Your First Home Recording Studio – Audio Engineering Basics | Mike Migas | Skillshare

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Your First Home Recording Studio – Audio Engineering Basics

teacher avatar Mike Migas, Audio & Podcasting Insights

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Your First Home Recording Studio – Audio Engineering Basics – Intro


    • 2.

      SECTION 1: Microphones Overview


    • 3.

      SECTION 1: Dynamic Microphones


    • 4.

      SECTION 1: Condenser Microphones


    • 5.

      SECTION 1: Lavalier or Clip Microphones


    • 6.

      SECTION 1: Polar Patterns


    • 7.

      SECTION 1: Cheap Options – Phone, Laptop, Camera


    • 8.

      SECTION 1: Semi-Pro Option – USB Mic, Recorder, Audio Interface


    • 9.

      SECTION 2: Cables


    • 10.

      SECTION 2: Connectors


    • 11.

      SECTION 2: Stands, Clips & Pop Shields


    • 12.

      SECTION 2: Audio Interface


    • 13.

      SECTION 2: Speakers


    • 14.

      SECTION 2: Headphones


    • 15.

      SECTION 3: Signal Flow


    • 16.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Mobile Phone


    • 17.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Camera


    • 18.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Camera and Clip Mic


    • 19.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Laptop Only


    • 20.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – USB Microphone


    • 21.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – External Recorder


    • 22.

      SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Audio Interface


    • 23.

      SECTION 3: Software Setup – Pro Tools


    • 24.

      SECTION 3: Software Setup – Adobe Audition


    • 25.

      SECTION 3: Software Setup – Audacity


    • 26.

      SECTION 4: Distance and Proximity Effect


    • 27.

      SECTION 4: Pop Shield


    • 28.

      SECTION 4: Pencil Technique


    • 29.

      SECTION 4: Headphone Mix


    • 30.

      SECTION 4: Environment


    • 31.

      SECTION 4: Listening


    • 32.

      SECTION 4: Noise Floor


    • 33.

      SECTION 4: Other Tips


    • 34.

      SECTION 5: Mono Vs Stereo


    • 35.

      SECTION 5: Effects on Input


    • 36.

      SECTION 5: Buying the Right Gear


    • 37.

      SECTION 5: How Often Should You Record


    • 38.

      SECTION 5: What if You Mess up


    • 39.

      SECTION 5: What if You Hate Your Voice


    • 40.

      SECTION 5: Eating Before Recording


    • 41.



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About This Class


In the age of social media, everyone has a voice. And if you want to make your content sound amazing, this course is for you. It is the only place where you will see real-life examples of different recording equipment and associated cost. Immediately you will see where you should invest your money.

I understand you have a burning passion for writing, teaching, creating. You want to make your ideas tangible, release it to the world. And yet sound recording, a crucial part of content creation, is seen as an obstacle, an unfortunate necessity.

Tell me, how many times after listening back to your recordings, you felt like it is an impossible task, and just wanted to hit delete?

Or not even that.

How many times you wanted to start a podcast, online course, a YouTube channel, but when it came to audio equipment and recording, you were lost?



Over and over I see people confused about recording setup and sound equipment. They don’t know where to start. This course solves that issue.

You will learn the basics of sound recording, audio equipment, and fundamental recording techniques. You will learn that recording is a fun and exciting process, not a necessary barrier to jump. And what is most important you will learn from real-life examples.

I worked with bands; I have done audio for games and movies, I produce a hugely popular podcast. The theory is fine; I enjoy reading and learning too. But there is no better way to learn than doing and testing. I understand that it is not always possible to test what works best for you. You just want to start.

And that is why I recorded and filmed many examples of different recording equipment. From basic and cheap options to expensive, semi-pro. It will give you a clear idea where you should invest your money, and where you should begin.

You will not find this anywhere else; it is the only sound recording course that offers you a real picture of your options.



Learn the basics – that is my mantra. You will start by learning about the most important piece of your equipment – the microphone.

In several lectures you will understand the differences between microphones on the market, you will learn the basic characteristics of a microphone. But what is more important, you will see what choice you have available to you right now.

You will progress onto other recording equipment, gear that is sometimes overlooked, nevertheless, important.

In the middle of the course, you will see and hear how each of the options sounds like and how easy it is to set it all up. You will start thinking which way you wish to go.

You will learn important recording techniques. Some basic ones and other less known tricks too.

You will also find information on the psychology of a recording, and theory behind some recording terms.

Each section will start with an introduction where you will see what lies ahead. After the main content, you will finish with section summary. You will also find a Call To Action, a short video with a small task that you can do. And a Quiz to test your knowledge after each section.



I know that time is an asset. I composed this course because I wanted to give you ‘straight to the point’ information, no unnecessary talk.

So after your first viewing, you may find it all a bit overwhelming. Don’t worry!

I included closed captions and graphics throughout the course to make the learning easier. We are visual creatures; we learn most with our eyes. So I made the course as visually pleasing as possible.



Sometimes you need to remember something in an instant. And you don’t have time to rewatch the lecture, or maybe you can’t remember where to find the information.

I took the main points of the course, stripped it down to basics, and I created an ebook just for you. You will find it in the Course Summary lecture. Use it anytime you want. Choosing your first sound recording equipment is hard, I know that. So the best way is to listen and test different ways.

My goal is to show you the possibilities, the options and the real cost of buying a recording gear. This knowledge will put in miles ahead of the competition; it will make your content stand out from the crowd.

In the age of social media, everyone has a voice. Unfortunately, there is a lot of noise out there. Take the first step, make the world sound a little better.


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mike Migas

Audio & Podcasting Insights


Hi, I'm Mike Migas, the producer of Casefile True Crime podcast and Casefile Presents shows.

I'm making videos and courses about podcasting, audio and the world of sound. The lessons are based on my professional experience and day-to-day work which includes audio post-production, music composition, and podcast production.

Understanding the basics of audio and various techniques is one thing, however, learning what it takes to produce a show that people will enjoy and share is something completely different.

I study every day and always try to improve my skills. It is both studying and doing that will make you stand out from the rest.

Thanks for visiting and I hope to see you soon.


