Artificial Intelligence (AI) Governance and Security 2023 | Taimur Ijlal | Skillshare
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) Governance and Security 2023

teacher avatar Taimur Ijlal, Cloud Security expert, teacher, blogger

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Course Introduction

      4:36

    • 2.

      AI Overview

      5:54

    • 3.

      Machine Learning Overview

      2:48

    • 4.

      Need for AI Governance

      5:27

    • 5.

      Bias in AI models

      4:53

    • 6.

      AI regulations

      7:17

    • 7.

      AI Governance Framework

      5:54

    • 8.

      Cyber security risks in AI

      11:11

    • 9.

      Cyber security framework

      7:16

    • 10.

      Way forward

      1:02

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About This Class

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is causing massive changes in our lives both at the individual and societal level with the global A.I. market expected to reach around 126 billion U.S. dollars by 2025.  As more and more decision making is handled by AI systems, new and unique risks are being introduced due to rapid A.I. adoption. 

AI governance and cyber-security is a new field for many professionals due to the (seeming) complexity around it. According to Gartner's Market Guide for AI Trust, Risk and Security Management AI poses new trust, risk and security management requirements that conventional controls do not address.” This groundbreaking course has been addressed to cover this gap so that risk management professionals and cyber-security experts can understand the unique nature of AI risks and how to address them. 

  • Are you interested in learning about the new risks which Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning introduces ?

  • Do you want to know how to create a governance and cyber-security framework for AI ? 

If you answered YES  then this course is for you !  This course is specifically designed to teach you about AI risks without any prior knowledge assumed. No technical knowledge of AI systems is required for this course.  

With you course you will learn :

  • The key risks which AI and Machine Learning models introduce and how to address them

  • How to create a governance framework in your organization to enable AI risk management 

  • The cyber-security risks which AI systems introduce and how to address them 
  • How to implement security controls at each phase of the Machine Learning lifecycle

Lets get started ! 

