Advanced Easings: Motion Graphs from Ground Up | Nash Vail | Skillshare

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Advanced Easings: Motion Graphs from Ground Up

teacher avatar Nash Vail, I write and draw and design and code.

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Rate of Change


    • 3.



    • 4.

      Your Handwriting is Unique


    • 5.

      Advanced Easings


    • 6.

      Animating Position


    • 7.

      Final Project - Pt. 1


    • 8.

      Final Project - Pt. 2


    • 9.



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About This Class

If you ask me what separates a good animation from a great animation, I will tell you not about textures or colours or music or sound but if I have to tell you one thing, and one thing only I will tell you that it’s the easings. The way objects move and interact with each other, do they seem alive, do they seem alert, do they respond to the environment, and how they respond to the environment.

All of these movements are achieved by meticulous manipulation of motion graphs.

Sure you can use motion graphs without completely understanding them. Only use the template easings that you have learned through courses and have watched someone else do, but that’s not going all the way. That’s not controlling motion graphs on your whims, on the tip of your fingers. If you don't develop a solid understanding of motion graphs there’ll always be this unknown part left unexplored that makes or breaks any animation.

My goal in this class is to make you so fluent with motion graphs that you can imagine a motion in your head and shape the motion graphs in a way that the object on screen does exactly what you imagined.

Before diving into the software, we’ll begin the class by understanding how motion graphs work outside the context of After Effects, the maths of it. Then we’ll look into the two different kinds of graphs (Speed & Value) that After Effects offers. We’ll understand the connection between them and through practice learn which one is useful in what context. There are two projects we’ll work on together in this class, but you’re only required to submit the final one on Skillshare.

Let’s hit play! 

Meet Your Teacher

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Nash Vail

I write and draw and design and code.


Hello, I'm Nash. I am a Developer, Designer and I absolutely love teaching. I have been a professional in this field for over 6 years. I have gotten chance to work with some great companies and equally awesome open source organizations including the jQuery foundation. I am the co-founder and head of design @ Devfolio

I am a huge proponent of sharing knowledge and I try to do that through my blog and other sites like Smashing Magazine where I have a few articles up. Here in Skillshare, my goal is to share the same knowledge through videos.

If you found what I taught valuable, give me a follow, tweet to me, I am always up for a great conversation. Happy Learning!