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Level: Beginner

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1. Your First Home Recording Studio – Audio Engineering Basics – Intro: Hi, I'm Mike Migas. I've been selling sound and music for most of my life. In the last five years, I focused on podcasts, with the most significant project being Casefile true crime, which we grew from nothing to hundreds of millions of downloads. Before podcasting allows a sound editor at a movie studio working on some of the biggest blockbusters from Disney, Pixar, Marvel, and many others. As many people look into starting their own YouTube channels, podcasts and produce content, learning about proper audio techniques becomes necessary. So I've created this class for people who want to stand out from the crowd and understand that every aspect of content creation is essential, especially sound. This class is for absolute beginners, only for people who are just starting and don't know anything about sound recording. And to start with the most basic setup, you need a microphone, cable and the recorder, so we can start with your phone. And for the acoustics, it's okay if you do VA or a blanket and a quiet room. The classes goals are to teach you how to capture sound. Learn fundamentals about recording techniques and recording equipment. At the end of the class, you also get a free ebook with quick tips and summary of what you've just learned. In this class, you'll see a few ways of setting up for recording. I'll show you the difference inequality. So you'll have exact comparison of what you get for your money. And to make it easier, I split this class into sections, microphones, necessary equipment, setting up, recording, and common rules. And for the main product, you guessed it, I want you to set up your first home recording studio and started recording. Share photos and videos of your setup and ideas of what you want to record is a YouTube video, a podcast, or maybe a voiceover. There's so many possibilities once you get your studio working. Thanks for watching and let's get started. 2. SECTION 1: Microphones Overview: In this lecture, I'll give you a quick overview of a microphone. So you need a microphone to record sound. A microphone will transform acoustic energy, that is your voice, into electrical energy, and then it's all transformed into digital data. There are three basic things that make a microphone do its job. First one, transducer. This is the part that transforms the energy. How a microphone registers the sound depends on the transducer. There are two main types of transducers, dynamic and condenser. Second thing that makes a microphone is its frequency range. That is how the recorded audio will sound. What do I mean by that? If the recording is an ideal reflection of a sound, it means that the microphone has a flat frequency response. This kind of microphones are used for measuring spaces rather than recording music or voice. Have a look at this one, which was microphones based on their characteristics. Some are sensitive to low frequencies, to high frequencies. So they cannot presence and depth and warmth to the recording. Some microphones, you can adjust the frequency response. And the third thing is directionality. That is the most sensitive side of a microphone. Directionality of a microphone is described by polar patterns that will tell you how you should position the mike. Some microphones have few polar patterns that you can choose from. Most popular ones are omnidirectional, meaning they capture the sound from all around. And cardioid, a heart-shaped one. So if you want to buy a microphone, you have quite a few options. In the next few lectures, you'll learn all about them. 3. SECTION 1: Dynamic Microphones: Dynamic microphones are quite cheap to build and they're robust. But how do they work? Dynamic microphone operates on small electrical generator built from a diaphragm, voice coil and a magnet. So let's say you recording yourself for a YouTube channel. The force of your voice as a sound wave makes a diaphragm vibrate. The diaphragm can be described as a thin membrane hidden behind microphone's metallic mesh. At the rear of a diaphragm is a voice coil. A coil of wire which also vibrates. A small magnet forms a magnetic field around that wire. The movement of that coil within the magnetic field generates electrical signals that correlate to the force of your voice. Because dynamic microphones can survive in toughest environments. Their number one choice for life events. It's almost impossible to overload the dynamic mike Shure SM57 is a classic and cheap microphone used for recording. If you don't know which one to buy, you should get SM57, it will do the job. And another one is Shure SM 7B. Sm 7B is a classic dynamic microphone used by sports commentators and radio presenters. Have you ever wondered how is it possible that they showed their heads of and the sound stays clear in most cases. Sure, SM7 B is the answer. Also Michael Jackson used one for his recordings. Shure SM57, an SM7 B, have cardioid heart-shaped polar patterns, will talk about them in future lectures. What is more important is that it has a dust devil frequency response. Remember when I talked about frequency range of a microphone? Well, you can adjust one here at the back, and that's how it sounds. This is an example of SM7 B with neutral settings. This is an example of SM7 be microphone, neutral settings. This is an example of SM7 be microphone with adjusted frequencies. This is an example of essence 7B microphone with adjusted frequencies. I'm a believer in recording a neutral signal, so you can have more options later on. You can always get rid of these frequencies then. But the option is always they're dynamic microphones require external amplifiers to make the signal loud enough. These microphones need quite a lot of gain on the input. That may be a disadvantage for a beginner. Okay, let's move on to condensers. 4. SECTION 1: Condenser Microphones: Condenser microphones are bit more complicated than dynamic, way more sensitive, and on the top shelf expensive. The basics of a condenser microphone lie in a capacitor. The force of your voice will resonate a thin metal or metal coated membrane that sits in the front of rigid back plate. The space between the two contracts. Motion produces electrical signals. Now the biggest difference between dynamic and condenser microphone is that the latter requires additional power to run. There are two ways to power your condenser microphone. First one is with batteries, second, with phantom power. Phantom power runs through a microphone cable from a mixing desk or audio interface. Condenser microphones are quite delicate, insensitive. They produce more noise than their dynamic siblings. Maximum level specification means that if you shout into the condenser, there is a high probability that it will distort. Good condensers are amazing at capturing wide frequency and dynamic range. Just try recording acoustic guitar with a condenser, and then we have a dynamic microphone. With a condenser, you'll hear all the little nuances and movements on a guitar. Knowing when you 87 is a classic studio microphone used for vocals. It's a first choice for ADR and dabbing. Recording sound onset also requires sensitivity of a condenser. Microphones set as sanitizer for 16 combines subtlety of a condenser with a robustness of a dynamic microphone. Here I have AKG C for E14. As you can see, it has a lot of options to choose from. You can choose between different polar patterns. And at the back, you have attenuation and low frequency cut options. Let's have a look how it sounds with different settings. Condenser microphone with neutral settings. Condenser microphone with neutral settings. Condenser microphone with frequency cut option. Condenser microphone with frequency cut option. Also a clip microphone and a lot of USB microphones are condensers while talked about them in dedicated lectures. With condensers, you must remember there may be easier to power and require less input gained and dynamics, but they're quite sensitive. And in a bedroom or your office, they will pick up a lot of background noise. 5. SECTION 1: Lavalier or Clip Microphones: So I wanted to do a quick lecture on clipped microphones. I'll talk more about them in the future, but the introduction is du. As you can see, I'm wearing one right now. And equality is decent. Lava year clique lapel. These are great when you're recording, talking head videos, interviews, or online courses. For podcasting, it's better to use a standard dynamic or a condenser mike. Why? Well, we've clicked microphones. You use them with video. You connect them in a different way. But I'll tell you all about it in a future lectures. What I wanted to tell you is that most clipped microphones are condensers. There are great for capturing consistent audio, but they are very sensitive. So depending on your recording device, you have to adjust input gain and placed the microphone on the right spot. I will talk about Mike placements later on. Important part to remember is that clips are omnidirectional, meaning they will capture the sound from all directions. As you may noticed, these clip microphones are battery-powered. They run on LR 44 batteries, so I won't have to worry about the recorder capabilities. Cleaved microphones are quite cheap and depending on your content, consider them as an option. Thanks for watching and see you in a second. 