resemble and then hit the okay button. We now have a new image filled out with Messi Red color. After we have some images that we can few, we can start discussing on how to navigate the UV image editor. Basically, the navigation is almost identical with the treaty. A few editor, except for a few port rotation as UV image editor, is a to the editor. Trooping around a few. We can use the shift middle most button or they're simply using middle most button to zoom in and out. We can use the mouse, crow, veal or by pressing control and middle most button. If we a pen or resume out too far and we're kind off loss to go back to the NFL. Few, we can press the home key. Okay, now we already know how to open and create images in the UV image editor. But how can we close them? You might be thinking that this X button will close the image while the answer is yes and no pressing. This X button will only close the image from the fewer, but it will not clear the image from the scene or from the memory. That is why, if you click on this image list, the images still exist in the list. To remove the image completely, we need to make the image zero yusor, meaning the image is not used by any object in the scene. To do that, we can hold shift and then click on his ex button notice if we open the image list again. This image has this zero number before the name. If we safe the blender file, then close blender and re open it again. This image will get perch the opposite method off. Making these images zero user is to assign them fake yusor. The concept is the same with fake user in material, so I won't discuss this again in detail. Basically, if you click this f button, we set a fake user of this image. We can see the latter half in front, off the name and image, please. This way, this image will not be removed if you save your blender file and re open it again in later time. But there is something very important here to remember. Blender is a three D software and by default will only save pretty related data inside its file structure. Anything to do it to the images will only be saved as a pointer to the actual image. So if you don't save your file toe on actual external image file, your image will be lost forever again. This is for images that you create directly in vendor, not the ones that you open in vendor because they are actually already exists Outside vendor. For example, this rap image we created before if we select it goto pain mode and make some basic friend um, strokes like this, the image menu don't here will have this asterisk symbol indicating that there are changes in the image data, but it is not safe yet. If you simply say, if the file up here you see if the treaty scene data in tow Ah, got blend format. But this image that you paint will be gone forever. If you close blender to save the file toe external image file, you need to select this image menu and then safe as image. Then we can specify the format in here. Give it a name up here and then click the safe s image button up here. This is the best method to save your image. Why? Because you can later ended the image further in image editing software like photo shop or creator, etcetera. Another method to save your image, although I wouldn't recommend it, is to embed the image inside the blender file. So when you say if the blend file, your image is thought inside it No, remember that this is not the default behavior. If you want to do this, you need to pack the image. You can go to the image menu again. And just either that image are back. S P and G. Mostly you want to pack s PNG because back image is more suitable for non standard eight with paternal images such as high dynamic range 32 bit four channel images. You must be aware, though picking high dynamic range images will make the dot blend file size very large and one last thing. If you already safe the image as an external image file, such as this leaf image, you can only packet with the pack image option in here because the fire already exists and has a specific format, so blender can Onley packet as is without changing its fun for men. 12. PBR workflow: before we jump in tow, texture applications we need to cover the fundamental off text sharing work flows first. And that will be the difference between the old speckle or glass in this workflow against the modern PBR metal roughness approach for a few decades ago. In computer graphic rule, all materials in all tourist offer are using the approach off what is known to be the speculative, glossy or flow a workflow in which we can control the glossy nous and speculum properties separately. But this workflow is more off a heck. It was not designed to be the correct representation off the real World materials behavior . PBR, on the other hand, which is stands for physically based rendering, was designed to mimic the real world material properties as close as possible. The researchers for PBR actually have been around since 19 eighties and keep evolving since then, but it became very popular recently since around 2015 when Disney and Pixar use it in their animated movies. After that, more and more pretty software support PBR will flow, such as Autodesk Meyer algorithmic, substance designer and even vendor, which is the software we are currently using because the advances off computer hardware and software PBR become popular also for real time rendering, such as for games. We are truly simulation, etcetera. Various forms off PBR real time render have been implemented in game engines such as in Unity, Unreal and even the open source gado game engine. The new PPR workflow demands big changes to traditional art pipelines noticeably the texture types that you are using. But the benefits are usually well worth the