Meet Your Teacher

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Taimur Ijlal

Cloud Security expert, teacher, blogger

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Level: Beginner

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Transcripts

1. Course Introduction: Hello everyone. Welcome to this course. I am your instructor thymidylate. And thank you for making the decision to learn and understand about artificial intelligence governance and cybersecurity. Now, AI is one of the most exciting fields around the market is filled with opportunities and jobs. You hear about it on the news, everywhere, pretty much on social media. More and more people are wanting to learn about this new technology. And the demand for AI professionals is booming everywhere. Now, AI is like a massive field and I can spend ages just talking about. But the focus of this particular course is I, governance and cybersecurity, which is a topic a lot of people are interested in. It brings together two of the most hottest around today, which is artificial intelligence and cybersecurity. And I honestly believe there is not enough material present about this or it is, but it's scattered all over the place. You might find courses about AI. You will find questions about cybersecurity, but not enough courses are teaching you how to security AI systems. And hopefully this fills that gap. If you have no idea what AIA is and how it works when nobody's, I will walk you through the basics also before we delve into the governance of cybersecurity sections. If you really want to learn about the basic stuff III and not really interested in saga vanish and cybersecurity. I have another course here which tissues at the basic of AI and practically teaches you about AI and both the theory and the practice. If you wanted to just look at that topic. Who is this course for guys, like, I would say pretty much everyone because I think everybody should know about EI given how it's impacting the world and the society around us is having a massive impact on us, right? So on a job as a society and you should definitely know all about it, You would definitely appreciate this. But if you want to leave you to look at it, I mean, if you are a risk management or governance specialist, you would definitely appreciate this course because you are already in that field writing you assessing risk and you understanding if you're in cybersecurity, you would want to know about AI visits and how to mitigate them. If you're in the AI field itself, like you're a data scientist or your machine learning engineer. And you want to learn about the potential risks and you want to understand what they are then definitely this course is for you. Sometimes you get tunnel vision and you don't get the big picture of the technology we are working on. Lastly, I said anybody who's interested in AI, there are no prerequisites for this course. I mean, you don't need to have a PhD in mathematics, like a Python programming or something like that. No. The book goes is pretty much for anyone who wants to know about AI and what are the risks around it? What are the topics we will be touching on, guys? These are the topics I will touch on briefly about AI and the impact it's having on human beings and society and why. We will do a quick overview of machine learning. It's installed. It's important to know because that's where the most of the rescue coming and it's most the most popular sub-field in artificial intelligence. Then we actually go into the meat of the course. We will see why governance and risk management raise him so important and how to go about creating a particularly a governance framework. Then we'll get a bit more technical instructor understanding the cyber risks that are unique to EHR systems, and how to create a cybersecurity framework that is customized for artificial intelligence. Now that you know, hopefully a little bit about the course, bit more about me so that you know who your teacher, who's teaching you. My name is femoris long. I've been in the InfoSec field for about two decades. I'm currently based in the UK where I'm moving suddenly after spending a decade in the UAE. I'm a published writers because I always loved teaching and basically creating a vein. It's about new and exciting technologies. I have a YouTube channel called the Cloud Security Guide, which is focused specifically on cloud security and AI risks and gentlemen, career advice. So Blues, please do visit and subscribe there if you're interested there. So yeah, that's pretty much about me guys. One thing for this course is project. Now, I would want you to apply the knowledge you get in this course. And I want you to create a threat model for AI based applications. And I firmly believe that knowledge not applied is forgotten. You will learn how to create a threat model in the future sections. And I want you to use net knowledge and ketones head model of an AI system. It can be an enabled as commonly use, I would recommend like self-driving vehicles. We heard a lot about that. Take the principles you learned in this course and apply it and create a threat risk assessment of self-driving vehicles. Let me know so I can get my feedback, all that also. That pretty much wraps it up, guys, I hope I gave you a good introduction about this course. Let's get started learning about AI and how to govern and secure it. And I will see you in the next section. 2. AI Overview: Hi guys, Welcome to this section. Before we jump into the governance and risk management, I, I wanted to have a quicker for sure, but it's helpful to know what you are securing, what your governing before you actually started. If you're already like an AI expert and you already relevant what AI and machine learning. You don't need a refresher. Then by all means skip this section. But I was always recommend that you do refreshing basic concepts. And sometimes you can get a bit tied up in the details and forget the big picture. What is the Artificial Intelligence AI expert, the person who is called the father of John McCarthy. In 195060 organized a very famous conference called the dark mode conference. In his talk, he coined the term artificial intelligence and he defined it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. Basically, what does that mean? The signs of trouble, like I said, the signs of computer systems being able to perform tasks with just humans do like speech recognition, vision recognition, intelligent decisions, language processing. Why do we need to do that? You might ask, okay, well, why human beings are there? Why would I want a machine to start doing this stuff with? This sounds a bit scary. But honestly guys, the amount of data, data generated today by both humans and machines, it far outpaces humans ability, human beings ability to absorb and make decisions based on that, artificial intelligence is pretty much like forming the basis for all future computer learning is the future of all complex decision-making. And we'll see why, why it's like really not feasible to have human beings keep on doing this. If you have already interacted with an EA. If you've been to like a website and you've seen a chatbot pop up and start talking to you. That's a very basic form of AI. Your computer running a specialist form of AI. That he is not able to answer your question. You see it gets, then you get an auditory human being who communicate strategy with a person just to give you an idea of whether you're using Netflix. You really like how matrix customizes the movies which recommends to you then that's machine learning and actual physical been like it has billions of users using it at any given time. And like I said, how it's not feasible for human beings to start doing this. How do you think that regulate hate speech on the platform or inappropriate materials? Can you imagine the cost of protecting monitor all of this human beings? That's why they have even on EIA to detect and remove hips reach from their platform. Every time you know, your seemed like every time you use an Excel city and what do you call and you're using those whites assisted, voice based assistance anytime you make a mistake. What do you call Alex? Our city is not able to understand what you're saying. Then it uses that data and it starts learning based on that, and it learns from it. So this is AI in action. Basically, AI machine learning is pretty much responsible for the explicit growth of whitespace assistance, you know, digital voice assistance because they learn to keep on learning based on what they are understanding and based on that, it improves more and more impact of why suddenly becomes such a big deal. You know, you hit anybody, hey, all the times RDA is coming is changing everything. All that. Why, Why is he really becoming such a big deal? Well, just to put into context, a is called the Fourth Industrial Revolution. What does that mean? Well, we had previously industry evolution, how human beings were living, and it had massive impact. We have steam science and digital