6. SECTION 1: Polar Patterns: So I talked about directionality as one of the main characteristics of a microphone. Polar patterns describe the most sensitive side of a mike, but what are the most popular ones? Only directional. The omnidirectional microphone will register sound at all angles. This polar pattern covers 360 degrees. It means it will pick up the sound from the back as well as the front with the same power. This polar pattern is awesome. If you want to record ambiance of a place, something like inside of a cave. It's not the best if you're doing a podcast or an audiobook. Unidirectional, as you probably guessed, uni directional microphones will register sounds from one particular direction more than from others. Most popular will be a cardioid, a heart shaped polar pattern. It will pick up less ambient sound than an omnidirectional microphone. And it works great when you want the focus. For example, if you want to capture dialogue on said, you don't want to record the technical crew tutting in a corner. And uni directional microphones are made for this staff. More than likely, does the polar pattern that you'll use for your content. By directional bi directional microphones are sensitive at front and back, but they omit material from the side. They're great for vocal the way an individual stereo recording techniques such as mid-side or MS. This polar pattern is great if you want to omit unwanted sources of sound. It's also awesome if you want to record to people facing each other. Now, we have some microphones such as this AKG C four 1-4. You have few options. You can pass different polar patterns and record with the best setting. Most dynamic microphones will have just one. Cardioid pattern is the most popular one. And in the beginning, you should stick to it. Clipped microphone such as these have omni directional polar pattern, as I mentioned before. That's why I keep it close to my face. Even though it records from all the directions, my voice will overwhelm most of the background noise. Fortunately, the noise floor will be quite high. My advice go with cardioid is the safest bet. But if you have the option, test different settings, although Be careful with omnidirectional as it's the most sensitive one. Thanks for watching. 7. SECTION 1: Cheap Options – Phone, Laptop, Camera: Higher. So I want to talk to you about the cheap option you got for recording is just an overview. You learned about setting up later on mobile phone and a camera. There is not much to say here, except that the further away you are from the phone or camera, the more noise you will pick up, more room sound, and the volume of your voice will be lower. And then when you raise it, you will raise the noise too. It's a closed cycle. I guess when you do a vlog, you can have your phone near your phase, which will help to reduce the problem. But forget about framing a big picture. Let's move on to the next one. Your laptop is the same as with your mobile or camera. Further away you are, the lower will be the volume of your voice and higher the noise. Also monitors sensitivity settings. You don't want them to be too low, but you also don't want them to be a 100% we flow volume. You can get rid of the noise later on, but it's much harder to fix distorted recordings. This is not recommended recording setup. Yes, you can connect your Hansard microphone, but it won't make it any better. Microphone is closer to your face so the noise will be lower. But think twice before you use this for recording your content. Communicating Skyping is fine, but recording only if you have no other option. But then choose quiet environment and speak clearly to the microphone. Thanks for watching. 8. SECTION 1: Semi-Pro Option – USB Mic, Recorder, Audio Interface: So in this lecture, I want to talk to you about what I call a semi-pro setup. Why semi-pro? Well, I'm not in a professional studio, nor I have a vocal booth. And yet I record some stuff in here, so it's good enough for you to. So first, a USB microphone. These are very popular all in one solutions. You have a wide drained from blew Mike company, even respectable Mike producers such as SE have their USB versions of X1 microphone. Why are these so popular with beginners? Well, you'll understand more when you get to the lecture on audio interface. But in short, USB microphones have audio interface built inside them. Meaning not only they convert acoustic energy into electrical energy, they also have AD, analog-to-digital converter, meaning they transform your voice into digital information. So true, all in one. Depending on the microphone, you have a wide range of options available to you. So polar patterns, input gain control frequency cuts, headphones, outputs, and so on. Let's have a look at another choice. So a little bit more expensive, but still quite cheap option is using external recorder. I have here a popular zoom hate for n. It's about a $160 is a great solution if you are on the go or for recording interviews. It has built in to condenser microphones, which you can use for stereo recording with adjustable width. Apart from data, you can collect additional external microphones to it has phantom power for extra condensers, lots of options and what is more important, it can be used as an USB audio interface. It also mounts on tripods. It's all in one solution. Downside. Well, if you're recording a video, then later on you'll have to sync up picture and audio unless you connect it up with your DSLR. Otherwise, you can use a standard Club or some other queue. And in Adobe Premier you can map files by audio, which is very handy. So a semi-pro Sarah would be a nice microphones such as Shure SM 7B, audio interface headphones, and a pair of studio monitors. With this option, you'll get the best quality. But it's quite limited. I mean, you have to be near the computer. It's great for podcasting, audiobook recording, or screen capture tutorials. But if you're doing a vlog or YouTube videos, clip, microphone might be the better toys. Of course, you can mix and match. I can talk to my essence 7B and have a clip microphone on me too. I can have another microphone next to me as well. This would give me three recording options. And it's quite common to see such a setup in a professional studio environment, especially in dubbing for movies. So this kind of setup will cost you around $350 for the microphone, $300 for audio interface, around $60 for headphones. And then you have to get cable stands connectors. And if you want to get studio monitors, it's even more. So it's definitely not the cheapest option. Of course, you can get cheaper microphone, cheaper audio interface, cheaper cables. It all depends on your budget and needs. But this kind of setup will give you the most flexibility and best quality and it's a step before professional audio production. Thanks for watching and see you in the next video. 9. SECTION 2: Cables: Now for the exciting part, cables, like I mentioned before, somehow you need to connect your microphone to your recorder. Well, unless you're using a building Mike from your laptop or camera, There are many different audio cables, but today I want to show you the ones that you really need to care about. Power cables. These either power your monitors or audio interface. No philosophy there, but why are these different? So a clipped microphone will come with its small cable that is a 3.5 millimeter or an eighth Mini Jack do on mono cable. Meaning it will record two identical signals are stereo, one on the left channel, one on the right channel. This one for GoPro is similar. And of course you have a Hansard cable that you can connect to your computer. First, you need to know the difference between balanced and unbalanced cables. Let's start with unbalanced. Unbalanced cables have two wires inside, but only one to carry the signal. The other one is a screen wire or a ground shield. It helps to protect the carrying wire from unwanted interference. Unbalanced cable length is usually fine up to 20 feet or six meters more than that. And it will be prone to radio frequency interference, meaning a hammer, a bus that will amplify along wanted signal. This cable acquiring jug is an unbalanced cable. A quarter-inch jug or phono RCA connectors are usually unbalanced. These are used for instruments, effects, or other line level signals. Balanced cables such as these, XLR ours are way more interesting. They contain three wires inside one screen or ground. And to signal wires. These cables can run up to a 160 feet or 50 meters and still produce great results. They will still pick up radio frequency interference, but it's removed through a split phase circuitry. So the cable has three pins, positive, hot, negative, cold, and ground. Now, this might get complicated. A signal is split into two signals, and second one is flipped upside down. It has its phase reversed, it becomes negative. So now you have one positive and one