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Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: I am not musically trained. I used to saying, well until before the pandemic, I guess, and then it kinda lost touch and I can't sing that well now I need some practice. And even though I'm not musically trained, one thing that fascinates me a lot about music, or musical sheets or musical notations is basically music that's written on paper, that you can read it. And I believe that the musically trained can also hear the music in their heads as they're reading it, representing a physical phenomenon. Sound and pitch on paper is astounding. It's remarkable what we've been able to do. Now before I move on to talk about motion graphs, I would like to linger on the topic of musical notations for a little bit more and talk about but music, no, it's not. What do you think it is? It actually comes from a painting by Renaissance painter Hieronymus Bosch in this triptych couched in this corner in this sea of chaos is this guy with a musical annotations written on there. But people have, of course, try to play that music and you be the judge of how good or how bad it is. Alright? The point that I'm trying to make is that you can write a physical phenomena or represent a physical phenomenon like music on paper with pen. Similarly, you can also represent motion on a paper with pen using three lines like these. Like musical notations are to me or to anyone who is not musically trained. These lines also don't convey much if you don't understand motion graphs. Hello, my name is Nash and in this class, I wanted to train your brain to look at the lines like these and imagine motion happening in your head. Imagine a motion happening in your head and draw the lines that correspond to that motion. Because it's the motion graphs and the easy things that make or break in animation. Even if you have a beautiful animation, great colors and everything. If the evenings and the motion graphs are not write, your animation will suck. I say that with a lot of confidence. I'll teach you what these graphs in lines mean and how to manipulate them to create beautiful animations, this class has used that you know, the very basics of your way around After Effects like keyframing properties, etc, anything that can be covered in a 10-minute YouTube crash course. I will start from the very basics and I will build on top of that. And I will also, without hesitation, show you a little bit of math that's involved in these graphs. So let's not waste time. Let's go. 2. Rate of Change: Welcome to the very first lesson of this class. The title of this lesson is rate of change. Now, before I get into why this lesson is called rate of change. And the other stuff, there's something that I wanted to share. The way that I've structured this lesson is that you're going to walk away from this lesson with one and only one core idea by the end of this lesson, not to reach that idea, I'll have to go through some amount of calculations and some amount of mathematics. Not, not anything super complex, just simple things to reach there. But I just wanted to put it forward before the start of the lesson. Because if you reach a part of the class or of this lesson, which you are not necessarily enjoying because of the math and everything. I just wanted to tell you that it's okay. If you don't understand that, it's just one core idea of the class that you need to walk away with. But that out of the way, let's just get into the meat of the class. The difference between anything that is static and anything that is animated as simple. In something that's static, nothing is changing. But in something that's animated or an animation, things are changing and things that are changing. Position, size, rotation, et cetera. Hence, the very basic building block of any animation is change. And change is always measured with respect to time. Anything changing necessitates that time is also moving forward in Pattern roll. Without the movement of time, without the arrow of time, there can't be any change and there can't be any animation. And hence this portion of After Effects user interface is called the timeline. Here you can scrub back and forth in time and see an animation happening. And if you don't see it, again, go into window and you'll see timeline. Let's take the square for example, at time t equals 0, I'll set a keyframe for rotation for 0 degrees. And at time t equals 1 second, I'll rotate it by four to five degrees. And if I scrub, you can see it rotating. Now let's take this same set of actions of setting one keyframe at time t equals 0 for 0 degrees and at time t equals 1 second for 45 degrees and plotted on a very simple graph. Now we already know that we need the movement of time. So I'll draw this flat axis and I'll call it time. And I'll draw another axis like this. And I'm going to call this the rotation axis. Alright? Now, again, the same set of actions. I'm gonna go ahead and change my color to something like blue. Alright, so at time t equals 0 seconds, we have the rotation as 0 degrees. And let's say here is time t equals 1 second, we have the rotation. And if we divide this axis like ten degrees, 203040506070 rates. So this could be ten degrees, 20 degrees, 3040 degrees, 506070 degrees, and so on and so forth. 45 degrees would be somewhere around here. So at time t equals 1 second, the rotation is 45-degree, so I'll just draw a dot here. Great. Now I will just draw some horizontal and vertical lines. So at from t equals 1 second, I'm just going to draw this line. And at time t at rotation of 45 degrees, I'm just going to draw this line. So this is where they intersect and this is our first which is of 0004 to five at one. This is all these two, these two dots basically say, now let's go ahead and connect those dots using a nice, you know, yellow color. If that's visible, I'm going to make it a little darker. So I'm gonna go ahead and connect these points like this. Alrighty. And their VR, we have a graph and we really don't need this circle here. So I'm just going to go ahead and, you know, just, just gonna get rid of it. Alright, just focus on this line. So we have a graph now. Alright, cool. Now let's try to simplify this graph a little. First of all, we don't need these horizontal and vertical lines. These dotted lines were only there to emphasize that these dots are created at their intersection and the dots are all we really care about. Next, we know that since this graph is drawn in the context of animation, the horizontal axis will always be a time axis. Now we'll leave the divisions, will leave these divisions here, but we can get rid of the label because it is understood that this will always be timed, right? It's implicit, it's understood. We're going to leave the rotation over here for now because we're dealing with rotation. But remember that in After Effects will be always working inside of property, rotation or scale, or British and et cetera. And that will always be implied. But for right now, Let's leave rotation here. We also do not need these labels here, right? Because all we, in the end, you will see that all we care about this graph here, right? That's what I'm trying to get at. Just to simplify the graph a little and get rid of the redundant information. Once we have done that, once we have cleaned it up a little, oops, let me just clean up a little. And if you use Procreate, you know that this app, I'm using an iPad and Procreate, but that's like really totally not the part of the class. But okay, in the end, we have this graph over here, right? What do we did is this is understood that this is time, this axis, the property that we're working in, this this yellow or green line, I'm colorblind, I don't know, but this line over here is what I assume is your first motion graph. Alright, now, if I go back into After Effects through this little animation remade of this square rotating, right. We can go over here, click on graph editor, then straight up, go right down, click on Edit Value Graph and make sure that the rotation property is selected. And as you click on it, the exact same graph like this. Look at that. And that is why I said that maybe this, you know, if you're not familiar with graph, this is your very first motion graph. Now this is going from 045 degrees is what changes. But remember that the name of this lesson is rate of change. Now what is that? Rate of change is the same as saying how fast the change is happening or the speed of change and what's changing here again, the value of a property, the value of a property and the property under question right now is rotation. Let's come back to this graph that we sketched earlier of the square rotating from 0 to 45 degrees and try to figure out the speed. And speed from a graph is measured by a simple formula. Alright, there'll be a little bit of calculus. Okay, turnaround. Close the video now if you're not interested, I'm just kidding. It's not that complicated. And I won't just make your weight your time learning something that you won't use. But anyway, the speed is measured by a simple formula, which is divide by dx. Alright? Now, there are three things here that can be new to you. D, y and x. Let's first of all, get x and y out of the way. Now I presume that you already know this, but let me go over it one more time in a two-dimensional plane. And we'll talk more about this when we come to changing position property and after effects, there are only two directions. You can move in, either either horizontal or vertical, instead of repeatedly calling it vertical and horizontal, which are both a mouthful, we conventionally universally accepted all over the planet. We label the horizontal direction as x and the vertical direction as y. And we're just going to ignore that ice cold label, label in the last sentence. But that's the point we call the horizontal direction x and the vertical direction y. And if you understand this mean, then congratulations, you understand the concept of x and y in a graph. In our graph here, time is in the horizontal direction. So we can say that this is our x-axis of the graph or the horizontal axis and rotation or any other property that we are dealing with. An After Effects will be in the vertical direction, or which we can say is the y-axis. Now x and y is out of the way. What is this d. Now, here is how I'm going to write the speed of rotation for this animation, this rotating square symbol animation that we create an After Effects. What I'm going to do is I can write speed of rotation is equal to, so it goes to 45 degrees. So 45, and it starts from 0 degrees. So negative 0, it reaches four to five degrees at 1 second and it starts from 0 seconds, so minus 0. So this would be 45 degrees by 1 second, which implies the speed of rotation is 45 degrees per second. And this subtraction right here, this subtraction or subtraction, how do you call it? I don't know. This subtraction is what is called Delta, and it's represented by the Greek symbol of delta or instead of delta, what can be used is just a small letter D. Now there are some calculus nuances where you should use Delta and where you should use D. But that doesn't really concern us. We are good to go. All of this was just to show you that this is the graph of a square that is rotating at 45 degrees per second, right? So let me get rid of all the math here. Now what I'm going to do is I'm going to select different color. I'm going to select this color. And I'm going to draw another graph, but one that is a little steeper than this, right? So let me draw something like this. A little steeper than this, right? A little steeper than this. As you can see that this graph right here, the original one, is flatter than this graph, this new graph that I drew. Now you tell me this, the object with this graph for rotation, the new one, we'll rotate faster than this one or slower. Now think about it. Yes, it will rotate faster because it is covering more. It is rotating more than 45 degrees in the same amount of time to get it. Now let this sink in. This is the one important concept that you're going to take away from this lesson. Now let me go back to After Effects to this simple animation that we created. I'm going to go ahead and select this layer press Command D to duplicate it. And before we go ahead and do anything else, let's once again look at the rotation, the motion graph of the rotation right over here and right now it takes up the entire Area of the timeline, which is because this option is selected, which is auto zoom graph height. We're going to turn that off so that it will make it easier for us to see the difference of what we're going to do. Now, we have just duplicated this layer. I'm going to hide the original one. I'm going to go ahead and select the new layer, press R to get rotation up. And you can see that since we duplicate it, it is the same exact thing. But what am I going to do