technologies. The first three industrial revolutions, which just comes from that modern society. Like if you want to really go back, people found that, that then you heat up stuff, then you got energy and it gets streamed. To the advent of the steam engines. Steam was powering everything. From agricultural protection, monitoring manufacturing. People used to live in pharmacy and bend them scheme based manufacturing happened. People start to move from farms to the cities and more specifically the factory. But factory life was very difficult, right? Factory laborers were cheap and plentiful and they were people who were wearing long and long hours and very unsafe conditions. Then what happened? Automation came mass production Muslim, notably the assembly line, assembly language goes, people are sitting there putting stuff there, you would see, right? That happened, mass production started happening, automation. And that was the Second Industrial Revolution. After that, the fact that you're sitting here and talking to me on a computer on the Internet. That's the digital revolution rate. You're enjoying the cloud, the internet, and sums up a handheld device with digital device. All of those are basically the Third Industrial Revolution because that we move from analog to digital. So that gives you now you understand how big a is, why it's been called the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Because based on a more and more stuff is being offloaded onto computers and the, and the kingdom and decisions and they're giving, been given more and more, what do you call it important stuff to do? All of these industrial divisions, we have represented very big changes. Like really honest society level. Life went from the farm to the factory. And people like people who started automating more and more stuff. So that's why it's so important things like electricity and mass production. So that's how big it is. Nice. And why is it certainly happened now you might say like, why are you in the last couple of years? But two very simple reasons, increasing computing power and increasing data capacity. Now, AI needs a lot and lot of computing power. It was not feasible honestly. I mean, you can see, like I said, John McCarthy mentioned it in 1956, but recently did not have that computing power. Now with things like Cloud computing, computers have become so powerful they able to process that data. The second thing is data. We simply did not have that much data because machine learning requires a huge amount of data. And that's why you needed these two things are needed now we have zettabytes of data available plus the cost of storage has dropped. These are the two things which have really poverty and poverty I, and lead to the fourth industrial revolution. I hope you understood this guy is having such a big impact on what AI is. Now let us go to the main thing which is machine learning, which I'll talk about in the next section. 3. Machine Learning Overview: Hi everyone. Welcome to this section which is machine-learning guys. It's not machine learning. It's pretty much like the engine that drives the eye. And it's defined as the ability of machines to learn from data. And you basically teach a computer to do something without programming into dsolve. And it's currently the most developed and the most promising sub field of AI for industries like governments and infrastructures. And it's the most commonly used like subfield of AI in our daily lives. What is machine learning guys? Like I said, simply put computer programs. You know, they're not smart in the actual sense of the word. They have a set of hard-coded instructions like they take data and produce output, and they cannot go outside of that. Take a calculator, for example, when culpability scheme or they've seemed like magical, right? You are putting numbers in interest telling you. But at the end of the David is just taking inputs and processing it and giving you output nothing more. In machine learning, what happens is it takes data which you're learning and it learns from it. It's fed into an algorithm to create a program. And it basically learns based on that data. So let's take, just to give you an example, this is how machine learning works. Basically, you give a computer lots and lots of data. It's called training data. Then you give it an algorithm to understand that data. What does the machine do? It takes the data, takes an algorithm, and then it builds a model which we'll use to predict something which hasn't happened yet. Now what do you do? Then you feed it actual data and you'll see what does it do? Does it make a prediction, correct prediction or the wrong production? Now based on that, if it's correct, wonderful, you feed it more data to show the accuracy goes up. If it's wrong, then you go back to entertain it, more training, more training for. You. Basically retain them algorithm multiple times until the desired output is fine. What's happening? The machine is basically learning on a stone and the results will become more and more accurate over time. This is how different machine learning is from normal computer system. So just to give you a better example, this is our traditional can predict programs used to work correct? You have input, you will put it in an algorithm and then an output would come out. This is how can predict outcomes is to work. So machine learning is like this. You have input and output already and you give them machine learning. You have an algorithm based on that. It takes the input and it looks at the output. And based on that, it creates a model digital used to make future decisions about that input which is coming in, is to learn by itself. This is how different it is from normal programming which used to happen. Okay guys, Now, we've covered this topic. I hope this was a good refresher for you. We had an older with AI and why it's become so prominent nowadays. And we had an overview of machine learning also. We learned how machine learning works and how it makes its decisions. Believe it or not. Now you have the foundational knowledge you need now to understand about AI governance and management. I hope that was useful guys. And I will see you in the next section. 4. Need for AI Governance: Hi guys, Welcome to this section. And here we start getting into the real meat of the course, which is the governance and risk management aspects of AI. The first question is, why guys? Why do you think AI needs to be governance and risk assess rate? If you work in a company like I have, you would know that most companies already have this management departments and governance frameworks in place. Why do we need something different for AI? Well, the simple answer is EI introduces certain new types of which were not present before. I guess like a disruptor like is that disruptive technology, unlike most disrupters, It has to be approached and explicit mitigated in a slightly different way. We should take a look at when you ask people what are the key risks in systems. A lot of people are talking about AI, like Elon Musk, Bill Gates and all that lot and how they can impact us negatively, right? I mean, if you talk about the rest, I just, I've mentioned a few of them. We have biases and the artificial intelligence models and security compromises. I'm gonna be talking about the top 2D in a full section. I'm not going to spend too much time on that. But if you're talking about privacy, you have these facial recognition technologies. I think many countries are implementing facial recognition based on the eye. And they can store that data of a lot of privacy risks come in. You have things like the fixed rate you would have seen, go to YouTube and put D Fig. You will see like absolutely accurate videos of people like Tom Cruise, Morgan Freeman. You will not believe how accurate it is that really scares people. How will we know what is real and what is not right? And if you want to go back to autonomous machines, I'll talk more about that. Basically things which are completely working without any human intervention whatsoever and people get scared off that one of these machines started taking over the world or something like that. And a much more practical job disruption. Ai, like, like I said, a is going to take over a lot of the stuff which humans used to do. A lot of things that are going to get an automated mundane stuff which are human verbally does not really need that much. Obviously anti-electron do that is gonna get outsourced to AI, is gonna take over and a lot of jobs will go away. 100%, I mean, without any doubt. But a lot of those will get created all sorts. So that's why it's so important to invest in your future and to invest into AI. The last week might be a little bit of a weird thing, but yeah, the end of the world, like people who see movies like determinator, like matrix or something like that. They think that machines are gonna take over the world. But thankfully we haven't reached that point yet. But it is still something like a lot of people do say that machines