negative signal. If you join them together, they would cancel each other out. But because they travel on separate wires, it's all good. Both signals pickup interference noise, RFI on the way. When reaching the preamp at the end of the cable, then negative signal is flipped back to positive, and both signals now positive reinforce each other as one signal. Now the noise that both wires picked up on in a way is gone. Why? When the negative signal was flipped upside down, the noise became opposite to the other side and they cancelled each other out. Of course, you can have an XLR to jog balanced cables such as this one. It's a ring jug. Can you see the difference? So do you always need a balanced cable? Absolutely not. Some equipment will not even have the means to flip the phase and the signal will always be unbalanced. The problem is when you use unbalanced cable with balanced signal, you will get the same noise as you would with unbalanced signal. Apart from that, I also have a firewire cable that connects my audio interface to the computer. It carries the digital signal. And a cable from USB microphone is very similar. It carries the digital data to the computer. Before I finish a quick lesson how to coil the cables in a correct way. Many people do like this, which actually damages cables. The proper audio engineers way is like this. There are stories that in order to get a job in a respectable recording studio, you had to show how you coil cables. If you've done it wrong, you're out. Now that you have a good knowledge about audio cables, let's jump to the connectors. 10. SECTION 2: Connectors: So this lecture is an extension of the previous one about cables. There are plenty of ways to connect your audio equipment, but let's focus on what's most relevant to you. So I established before that the most popular microphone cable is XLR. It usually has male and female ends with a three pins, positive, hot, negative, cold, and ground shield. You connect one end to the microphone and the other one to a recorder, such as this zoom or audio interface. But what is this an XLR connection at the back of the speaker? Yes, studio monitors have also unbalanced signal output. You can run it as XLR to TRS, TPP, RNC, sleep jug connectors. You can connect them to your audio interface. Now let's have a look at clip microphones, enhance it. Microphones. As you can see, there is a difference. This Go Pro microphone has an mini USB connector, so it only works with this camera. Standard clips have 3.5 millimeter or an eighth mini jack connector, a dual model. But for smart phones and laptops, you will need this kind of connector. So be aware of what you buy. This quarter in jug is an unbalanced cable. I can use it to connect my guitar to a dedicated line level input. And of course I mentioned firewire before. It's my audio interface connection. Unfortunately, new iMacs don't support firewire anymore, so I had to buy a special adapter, but a new thunderbolt audio interfaces are on away. And of course you have USB connection, either audio interface or USB microphone will be plugged this way. A digital connection used for external computer things. Now with the headphones, they have normal mini jack connector that I can use with my computer. But if you want to monitor through your interface, you need to have a mini jack to quarter in Jack adapters such as this one. Of course you can have it other way round two. As you can see, even the most basic setup can give you a headache. So before buying a microphone or a cable, does check what inputs and outputs you got. Thanks for listening and see you in the next lecture. 11. SECTION 2: Stands, Clips & Pop Shields: So I want to do a quick lecture about not so interesting audio equipment. Let's start with microphone stands. If you using a regular microphone, holding it with your hand will not work. A sturdy stand is a must. But to be honest, this is more important for live recording events when the equipment really needs to hold in one place. When you record at home and normal stand will be just fine. To mountain microphone, you need a clip or an adapter. Sm7 B comes with its own clip. For a delicate condenser you might want to invest in a cage like this one. It will minimize the low-frequency bumps or any vibrations from the floor. In a professional environment, a cage like this is a standard. But what if you're recording with a clip microphone? Well, you need a clip. A small thing that will attach the microphone to your shirt. You can have one like this one or one like this one. Usb microphones often come with ONE stands. And even for professional microphones, you can buy desks tends to use. But what about stands for speakers? If you want to invest in a professional studio speakers and you are in a mixing environment than buying the rights stand is always a headache. They need to be sturdy, withhold the vibrations. They're often quite expensive. And I'm all about being professional. But through to be told, you don't need them in your home studio. Standards such as these ones will be perfectly fine. And for desks, tense unless you are a mixing or mastering pro, you'll do a homemade stuff like this. The important thing is to have the speakers level with your ears. But let's move on to the pope shield. If you're going to record podcasts or anything in this matter, you will need a pop shield. Listen when I talked to this microphone with and without a POC shield, Peter picked up a puck of peppers. Peter picked up packs of pepper. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. Peter picked up a puck of peppers. Peter peaked up at PUC of peppers. Peter. Attack of letters. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. And with SM7 B is much better because the transducer is around three inches inside the microphone. So it's a perfect distance already and you can get really close to the mike. It sort of has its own poke shield. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. Peter picked up a park of peppers. Peter picked up a puck of peppers. Thanks for listening. I appreciate that you stay till the end. It has jumped to the next lecture. 12. SECTION 2: Audio Interface: So you're finally here. I talked about it a little bit before, but now is the time to explain in detail audio interface. What is it? What are the most basic functions of it? And do you need it at all? So the easiest way to explain all your interface is there is an external sound card for your system. And at this point you may ask, well, I already have a sound Kurt, why would I need to spend extra money on some interface? That's true. But standard sound curves are quite basic. They're okay to listen to music or watch some movies. But if you are serious about recording, you need to take audio interface into consideration. First of all, you will improve sound capabilities of your system. You give you much better representation of recorded sounds and you'll be able to handle some more audio processing. Meaning if you have a lot of audio trucks running in your program, you might get a crash or a processing power error. Audio interface will handle that issue. Of course, the better the interface, the more you can do. So the basic functions are recording sounds and direct monitoring of sounds. Recording, meaning you can plug in your microphone or instrument and recorded via your audio interface. Question, What about USB microphone? It connects straight to the computer. That's correct. But as I mentioned before, USB microphones have audio interface built into them. It sort of all in one. So if you want to buy a USB microphone, No, you won't need extra audio interface. External interface is a step further from that. Oreo interface lets you to connect a microphone XLR cable. The I showed you in the previous lecture. In my example of focus, right? Dsp 24, I have two microphone inputs, so I can connect to microphones. Audio interface has an AD converter, analog-to-digital, meaning it converts acoustic energy from the microphone into digital data. Microphones have weak signal, therefore, they require additional amplification. That's why I have to gain controls for these two inputs. As you can see, there's also phantom power button for a condenser microphone. I mentioned it before. But why are there four input displays? At the back? You have additional line inputs. Through this, I can connect a digital piano or electro acoustic guitar. Signal from these instruments will be much stronger. And that's why you won't need additional gain from your interface. So what are these other inputs? Midi for digital media devices, however, most midi instruments connects straight to your computer via USB. So you won't need interface as you are only recording a digital signal, not acoustic. The other two inputs are optical aided and speedy. You probably want to use these, but these are four connecting external gear. With Speedy. If you get a stereo digital signal with a dot, you can input additional eight separate digital signals. So let's say I buy another interface with eight microphone inputs and then connect that to this interface with optical cable. Let's talk about direct listening. So in order to listen to my monitors, a need to connect