is increase its speed. And one way to do that is to increase the amount it rotates. So now this square rotates 75 degrees in 1 second, and this square rotated 45 degrees in 1 second. So let's have a peek at their graphs. I'm going to select rotation of the original one. And you can see this is the graph. And now I'm gonna go ahead and select the rotation property of the newer one. And there you go. As you can see, the graph is steeper and I hope you are understanding what I mean when I say steeper, it means that it is it is, it is farther away. This angle right here is farther, more from the ground for this graph, then for this graph. So flatter, steeper, flatter, steeper, faster rotation, steeper graph, slower rotation, flatter graph. And in the same way if I drew another graph which was flatter like something like this, right? This one right over here. Can you imagine the speed of the object? But this rotation graph, of course, it will be slower because it is rotating less in the same amount of time. And let me reinforce that by again going back into After Effects. I'm gonna go ahead and duplicate this square again. And what I'm going to do with this duplicated square is press R to bring up rotation, and I'm going to rotate it like 20 degrees in 1 second. The speed of this square is rotating 20 degrees in 1 second. As you can see, it's pretty slow, right? And if I go ahead and look at its graph, is flatter, flatter, slower, a little faster, more faster. So as you can see, the graph changing from, from flatter do more steep to more steep as the speed of the rotation is increasing. So this is how you can interpret, correlate how steep or flat the graph is and how fast the rotation or any change in property is happening. Now before we get out of this video with the insight that we've gotten, let me go ahead and give you one more example so that it becomes more concrete. So I'm going to delete extra these layers. I'm gonna go ahead and remove any keyframes from rotation. Alright, so this is just a normal square. Let me rotate it backwards 0. I'll go ahead and press S by selecting this and bring up the scale property. And I'm gonna go ahead and keep the scale at a 100 at t equals 0 seconds. Or I can go at anytime. And then again, I can increase its scale to something like 150, right? So you can see that this is how it's changing from hundred, two hundred and fifty. Let's peek at the graph of this animation and you can see that it is again, the very same graph of it increasing like that. Now, duplicate it and then again press S and let me increase the speed of it. How can I increase the speed by making it go 200 per cent in 1 second? So you can see like boop, it's faster. And if I look at its graph, you can see that that is steeper, steeper, flatter, steeper, flatter, flatter equals slower, steeper equals faster, right? And it's not magic, it's math because when the graph is steeper, the same amount of changes happening in shorter time or more changes happening in the same time. And hence the animation is slower or faster. And with that, we are done with this lesson. The only clear idea that one core idea that I was talking about that you are going to walk away with was, when the graph is flatter, things move slower and when the graph is steeper, things move faster. So slow, fast, fast, fast, fast, fast. And that's the core idea and I hope that you understood it and I hope that you're walking away with that idea. From this lesson. In the next lesson we will talk more about easing, different types of easing and why they are called. So I'd take a short break. I'll see you soon. 3. Easing(s): Okay, So here you are. Let's jump right in and know recapped. Okay, a little bit of recap. In the previous lesson, we left at this graph. If you can see it shows basically how a property is changing over time. And we learned that the steeper the graph is, the faster the change happens and the flatter the graph as the slower the change happens. Now when it comes to easing, easing is not really an English word, I guess you are not going to find it in the dictionary. I had a hard time to come up with a way to explain it to someone who has never heard it before. So pay close attention. Easing is basically how a change in property happens over time, how it slows down, speeds up, etc. There are many kinds of easing that motion designers use ease in, ease out, ease Expo and ease Expo out, et cetera. And all of this will be more clear as we progress in the class. You don't have to have 100% understanding of this. Okay? Now this graph here represents an easing colinear easing, this graph which is very just a slanted straight line. And the linear easing is the most boring kind of easing that there is. Can you say why? It is? Because the entire change in value of a property happens at one constant speed. Like if I play this, it happens had one constant speed, which is not how things move in real life. Now if I asked you to plot a graph constant on paper, what would it look like? A constant like, for example, this is time, of course, but a constant could be anything. It could be the number two, Number, Number one, Number ten, or whatever. What would the graph of a constant look like? You know what it will look like if I select the color green, totally arbitrary. Green has nothing to do with the graph. So the graph of a constant, we will look something like this, which means that as time passes on, it stays the same. There is no change in the constant, but with a constant speed is not how things move in real life. In real life say when the car starts, it starts out slow and then it picks up speed. And then as it is slowing down, it slows down gradually. Or when you roll a ball, it starts at a good speed but then halls slowly due to friction. There's something that I'm going to show you in after effects. Just a little peek of something. Okay? So there are two types of graphs in After Effects. There's the value graph, which shows how the, the value of a property changes over time. And then there's the speed graph which shows up speed changes over time. And if I click here, what you will see is this is the speed graph and the graph of a constant that we drew here, which means asked time passes by, it stays the same. So the speed of this animation stays the same throughout its duration. And that is why it's very robotic, very unnatural and doesn't really look good. And this time of easing is what is called linear easing. Now Value Graph and speed graph are very much connected and I'll show you that later. But right now it feels safe to forget that speed graph even exists. Let's change things a bit now. Let's go back to our timeline by clicking out if the graph editor, I'll select the first keyframe. I will right-click on it and go to keyframe assistant and choose Easy, Ease, alright, and you can notice that the shape of the keyframe change, which we will discuss later. Now, if I play that animation, notice how that it'll start off slow and then at some point start moving at a constant speed. Okay, ready, pay attention, I'm going to play the animation. It starts off slow and then starts bleeding at a constant speed. And then I'll just move this keyframe a little bit ahead so that you can get them getting more feel of the animation. So I click Play, it starts off slow and then starts moving at a constant speed. Now if we peek into the value graph, which shows the graph of how the value of a property changes over time. We can see a certain, the curve here. If your graph is not, is like totally zoomed out, you can click here, which says Fit graph to the view and it will just stretch it to fit properly. You can do that. And you can notice that the graph is no longer a straight line because of the curve over here. Now, how do we read a graph that is curved like this? And this is a very big inner graph. There's going to be grafts that are twisted and whatnot. And how do we read those? Well, it's not that hard. All you have to do is remember that any graph or any curve is made up of a lot of points like these. This is a point, this is a point, is a point, this is a point. So it's made up of a lot of points like these. Now what you have to do is mentally draw tangent on each of these points or some of these points, right? But first, what is a tangent? A tangent is just a straight line that touches a curve at a point. So if this is a curve, then tangent could be this. It is a straight line that touches this curve at this point, right? So you can draw as many tangents as you warm there. So let's pick this point and draw a tangent. I'll pick this point and draw a tangent. I'll pick this point and draw a tangent. I will pick this point and draw a tangent like this. And remember what we talked about earlier. Steeper, steeper equals faster and flatter. Equals slower. But look at this, the property that follow this graph. So this tangent here is flatter, so the speed is slow, then flatter still increase a little bit, right? And then again, it gets steeper and steeper until it reaches all the tangents actually are of the same angle or equally steep or equal E flat. So basically it starts off slow, and then it reaches a point of constant speed. And that is what is happening here as well. You see it's the same graph. So the tangent is flatter, flatter, flatter, and then reaches account speeds. Imagine this. I'm gonna go ahead and do a little bit of graph manipulation. Not much, just to reinforce the point. What if I pull this, I'm holding Shift so that it moves in a straight line. I pull this and make it more flat. Alright, so if I draw a tangent at this point, it will be almost flat, so the speed will almost be 0, and then it will stay with a slower speed for a longer time. So if I play this animation, look at this. Yeah, it starts off pretty slow and then it picks up. So let me go ahead and stretch this animation up a bit more so that you can understand it better. And I'm gonna go ahead and replay it so you can see that so much of time passes before it starts rotating because the speed is slow for this entire duration. So again, scrub this, look at the graph, how flat it is and how less it is moving during the flat part. And if I make it flat or still, you can see that it will take longer time to get started. So again, remember that this is the value graph you're dealing with. We are ignoring speed graph for now. And yeah, so in the value graph, the flatter it is, the slower it moves and then it slowly catches up speed. Okay, Now, there is going to be some nomenclature that we'll be using gear disclaimer. Now, if you look at this whole graph, this value graph as a whole, Let's call this side the left side, the inside. Alright. The right side, the outside. Now we will be doing something similar when we were really talking about easing app at single nodes. Later, we'll have an inside and outside. But that's where then I was just giving them a heads up. So in this graph as a whole, the left side here is the inside, this is the entry side, and this side over here is the outside. Now as you can see in this graph, there is easing applied on the inside, right? And hence we can call this graph the ease in graph, if I bring in this website called easing is dotnet. It just showcases all different, some different sorts of things. Of course, no website can cover every single little change in curve. But look at all the curves that have 0s n in front of them. All of them have some easing on the inside of the graph, right? He's in, there you go, There we go. There's some easing here, right? And similarly, and similarly in this graph, if I go ahead and remove easing from this point, which can be done simply by going back to the timeline Command Plus click and gear so that there is no easing. And if I go ahead and apply easing to this keyframe by going to keyframe assistant and easy ease, you can see that this becomes an ease out graph because there is easing on the outside of this animation. And again, if I bring up that website, you can see all the Ease Outs have some sort of curve happening here. Ease out, ease out cold. All of these have some sort of curves happening here. So I hope you understand when you call a graph, ease in and when you call it graph ease out. And it goes without saying that you've already learned to read the sorts of graph is that the tangents here are forming the same angle from here. So they are the similar steepness if that's a word and then it starts getting flatter here, which means that it will start at a constant speed and then it will slow down. It's going out. Now there are some precise mathematical values that After Effects, It's applies to these graphs when you go ahead and apply some sort of keyframe assistant and then easy ease and we'll talk more about the default values and how to manipulate them later in the coming classes. Now, if I go ahead and apply easing to this key-frame to by going to keyframe assistant and applying easy ease. You can see that now it has easing on both the side. And this graph is called an ease in, out graph. And remember that we're talking about this graph as a whole here. This whole value graph. Now so far, you know about in graph, about Ease Out graph, you know about ease in our graph, and you also know about the boring linear graph. Now, all these things are the very basic template, easy things that you can just add to your animation to make it a slight little bit, a slight bit more natural, a little bit more interesting, but nothing much with all of this information. Now in your head, we are ready to start working on a project that will require a ton of fiddling around with motion graphs to obtain a desired change. So that is something that we'll be doing in the next class. And I can't wait to get started on it. Take a short break and I'll see you in the next one. I mean, the next lesson. 