that we are going to become sentience, right? You're gonna start taking over the world and everything. But honestly the pelvis with so much more practical contexts. Let us take a few examples also. When we talk about the risks and something that's happened a few years back like 2016. Toolbox, which Microsoft is describing in the Microsoft started as an experiment conversational understanding. The more you chat with this board, it was called the smart it would get and we start to engage with people too casual and Clifford conversations. It was designed to learn from introductions and hybrid people on Twitter. Unfortunately, what happened on some people decided to feed it like this system offensive information. And Microsoft actually had to apologize for that because this chalkboard was aimed at 18 to 24-year-olds on social media. It was targeted by a coordinated attack of a subset of people and they started feeding it like really offensive information. So we didn't 24 hours, it had to be deactivated. Microsoft had to actually issue an apology for the hurtful upset out. This was give you an example. Say, we really realize how AI could completely out of control. These people exploited over luminosity that was there. They said that we will not simply not prepared with this type of thing that could happen and you could feed it like inappropriate stuff and it will start feeding it. So they said that they will keep on defining it. But this is just like a simple example of what happened when you did not take into account what possibly could happen. Okay, that was a slightly homeless example. Let's look at look at something which is VMO scary guys, which is autonomous weapons, whatever autonomous weapons, basically the pins that selected AND gates targets without human intervention. Like, you know, armed helicopters, they can search for it. And like unlimited dividend, meeting certain criteria and all that people are looking at. An EIS, unfortunately, like it just electro says, it has reached a point where the deployment of successful is practically it is practical within a few years, not decades. These things have been described it the next revolution in warfare, very scary thing and many arguments have been made. People have seen, people have said that, okay, what happens, these things didn't go out and no human casualties will happen, right? But what if somebody is able to manipulate this, you know, like disruption and take it over and start humming people. That's why it's so dangerous. So that's y. Over 30 thousand. I have a vertex researchers and other people's decided an open letter on the subject. And 2015, they said that we do not want this happening. Please do not invest in this research actually shows you some of the scariest aspects which can happen and display. It will become like an AI almost always. That's why it's so important to have regulations. So important to have governance of AI in place. I just wanted to show you that this was like, I showed you a slightly humorous example and this was like a more scary examples which you can take a look at. The dispersant, do opposite extremes, non, Let's take a look at an actual, how AI can actually negatively impact people are cases of AI biases and prejudices, which I'll go into in the next section. 5. Bias in AI models: Hi guys. In this section we're gonna talk about AI prejudices and biases. So in the previous section, we saw a mother, a funny example and the worst-case scenario, the funny goes on Microsoft Word and autonomous because it was like the worst-case scenario. Now let's take a look at a real-life example as a IS of AI prejudices and biases. So now believe it or not, modules can be biased against a particular gender, age. If that data is not properly put inside the module, because humans are particular strike humans unconsciously or consciously. We might have to be biased towards a particular race or color or something like that. And it can feed into the data being used to train machine learning models. And it can actually lead to wrong decisions we've made which can impact your health. We went everything. So as organizations are increasingly replacing human decision-making algorithm with algorithms, they may assume that these algorithms, they are not biased. But like I said, these algorithms reflect the real-world, right? Which means they can unintentionally carry forward these viruses because incorrect results can actually ruin somebody's life. So let's take a look at this news article, which is the electro study public first published in Science Magazine, it found that the healthcare algorithm, like it was user on like 200 million people in the US. It was biased against a particular race because it was determining who needs more medical health care. Unfortunately, it was like a polaroid, I think white people above other people. And because my singling out, it was actually denying people who might actually need medical attention because of the data was not fed into millions and billions of black people were affected by an issue Bye in this particular healthcare algorithm. So that's why it's so important to make sure that this does not happen because it can actually have actual real-life effect on people. So let's look at actual, Now let's look at this. Let's look at an example in detail. Compass. I mean, I don't know if you're familiar with this because this was in the news quite awhile. It's called the correctional Offender Management Profiling for alternative sanctions, I believe competency up. It was a machine learning system which was used to either United States in the courts. What it would do, it would predict that there's somebody would recommend a crime or not. You know, when people who have been given jail sentences, it would actually give them a rating based on how, how much of a chance that this person will recommend a crime. Again, the judge was actually using this reading to assign jail time, finds, you know, whatever is happening is like people, I hope particular race was seen as almost twice as likely as white people to be labeled high-risk. And despite the fact that they did not deliver computing very small translated completely harmless crimes. And the opposite result was driven by white people. So they were given low-level security despite the fact that they had criminal histories and they are like high probability to be your friend. That's why it was so dangerous and work. It was taken into effect, taking into account many things like data which is going to age and employment and everything. And based on that, it was assigning this physical thing. So that's why unfortunately, people have a particular is incorrectly labeled as high-risk to come in the future crime twice as much as white people. Even the company denied it. But unfortunately the results, particularly, if you can see this thick, Let's take a look at, I mean, all of them because they can hook. But the middle example is pretty funny. Visual Bowden, she had committed like a petty theft, mine a discriminators, and when she was a juvenile. And the other guy further, he was a much more seasoned criminal. He had jail time for armed robbery and other charges. But according to campus and the scores was low-risk and visual border was high-risk. And two years later, the capital going to respond to have made a wrong prediction because both boarding bishop ordered did not commit any new kinds. And Theta on the other hand, he was serving in ETS sentence for general breed. Now I hope you understand that you can take a look at other examples also. But now I hope you understand just how AI can actually perpetuate existing unfairness and biases antennae unintentionally do to the data that is fed into it. And then the next section, we're going to take a look at what principles we can put to stop this from happening. This brings us to the end of the whole governance section, the, what he called the risks section. We looked at the risks which are present in the eye of what you call some examples of AI going wrong. The dangers of going on what's the worst-case scenario and the case study of bias. So you can see there are all types of cosine i and the check completely different to the West, which we are normally used to here. So now let's take a look at what other measures and controls we can put in place to make sure that these AI systems do not have these risks and how to mitigate them in the next section. Thank you. 6. AI regulations: Hi guys. Welcome to this section, which now that we have a good foundational understanding about AI and what are the risks and problems which can cause. Now let's take a high-level look at how do you create a governance framework for I. So basically, we have a control framework. I wish management framework for AI to be put in place. How do we go about that? This whole section is going to be focusing on that now. So the first step is guises, regulations and standards. Now, the first step is nobody likes regulations. Because regulations look like red tape. People have to fill out forms and