them via balanced cables to correct outputs. This interface has six outputs like that. So six speakers, I'm using a stereo setup. The other two will be two headphones outputs. So if I were to record your voice, I could be monitoring with one set of headphones and you could listen to yourself with another set. For headphones. You need small jack to big jug adapter, such as this one. So how do you connect audio interface to your computer? Usb interfaces are the most popular. You can also find firewire, which has a label of faster connection. However, with new systems like I'm OK, I had to buy a special fire wire to thunderbolt adapter to run my interface. So as you can see in the future, firewire interfaces may go obsolete. Much faster. Thunderbolt ones are on the way. But do you need them at all? If you're serious about recording when achieve greater quality with better microphones than absolutely. If you want to be able to handle more trucks, absolutely. Audio interfaces give you more control. And there are standard piece of equipment for audio production. If you're just starting out and wanting to record a podcast, a YouTube channel, or just a simple piece of content, then go with USB microphones. Like I said before, there are cheaper and they're all in one. However, beware a, because the quality may not be as good. And there are some serious limitations and restrictions to them. Thanks for listening and see you in the next lecture. 13. SECTION 2: Speakers: So the last part of the equation, something to listen to your recordings with. You need equipment for direct monitoring when you record yourself or when you record somebody else. And in reality, you have three choices. Loudspeakers, headphones, and studio monitors. And in this lecture, you will learn a little bit about speakers. Okay, so let's have a look at different examples. First, you have loud speakers. The most common will be or built-in computer speakers, like the ones you have in your laptop. These are not really good for anything than watching a YouTube video or very important referencing your recordings, which I'll get to in another lecture. Second, you have external loud speakers. So you can get a cheap USB speakers like this. But you can of course get more expensive equipment to speakers like that are good for listening music, watching movies, gaming, and other consumer behavior. But you are here because you want to record. Normal loudspeakers are not monitoring devices there, alright, for referencing a terrible for monitoring. So what our studio monitors. They are also speakers. They may not look as fancy as normal loudspeakers, but they're designed to give you the most accurate representation of sound. That's why they're used for recording, mixing, and monitoring. That's the name. Of course, there are much more expensive than normal loudspeakers. And top monitors can cost thousands of dollars per one speaker. These ones costs over $1000 when I bought them, comparing to this USB speakers, that costs $15. You also have a choice between passive and active monitors. Passive, meaning you need external amplifier to power them. Active, have one inside. Monitors, output unbalanced signal. You learned about it before. It's a clean, noise-free signal. They also have few adjustment options at the back for frequencies. Let's say after measurement, I learned that this room reflects a lot of high frequencies. I could adjust them at the back of the monitors. So in this particular room, the sound will be more neutral. Studio monitors is a big topic. And if you're looking to buy some, I assume you have some recording knowledge. And this course is not for you. For people who want to start recording. In reality, you don't need studio monitors unless you are mixing movies, music. Are you doing some high profile work? Paid? Of course, even my room is not treated to do this kind of work. I normally work on headphones. Studio monitors are here for referencing. 14. SECTION 2: Headphones: So at last headphones and that's where you most likely will stay. So any dialogue recording, bit, podcast, audio book, or online course, headphones are amassed. And most people consume content on headphones. And even if they don't, good headphones will give you the best representation of your recordings. So the cheapest way is to use your mobile phone earbuds. I don't recommend it for work. Use it to reference your audio later on, but you won't be able to catch mistakes, distortion or noise with TPP earbuds. They are designed for listening music and will often change the sound. Next you can go for half-closed music listening headphones. This will be better, however, because they are for listening, not monitoring, they will affect and change the sound. They add or cut base effect high frequencies. You want to get these kind of headphones. They offer clear, neutral and detailed sound. They're not that expensive. They're also closed, meaning they will cover your ears completely, which will allow you to really hear what is going on. Every leaps mark, every click will become audible. And you'll become aware of noise floor, which determines a lot of beginners. If you're using an audio interface, you will need an adapter such as this one. Of course, you can connect these headphones directly to your camera or laptop. But for audio interface, you need a quarter-inch jog. That's it. Just a short lecture on headphones and what's available to you. Thanks for paying attention. 15. SECTION 3: Signal Flow: In this lecture, you'll learn about signals flow. Before you start setting up and recording, it's important for you to understand how the audio ends up in your computer. And this becomes even more important when you start playing with buses and auxiliaries in your software, sound is represented by a sound wave. In reality, it doesn't look like that. It's more like does a longitudinal wave. You always start with the source. In my instance is my voice. The disturbance of particles is captured by the microphone, this clip microphone. Then the signal travels through the wire to a camera when it's transformed into digital information saved onto SD card that I then transferred to my computer. Before you start setting up your software, I want you to visualize the signal. Y is that will you need to understand the flow. So for example, you wanna listen back to your recording. Does the signal goes straight from audio interface to the speakers. It travels to your computer. You have to send it back to your audio interface, where the signal is transformed into analog and then acoustic energy with your speakers or headphones. Why is this important? Well, let's say you recording somebody else. You want to listen to the dry signal to hear all the details, but the other person wants a little bit of reverb or some other effect on their vocals. When you understand the signal slow, you'll be able to set it up with ease. And the same goals later on when you mix. Let's say you have two voices in a podcast that you've recorded. And you want both of them to sound like they're in a big hall? Should you then take the reverb effect and duplicate it on both of the trucks. Know the correct practice is to send both signals to one reverb effect. You control how much signal you send and then send it back to the mix. So was the problem for recording beginners. It's either that your system is not recording or you're not hearing anything back. And the first lesson I learned from a veteran sound engineer is that to track the signal flow and start from there. If the signal is showing on your interface but not in the software, then the inputs in the software are wrong. If you can't hear anything back, there may be something wrong with output setup or output devices in your System Preferences. Sometimes it's as simple as having your trucks on mute, whatever it is. Once you recognize where the problem lies, you'd be able to correct it. Now let's start setting up. Let's jump to the next lecture. 16. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Mobile Phone: Okay, let's get practical. I want to show you how to set up your equipment for the recording. And let's start with the most basic one. Your phone. So you have a built-in microphone in your phone that you can of course use. But because it's in microphone not designed for recording, the quality will not be amazing. But it's not an outrageous choice, especially if you're doing stuff like daily vlogging, Snapchat, or more natural style of content. The problem will of course be the distance. I can place the phone in the same spot as the camera, but then the quality will go down dramatically. This is an example of mobile phone recording from a distance. This is an example of mobile phone recording from a distance. And when I bring the volume of my voice back up, the noise is even more. Od bu. This is an example or mobile phone recording from a distance. This is an example of mobile phone recording from a distance. But if I was using my phone to record a daily Voc such as this. This is an example of mobile phone recording from hand. This is an example of mobile phone recording from hand. It is more acceptable to do so. Now, I wouldn't record this online course in this matter, but it's still okay to do that kind of style for promoting it. Of course, you can use a handset microphone, but you are constricted by a short cable and the quality is not much better. This is an example of recording from a mobile phone with a hunted microphone. This is an example of a recording from a mobile phone with a Hansard microphone. Or if you want to do podcasts or voice work. Let's record few sentences with the phone. Dishes, a recording with a mobile phone up-close. This is a recording with a mobile phone up close. As you can hear. It's not amazing. And really, apart from doing a short promotional clips, you shouldn't be betting on this type of recordings. Now, you can buy a dedicated clip microphone when you shop for one, be careful the connector to your DSLR, GoPro or your mobile will be different. So make sure you buy the correct one. For this kind of setup, you only need a cable to connect your phone to your computer. Smartphones are not dedicated recorders and have lots of limitations. But if you want to start today and that's your only option, is better than nothing. Thanks for watching. 17. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Camera: In this lecture, let's have a look at recording sound with your camera. Just like we've your phone, a GoPro or DSLR camera, have a built-in microphone that you can use. Of course, when you set it up far away from the source, you will pick up the sound of the room and all of the external background noise. You will be really hard to correct it later on. Not to mention the fact that when you raise the volume of your voice, the noise will become much more audible. Recording with a camera from a distance. This is an example recording with a camera from a distance. This is an example of recording with a camera from a distance. I guess if you're doing a vlog, then you can have the camera closer to you. However, forget about framing the big picture. For this kind of setup, you need an SD card. An adapter can be useful too. So a similar situation to your mobile phone, recording with your cameras built in microphone, it's not the best option, especially when you're looking at audio quality. Thanks for watching and see you in the next video. 18. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Camera and Clip Mic: Now you're talking, let's have a look at a setup that you can use and not be embarrassed about a camera and a clip microphone. You can get cheap microphone such as this mobile for GoPro or audio technique for your DSLR that I'm using in this course. But let's have a look at some examples. This is a recovering from a camera without a clipped microphone. This is a recording from a camera without clique microphone. This is a recording from a camera with a microphone. This is a recording from a camera with a clip microphone. This is a recording from a GoPro camera without a clique microphone. This is a recording from a GoPro camera without microphone. This is a recording from a GoPro camera with a clip microphone. This is a recording from a GoPro camera with a clique microphone. When you look at the footage and listen to the audio, you can hear that the quality is much better, quite decent for the prize. And the cable is long enough so you can position your camera wherever you like. Now, make sure you have a fresh battery in that the microphone is on with a GoPro, you don't have again, input control. That might be a problem. Why is it? When you place a microphone near your face and talk loud, then you might distort the signal. And especially for GoPro, it's much better to place it around your chest. Also remove any jewelry. This is how it sounds when a microphone is placed in the middle of a chest. This is how it sounds with a microphone is placed in the middle of the chest. This is how it sounds when a microphone is placed on a color. This is how it sounds when a microphone is placed on a color clip, microphone is very sensitive so we will pick up any jewelry sound. If you have a gain input control, always take it down a little bit. Live a little headroom. Look for the sweet spot where the audio is not too low, but also not too loud. Well, you want it as loud as possible without the distortion. A DSLR camera is better because it has input controls. So I can lower the volume of my voice and keep it in a sweet spot. I can see that the battery is healthy and the volume of the recording. Whenever you have input controls, use it. I can also place the microphone a little bit higher and it will reduce the outside noise. Again, this kind of setup is preferable for talking head videos. Cheap microphone. A little bit of noise reduction will be enough to have a clear and professionally sounding audio. Just a side note, I always go for a battery powered click microphones. I had a situation where a GoPro would not power the microphone. And we've DES, you won't have that problem. They run on cheap LR 44 batteries. So make sure you always have a spare. See you in the next video. 19. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Laptop Only: Let's have a look at another basic setup. You will be a short lecture, but I want to cover your every option. Your laptop, same as with your phone or camera. Built-in microphone in your laptop, is not the best option to record. Distance is crucial here. Also, you want to monitor sensitivity settings. If you record it to how you can deal with the noise later on. But if you overload the recording and distorted, it's much harder to fix the issue. So how would you like if my course was recorded like that? This is an example of a recording from a laptop. This is an example of a recording from a laptop or from a further distance. This is an example of a laptop recording from a distance. This is an example of a laptop recording from a distance. Of course, you have an option to connect your handset microphone. The quality may not be much better. But let's have a look. This is an example of a laptop recording with a Hansard microphone. This is an example of a laptop recording with a Hansard microphone. As you can hear, it sounds a little bit better when I hold the microphone closer to my mouth. Still. This is a communication tool, not recording device. But if you have no other option to sit quiet environment and speak clearly to the microphone. I still record using my laptop when they write is script. I do read out to a camera, record myself and I do it for practice, for training. So if you're feeling but you have no other option, don't worry. You can still practice today. And then when you buy your better gear tomorrow, you'll be ready to go. 20. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – USB Microphone: All right, let's have a look at the setup that you probably start with a USB microphone. As I already said, audio interface is built inside the USB microphone, so the setup should be as easy as plug and play. Now, some microphones have additional options at the bug, such as input gain control, or polar pattern choice. Some of these USB microphones are condensers, meaning to be very sensitive to noise and background sounds. Also make sure you don't speak too loud as you may distort the signal. And also not too low as you will pick up a lot of noise. So let's test one. This is a recording from USB Snowball microphone up clause. This is a recording from USB microphone up clause. This is a recording with a USB Snowball microphone from a distance. This is recording with a USB microphone from a distance. As you can hear and see, the quality is quite decent for the price. And you won't have to worry about anything else. Now, with the condensers, you need to worry about sensitivity and background noise. Apart from appropriate, you may want to put some debate around the microphone, but we will get to it. If you're just starting out and don't want to spend too much money. Usb microphone is definitely a viable option. Does don't go for the cheapest and the market. Thanks for watching and see you in the next video. 21. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – External Recorder: Using an external record or it's an option for a beginner. And in this lecture you learn if it's an option for you. Like I mentioned before, zoom hateful ran, it's a versatile recording device. It has to condenser microphones that you can adjust loads of effects options that you can use for your recordings. But anyway, let's test one. How good it is for recording podcasts or voiceovers. This is an example of close recording with zoom and onboard microphones. This is an example of close recording with zoom and onboard microphone's. How does it sound from a distance? This is an example of recording from distance. We've zoomed and onboard microphones. This is an example of recording from distance with zoom and own board microphones. Or if you have a clipped microphone connected. This is an example of recording with zone and clip microphone. This is an example of recording with zone and click microphone. Or if I wanna use my SM7 b. This is an example of recording with zoom and SM 7B microphone. This is an example of recording with zoom and SM 7B microphone or AKG microphone. This is an example of recording with zoom page for n and condenser microphone. This is an example of recording with zoom hate for n and condenser microphone, as you can see. And here it's a nice solution and quite cheap for decent results. But of course, if you're stationary and record everything in your bedroom, you may not need a recorder such as this. But anyway, if you're low on cash, it's definitely an option. Thanks for watching and see you in the next video. 