effort. Most importantly, PBR delivers more consistent and predictable results for the last few decades by using the old speculum workflow. Pretty Game Artists is were only able to create textures that look good under specific lighting conditions. However, as soon as the lighting change on asset would need to be tweaked to look good again with PBR three. The assets we look the way you would expect even when they are changes inviting are in the environment. Basically not only they look nice, but they also look nice consistently. Why well, in its speakers, almost all pbia renderers you. Some form off image based lighting, which low assets to pick up colors from the surrounding environment. If you are in architectural fields, and our visual effects industry. For example, PBR is the only option for you to move forward as PBR workflow will help you be times when you need to create photo realistic renderings. The old speckle of glass in US work floor used three men textures to define their periods. First is diffuse, which is basically the base color off the material, then goes in a stature which control how smooth the surface will be, and lastly, in a speculator texture, which controls how strong the highlights will be. Other than these three men, Taysir are the same with a new PBR world flow again. This approach is not physically correct, because in the real world there is no such thing as speculators. Speculators are basically the reflection off light sources such as lambs or a son bones off the object surface. Also in the real world glow. Sinise, our house moved. The surface is tight directly on how strong it generates reflection. Rough surfaces generate last reflection, thus making the spectacular or the life reflections weaker. On the other hand, glossy or smooth surfaces generate more reflection. That's making the speculum or delight reflections stronger. Essentially, both speculator and glass in its properties are actually aligned to each other and should not be separated. Using the old workflow, we can create something with high speculator but with low glass in us, which will never exist in the reward. The new PBR metal roughness workflow also used three main textures. They are albedo roughness and metal nous. Again, additional textures other than these three meant actuals are the same with the old speculator will flow. Yeah, libido is just like diffuse, which basically gives the material it's based color. The big difference is that albedo texture should not include shadows color inside it. So if we compare the few stature again albedo texture, we can see albedo colors is much flatter or lower contrasts, as the shadow colors are deliberately taken out from the image. Roughness controls how rough the surface will be. It is like glossy nous, but roughness is a more correct approach, as this actually controls both speculator and glass in us all together, Higher roughness means there are more microscopic hills and values that's making the light bones directions more randomized. This is why, on rough surfaces, reflection and or speculators are lower on the other hand. Lower roughness value means there are less microscopic bumpiness on the objects surface that's making the light bones directions more uniform. This is what actually makes the material have strong reflection or speculators. The less one is metal nous, or how metallic the object is. In the real world, we can categorize materials into two big groups. Mandel and Insulate er Medal, for example, iron, gold, copper, chrome, steel, etcetera are all good electrical conductors. What unique about metal is that they don't have any diffuse colors. What we see as yellow in gold, for example, is actually a color reflection off its surrounding, so medal materials have the ability to colorize or tainting the reflection. Nonmetallic materials, also known as insulate er's, are also known as die Electrics are materials who are bad in transferring electricity materials such as wood, Fabbri, glass, glass, T etcetera, basically anything that is not mental. Perhaps 90% off materials in this world are the electrics. I'm not really sure about the number, though I'm just guessing here. So Madonna stature define which parts off the object, our medals and which parts are the electrics. Now you need to understand that what we consider as metals are the pure medals that has shiny reflection. For example, rust on metal surface is not actually a medal, but a directory. Also, if you pain a medal with an ordinary pain, that pain is not a matter. But if you see a mirror mirror is actually a medal, it is a metal pain or metal sheet on a glass surface. What you see as the mirror reflection is actually the metal sheet reflection, not the glass reflection. Essentially, my point is, when designing materials and textures, we only care about what we see on the servers visually. Now the strange thing is some software support, both spec close and metal rough work flows in their PBR rendering system. Although we know spec loss workflow is not physically correct. Why is this happening? There are two reasons for this. First, it is because there are latency off PBR adoption on graphics software in the world. We also still have so many old textures in our libraries, which still uses the specter gloss approach. More software developers are still trying to make their products as highly compatible as it can, so it will play nice with other software. That is why software like substance designer and marmoset tool back, for example, still support. The spec glows or flow. The second reason it is because not everyone needs for the realistic result. If you're in game industry, you know that there are more games with stylish design than games with realistic