you don't comply with hundreds of it was nobody like that. Fortunately, actually not. Unfortunately, I must be regulated to protect ourselves and to use technology without manipulation and bias. We talked about AI being biased in their last section. Now the best way to make sure that it is not biased and rules are the estimates sure that regulations are there. The sad fact is companies usually focus more on profits and these things are not going to give it an appropriate priority. We wanted to take a look at yada collisions first of all, because B is central to wind down for everything. And we're gonna take a look at the regulatory landscape for AI, which is the most important regulation, EIA regulation currently on the way. Like I said, the need for regulations. It needs regulations to protect itself and its users from internal and external misuse. And governments are using AI to make quick decisions that can have a huge, it can impact your health, your life. Like a huge amount of differences can we make? And you see how wrong decisions, unfair decisions can happen, which can like we saw, that people have been deprived of medical care, people have been given jail. All of these. So if you have regulations, we have accountability, human rights. It sends out, sets out minimum standards of treatment that everybody can accept. It says that everybody has the right to remedy if those standards are not met, then you can actually documents that is supposed to make sure the standards that are present and anybody that big, so standardized held accountable. That's why it's so important. The country. The funny thing is, there is no specific legislation specifically designed to regulate AI is being regulated by the existing regulations like data protection, consumer protection. And those have been passed to regulate. And governments are working hard and fast on it. But no legislation has been passed properly at China has put in like strategies, the USS port in the White House as a shoot then precipitants for the regulation of AI. And it's like most countries are focusing on that. I wanted to focus on the regulation that is expected to have the most impact around the world on this particular technology. The global like I talked about, a huge amount of work is being done. The most ambitious proposes some so far it is from the European Union guy's dad for travel and you act last year in April 2021. It is the world's first compute proposal for regulating AI. And it's going to have a huge impact, believe me, on the limit of AI and how companies, both small-scale and start-ups, large tech giants, they know how they can use AI. It is very interesting. It takes up the space approach. It doesn't ban, it doesn't say all AAs good. So it takes up the space approach and it makes it illegal to use A4, the cello, unacceptable purposes like facial recognition and using it for what he called social scaling. You can rank people based on a trustworthy immune system that can exploit people. That's why the US regulation is still important. But why do you think I'm focusing on this more than all the other regulations which are there and what makes this one special? Well, simply put guys, usually EU regulations, The end up setting the standard for the rest of the world. It's nothing concrete. But usually that's what happened. Anybody who has worked in GDPR, data private signal that you released a regulation on GDPR and almost all of the other regulations in the world, all the other governments, they pretty much just tailored the GDPR to their particular environment. So that's why it's so important because the EIA regulation, it is going to set the tone for the rest of the companies. At any company that works in the UN, even outside the figures, we'll see. That's why it's so important to really know about this interesting part of it, the scope of it. So it has an extra territorial scope. It's like the GDPR. It's like it extends outside of the bodies of the EU. Any provider will put AI system on the market. You, of course, you'll definetly in school. But if you are like your provider or user, they are located in outside, but your outputs system are being used in the EU. Then again, it'll be in scope, very broad scope. And this, yes, your systems can very much potentially get pulled into it. So it's in the pipeline and severity we call the most important thing we want to look at is this one. Like I said, how does it categorized risks? Instead of opting for a blanket, a complete ban, or completely allowing. It has used a space approach based on a few tiers, like an acceptable versus Kiva's low-risk. Like that. The bigger the risk and the more what we call is going to put more restrictions and more controls on top of that, the motor obligations on the company. Make sure how transparent algorithm is and reported difficulties aren't being used. Unacceptable hydrosphere system, they simply bind so we don't even have to think about that, I guess are you the moon? The main focus of this regulation is on hyperscale AI systems. And they will be subject to significant technical monitoring compliance obligations. If you're in the low-risk and you just have to be transparent about it. We just have to inform them. What are the heights systems we're talking about? I mean, this can be like transport systems which can put people's health and life address great educational systems that may determine who has access to education. Like examining the exam scoring. Like robotic surgery. Employees like scaling employers for your work late, which can have an impact on who is hired or not. Like credit scoring, law enforcement, migration, all these things. This is where your height SKA falls in and video conformity assessment comes in bits I'm talking about what is the conformity assessment? Just to understand this. But confirmed with these SNPs basically, it's like you can say second audit, high-risk systems, they will need to undergo conformity assessment. Basically, what happens is it goes through significant like the assessments late if the precision in which your technical documentation quality, all the system is evaluated, that is complying to the regulation. Happens if it passes, then you get a certification from the EU. It's similar to medical device registration, which are already there in the EU. It can be self done, it can be a self-assessment. But if it's like some systems which are most sensitive, then you need an expert third-party come in like a completely indifferent in regulating needs to come in. Let's take an example of a bio-metric. So you have an AAC system used for bio-metric identification by a third party will have to come in. The collision goes into more detail here. But just to make you understand now and after, even after you pass the conformity assessment and some changes happen, it will have to happen again. It's a very powerful, it's like you can see, it's like an audit of the entire ecosystem, how it's working, what are the rules and everything you wouldn't have to put into play. So I hope that makes you understand what sort of regulatory framework is in place that is being planned for AI systems. Now, you understood the regulations which are in place and coming in. Let us look at the mode now their governance framework for AI in Ireland. I see you in the next section, guys. 7. AI Governance Framework: Hi guys. In this class, I'm gonna take a look at the AI governance framework. Now, we talked about the laws, regulations and everything. Now while comprehensive and enforceable regulation is gonna be emerged, but it's gonna take some time. But in the meantime, companies can't just sit and wait for these things to come. A new place where you need to have some sort of hi guys. In this class I'm going to focus on governance framework. Now, we talked about EA revolutions in the previous class. We talked about how these laws are coming, which kind of mandate controls to be portable AI. And the thing is Visa gonna take some time. You can't expect companies to just sit and wait for something to happen. So companies are bound to put in like governance frameworks in place to make sure because you call and a lot of companies are already working on there to put in governance frameworks in place. Especially in countries where a lot of work has been happening on AI. Company should be proactive. And they need to have an famous in place to mitigate the unique risks which artificial intelligence are being put in place before you start on the AI journey, make sure you have these things in place. What are talking about? So if you look at it from a very high level, the e-governance from Mecca, regardless of what sector you're in, regardless of what technology are you using? Like whatever. This is technology agnostic, algorithm agnostic and all that they talking about for general parts of a fabric. When is the policy? So just sit down to tone for how you haven't been controlling organ organization. What are the general principles that you have and how it will be controlled? What are the things in