22. SECTION 3: Hardware Setup – Audio Interface: At last audio interface, you will need a stand and Eclipse for your microphone. And for Sultan dancers, you can use a cage that will reduce vibrations. Connect the XLR cable to the input and with the gain control, set the loudness of the signal. With Shure SM 7B. Because it's a dynamic microphone, you need a lot of gain and still the signal will not be as loud for a condenser such as this AKG. Remember to switch on phantom power and then adjust again. This microphone is much more sensitive, so be careful. I tend to keep the input signal as pure as possible, and I don't adjust any options at the back of the microphone. I can cut out any frequencies I want later on. Now the audio interface is connected to the computer. I can see it on the lights here. I can also see that I'm getting the input signal. I have my headphones plugged in and then getting the signal back. And going back to the lecture about signal flow, at least on this end, everything works great. This part of setting up is over. Now, let's move to software. Thanks for watching the video. 23. SECTION 3: Software Setup – Pro Tools: Right, so we know how to set up your equipment. Now let's have a look at the software. So the principles in all audio sequencers are the same. I want to show you how to find the relevant options. Let's start with Pro Tools. Avid Pro Tools is a software widely used in audio industry. If you ever work on sound for games, movies, or as an audio engineer, I'm sure you will use protocols. Protocols is now available on a subscription-based model, meaning you pay every month for using it. Good thing is that they have a light version. It's free and it's a great option that you can start with today. Alright, let's have a look how to set it up. First, you need to select correct audio equipment. You can do it under Setup tab and playback engine option. As you can see, I have mine set up to sapphire is a name of my audio interface. Important setting for you to be aware of is a hardware buffer size. You need to set it to a correct value. When you record yourself with a microphone, lower value means less latency. It's better for monitoring your recordings. And later on when you mix an edit and have lots of effects, set it to higher value, it will give you more processing power. Now it's time to look at inputs and outputs. When you look at outputs, you can see the amusing stereo setup. That's my monitors. Under Inputs tab, you can see all the inputs I have available from my interface. Microphone inputs, line inputs, speed if and a dot. For this recording, I'll be using input one, which is a single mono microphone input. Now, in order to record, you need a new audio track. Go to truck tab new, and then select one mono audio track. As you can see, it created a new audio track called audio one. Let's change the name to something that you can recognize. To check if you're getting any signal at all, you need to arm the truck. Arm, meaning clicking record button on audio track. You're not recording anything yet, just checking if the signal is getting through. Now, click on record and then hit Spacebar. As you can see, we recording mission accomplished. If you're still wondering which program you should use for your recordings, I would advise to go with Pro Tools. I know that the interface looks a little bit daunting and maybe complicated, but I'm sure you'll get it straightaway. It's just a matter of practice. And protocols is a professional audio solution. And like I said, you can start playing with light versions for free today. Thanks for watching. 24. SECTION 3: Software Setup – Adobe Audition: Okay, let's now have a look at Adobe Audition and audio program that is part of Creative Cloud. So like I just said, Adobe Audition is a great solution for people who are using Adobe Cloud. If you're working with a video in Premier or After Effects, you can integrate your audio with ease. Adobe also uses a subscription-based model. You get audition as a part of Adobe Suite, or you can buy it as a single up. You can also try it for free for 30 days. Okay, let's have a look at setting up under Preferences. Go to audio hardware and check that you selected correct equipment. As you can see, I have my default input and default output set to sapphire, my audio interface. You also have a buffer size option. I talked about it in the last video. Lower value means less latency for your recording and better monitoring. Higher value is better when you are using loads of effects and plugins. Let's create some audio trucks. Now, click on New File and New multi-track session. Let's change the default name to audition. As you can see, I ended up with six Audio trucks and one master output. I'm interested in truck one, the one that I'll be recording onto. I have to change the input tomorrow. Sapphire input one. That's where I plugged my microphone. Now let's arm the truck and see if we're getting any signal at all. I can see on the meters, Good job. Now let's hit record and Spacebar and see if I can record anything at all. Mission accomplished. So I can't really recommend oxidation because I don't use it for my audio production projects. But from what I've seen, it comes with a great range of effects and tools. And it's a great solution for anyone who's already using Adobe Suite, especially if you're working with videos. Well, thanks for watching. 25. SECTION 3: Software Setup – Audacity: Cool. And for the last one, I'll Udacity and open source audio sequencer. Audacity is a free audio production software. You can use it for Mac or PC. Audacity is an open source software. So if you want, you can donate money towards it or helped to develop it. Let's have a look how easy is to set it all up. So in the main window you can see your input and output hardware that is set to sapphire, my audio interface. You can also set your recording channels here. Of course, you have more options in preferences settings such as audio to buffer or latency correction. You so Udacity's answer to hardware buffer size. The higher the number, more latency during your recording. To see if you're getting any signal. Click on microphone icon in main window. Click on Start Monitoring option and talk to your microphone. As you can see, I'm getting some signals through. Now to start recording. Just hit the record button and start talking. I'm getting some audio in. Well done. So Audacity is a solution for people who don't have a budget and still want to record personally out, start with something more professional or just use Pro Tools lite version. By all means, tested out for yourself. But if you want to continue your recording journey and develop your skills, maybe you should look for something else. Thanks for watching. 26. SECTION 4: Distance and Proximity Effect: Thanks for joining me in this section. So I showed you the effects of being too close or too far from the microphone. But let's now figure out the best distance for your recording. At this point, you should know about recording straight onto your mobile camera or laptop with a built-in microphone. You know the rules. Same with the clip. You can put it on the cholera rate will reduce the outside noise. But you can distort your voice in these labs are quite sensitive. They can overcome, press your recordings. I prefer to have it near my chest. So it's a matter of preference and the environment you're in. You need to test it out and adjust for the desk recording. Moving the microphone closer or further than three inches will help. Three intos is the distance where the popes are most present. For the dynamic microphone such as SM7 B, you can have it as close as possible and still shout out loud. But with a condenser such as this AKG, you may want to have a little bit more distance. This is an example of proximity effect. This is an example of proximity effect. This is how it sounds from distance. This is how it sounds from distance. Moved in Mike route above or below your lives. Try moving it to the side, listened if it makes any difference at all. That's how it sounds when I keep changing position of my head. That's how it sounds when I keep changing position of my head. One thing is to keep it consistent. Again, love recordings where the actor goes off the mic mid-sentence, not helpful. And of course, watch out for proximity effect. Proximity effect happens when you put the microphone too close to the sound source, for example, acoustic guitar. The result will be a boomy, low-end sound because the microphone will pick up low frequencies. The most accustomed, nice at parks are most famous for doing that. So try rolling off low frequencies at the back of the microphone or move the microphone away from the sound source. But then again, if you're in a noisy environment such as the path, you want the microphone to be as close to the sound source as possible. That's when the frequency cutoff comes into play. But if you're recording in a controlled environment such as your bedroom, you may want to test different microphone positions, listened to your recordings and Tuesday position that complements the sound. A trick that I tell my clients is to mark on the floor where they sit or stand during the recording. This way when you record half of your material today and the other half next week, it will be consistent across the product. You will sound the same. And I promise you, if you don't market, you will forget the exact positions. So thanks for watching and see you in the next video. 