style in the market Unity game engine, for example, although it's standard material, use PBR metal Rough workflow. Now it is still also support wide variety off material shader and texture types that you can use to start your game to your liking. Because PBR taking account the environment lighting condition, it becomes more computational e expensive than the old hacky war flows. So you almost never see a mobile game using PVR. Well, this may be a subject to change in the future, but at least not for today. Even if you do find noble games using PVR, all the several high end devices can actually around them. Essentially, if you are making three games and you are targeting low and machines such as mobile phones or tablet devices, you should stay away from PBR. Give You are targetting console games and PC games where we have more processing power and also memory. And you want to create photo realistic games than PBR is the right friend that you should follow if you want to make games, their target high and machines. But you want to have more stylized look and are exaggerated colors and lights, for example. PBR may not be a good option for you. PVR will actually constrain you to do certain things. Toby. Always basically correct. Okay, so essentially it all comes down to your project goals, considerations and preferences because off these in the next lesson and the next lesson after it, we will only scratch the old spectacular will flow now in blender, The blend Orender engine that we are currently using was designed for this old workflow. It was not designed for PBR workflow for baby our workflow We're going to use cycles, render engine and also evey rendering engine in the future section. Inshallah, 13. Alpha texture: Until this point, we've been using textures with various methods, but we only use them for changing or be finding the color off the material. If we look at our material panel, we can see that there are other settings we can tweak. Besides just the few scholar, we have speculated intensity, emission, Ambien and so on. My point is we can actually control all of these materials parameters via textures. Now, in this lesson, we're not going to go too deep into making texture for each off the materials parameter. We're going to cover just enough examples, so you have a strong basic understanding off how textures can be used to control material. This is very important, especially if you're aiming to create mobile games as we're not going to use PBR approach in this lesson. But the basics you learn in this lesson will become the foundations. When later we discussed the new PR war flow for this lesson I already provide so far are images that we can use right away if you wonder how I created these textures. Basically, I don't know that the original lotus leaf texture from this site and then I used photo shop to create all of these texture. Self. We will cover how to prepare texture in photo shop and also create hand pain. The texture right inside lender in the future section. But we're not going toe cover photo shop from zero in this course. So if you are very new to photo shop or to any image editing software, I suggest that you take a beginner's course about it. I do have a photo shop plus illustrator course, which is suitable for beginners, but you can join or learn for a shop from any sources that you like. Okay, let's remove everything. Make sure we are in land. Orender Angie. No. And let's create a plane object. Make the radius to two meters and make sure the generate you Weise is turned on. We're going to create a simple lotus live with this plane object I know for Lotus, leave this for meter. Square Plane is very big, but this object can be used to create again level where everything in the game world are gigantic. So later the player can stomp on this lotus leaves to go crossing a poisonous lake or something. Okay, let's add the tax year. Now it's always we need a material force. So go to material panel, create a new material, a name, it lotus leave, then make it shameless for now. Goto Texture panel. Make sure we are in material texture mode. Select the first log and create a texture. Rename this Taysir toe lord this color. Change the texture, type, toe, image or movie. Then click the open button down here and just the texture I provided for color. Which is this Lotus Live different or J. Beck. If you wonder what's with the diff name suffix here? Well, it is because the structure is for diffuse color. So the diff naming convention is just my way off organizing the textual files. Okay, as we can see, the color is already show up in attacks. Your review. To see the texture in the treaty, few as always, we need to use material Orender display mode. Because we're not using any procedural texture, we can use material display mode as this is way faster than Narendra Display mode. Next, let's add transparency, attacks your toe or material transparency, texture or also known as offer texture or opacity. Texture is a texture used to make part off the material, become transparent. Make sure we are in a texture panel. Picton. Excellent at new texture, change the type toe image or movie renamed the texture Toe Lotus opacity. Open the file for this texture, which is Lotus leaf. Opie. A large APEC. It is a grayscale image, as we can see in here, the black color in this image. We make our material transparent, and the white color will make it fully opaque. Currently, we don't have any gray color, but if you do have great color, it will make the material on the pixel area semi transparent. Okay, now notice how our previous color is gone, replaced by this grayscale image. This is because by default, when we insert a texture inside blender, blender will consider that