place? Next, you need to inform the committee. This will be people from the data teams, from the technology teams, from your security teams, from your risk management teams. So that the framework is put in place for like a properly controlling AI. And it's obviously a solutions they knew they make decisions. So there's a go, no-go decisions being made on initial initiatives, moving a little bit. But below that, you have an a risk management framework. This will identify what are the critical visits, which are the Arrhenius. What sort of is, how do we take all those spaces be a cybersecurity, be it like integrity bias. All these things will lead to convert into AI, this management framework. And lastly, principles, these will be across the company. So AI basically to make sure that he is working properly. Therefore, trust principles, integrity, explainability, fairness, and resilience. And we'll talk more about this. These are basically help you to make sure that you are properly governing over the organization. And I go into more detail on this. But this is basically a high level benchmark, high-level like a skeletal framework for how to implement governance. If you feel this too high level and you feel okay, I need more details on this. How do I really put my governance in my organization? Voting is you don't need to build things from scratch. In 2019, Singapore, devilishly, a first edition of the modelling dominance framework. So basically for the day, real-estate for adoption feedback. And it provides like readily provides you like implementable guidance on how to implement AI governance within it's like an excellent template. If you want to use this. And it goes into very good detail, you can literally just take the principles which are there and put it in organization to use to create an air governance framework. It's a very good a template. It focuses on two guiding principles that should be explainable, transferring same principles we talked about earlier. Human centric. I mean, it should put our diets human interest before, instead of profit and everything else like that. This is where should we focus on. I would definitely recommend you put this on Google. You will find it if you're serious of implementing AI governance within your organization. I talked about principles of what other principles to create trust in AI systems. When you talk about trust, trust is imperative, right? I mean, if your customers don't feel your system is judging them properly or these biases, this can have a huge issue for your customers replication if I accompanies repetition and the market rate, companies are simply, it could be subject to major findings. You could be subject to your application being damaged and industry. All of these things will come into place. So trust is imperative for how do we create cross wealthy therefore, principles. Put the experts, integrity, explainability, fairness, resilience, what is integrity? We're talking about algorithm integrity. Making sure that nobody tampers with algorithm or the data. How that can happen. We'll look in the future. We're looking at the future class. Explainability. Do you know how the AI is making its decision? Is it like a black box? Nobody has any idea how the ear is working, how, what's the logic is being used? Not it needs to be completely transferred in here. Fairness. We talked about fairness already, right? Like they should not be biased. If you're making decisions about a particular society, it should reflect all the races. Ethnicities indices ID that training data should not have just like 90% when ethnic group and all the other groups are excluded because that would be completely not acceptable. And the last is resilience attribute technically robust. You need to have controls in place. The ear should be able to deflect attacks, it should be able to recover. And we'll look into more detail of these things. So these are the four basic principles guys, you need to have in place. That covers the governance framework. I hope that was useful. I hope you have a good idea now how to create an AI governance framework, how to practically go about it? Well, what did we learn here? We'd learned about AIG regulations and standards, how governments are doing. I think to the challenge, trust principles, how to embed customer AA application. One thing to keep in mind, and how to create an overarching governance framework to make sure that your applications which are there, they are safe and trustworthy. That pretty much concludes the governance part of our course. I hope you understood now what other, they are at a high level. How to create a Ws framework regardless of whatever sector you're in. Now, we're gonna go into the next section. They're going into more detail about technical security. We've talked about high-level knowledge go into what sort of security disks are present within AI applications. And I will see you in the next class, guys. Thank you. 8. Cyber security risks in AI: Hi guys and welcome. This is quite possibly the most important section of the course that is cybersecurity risks in EI systems. Now we've gotten the foundation about governance and management and what we have to do. Now let's really take a look in cybersecurity and vascular systems. And if you really wanted to take a look at it, I usually causes there are three types of ways in security this can happen. Ai can cause the disk unintentionally or it can be maliciously use like somebody. It can act like as an enabler for enabler for cybercriminals. You know, what was going happen in cells get compromised. This is a world in which is a very, very new area. And not a lot of people are doing work on this, unfortunately, from the cybersecurity professionals perspective. If you ask a normal cybersecurity guide and I will right now in 2022, how do you secure in a systems approach it from the traditional way they approach securing any system, security, software or hardware system which is there like how you didn't have to configure it and hard in the system do penetration testing and all that. But what they don't realize is how the system is configured, who has access. But what they don't realize this they are certain discs which are very unique to AIS Systems. And that's the whole purpose of this particular section, is to raise awareness about the unique security the switches in machine learning. So by its very nature, AI components do not obey the same rules as statistical software, AI systems and machine learning algorithms. They are relying on rules which, which are grounded on the analysis of data or large collections of data. And you mess with this data, it can actually change the behavior of the system. What is happening is, as you add more and more, AI is being used to automate decision-making across sectors. The end exposing these systems of the cyber attacks, which can take advantages of the flaws and vulnerabilities of AI. And if you really need to know this to properly mitigate these attacks. Did you talk about the security risks, coffee, I how it can happen and whatever. This is, a very excellent paper. I would recommend anybody to go and read this as malicious CIA report.com. What did they say? Actually, this report was written by 26 authors from 14 institutions, academia, civil society, industry. They had a two-day workshop held in Australia. I think it was February 2017. And you can go over this report. It's an accident report, but what did the same? You can look at it in your own time, but they said certain things which I found very interesting. Descended AI capabilities are becoming more and more powerful than by spread, right? What's going to happen is the threat landscape is going to change. Existing trips are going to expand. The cost of attacks will go down because of the use of AI. Ordinarily, you would be paying people on the doctorate. Those things you can offload do. I know nutrients will come up, which we had no idea. And otherwise, like in practical, you would not expect this toppling existing threat level change. Something was happening in a particular way to completely changed malware, DDoS attacks, we will change to accommodate EI. That's why guys, this is why I'm understanding. This is what this paper is saying. Actually, when he talked about the security risks which are put into AI, there are two types of categories. One is the discs which are not unique to AI, and the other one which are unique to AI. In the first one, is technically it's like being attacked and the second one ear is being manipulated or it is being used to attack something else. If you talk about the visit are not uniquely. We are talking about security of the underlying infrastructure rate, how the data is being secured, how the data is being stored. Is systems configured properly? Internet access properly configured, you just standard things with cybersecurity purpose already know. And the other one is data security. How is that data being transported? Secure the datasets and not getting too yeah, I don't think it's the lack of knowledge