4. Your Handwriting is Unique: Here's a secret. You might not know. It's that your handwriting is unique. Very unique. And I don t think we can ever copy anyone's handwriting to the t. I mean, there's so much that goes into what develops our handwriting and makes it look the way that it does. I had a friend when I was quite young and he had a beautiful handwriting and more than anything, I really loved the way he wrote for it and so I copied it. There are so many such instances and occurrences that has seeped into the personality of my handwriting, most of which I don't even remember. You don't even remember the last year while doing dishes? I swore I stick my thumb and that changed my handwriting quite a bit. Just wanted to just wanted to wait it out. It's still not properly heals. No further project. In this lesson, we're going to animate handwriting, my handwriting. Your handwriting, anyone else's handwriting? And all depends on how you decide to move forward with the project. Now, if you go into the project and resources section here at Skillshare and download the files. Under the main folder, you will find this another folder called occurred. Inside this folder, this file called starter file, and you need to double-click and open it. What do you will see is this cart written in my handwriting, I wondered right in my name, Nash here, but that'll be too much of self-indulgence since I read the first name of one of my favorite writers, Kurt Vonnegut. They are ready to start if you want to know how this Curt, this right here, God here. I just traced it. I wrote it on paper, and I traced it in Illustrator and imported this path into After Effects. If you want to do that and not work in this file, just knock yourself out, write something down, trace it in Illustrator and bring it into After Effects, and just continue as I will continue with this file right over here. Now there are two layers that you will notice here. First is Kurt, written in cursive, alright? And the second is just the cross of this t here. This is a second one. So two layers occurred and the T cross. Alright, great, time to begin, Javier, we're going to start is like this. I'll do something with the curd written here, this layer. And then I will leave you to do the same to the T cross, right? So after I'm done, just pause the video and see if you can do the same set of actions on T cross. Alright, so I'm just going to hide the T cross for a bit and concentrate over here. So the first thing you'll wanna do is you want to unfurl it, right? And then you will see contents. I'm going to go into Add click here, and I'm gonna go ahead and add trim paths. Now what trim paths does is gives you these two options, start and an offset. And what you can do using this is basically if you drag and you can make it look like it's being written. So that is very cool. So let's leave it here. I've added trim paths, and let's go ahead and do the same with T cross. So I'll unfurl it. It's for you to do don't wait for me to unfollow me. I'll go into Add and I'm going to go ahead and add trim paths. And as you can see, these three options are added here too. And there you are. Let's again hide the T cross and start concentrating on this big chunk of text here, which is Kurt without the T cross. And remember that I've already added trim paths to both of them. Now I'm going to go ahead and do this, set a keyframe at t equals 0 for end, and I'll change the end to be 0 here, so just 0. And now I'm going to move ahead to 1 second. And I'm gonna go ahead and set n to 100, right? And if I play it now, you can see that if it looks like it's being written, great. We have a simple animation now. Good, but what trapping up a pen and a paper if you have it nearby. And notice that when you write curt or anything, the pen doesn't move at a constant speed. It's sort of speeds up at some point and slows down at the curves, et cetera, right? We're going to recreate the same variation of speed and After Effects. Now, let's get started. Now I can scrub through the timeline to see how the animation is progressing. And I can use this to identify points where they're winding, slows down and create keyframes there. So the curl of this case stem here is where we will create one keyframe. So all you gotta do is stop the scrubbing here, go here and click here. So add one keyframe here. The k is face curve is another point where the handwriting Church slow down. So I'll go ahead and create another keyframe here. Now, let's move ahead. And I think we will just let you be as it is and add another keyframe at this point of arc. So I'm going to add a keyframe here and then forward and add another keyframe for the curve of t here. Okay, So we have just identified points where we would like the animation is slowed down a little. Because when you're writing your hands sort of takes its time to write these curves, right? So if I play the animation again, it will be the same. There'll be no variation at all because we haven't really played, played with the graphs yet, right? It was just added keyframes. Now let's go ahead and peek at the graph. And to pick up the graph, you're going to click here and make sure that this property selected, which is end for now. And also make sure that you're looking at the value graph and not the speed graph. And look at the graph, it is pretty much straight, pretty much resembles the linear graph. And therefore there is no vibration speed, there is no personality, no nuance says whatsoever, we're going to change that, but before that time for a shortcut. Now, remember how in the previous lesson I told you you can select the keyframe. Right-click, go to keyframe assistant and easy ease. Well, they're just good for that, but just written right over here, It's F9, right? So what you can do is select all the keyframes and then press F9 and be mindful that in some keyboards, so you have to pull the function key before pressing F9, right? So I'm gonna go ahead, hold the function key, press F9 and look at that, how the shape of the keyframes have changed and what doing this adding Easy Ease also does is that in the graph you will see that it also adds handles to show the keyframes for easy manipulation. If you're seeing your graph pretty much cramped towards the left side, you can go ahead and click this button here that says Fit all graphs to view and we'll just stretch it, fit it so that it's easy to manipulate. But the thing to notice here is that how the graph shape changes once Easy, Ease as Abbott and if I play the animation now, you will notice that there is very meniscal of a difference, not something that you can really notice. But let's go ahead and start playing with the graph. I'll zoom out a bit on the canvas. I'll select the end property again to bring up the graph. Let me zoom out a little and start playing. Let's start with this key frame right over here that makes up for the curl of the k. I don't remember that what we discussed and the crux of all the videos before this is that for a value graph, flatter equals slower and steeper equals faster. So right now, right over here, the graph is super flat, okay? It's not super flat, it's a little flat, but let's go ahead and try making it super flat. And how do we do that? Is we just extend this. So if you hold Shift, you can make it move in a straight line. If you don't hold shift and it wobbles. So I'm gonna hold shift and move this forward. And I'm going to hold shift and move this backwards so that this area is super flat and this area corresponds to this curve if k. So let's start playing this part of the animation again. And you can see that there is a slight slowing down. And then again, we can move it a little back, right? It hits the correct point. And you will notice that while manipulating graphs, there will be lots of tiny backs and forth, fourths back and forth that you will have to do to get a certain easing, right? Right. So that's what I'm doing here. And these, these yellow dots, I hope you know, already correspond to the keyframe. So moving it here also moves the keyframe in the timeline. Now at this point, you know that making this flatter slows down the animation and we know all the curves vary. Want to slow down the animation and they're all represented by these dots, these points where the graph changes. And you can go ahead and try doing it on your own. Because what I'm going to do now, it's a very manual work or you can just watch me do it. Whatever, you decide time for this loop of k. So again, I'm gonna make it flatter. I can go ahead and hold Shift, drag it so that it looks flatter and you'll also need to like play it over and over again. And what you can do in After Effects is trim your work area to a certain extent so that it only replaced that part. So I can go ahead and drag this like this. And I can go ahead and I can zoom in so that when it plays, it will just leave this area that I'm trying to see the whole animation. Right? So yeah, that looks pretty good. Okay. Okay, slows down there. To make it slow down a little here. So let's make it flat. Okay, let me extend this to the whole area. And then I can go ahead and make the T's loop a little. And the end is something that we will manipulate a little so that it looks like it reaches the end. So I'm going to extend this and meet the super flat, right? So then there is a nice, There's a nice slowing down at the end. If you don't get to collect slowing down, it can also just move this keyframe a bit ahead, like so. So then you get a little slowing down. I can also move this like this, just making sure that it stays flat for the most part. So let's truly, yeah, pretty cool. Let me play it again. We see that it is non-linear, plus there is some little bit of personality to the writing now. So again, let me go ahead and play it. Cool. I'm going to do is make the animation take a little more time. So when I can do is select all the keyframes, hold Option on Mac or Alt on Windows, and drag it so that it stretches the key-frames like this, so that takes a little more time and also make sure that the work area takes him enough space. Yeah, you see that? That's a, that's a nice animation. Now let's bring in the T cross for the final cherry on the animation, I'm going to collapse this height it bring, bring the t cross up. If you've been following along, you can go ahead and give it a shot on your own, animating the T cross the structured animate, swish, fast in the beginning and then slow down in the end. So give it a shout if you want to. And while you're doing that, I will give it a shot myself. So I'll go down and phosphorylate, go to the end property. I'm going to go ahead and create a keyframe, make it 0. Move ahead a little. And I'm going to make it a 100%. And now if I play it, you can see that, Whoo, yeah, very linear, very bad. Don't like that. So select the keyframe. Keyframes. Press did I just say keep, re, alright, so, so I like keyframes, press F9 to add easing. And then let's go ahead and try manipulating. And I'm going to zoom in a little on the graph. The first thing we want is to start fast. So you want to make sure that the tangents that are drawn this, this side of the curve are pretty steep. So how do we do that? How do we get steep? Just make it move like that. Then I wanted to slow down towards the Android. So I can go ahead and make it more steeper. Let's see how much deeper I can make. So I'll make it like really steep. And then as it reaches this point gets flat, it'll just slow down. So let me go ahead and play it. Yeah. Right. So starts fast and then boom, it gets slower. I'm going to make it more steep actually. So I'm gonna go ahead and try it again. So I like this, I like this, and I'm gonna go ahead and move it closer so this happens quicker, right? So yeah, I like that. I'm gonna go ahead and turn back again so that I can adjust the keyframes position properly. So I'm going to select the PTE graphs breast you to reveal all the keyframes now it has. And I'm gonna go ahead and let's say that as it reaches this point, I want the T cross