texture is for diffuse color, not for offer or rapacity. And because we place our texture in here on top off the color texture. Therefore, it blocks the texture we have in here in for slaughter. So basically we need to tweak some settings hotel blender that this image is actually for controlling opacity and not for color. To do that scroll down a bit until you see the image sampling section in the offer checklist. Turn off the use option in here. This option tells blender to use the offer channel for this image. We just Currently our image doesn't have any offer channel. Now, don't worry. Later, we will discuss when we should turn on this option. Okay. Next, Scroll down even more until you see the influence section noticed the color option is turned on. This is why the stature affect the color. So turn this option off and then turn on this offer option in here. Notice. Nothing happens yet. We can still see this area. Are solid or opaque, not transparent. This is because by default, Bender materials have their transparency. Options turned off. So we need to go back to the material panel. Scroll down until you see these transparency option. Turn it on and make the offer value in here to zero. This is the general offer value that will affect the base material. So if this is set to maximum, which is one, it will always be opaque. No matter what texture we are using. By setting into zero, we'll have textures control the opacity. Okay. You might be wondering by now. What are these options for mosque Z transparency and rate raise? Mostly you shouldn't care about this options. If you are making them assets, you will have to recreate the material anyway. Inside the game engines such as unity or on riel or gado, etcetera. All of these some things will get ignored when you exported three D objects and material toe external game engine. If you are planning to create photo realistic rendering, then you better off with cycles. Render engine, which use different method to control the material. The only scenario that you might need to know these options is when you need to do known photo realistic rendering, for example, a stylus cartoon like animation in Lender. Or you just need to preview the offer texture before exporting it to game engines. So let me just explain this real quick. I think I need a new object that's a monkey head placing it so it is behind the plane object. Okay, select the plane object again. This mask option will make any object behind it clipped or become transparent also. Oh yes, you need to be invented more to see the effect a splendor needs to do the calculation first to display it. Disease transparency is the common mode suitable for more situation. Basically, it will make the current surface transparent. We don't masking the object behind it. And without any refraction effect, Great race option is suitable for glass or crystal effect. It will ben light ways passing through the object. Currently, we cannot see it because it is tied up with other settings in lender such as this I o R. Value in here and also the settings in Render panel. We're not going to discuss that now as we haven't discussed rendering in lender yet. So let's speak. Zito inspire INSEE for now. 14. RGBA image: let's continue our blend appreciation from the briefest lesson. Currently, we used two different images to control the color and the off off the material. Although this approach works great nowadays, more and more people use another approach, which is basically using only one image that has both the color and the offer. Transparency information. This is considered to be more convenient, as you don't need to care about too many image files. But for this approach, we need to use image far formats that support off our transparency, such as PNG thief DJ a. Etcetera. Commonly, the engine former is more preferable, as it has more features compared to the other formats. And one off those features is the automatic most less compression, essentially using PNG Far. It's more convenient, as we don't need to worry too much about quality degradation and also the file size. You cannot use J pick or GIF format or any other performance that does not support off our channel. So what is Al Pacino before we go Toe blender? Let me explain about this Alfa general concept real quickly. We have discussed about RGB channel before in the color models lesson. Basically, Raster image is actually just a great off small squares called pixel. Each big so will have to store at least three information. How much the strength off the red color, how much he's for the green color. And finally, how much is for the blue color. Different level off. Grad green and blue values will determine the color off the pixel. These three types off information for its existing big So are called channels. Basically, channel is just a block off data inside a pixel toe. Hold the color component. So we have Fred Channel, Green Channel and Blue Channel. Besides red, green and blue channels, we can have another channel that we can use to control transparency. This is what we call Alpha Channel. Okay, now, let's open. Render again control Right arrow to go to you, the image editor. And let's open the file that I already provided, which is lotus leaf color, are far the PNG Right away, we can see that this image has transparency because we have checker pattern in these areas . The second pattern is just a way off blender displaying transparency. This like how Photoshopped or creator or any other image editing software short transparency If we press end toe open the property panel, we can see in here the tax rgb a bite. RGB is for the color and the A in here is for off our notice Every open our existing pressure before you just in Jay Peak