which is I mean, as somebody who's been working in Cloud security for the past couple of years. This is another area which I feel that knowledge is lacking very much. This is why it's not there uses I've made this course guys to empower people to know about these things. The lack of knowledge about AI, This is very severe. You have EA professionals, you have security professionals, but you do not have people who know between the two. And what are the unique visitors are coming in? What are the decisions you need to AI where we can talk about poisoning attacks and what does data poisoning will see into more detail. But basically remember what I said. The machine-learning algorithms uses data to which decisions? What if I could mess with this data? What if I could really change the data? Certainly, it'll actually impact the decisions which the machine learning algorithm is making. Speaking about the machine-learning models, what if I contaminated? What if that model is like a commercial model is being pulled from a repository somewhere, I can go and put it back to the right. Or I can maybe put a new machine learning model, which is very good, but it has a backdoor inside. It's like a Trojan. New vulnerabilities are coming in because companies want to use a fast. They don't usually build the models from scratch, right? They actually buy it commercially off from some open-source mighty available network there. These are the new types of physics that you will see coming in because of the way. Let's take a look at, remember, we did a while back, the machine learning algorithm. Now, let's take a look at it from the security perspective and you see some AI specific. Now, when a machine learning model has been trained on data, this data can be actually poisonous, polluted by an attacker. The training and surface only done. You would think that how could this happen? Well, a lot of time this beta is does training data is not something which our company business from scratch, but it's actually available open on open source, like it's completely available. Or they bite commercially because they don't have the time and energy to do it themselves. But because many people, they outsource it. And then the guide. So did you get these pre-trained data model is already there? What if I go there and I pollute the data? What if I had changed the labels? And you understand the decision instead, the basic training itself could be wrong. Okay, So we move on to the next phase, which is the training model trig, you're training a machine learning algorithm. We are trending in the wrong data models. So what happens like I showed you these models, the eye usually very, computationally, very intensive. They require half our data, VP of training and that result, many who does what they do, they outsource and to the Cloud and they rely on pre-trained models, models which are already pre-trained. Just getting from the Internet. What can I go? I can just simply go and pull. I like injecting malicious back to it within the morula. When you download this model, you'll have a backdoor. Any motive, annoyed, whatever It's like official recognition model. I put a two there that my face will not be recognized. And you won't know about it, right? The Odd Maybe it's like a self-driving car, right? You have those self-driving cars. And instead of a stop sign, I changed it to ignore stop saying, what's going to happen. You can imagine the impact that will be. So you'll have those in characteristic training data and incorrect models right from the start. That's why it's so critical if what can happen if directing actors access the training data or the model, they can actually manipulate that information. And what happens next, the production data. What do you call the production data will be you are training the model on more and more data, right? So what will happen is that a lot of times this data has been handled by data scientists and they're not trained about security. This is not like a new unique to AI, but this production data can be breached. I hope you understand now when we're talking about machine learning and the alternate is being made. You can have things like data poisoning. You can have things like model policing that there is a backdoor which only the attackers aware of. And you can have AWS happening because of an intense amount of data which has been pumped into it. So this is more from the learning perspective, but what happens? Let us look at it from the lifecycle of a model. This is, this is your traditional machine learning model is a simplified approach, but let's look at it from the context of the whole life cycle of a module. Like I said earlier, because of the air, you need so much data, you need so much computational power to train algorithms. The currently the most companies do is they usually use models. The chat train by large corporations and they modify them slightly. For example, you have like popular image recognition models like from Microsoft. And what they do, these models are putting more Hu Zu, like it's like a repository. What I can do is the attacker can simply go and modify the models in the repository and it'll poison the well for anybody else also with getting it right. Next step will be data poisoning like this I already discussed with you. Somebody can go and poison the data, which has been used to train the model so that it makes incorrect decisions. Next is moderate testing. You're testing the model. You're going to have a database where you can have data points in general. So next step, optimizing video or fine tuning the model. You're making it to make sure it's short, it's making the right decisions. You can have a data breach where you didn't have a data point in here also. Second one is model compromised. So what happens here in the model comprise the attacker is not like manipulating the algorithm or anything. He's exploiting software. This vulnerability is, you know, you know, you, if you've worked on applications like a traditional application vulnerabilities, they can manipulate the software which is there to access their learning like internal working of the machine learning traditional watercolors, you need to make sure your traditional security configurations are there from your components and everything. Okay, so now the model goes live. You can have things like modelling vision, what is more television? More television is like. Let's take an example of an image recognition model. Things which are very subtle. You know, what I can do is if I, if I show that image recognition model, like a picture of a cat, by just changing a little bit for few pixels, I can actually model will not be able to classify it as a cat. Things which are indistinguishable to a human being, the model completely changed the working of a module. And so what attackers do to keep testing it, testing it, do you want to see how to evade that moral and what do we need to do to make sure it's not working properly? After that, what happens? Model extraction. So what is model extraction and data extraction? They can keep attackers can keep adding them or who. They can look at, what's coming back, the responses which the model is sending. And they can actually use that to recreate the model. So you can have your IP intellectual property getting told. Because we're start in frequencies. He keeps quoting that model, trying to understand how the model is working, what is the result which is coming out? And he had graduated tragedy, he builds a picture of that model, why it is happening, because the model is giving too much data. We, based on that, he is able to extract data and the modal logic. Last is the moral compromise which I talked to earlier also. So basically, the model can be the software with this model is built, the software liabilities, they can be compromised, leading to an compromise of the internal model also, I hope you understood guys. I hope this was good. I was able to explain to you within the life cycle of a model, what are the types of threats that can happen? And you can see a lot of these things are completely ignored by cybersecurity professionals Nowadays, they don't realize these things can happen. So that's why it's so important for you to understand. Now that you've understood it. In the next section, we're gonna talk about like creating a cybersecurity framework. What are the things you need to do to make sure that your AI is secured properly. 