animation to happen. So I'm gonna go select both of these key frames by holding Shift and drag them here, right? So let me go ahead and play that animation again. Okay? Yeah, or maybe you know what, can wait till the whole T is written like naturally. So let me go ahead and have a look at it again. Just a few minor adjustments here and there. Yeah, So I'm gonna go ahead and play the whole animation again. And you can see that it's pretty cool. And I have deliberately made it like way slow here, which you can notice like at the curves. And if you want to make it a little faster, you know what to do. Go to the, go to the graph. Select end here and make it a little less flat. And how do you make something a little less flat? You just go ahead and move it like this. And if you notice that only one side of your curve is changing and the other side doesn't respond. What you can do is right-click here and select Keyframes. Keyframe Interpolation changed from Bezier to continuous bezier. And if you click Okay, you can see that you can change both the sides with the keyframes. So I'm gonna make a little, little less flat so that it doesn't totally Hall dan dot point. Yeah. Pretty cool, right? And that's what I'm going to do here. Right-click Keyframe Interpolation, change to continuous bezier and then make it a little less flatter. And then same thing here to key-frame interpolation. Continuous bezier and yeah, yeah, Cool, cool, a little less flat, not totally whole thing. So now if I run it, you can see, yeah, that's pretty cool, right? Like you are seeing that it takes a couple of back and forths to get it right. I think we're pretty much done here and I've conveyed how to use the value graph and you know how you can adjust the steepness or how flat curve is to control the speed. And we are done with the animation here. Everything that I'm going to go and do a head of this is just a cherry on top. I'm going to show you a few effects to make it look like it's been written and fountain pen, etc. So if you want to hang around for that, hang around for that, but you're all set and ready to move to the next video. Okay, So let us go ahead and add some effects. Alright, so the first thing we wanna do is just collapse all of these. Select both of these and press command shift C on Mac or Control shift C on Windows to precompose these two layers into one, I'm going to let the name be pre-comp one and I'm going to click Okay, the next thing that we will do is we'll go into Effects and Presets panel. And you can find it in Windows if it doesn't show up for you, you can see that here is effects and presets. We're gonna go ahead and search for Guassian blur. And I'm going to double-click to add to this precomp. Now let's go ahead and drag this to something like 12 or 13 to make it this blurry. The next thing that we're going to do is search for levels and effects and presets, and then double-click on this levels under color correction. So double-click on it and it gets added. Now what you're going to do here is go ahead and change the channel to Alpha. And we're going to adjust these three sliders here. But let's go ahead and move this towards the left. And it will take this slider and move it towards the right. And you can see that it clears it up. And then you can adjust the position of these three to make it thinner or thicker depending on what you like. Now this seems okay to me. So if I go ahead and play again, you can see that it sort of creates this little wells of ink that form when you write with a fountain pen. And this is the effect that I was trying to go for. And this is the effect that we got. One final thing that we're going to do is create a new adjustment layer. So go to Layer New and select Adjustment Layer. In the adjustment layer, we're going to add turbulent and displays. So let me search turbulence. Whoops, turbulent displays, right? Sometimes I forget the name. It's turbulent displace. So double-click and make sure that you are applying it on an adjustment layer. What adjustment layer does is that everything that's below this adjustment layer and this layers panel gets the effect that we apply on the Adjustment Layer. So double-click and you've added it to the adjustment layer. This makes this whole thing very wonky, but let me go ahead and adjust it. The only thing that you wanna do is set the size to something small, like two, for example. And now you will see that it gets some sort of a roughen edges, right? And that's pretty cool. You can play around more with the size to whatever to your heart's content. I'm just gonna go ahead and leave it up to. Now if I play the animation, you can see that it has the roughen edges added to it because of the turbulent displays. But let's go ahead and add one little final thing. It says small expression. So hold Option on Mac or Alt on Windows and click on evolution's a watch icon here, which will bring this panel up. And in here I'm going to do right, this posterize time eight in the brackets, a semicolon and then time into 800 and a semicolon again. And if I click out, and now if I play the animation, you can say that there is some sort of character to the roughen edges too. And that's it. That's all we wanted to add to this animation. And I hope you followed through, and I hope you've finished it. And if you wanna know more about expressions, I have another class on Skillshare that you can watch, which I will link to in the description or I'll talk about in the conclusion video. But yeah, this is the animation that we make together. Pretty great. Now for this entire class, to manipulate the speed of the animation, all we did was manipulate the value graph. Lest you forget, let me remind you that there is another graph, coal the speed graph. And if you go ahead and, um, as you're working on your project, if you go ahead and peek into the speed graph, it will not make sense to you if you've not already familiar with it, but just perfect because in the next class, we are going to dive deeper into the motion curves. And we will talk more about the speed graph and the value graph and how they're connected. And I'm very excited, are you? I hope you are. I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. Advanced Easings: Okay, welcome back. We are to knee deep into this now to turn back. So all my hand and follow me. That sounds like a sketchy thing, but it's not, it's actually a very good thing. The number one thing to understand is that value graph and speed graph are not exclusive of each other as in they don't exist separately on their own. There are two different but connected ways to show the same animation. And since they are connected, the change of shape of one affects the shape of another. And often animators while working on a project switch between the speed and the value graph, depending on the context of which graph is easier to manipulate to bring out the desired effect. So let's go ahead and take a bit of time to understand how they are connected. Okay? The simplest way to put the difference is that value graph shows how the value of the property in question, which right now here is n. So how the value of the property in question is changing over time. And the speed graph shows how the speed of that change happens over time. I know how complex all this sounds, but it's not just bear with me. I wish it was possible to show the changes happening in both of the graphs side-by-side, but After Effects doesn't allow that. So we'll make the change in one and then switch to the other to see how the other graph response to that change. Also notice the unit of the numbers that are here on the left corner or the y-axis. The value graph, if I go to the value graph, it is basically the value of the property. And then the speed graph it is the speed of change in the set property. If unit of value is in-person, which right now as you can see, this property has unit of person, and that is what is visible here. The label of the speed graph on the y axis will be person per second. Now, for the scenario where we wanted to make this loop of the k, this loop of this k to animate slowly, which basically corresponds to this key frame and the speed graph or this keyframe, which is the same keyframe actually in this key frame and the value graph and make it slower. What we did is we made this curve, this point, the curve around this point flatter instead of like this, we made it something like this. Which is because we know that in the value graph, as the tangents gets flatter, the speed decreases. So the two ways in which I can make the animation happens slowly at this point is by making this curve flatter in the value graph or just going through the Speed Graph and clicking this note and pulling it down. And notice, as I lower it down, as I lower it down, notice that the value graph, this point gets flatter. Okay, so one more time I'll go to the speed graph and let me increase the speed. And as I increase the speed by moving this point up, you will see that the value graph around this point gets steeper. And one more time, if I go back into the speed graph and a fight, decrease the speed by pulling it down like this, you will notice that the value graph gets flatter and vice versa. If I make this curve flatter here, you will notice that the point here goes down and touches almost 0 because it's so flat there. Sometimes it is easier to manipulate this graph, which is the speed graph. And sometimes it is easier to manipulate the value graph to get a desired result in an animation. Now that you understand these two graphs, more than nothing, I hope we'll see a few small examples of value graph and speed graph for some common easy things, just so that all of this information sits in your head better. We'll also see how changing the graph, any of the speed graph or the value graph effects the shape of the keyframe, right? You know, this is a shape, our glass shape, this is a linear shape. We'll see how that goes, how changing the graph affects the shape of the keyframes. Here we are back at where we started with a square that's rotating from 0 to four to five degrees. I'm sorry, I should put my phone on. Silence. Yeah. So we are back with this square root of 45 degrees. This is all you're going to take away from this class, is how to do data square from 0 to four to five degrees. But anyway, anyway, let's, let's scrub through this animation. And somewhere in the middle, what I'll do is I'll add another keyframe. So all this little square things you don't need to follow along. This is just for demonstration, right? So even if you are falling along, its a good thing, but you're not required to. Okay, so we've added another keyframe in the middle of these two keyframes. And what I want you to notice is the shape of these keyframes. And the shape of these keyframes look like two triangles joined at their base is right? And there's a reason why I called the Shape two triangles joint at their basis and not a rhombus, which is the actual legal name for this shape. Because it'll be clear in a bit. Hang on. Also, remember that after effects by default applies linear, easing the keyframes that you create as can be seen in the value graph. Yes, I am the value graph, which is a very straight line with no features whatsoever. When you see keyframes with the shape of two triangles join at their base says it also means that the keyframes have linear easing applied on both in and out. Now, what do I mean by n And out? In the previous video, we learned how to add easing keyframes. One is by right-clicking. I'm going to keyframe assistant and selecting easy ease or pressing the shortcut F9. Another way to do this is like this. You go into the graph, you select a node or a keyframe. And notice how we restrict the whole graph is what I will do now is click here where it says, Easy, Ease out. And as soon as I click here, notice how it adds a curve towards the direction of this keyframe. Left side of this keyframe is the indirection, and right side of this keyframe is the direction. Similar like we already have talked about the whole motion graph having in on the left side and out of the right side when we were talking why certain easing is called ease in or ease out, you already know about. So it also appears that every keyframe, every node also has an insight on the left and outside on the right. So when I click this node and clicked over here, which says add easy, ease out. It added a curve towards the owl direction of this keyframe with the same keyframe selected, I go back to my timeline and look how the shape of this key frame has changed. The left side, the insight is linear, whereas the outside has easing applied to it and hence this shape. Now if I go back to the graph and select this keyframe again and go over here where it says, add an easy ease in, you know, what will happen. We'll add a curve towards the indirection of this node. And if I go back into my timeline, you can see how the