format. We only see the tax rgb in here. We don't the a leather. Let's open our PNG fall again in the UV image Editor these buttons don't here are useful to see each off the channels. This one, for example, is to see the blue Chenault. In this mode, the whiter the color, the stronger the blue color component will be Feist first, the blacker the color, the weaker the blue color component on that particular pink sauce. This concept is the same with the Green Channel and also with the red Channel. Okay, Now this bottom in here is used to fuel the offer channel. In this mode, the white or the color, the more opaque that current pixels will be, and the black of the color, the more transparent that big sauce will be. Okay, Now this button will combine red, green and blue channels into a single color image but without the Alpha Channel. And the less button at the far left side will display the image with all off the channels active. So RGB combined with off our This is the default mode when we preview images inside UV image editor So how can we use these RGB a imagers for textures? Let's go back to the treaty. Few then open the property editor in a dasher tab. We have our previous take shares. This one is for controlling the color and this one is for controlling the Alfa. We want to replace the two images in here with only one picture suppress acts to remove the second slot pasture and select the first slow texture to change the file. We don't need to click this folder like button in here to browse for the image. Remember, we already opened the file in the UV image editor before, So simply click on the image. Listen here. And just the lotus leaf color are followed. PNG file. Okay. No, make sure this use our for option is on and then scroll down a bit until we are at image assembling section. Make sure the Alfa use option istan Don also, otherwise blender will not use the offer channel off this image. Remember that previously we turn this off because our image before didn't have any offer channel. Now that we have on offer channel, we actually want to use it. So we should check this option next scroll down again until you see the influence section. Make sure both the color and the offer options are turned on. So basically this image we have Forbis texture will affect both the color and the offer off the material the RGB channels off This image will affect the color and the offer channel off. This image will control the transparency. 15. Bump texture variations: in this lesson and suffer a lessons after this video, we're going to discuss to other texture types commonly used after the color and the offer textures, and that will be the bomb, texture and speckle or texture. First, let's focus on a bomb textures a long time ago. The term bomb textures are grayscale images that we can use to create the illusion off bumpiness on three surfaces. So the way the bomb textures work is by faking the shading on the object surface. Your original geometry will not change at all by default. The bright colors on a bomb texture will create hills, and there are colors will create valleys since around 2000 for game engines and then followed by general cities. Offer started to adopt a new technique off Montek chewing called normal map. Instead of using just a grayscale color, normal map texture. Use RGB channels to dictate the direction off the surface because off these normal map has more fidelity and more details compared to the old one textures. Let me explain quickly how normal texture actually works. Imagine that we have a surface into the world. This way is acts this way. It's why and finally the direction straight into our eyes is the Z axis direction. Like any normal images, Normal man composed off three channels red, green and blue H off these channels control different axes off the bomb effect. First, it's the Luceno. The blue color dictate the height off the surface or, in other words, controlled Z depth off each pixel. So under this point, the Blue Channel in normal map is identical with the grayscale value in classic bomb maps the green color. Determine how perpendicular the surface against the Y axis direction and finally assume I already gas it the red color. Determine how perpendicular the surface against the X axis direction. So by using these three channels, surfaces, slopes or surface tilting can be represented more precisely to show you the idea more clearly. Imagine if we can see each pick sauce really close, and that the bomb textures can actually create geometry. At the left side, we have our classic grace siobahn texture. We can see each pixel with different grayscale values will produce something like this jagged slopes on surface. It's like Minecraft game trains while at the right side because we're using normal map. We can actually define the tilting off the surface, so the additional color channels really helped to define the precision off the bomb effect . I hope this visualization max sends to you. If not, don't worry. Basically, you only need to remember that this colorful texture is normal map, and this grayscale color is the classic map, and it's normal map. It's way better than the grayscale color bomb man. Okay, now for normal map. Commonly, we don't really normal map by hand. Mainly, we create normal map by using a technique called texture baking. We're going to cover texture baking in the future section now, Although people are moving towards normal maps, grayscale images like these are still being used. But for other purposes. Nowadays, people call these grayscale images as height, map or displacement maps or depth map. Basically, they are all the same thing in term. Off the image picture. Oh yes, almost forget when I say map, it is actually refer toa