9. Cyber security framework: Hi guys. Okay, so now we've almost reached the last one, our last class, which is creating a cybersecurity framework for AI systems. Like how again, now we understood the vasculature there, right? So how do we secure them right? Now? I hate to tell you this, there is no unique strategy in applying security controls to protect AI and machine learning algorithms. What you're doing right now, you just need to tailor it a little bit and carefully choose controls specifically for AI. First step is pretty simple, regular assessment regulations and laws that the AI application is complied with. It goes back to the regulations we were talking about, the GDPR. Not did you give her that you dysregulation and all that right. Because doctors set the benchmark and it is set the tone for all the other things which are going to happen. You need to maintain an inventory of AI system. If you don't even know what systems are being used, CDD or competition, you will not be able to secure them, right? And it's a basic steps that you won't believe how easily it gets missed out. Then you'll create an AI and machine learning security baseline. And we see it in the coming section. How hard to do that? This is based on the physics. You'll need to make sure those controls are there. And you need to update your existing security processes to incorporate AI and machine learning technicalities. You need to make sure that if you have security testing happening, is it covering AI machine learning? If you have, like, I don't know, penetration testing happening. Is IT company IN, is it testing the data candidate to be contaminated or not like supply chain attacks can happen. Lastly, and of course, that is the thing I really, really want to focus on. Like what do you call it, awareness about AI. It is so important to educate your cybersecurity professionals and the data scientists. The touch off the CIA targeting machine learning algorithms, because once you educate them as a witness gets slowly, slowly created, then you will be able to mitigate these risks properly. But currently there's a huge gap in the marketing, unfortunately, that's what you want to know. So just to recap, looking at the laws, maintaining inventory, create a baseline. I'll show you how and then update your existing security processes. Having security reviews annually are discovering your AI machine learning systems also are not. And of course, creating of innocence can now let us look at the security controls that should be there. I wanted to go based on the vesicles which are there. The first one which is the most common attack, which I talked about, data poison. Like I said, I put it in the description that you could look at it. Basically, like I told you, the attacker displacing the data, that the machine learnings, what do you call decision-making is compromised because it's been fed on raw data. What do you need to do the security containing to make sure that the data is supermodel and you need to make sure that checks and balances. Are there. Anybody to verify the integrity of the data, who can commit to this data, who can modify it. Okay, next step is model poisoning, in which like I told you, like somebody can inject some sort of malicious commands within the backdoor, like a backdoor to the machine learning. And it's especially risky because most companies do not believe model from scratch and they were like on publicly available ones, like supply chain attacks. Don't use models directly from the Internet without checking them. Use models which are the threats actually identify it and lift security control exists. If especially if you're working on high risk, I would definitely tell you not to use things which are publicly available. Data leakage in which the attacker can compromise, unable to access the live data that has been fed into the system in the fine tuning phases over the production. You want to make sure you have a data pipeline if security amount authorized access, if he used a get from third-party than mature, their integrity is checked again, a supply chain and that comes in here. What does the model compromised list? When I talked to you about somebody can compromise the libraries. Most software today is built on open source software libraries. You need to make sure that those are public security. You need to make sure those are being tested and you don't need to have some sort of monitoring. Please use something like fluctuation happens within the machine-learning model, some changes are happening. You need to define metrics and you can quickly identify anomalies are happening. Model innovation. What is modal division? This is another movement of the most common attacks. The attacker finds a way to trick them, are basically trick it into making a wrong decision. Certainly changed the important. Like I told you, if it's an image recognition, I tried to find it. Maybe if I just put a few pixels, then it won't classify the image properly. What do you need to do? You need to actually put this adversarial data within that when you're testing it, support all sorts of wrong data. Also see how the mortality x, because if you've tested it, then you can make sure, you make sure it's part of your testing street. What does this guy's model data extraction? This is already told you, right? Somebody can try to model data. And the logic Introduction to pretty much the same thing actually, what did the attacker looks eat? Keeps sending Claudius more and more queries. And he wants to see what sort of output is coming. And based on that, you can understand how your model is working and what data is coming in and reconstruct the model. We can reconstruct the data. The control here is pretty much the same thing. You need to control what sort of, how much detail your model is giving. You need to make sure that the data is probably sanitize. You're not getting too much data. It's true or not two variables. You need to really look at it from a risk perspective, limit the amount of information that is going out. Because look at it from the eyes of an attacker and how it can be maliciously used. Guys, now that you know it, now you can take a look at it. So these are the controls reported. You will do a risk assessment of your model management tools. And it's like if you have a high risk model, you don't want to like, take it from the Internet. You'll create your risk assessment sheet based on the controls which I've told you, you'll do model verification, you'll see the integrity. Is this probability weighted? Are the companies using it? Like what sort of like if it's completely out of the blue innovator is using it, no customer is. Don't use that model. Then you will make sure the controls idea from the data verification is that they did a vetted the controls in place from your data. Like if you do a complete due diligence of the vendor, if it's coming from outside rate than Systems Security, you'll make sure those controls idea that data is again being better fight your models and the components which are the software. This model is either secure, tested with adversarial testing, like I told you, you'll make sure the output is coming out. It is properly sanitized or not. And the components security, I didn't like the software libraries. Like I hope you under strict guys what I was trying to say, I know it's a lot to take in, but this is just to develop that mindset within you do understand the particular security distance which are there. If you want to do a real deep dive, there are some resources available from an ESA, from Microsoft. You can go to this link and download them and you can really like it. I hope this course has helped you to understand what you need to do and how to understand it. So you can refer to the sources. There are many, many sources available. I hope this, I have created that motivation within you to go and look at these courses. Okay, So finally guys, we're lining it up. This was the last class, I believe so what we understood is now you understood the cyber security districts, are there the unique risks which AI systems can pose? And how to track modelling or what, what do you need to look at? How to be able to palpate campus analysis of a system and whatever unique controls you need to create and put from the perspective of AI. Okay guys, let's move on to our last class and I hope you enjoyed this. And let's say our goodbyes in the coming section, please. Thank you. 10. Way forward: Congratulations guys, we've reached the end of this masterclass. And I sincerely hope now you have an appreciation for the new environment that you and how much AI will change the threat landscape is like an irreducibly technology and disrupt all disrupters or changing things for the good and the bad. Also, you need to make sure, but awareness is like knowledge is power is the sensor. Now, I hope I've undo that knowledge. Like I said, How to build on what you've learned for the project. I told you, you need to create a threat model of an AI system or you can have researched it gives off bias and understand how it happened because this will really empower you to understand this lesson. Unless you apply them, you will forget it. I hope this was useful to you guys. Please do leave me a review and feedback whether it's positive or negative. And I would appreciate your feedback on this if you'd like to follow me. I'm there on YouTube and the cloud security guy, that's my channel's name. And that's pretty much it, guys. Thank you so much for taking my class and I wish you all the best in your AI machine learning journey, and I hope to see you in future courses also. Thank you.