shape of this keyframe has changed. It's not an RTOS. I mean, it looks like an RTOS, but there are two parts of it through easy on the left side and there's also easing on the right side. This is what the shape indicates. And remember that the shape has nothing to do with the exact curve of this side. All it shows that this is not linear, but there is some sort of easing applied. That's it. Now, if I undo everything, go back to my timeline. Select this key frame in the middle of Right-click, go to keyframe assistant. And I'm going to add easy ease. And can you tell me which side of the keyframe shape is going to change, please? I hope that you said the inside we did the left side. So if I add easy, ease and you'll see that half of our glass is added to the inside and the rest half is a triangle. And if I go back into my graph, you'll see there's easing on the inside. And similarly, if I go back, right-click this keyframe, go to keyframe assistant and easy ease out. It has now easing on the both sides. Me who? There you go. There are multiple ways to add easing to thereby that either by this and that's pretty cool. That's so much information for you. I hope you are handling everything properly. And if I go ahead and do everything again and go back to this keyframe, right-click Keyframe Assistant and select Easy, Ease in and what will happen. It will add easing on both sides of this keyframe. And then again, we'll have the same graph. And again, if I go ahead and undo, select this node, and I'll click over here and it will do the very same thing again. So I hope this back-and-forth and everything, it's making sense to you. And I'm pretty sure that you're understanding this because I haven't went over this so many times now. But allow me one last time, one last time I'll go brisket Mansi, make it a linear, select this keyframe and press the shortcut F9 and vamp. The same thing happens. That's it. This is the last time that I'm doing this. And at this point I'm also hoping that you can read this graph. So what will happen is that it'll start at some speed, slow down here because the curve, the value graph is flat here and then pick up speed again, right? So if I play this loose slows down, goes back up. And if I go back to the speed graph, you will notice that it starts off, goes, speed goes really low, almost 0 because the curve is flat there, and then speed increases and decreases again. Pretty cool. Let's go back to our timeline. Now something has to be said for the extreme keyframes, the first one and the last one in any animation, not just one, the first keyframe, there is no indirection because this is the point where the animation starts from. And if we add easing towards the inside of this keyframe, it won't really do anything. And similarly, for the end keyframe, if we add easing towards the outer direction, it won't really do anything. So let's go ahead and look at me doing something not really affecting the graph at all. So let me go ahead and go back into the value graph. And I'll select this keyframe, which is the extreme keyframe, that end keyframe. And I'll add ease out to it. And you see ease out has been added. Of course the shape has changed, but it doesn't really do anything. Similarly, if I go to the first keyframe and add ease in towards the left or the indirection. It has added easing, but it won't really do anything. And I think that was just self-explanatory. I just wanted to go over it for completeness. Now one last thing that I want to show you here is if I go back to this graph and go back to this node over here. And you know already that you can change the steepness of this graph or the flatness here to control the speed. And we've also seen that how these graphs are disconnected, and we've also seen that how you can connect them by selecting it, right-clicking, going to keyframe interpolation and choosing continuous bezier. Now there's another way to do it. If I go back, I keep saying go back. But if I go to the speed graph and look at this point here, and if I wanted to raise its speed, and what I'll do to raise the speed again, very normal action is I'll click and drag, but you'll notice that these two points are disconnected, which is not right, and y are the disconnected. It's because this value graph has two different curves on each side. And that is why there are two points in the speed graph. Now there's another way to connect this. Other than right-clicking and going to keyframe interpolation, selecting this double-clicking here and then clicking on continuous lock, lock both the incoming and outgoing direction. So if I click on it, click Okay, you'll see that it becomes a single point and then I can move it up or down. And that will change the value graph how it should. And also this point is also a single thing now and I can move it around. So that's the one thing that I wanted to show you. That's the one last thing that I wanted to show you in this lesson. Yeah. Yeah, that's it. That's it. That's it. That's it. That's it with this lesson. I didn't really have anything to say in the conclusion except I'm hoping I'll see you in the next one as well in the next lesson. Bye. 6. Animating Position: Okay, Welcome to this lesson. This one is a shortest lesson of this entire class. So far in this class, we've only been animating properties like scale or rotation or the end percentage when we were working with the curd handwriting animation. And there's a reason for that is because all of these are unidimensional property as opposed to, let's say something like position, which is a two-dimensional property. And it'll be clear what I mean when I say 2-dimensional later in the class. I just wanted to show you the problem manipulating value graph poses when it comes to any property that has more than one dimension. Now back in after effects of gaba square root here, what I'll do is I'll go to the position property, which I can reveal by selecting the layer and pressing P, I'll create a keyframe here. Move a little bit ahead and timeline at any place, doesn't matter, totally arbitrary. And I'll move this grayer to this corner, the diagonally opposite corner. Now the way the position property works, and I'm very sure that you probably know this already. But if there's even one student who doesn't, then this short explanation, we'll help them. Now I moved this square diagonally to this corner. If I look into the position property, you can see that instead of just one number, as in a unidimensional property like rotation or scale, there are two numbers. The first one is x and the second one is y. X means horizontal and y means vertical, like we've already discussed in one of the previous lessons. Remember that? What does that mean? A little nauseous. I don't know. I don't know. Some rapper x and y. I hope you remember that. I moved that. Do you remember that? So okay. So the first number is x and the second number is why? And unlike, like in computer graphics, and unlike how it does on paper, where the bottom-left corner is 00 or x and y is 0. And in computer graphics and also in After Effects, this top corner, the top-left corner is the origin where x and y is 0. Then as you move towards the right, x increases and as you move downward, y increases. And in this animation where the square is moving from this corner to this corner, both x and y values are changing because the square is moving horizontally, but it's also moving vertically. You can see that here as I scrub, you can see that these two numbers change simultaneously. And if I go ahead and look into the value graph from here, make sure in value graph, you will see that there are two graphs, one for x, one for y, and this gets kinda hard to play with. So there is a thing that you can do. You can right-click on position and to separate dimensions. And now you have different graphs to play with. But even with Sabrina dimensions, like in a general context, it gets really difficult to play with two different graphs for position and to get the desired animation. So let me press Command Z and connect them both against without there was a single position and not separated dimension. And because of the two graphs, what I and most animators that I've observed do is that they directly go into the speed graph because there was just only one graph to adjust. Right now there is no variation in speed. It's a constant and you know, it, it's because a0 or After Effects applies linear easing by default, what I will do now is I'll select both of these keyframes and go ahead and click on easy ease. And now you can see that we have a little bit of ease in the possession. And just by making changes to the speed graph, we have changed the way the animation happens. Something else you can do is you can shift the graph towards, let's say towards the left. I can hold Shift and make it look something like this. Which if you have followed along some tutorials or course has an Alpha effects, you can, you know that this is very common graph. Would that change? This creates a very different animation and I didn't have to go into the value graph and just two graphs units simultaneously to get this, I could just go into speed graph and it's just one single graph. And also changing the speed graph, like I said before, it produces some sort of change in the value graph, which you've already observed. So here you can see how you can interchangeably either use the speed graph or the value graph. They are both very much connected as you follow more tutorials or the works of different animators, you will notice the pattern of them jumping into the speed graph directly and making these making these Hale style graphs. Heel Stone graph is a term that I just made up myself. You get the idea right? There's a slight bit more nuance to this graph and a few more options which reveal themselves by double-clicking on any of these nodes which we need to understand. And we'll be doing that while building our final project in the next class. So you don't need to worry about them right now. And that's it. Something like what, five-minutes? Yeah. That's all I needed. I needed a little bit of time to tell you about multidimensional poverty and their graphs. And I hope I have meant that expectation or what I had hoped for this lesson. Am I making sense? But like I said, even though this was a short lesson, lesson after this is going to be a very long one because we are going to be working on our final project for this entire class. But yeah, take a short break or don't take a short break because this was a short class. And I'll see you soon in the next lesson. 7. Final Project - Pt. 1: I've made a recent discovery. It's very delightful and it's very subtle. And I don't know if you noticed this, but if you go into the YouTube app on IOS or iPadOS for that matter. And if you're watching a video and if you press the like button, a very nice animation happens. I don't know if it will be visible, but look at that. Do you see it? Look at that. Pretty cool, right? And also another thing that I just wanted to remind you of is that I hope that you have downloaded the resources from the projects and resources section here on Skillshare because we're gonna be needing that. Now if you go into the resources and into the YouTube lie can folder, you'll find this video title example. And if I play it, you can see the same YouTube like animation happening. Our job is to recreate this animation and after effects while also revising everything we have learned about the graph so far. Now you can try doing this on your own for short. But first let me walk you through the after-effects file that we'll be using for this project. Now you are required to go into the starter dot AEP file. I'll double-click to open it, and there it is. Now in this file, you will find one layer, just one layer tied to lie can very self-explanatory and a few unfurl it. If you Command and click on this arrow, it will unfurl all the nested options. So that's a shortcut for you. If you just click it without holding command and you'll have to unfurl the nested options again and again. But if we wanted to unfurl everything, you hold command and you click here, inside here. If we go to the path property, you will notice that we have four keyframes here. No, I'd like us to understand where these four keyframes came from and what they do. So this, the entire graphic is first of all made of two parts. There is hand, which is this part over here, the palm and the common everything. And they're asleep, which is basically just this rectangle over here. Now this whole shape, this whole vector shape was created in Adobe Illustrator. If you look into the project files under YouTube Line, Can, you will see a file called handy It just a random name. I should have given it a better name. But anyway, I can, if you have Adobe Illustrator installed, you can double-click and look into it. So as you can see that inside the file, I have the different states of