texture. OK, I've been using three DS max for a very long time since back when it was called three D studio in 1996 it was still a DOS software back then into the S mix. And also photographic application pastures are called maps. It is just a different way off calling texture, so don't get confused here. Okay, so now days we have two types off texture for defining surface bomb details. First is the normal map, and second is height map or also known as displacement maps. The way we use them, it's a bit different, though. Normal map is used to create bomb effects, so it will only alter how shading behaves or, in other words, just faking the rendering. For height mare, we can still use it for bomb effect. Also, if you want Oh, which basically using the old method. But people are not using these height maps for bomb effect. Nowadays, they are used mostly for displacement or desolation and for mixing textures dynamically. Displacement and Artis elation our technologies for any more geometrical details to a three D object dynamically when it is being rendered or a few real time in gameplay mode. Now, displacement and desolation are actually different things. Displacement responsible for moving the fertile seize up and down along the surface based on the height map that we provide. So contrast tudo bom effect techniques where the details are just fix shadows. Displacement technique will actually push the first assist on a geometry. We can use displacement alone, but usually we use displacement together with desolation. Desolation. Essentially, it's a technique to add more Joe mattress dynamically when objects are being rendered. So a simple plain object like this, when in modeling or in uttering session, can be as complex as days with millions off polygons when rendered or went in play mode. If we are in Gamely Flateman, if we are back in altering mode again, the object will be back also to its original low polygon form. The courting about these technologies is that you can combine them together to make even more details environment so you can use displacement and desolation for large two medium details and then use the normal map to take care of small details. A lot of people in projects already used this technique. If you played a game called goes Off a Tail, you can see the environment off this game has so many reached details. This game uses displacement and desolation and normal map heavily to create these beautiful details. You can compare the original polygon at the left for sister gameplay, real time rendering at the right side. Besides for displacement nowadays, height maps are also used for mixing and combining different materials. For example, if we have dirt material like these and paddle or swim water material, we can combine both off this materials procedurally based on their high properties. We can do this correctly due to the information inside their height maps. Now, usually for displacement, desolation and height mixing, we use more than eight bit off color information. It can be 16 or even 30. Toby Pacino, basically the morbid per channel we have in our image, the more amount off, high, playful information can be contained inside that image. But of course, the file size will be much, much bigger than the ordinary eight with images. That is something you need to consider, especially for game the Flagman. We're going to discuss normal map and displacement creation more in depth in another section in Seoul law, as we need to cover more advance topics first, such as detailed modelling, sculpting and texture baking. So in an Excel essence, we will only cover basic texture implementation using provided image files 16. Adding height map: in this lesson video. We're going to learn how we can use bomb texture inside lender. We are going to use ah height map, which is basically a grayscale image to add vamping us effect to our existing lotus leaf object. Now this image is just a simple grayscale eight bit per channel image that I made manually info Russia off the record. Now, before we add any bun, texture, toe or material. Remember that bomb texture well, essentially fake the shading on our interior. Currently, our material doesn't have any shadings because we said it too shameless mode before. No shading means no bomb effect. So turn off the shameless option in here. Make sure our display mode is in material mode. Notice. We only see this black color leaf object. This is because when we turn off shed less option, the material will be affected by the scene lighting's because currently we don't have any light sources in our seen, we cannot see the leaf object Sola straight Appoint light force press shift see to center the treaty cursor Schiff A and then just lamb, then to a spine point light or point. Lamine vendor is a light source which emit lights from a single point in three D space toe all directions. It is perfecto similar 10. The lamp or came fire or light ball etcetera. To see the light effect more clearly, let's move this up in a C axis for one leader. Press G Z one and enter and then move it in. Why access for about two meters? Press g again? Why, then to that? Enter now go texture piano. In this work, create a new texture. Renaming toe lotus bum. Make sure image and movie is active for potential type. Click the open button down here and just the bomb image file I provided, which is Lotus Leaf bomb Dodge apec OK, currently, this image is used by blender to control color, so let's change this behavior. Scroll all the way down to the influence section. Turn off color option in here and turn on normal in here now in lender, even if you are using grayscale bomb texture and not argue, be based normal. My texture. It is still called normal. Blender will automatically detect whether we are using grayscale height, map or color normal map, which is a good thing we can see the effect off the bomb texture in the treaty. Few again. This is just a fake surface. Details. If you go to the solid few mode out of plane, object is just a flat face. In a material display mode, we can see as if the surface has bombed details on the center left grounds. Now, if you think that the bomb effects is too strong, we can reduce the bumper value by going to the texture of an all notice. There is a slider value in the right side off the normal check box which defaulted to one. If you pull this value down, the bomb effect will slowly reduced. It will be threatened if which zero, and if he said it to negative value, we can see the bomb effects is refers. So instead of coming up from the surface, the growth areas no look sinking below the surface. Okay, so that explains what this value is for. I think 0.7 is a good value. Nope. Let's try 0.5 Still too strong. 0.3. Okay, the 0.3 looks better. Okay, guys, in the next lesson, we're going to add a speculator map to our lotus leaf object 17. Specular texture: in this lesson video. We're going to discuss speculative attacks shares as we discussed earlier. Speculative texture is not considered to be the PBR way off refining material, but we still need to discuss this texture as you may need to create known photo realistic friend. Ring inside render or another example if you are creating them assets, even if you try to create Super Photo realistic games to a certain extent, you want to bend the reality and create special materials to highlight certain important objects in the scene, for example, so the player can spot it right way. Most game engines such as unity and un really even they are using PBR. This game engines still support speculator texture. You will see later in this lesson that the methods off adding textures, any type off textures are essentially the same. I'm hoping that after week offer color, Alfa Bum and speckle er textures. You have strong foundation on the concepts and the basic techniques so that you can explore the rest off the texture. Types yourself okay. Before we had the speculator texture are material currently has a spectacular problem. Notice if we see the leaf object from this angle, we can suspect color or highlight colors on this transparent area. If we press shift z Togo to render a preview mode, we can see the effect even stronger in here. Off course, we don't want to see spectacular in this area as this is supposed to be a foreign area, not a glass surface. To remove the speck colors or highlights on the transparent areas, we need to go to material panel in a tense battle. See section directness. Speculators value all the way to zero. This is basically makes the offer texture not only responsible to control transparency would also responsible for masking out the speakers effect. Our leaf object looks so much better now to add speckle or texture to our material. We need to go to the texture panel. Pick this third slot at a new texture. Rename the stature toe lotus spec. Same as before. Make sure image and movie option is active. Click the open button and just a lotus lee of spectral J back. Okay, now go to image assembling section in the offer option. Turn off the use option in here. This is important. If we have Reese turned on Bender will actually try to use the offer channel in our image for controlling spectacular intensity later which, in our case, our image doesn't have any offer Channel. So this option will give wrong results. If it turned on next, go to the influence section and then turn off color option. But turn on the speculator in density here. Okay, If we examine the treaty, few we can clearly see that this grout still have spectaculars. Although the color in the speckle or texture are set to black in the growth area, why is there well, just like the offer value we discussed before there is a global spec or setting in the material parameters which controls it. So go back to the material panel on we can see in a speculum section this intensity cider turned us down all the way to zero. So now our speckle or a texture, they full control off the speculator intensity across the surface off this object. But still, I think this is too strong. You can go back to the texture panel and reduced the spec or intensity in here to any number you like. I think 0.8 is a good number. Okay, guys, after you have hands on experience off adding these textures, you shall understand by now how powerful textually is in look development process. With only one face, we can create a nice looking road sleeve that we can use for our game or for any other project that we like using texture to control material properties will also give us suffer all additional advantages. At least there are two advantages that we can discuss right now. First is speed off the initiation. For example, we have this multi colored fish submarine model combat toe have a multiple materials inside one object having only one material, but with texture to control, the variation will be much cheaper on rendering calculation. This is very important, especially in game the flagman. The second advantage is because texture files are just images. We can easily transfer them to any external application. If you rely heavily on parameters in this material panel, for example, to design the look off your tree contents, it may be okay if you are planning to do the final rendering right inside blender before game. The Flateman. These parameters are useless as they will not get transferred to the game Engine image textures, however, can be transferred and used in any external to the applications, including game engines.