the graphic, as in when the thumb is in a normal position, but it is totally stretched and here in the middle when it is regressed. And then what I've done is simply brought these different shapes into After Effects. Now there are multiple ways in which you can bring a graphic from Illustrator to After Effects. The simplest way is to just imported, which basically every YouTube tutorial and every class shows you. But what I use is this plug-in called Overlord. And overlord is not a free plugin, is it costs around forty-five dollars. But if you're a serious about animating and pursuing it further, I think it's a really good investment. Let me go ahead and show you a demo of overlord in just under a minute. Okay, I'll go back into After Effects. I'll collapse all of this. I'll hide this and lock it. I don't want to mess around with it. And now look at the magic of overlord. I'll go back into Illustrator. I'll make sure that this path is selected. And then I'll simply click this arrow and bam, I have it here in After Effects. Pretty cool, right? And if I go ahead and unfurl everything, you will see that the different paths here and here it's named group one because I just exported it vanilla here in like and I've prepared it and name the layers and everything that way. That's why there is pain and sleep, but here's just group one. But anyway, we have to focus on the path here. And as you'll see, we have this entire path here. And one thing I've made sure while preparing these shapes is that each of these shapes have the same number of anchor points. And what does it mean to have seen number of anchor points? It's simply means like if you look at these dots here, are these Bezier points. Which of these paths were made of? Each of them have the same number of them. And when paths have the same number of anchor points, it means that After Effects can set keyframes between them. Which means if I go back into After Effects and I've set a keyframe for path here. Move a little forward, right? And I just want to bring in the keyframe or the path for this part, the palm part, the hand part, and not the sleeve. So what I'll do is I'll select this and make sure that I can detach it and bring it here. And then with this selected, I'll simply press this arrow, go back into After Effects. And now you can see that I have two different paths here. And because they have the same number of anchor points, After Effects can animate between them. And I'll get rid of it. And that's how I have dropped in different keyframes for the path here and with the different states of the thumb. Now, all of this, everything that I said in the last one or two minutes, it's something that I only set for the completeness of the lesson so that you're not totally in the dark. Hey, how did this vector shape even get here? How did you make it? It's just for that extra information and it is not the part of the actual class, the actual class, the animation of this hand starts. Now, know broadly, I'm going to divide the whole animation into three steps. We're going to animate the rotation, we're going to animate scale and we're going to animate position broadly, broadly there would be certain small nuances here and there, but broadly, rotation, scale and position. First of all, let's start with rotation and I'm gonna go ahead and command click. Or if you're a Windows Control click to just wrap everything up so that we have just this visible. And another shortcut for you. If we're not already aware with the layer selected, you can press R to bring up the rotation and you know what? Let's go ahead and get started. The number one thing that you want to make sure is that the anchor point of this whole graphic is on the bottom left corner. And if it's not in the bottom-left corner, if it's somewhere around center, what do you have to do is press Y to bring up this tool. It's called the pan behind tool, also the anchor tool. It's right over here. You see Pan Behind Tool or anchor point tool. And you can then start dragging and hold Command on Mac or Control on Windows to snap it right over here. One more thing before we start is that what we wanted to do is again, I'm going to command click and unfurling. We're going to take all these four keyframes and drag them way to the right because we don't want them interfering right now when we're, when we're doing rotation, scale and position, we'll bring them back later to add more personality to the animation. But for now, let me just go ahead and push them away to the right. Not really concerned with them. Go ahead and select the layer, press Oregon and there'll be our head rotation. Let's go ahead and put the first keyframe at 0 seconds like that. Since a major action is the hand rotating upwards, we will add a little bit of anticipation to rotation by adding a keyframe, another keyframe, a little bit ahead in time, and then rotating it down like this, Let's say around ten degrees. Now we will move a little ahead in time and rotate the hand to its peak position. So I'll just go ahead and drag this backwards. So I think it's something somewhere like here. It looks good. Once we are. So it's anticipates it goes through the top position. Then I'm going to move ahead and bring it back to its initial position by copying Command C and Command V. So we've got anticipation, it reaches its final position and then back to the initial position. And that's it. We're done with the project. No, I'm just kidding. Uh, to robotic tour robotic. First of all, there is no personality and only easing so linear. So of course we're not done yet. Let's go ahead and keep working on it. Its first thing that we're gonna do is select all the keyframes and use our trusty old shortcut of F9 to add easing to all of them. And if I play it again. Okay. A little better. A little better. But not there yet. Look at it. A little better, but not there yet. Let's go ahead and look at the graphs. And for this, I'll be directly editing the speed graph and not the valley graph, because in this context, it's just easier for me to manipulate the speed graph. One thing that we have not talked about yet is this parameter in the speed graph called influence. If you want to be mathematically precise with your easing in the Speed Graph, you can double-click any of these nodes. I'm going to go ahead and double-click here. And in the pop-up window, you will see a parameter called influence. Also, what you will notice is that this whole pop up window has two parts, incoming and outgoing. And we have discussed before, incoming is things on the left side and outgoing are things from the right side. Since we clicked on this node, which is the first node, there is no real incoming for it, which is something we've already also discussed. So whatever we put in here, or any value won't really affect anything. Changing the outgoing part will affect the graph. Now, when you add easy ease to a keyframe by either right-clicking and selecting easy ease or click a gear or clicking here, or pressing F9. What After Effects does this automatically applies the influence of thirty-three point three, three percent through the Speed Graph, which works perfectly for motion of small ranges, like for small movements, influence of 33.33 per cent works well. We're going to go ahead and leave it at 33%. Because this, this, this particular range of motion is for the little anticipation in the ham that happens. And since it's a small range of motion, again, we're gonna go ahead and leave it at 33%. We're going to click Okay here. Now, this second node is something of interest since it has both an incoming side and an outgoing side. For the second note, we're going to go ahead and keep incoming at thirty-three percent because n is the left side and it's part of this graph. So we're going to leave it at 33%. And what we're going to do for the outgoing, we're going to go ahead and change the influence through something like, let's say 75%. We're gonna go ahead and click Okay, and you'll see what it did. It simply increases the length of this handle, which can very well be done by also dragging this handle to the left or the right. And that's all basically influences, either do it precisely by double-clicking and adding a value there or just arbitrarily to your own liking, drag this handle anyhow for this particular graph, we also want this side to have a 75 per cent influence on the speed. If you want to, you can go ahead and do that. But here are the steps, double-click it and since we want it on this side, we're gonna go ahead and manipulate the incoming site, which is right now at 23, a default value. That's 75. And we're going to click Okay, and now we have a halite graph in the middle, very relevant or irrelevant. You have a good starting point. Let's go ahead and play the animation now and see what it looks like. I'm going to press space. Okay? Okay. One thing I want to make sure it, since this is a very, this animation lasts for a small duration. I'm gonna make sure that it's less than 1 second, so basically till 24 frames. So I'm going to go ahead and position the marker at the 24th frame. You can see the frame number I'm ad from here, or your ad from here. It's After Effects is for everyone. So select all the keyframes, hold Option on Mac or Alt on Windows, and go ahead and drag it like this so it fits within 24 frames. Now, what I wanted to do next is I want the anticipation to last. Not so much. I just want it to last for like three frames. So I'm gonna go ahead and position the playhead, add 0. Then on Mac you can use Command and right arrow, and I believe on Windows Control and right arrow to move a single frame forward. So I'm gonna go ahead and move to the third frame, right? So Command 123, and this is all, this is how long I want to add dissipation to last. So I'm gonna go ahead and drag this to here. So now the anticipation is like this. Okay, Cool. And also what we want is that the hand to linger on this pose for a little bit. And remember how we made the value graph a lot flatter on curves of k When we were animating K incurred. You're going to do something similar here. Okay, Let's go ahead and go to the value graph. Go ahead and go to the value graph. And what I wanted to do is to flatten this part here. So make sure that this node is selected, which is the peak point. And I'm going to go ahead and select this part. First of all, let me zoom in a little. I'm gonna go ahead and select this part hold Shift and just drag it out. It will just make it more flatter here so that it lingers on this position. And I can go and go, keep going back and replaying it. And you can see that, yeah. Well, the flatter I make, the more that it will linger here. So let me go ahead and make this a little more flatter. Yeah, you see it? It just goes ahead and stored up balls is at this position and it is because I flatten this part here. Now you can see how value in speed graphs are used interchangeably. This change, the flattening has, of course, rippled out to the speed graph, as you can see here. And in turn, it would have also changed the influence of bed, which is a 100%, which is alright. We only use their influence to give us a base animation on top of which we can build on. Also, if you look, if I go ahead and play back, look at how the, the way the anticipation ends is a little sharp here. So let me go ahead and play it. And you can see that it's a little sharp but just pure. I just wanted to be a little smoother. I'll go back to the value graph here, zoom in a little bit more and trying to make it flatters. So I'm gonna go ahead and hold Shift and make it flatter. And I can also move it forward and backward. You can make changes that the plane with graphs is all about making minute changes and isn't the sort of thing that you can disappear in sometime. The devil's in the details, that God is in the details whenever in details are what makes anything better. So, yeah, some back-and-forth, of course, is always needed as I've reordered, agitated and repeat it a lot in this class, but I made this part a little smoother. So let's go ahead and play it again and see if it ends that sharp leave and then dissipation ends. So I'm gonna go ahead and press Space. And yeah, it's not that sharp. It's sort of smooth, which is good, which is good. We're getting there. Now. We need to play around with scale a bit. We want this hand to shrink during anticipation like when it goes from here to here, we want it to shrink a bit and then burst into bigger size as it reaches this peak position. Let's go back to our timeline where we can see the keyframes. You can select the layer. And if you already have a property visible, you can hold Shift and press a shortcut. So I'll press Shift and S to bring up scale here, right? And then I'll go to 0 times 0 and pop in a keyframe at a 100% scale at time 0. Then during anticipation, what I wanted to do is I want to shrink the size to something like 90 or 87%, something like that, very arbitrary number. And then as it reaches the big position, what I wanted to do is increase at scale to something like a 110 or let's go with 115 year. Okay, So it goes like this, shrinks and then pops up there and then goes back again as m as it is coming back. I wanted to go ahead and copy the initial scale keyframe and paste it here so that wild coming down it's shrinks to its original position. Okay, now if I play that animation again, you will see that the rotation and the waste scale animates. It's totally out of sync. And it shouldn't be out of sync because there is easing applied to all these. Rotation keyframes and there is just linear default easing applied to all of the scale keyframes. We need to get the rotations easing onto scale. To do that, we can use a plug-in which is called e's copy, which you can see right over here. It's a $15 plugin, which I know not all of you might have. So let's give easy, ease to all the keyframes and adjust them manually. So what I'll do is I'll select all these keyframes again for scale, press F9, and now all of them have an easing. Now to give an exact easing, the gift, the scale exactly usings and the graph shapes and everything as rotations. What we need to do is we need to go into the speed graph of rotation from over here. Yes, we are in the speed graph now and then copy the influences on each node and paste it into scale. So let me go ahead and start doing that. I'll double-click this note. It's 3733. I'll go to scales speed graph. I'll double-click here. And since it is a two-dimensional property and x and y both are changing, we're going to make sure that lock Dimensions is checked and we're just going to paste the values here. As you knew. Sorry, as we saw in previous graph, we had it at 37% and the outgoing at thirty-three percent. We're going to click Okay here. Alright, we're gonna go to rotation again. Double-click here. We've got 86.567 to five. Go to scale, double-click 86.56. And what was done was that 75? Guess it was, I'm going to click Okay. And you can see that the graph shape changes to a mimic exactly how this is. So I'm going to check again with 7575. Let's double-click here. We've got a 100100. I'll go back into scale, double-click this node, give it a 100 here, and then another 100 here. And fame, we've got this graph. Let's go ahead and look at the last keyframe here. It's got 3316. So go back to scale. We've got 33 here. And it doesn't really matter the outgoing part because it has no outgoing part. But anyway, let me just write 16, okay, doesn't matter. Now, if I go ahead and play it, you can see that the scale and rotation are totally in sync. As you can see, all that work of copying and pasting could have been avoided if I just selected all of this, went to the East copy, plug-in, copied it, and then select that scale and just paste it in. But again, I know, I know. I find it really kinda frustrating when I'm watching a tutorial and a paid plugin comes up. But anyway, we're not using a paid plugin here. I was just showing you that this plugin exists and we can use that. No, she would go into your resources and you look into the YouTube lie can folder. You will find this little text file called elastic expression dot TXT. I want you to open it, copy everything in it, and then come back here. Let's say rotation. Just to begin with Option, hold, Option on Mac or Alt on Windows, and click the stopwatch icon, which will bring up the expression editor. And right here, I just want you to paste it command V and click out and not worry about it. Okay? I want you to do the same thing with scale to option, click Command V, click out. Nothing to worry about. Endless. Click hold Command or Control on Windows and just collapse everything. And if I play the animation now, well, nothing really happy. Oh ****. Did I do something wrong? No, I did not do something wrong. The way this expression works is that you need your last key-frame to be linear easing. So how do you change this to linear easing? You hold Command on Mac or Control on Windows, and you just go ahead and click name in BAM. And now if I go back and play it, whoo, there's some bounds. There isn't in someone's life there. You're right, Cool. Alright, now we are almost done with this animation. We need to add position and all the hand shapes here. But I realized that this, that this video is touching the 20-minute mark. So I will stop right here and I'll make another part of this lesson and I'll see you then. So hold on, hang on, take a rest, drink some water, and come back. 8. Final Project - Pt. 2: Okay, welcome back to part two of the final project. So far we've been able to animate scale and rotation of this hand and also give it a little bit at bounciness using expressions. The next thing we want to do is we're going to bring in, bring up the path property, which is over here. These two paths, which we've already talked about, the keyframes of which we've pushed away towards the right. It's time to bring them back in. So I'm just going to drag them in, position them at the beginning of my timeline. And let me just go ahead and adjust these so that they match the anticipation and everything. So this part is actually when the thumb kinda regresses the patient. And then the extreme pose over here with the thumb stretched and then coming back to normal. So let's go ahead and play it. It won't be perfect, but let's see if it gives us, gives us an idea of the final animation. So, okay, yeah, so it's definitely not proper because it's moving in a whole different out of sync. The thumb, what do we need to do here is bring up the easing from scale to orientation to the path. Now, earlier, you saw me copy and paste the influences, right? You can go ahead and do this same thing. But what I'm gonna do is I'm going to go ahead and use the e's copy plugin. So I'm going to go ahead and select scale or rotation. Does it really matter them have the same easing. I'm going to click on Copy. I'm going to go ahead and click on the path. And I'm going to go ahead and hit Paste. Ease. Okay, And then I'm gonna go ahead and play that animation and look at this right now. It's pretty much in sync. Let me go ahead and zoom in and see if I can make certain adjustments. Let me play again. Yeah, pretty much in sync. What I can do here is maybe move this peak position for a bit ahead so that it lingers for a bit more. So let me do this and let me go in and play again. Yeah. Yeah. Everything looks perfect and everything looks proper. The only next thing that we need to add right now is the animation for the position property. So let's go ahead and do that. Let me go ahead and select this layer and press P to bring up position. And I'll go ahead two times 0 and create a keyframe. Now I also need to match it with rotation or scale. I'm just gonna go ahead and press Shift S to bring up scale so that I can match the position of keyframes. And as it is anticipating and shrinking, I want this to move. I want the hand to move a little bit downward. So let me go ahead and choose the second number, which is the y position in drag it a little bit down as a shrinking. It's shrinking. It goes a little bit down. Let me move it a little more, little more down. And now as it is arising, I wanted to move a little bit up, so I'm gonna go ahead and move it a little bit up right around there. And then as it is coming down, I wanted to bring it to their original position. So copy this keyframe and paste it here. So now it moves down, it moves up, and then it moves down again. Now I'm gonna go ahead and again copy the easing from scale using e's copy, of course. Now I could again go into the speed graph and copy and paste individual influences. But you don't want to sit through and watch me do that, right? So you do that if you're doing have these coffee, I've had really guilty to be using a plug-in, but, you know, it's required again. So sorry for erasing a time. I'm going to go ahead and copy the easing. Go to position and paste the easing just like that. And if I go ahead and play it, you can see that the position is also changing now and it looks so much better. One last bit of adjustment is to make the path of movement a little part. Because remember that it's a basic principle of animation that nothing in real life moves in a straight line. We need to add a little bit of arch to the position. So let me go ahead and select this. And with the position property selected, you will notice that there are these dots, not the square ones with the circular ones. These are handles for the Bezier curves. So I can go ahead and drag it so that it forms a curve. And let me go ahead and form a curve wherever I can and make it as smooth as possible. So that's what I'm doing now. And let's move it like this. And let's move it like this. That's enough curve. Let me zoom out and play again. And you see that now it sort of moves in a curve and then it adds the curving of the path. Just added so much more life to it. Animation. So let me go ahead and play this one final time. And there you are. And to your own liking, I think this is a little too much right now, but to your liking, you can also go ahead and adjust this as you like it. So yeah, that's that's pretty much it. That's pretty much it. One final plate. Okay, great. If you have made this animation by following along, go ahead and make a GIF or a video and post it in the projects. And I'm so proud of what we've been able to accomplish so far, so cool, I'll see you in the next lesson, which is the final lesson. And I can't wait to recap from the very beginning where we didn't know anything about graphs do here where we have manipulated graphs and made this animation. 9. Conclusion: After all that, we did look at the sheet of music and telling me that you can hear actual music playing in your head. Know you probably can't, because we talked about graphs and looking at this sheet which has a value graph drawn on it, you can probably tell the kind of motion that this graph represents. And if you can re-watch the class, I mean, it's up to you. If you can't, you can rewatch the class, but I'm pretty sure that you do anyway, any h2. Let's take a recap of everything that we did in this class. One important thing that I wanted to teach through this class, because it was quite mysterious for B2 is why certain easing, so called ease ins and outs, et cetera. And we looked at it through an entire graph. That entire motion graph has an inside and an outside and depending on which side you apply easing on it could be called ECM is out or ease in, out. And also there are in and out sides to every keyframe or which is also a node on a motion graph. So that is something that we did. We use trim paths to animate handwriting and added speed variations to handwriting by manipulating value graph, either by making it flatter or steeper, et cetera. And you know, what could it be? A cool project is that you record yourself or anyone writing something on paper and try to recreate that of After Effects. So that is something that you can do for our final project of the class, we recreated the YouTube like cam animation as it is in 2022 on iOS and iPad OS devices, we learned about anticipation when the hand goes up, there's this little bit of anticipation and we wanted to regard followed through. And we added a little bit of follow-through by using an expression that adds some sort of bounciness to the Lai Can, you should check out the finished project that we did. There's something that I should come clean about. The left-hand project that we build together that you're solving but linked together. It needed more polishes and more time. I wasn't able to go all the way with it because of the time constraint and everything. But the finished file that is there in your resources is the one that I've worked extensively on. And it looks much smoother and much better. So you should check it out. Don't worry, it's created using the exact same techniques that I showed. And by the way, if you're new to expressions and you want to learn it. I have another class on Skillshare, which is titled of beginner's introduction to expressions. You could take that it definitely isn't to advance and it doesn't go into recreating something advanced as expression that we used in this, in this class for the YouTube like Han animation. But still, I think it gives a very solid ground for anyone who wants to start learning expression. So you could check it out if you wanted to. That's a wrap for me. I would really appreciate if you're watching this, if you've reached this part of the class to drop a review, it really means a lot. Reading a nice review. Or if you did not like the class, I still put an overview. I would like to get some feedback on how I'm doing because I really enjoy teaching and I'm a student of how to teach better. So yeah, whatever, it's up to you, again, That's a wrap and I'll see you in the next one. Hopefully soon. Bye.