27. SECTION 4: Pop Shield: So let's talk about one of the most essential recording tools, a pop shield. So what are popes? Popes are low frequency plosive sounds, especially audible on p and b letters. The problem happens when you are close to the microphone. And as you guess, when you do record a podcast or a narration, you kinda want to be close to the mike. This is linked to proximity effect. You learned all about this in a previous lecture. A microphone will be sensitive to low frequency error blasts. That's what plosive sounds are. Let's listen to some examples. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. Peter picked up packs of paper. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. Peter picked up a pack of peppers. How does it pops? Fieldwork, it breaks up the puff of air. So it's no longer such a strong force. But high frequencies pass with no problem. The distance you should mount it is couple of interest from the microphone. There should be a small gap of air in order to make the pop filter work. Now with any condenser capacitor microphone, you will need a pope shoe. There are quite sensitive to any turbulence. We have dynamic. You can get away with a lot more, but by any means, they are not immune to plosives. We've USB microphone, you probably need a pop shield. Pop filters are quite cheap, but if you are struggling, you can still make one with a coat hanger and old tides. Alright, thanks for watching and see you in the next one. 28. SECTION 4: Pencil Technique: In this lecture, I want to talk to you about another recording issue that you will more than likely come across. And I want to show you an old-school technique that I learned from a veteran sound engineer. Civilians, What is it? Siblings are the nasty Ss, the high-frequency sounds that the microphone will pick up. It depends on the microphone as much as on your voice. So this clique microphone sounds OK because I have a deeper voice, but my partner has a higher tonality. And the lavalier microphone will pick up on these frequencies. Civilians, 6-7 settings, siblings, 6-7 settings. Another example would be if the microphone picks up this craftiness of your voice, this has to be corrected with EQ later on. That's why it's important to test different microphones before you select the one. Modern techniques would include a DS or plug-in of some sort. Don't apply it on input, applied later on as a non-destructive effect. Also don't overdo it because he will score the sound and the recording is really bad. You might need to use gain control to lower these acids. Again, these are post-production techniques. Would, If you want to control civil lands at the source, everyone's different. Start with microphone placement. Populate won't work here, but the distance might. So stand-alone further from the microphone, or maybe pointed towards your throat or maybe higher than your lives tested out. Civil lands close, 67 Sibyl unsetting siblings far 6-7, civil and setting siblings, 67 setting siblings, 6-7, setting an old-school sound engineer told me about another technique. Grab a pencil and tape it to the front of the microphone, but don't tape over the grill. It should make the recording a little bit cleaner. Cb plans 67 siblings setting, CBG islands, 67 siblings setting. But how does it work? I guess sort of like a pope CLT will disrupt some of the Air Force. And some people say it works, others that it doesn't. But if you tackling siblings problem, no harm in trying it. So wrong microphone for your voice will be the main culprit. And unfortunately for many of you, budded is most important. And you won't be able to test as many microphones as you'd like. So this techniques should definitely help you in the beginning. Thanks for watching and see you in the next one. 29. SECTION 4: Headphone Mix: Before you get to the lecture about listening and monitoring during recording, I wanted to make a short video about the importance of headphone mix on, I'll show you a few tricks that you might find useful in the future. But what is a headphone mix? Is the audio feed that the recorded person hears in his or her headphones. So the most common situation would be if you're recording a singer. So you have the instrumental track down, and now it's time to record the vocals. Now to doing great performance, the singer, We'll have to hear the instrument and a voice in their headphones. The better the headphone mix, the better the recording will be. So I know you probably won't be in this kind of recoding situation anytime soon. But it's still an important part of recording knowledge and you should be familiar with it. So a few basic rules and tricks. If there is a good balance in a headphones, it's more than likely that musicians will perform much better. I mean, if it sounds good now, how good the final mix will be? Of course, add some reverb or delay if the artist has that preference. Headphone bleed can be a pain. Invert the polarity to carry off. Bleed, meaning unwanted sound picked up from other sources. Polarity is phase. I won't go into details here, but inverting the phase helps during recording, especially when you have more than one microphone. A vocalist needs good headphone balanced to peach with the trucks. Sometimes one year of during the recording can help. You can affect the vocalist, Pete with a simple folds back tricks. If the singer is flat, turned a vocal monitor down in the headphones. If the singer is sharp, turn the vocal monitor up in the headphones. Moving EMBASE truck few milliseconds back or forth can help to find the groove on the go. So these are a simple tricks that can help you. 30 of the perfect headphone mix. If you're recording yourself, try them out too. But for you, getting rid of recording delay would be a priority. Changed the buffer size to lower if you're experiencing delay in your headphones. Thanks for staying. I know that this lecture also little bit off topic, but even knowing what a headphone mix is will make you so much more comfortable, even if you're recording yourself on to the next one. 30. SECTION 4: Environment: Let's talk about your room. Let's talk about acoustics. Acoustics is an art of measuring space and treating it with appropriate materials. The subject of acoustics is colossal. It requires years of studying and experience. Try to think about it beyond the recording studio. Soundproofing affects metro station, shopping malls, hospitals, schools. It's noise pollution, it's reverberation, it's a general rockers architects designed these buildings. We've acoustics in mind. I'm not going to teach you all about the acoustics in this lecture, I wanna give you a few basic principles and tricks how you can improve your room right now. Acoustics starts with room measurement. You measure the size and then frequency response with special microphones. Based on your calculations, you install appropriate materials. The other important measurement is reverberations called RT 60, which is the time it takes the sound to diminish by 60 dB, which is near silence. Unfortunately, most of these measurements are out of reach for beginners and people who just want to record in their bedrooms. But before you ignore everything, make sure you are aware of your rooms shortcomings. And these are excessive reverberation and an ACO that will affect your recordings. It can be a long echo in a big city home or thought echo in a small empty room. Unbalanced frequencies happens when low frequencies are muted. Or high frequencies sound, weak, ringing tone, clap your hands. In a small empty room, you'll hear unpleasant ringing called flutter, echo, booming bass. It affects bedroom studios. Everything just sounds so heavy is because of low frequency standing waves, early reflections, bouncing reflections from nearest walls. The effect you're recording and listening. Isolation, any unwanted external sounds, standing waves, static nodes that seem to stay in one place, right? So quite a lot to wrap your head around. But I say you should not worry. Don't treat your room Asset Studio. You will never sound pro, you wasn't designed folded, learned the limitations and improvise. First would be to listen with your headphones rather than monitors solely on loudspeakers. Headphones will give you the most direct sound. It's not ideal, but the best solution in your situation. Use Clause Mike technique closer you are to the microphone, less noise you will capture. Use directionality of the microphone, turning away from unwanted sources and make a little vocal booth. You can do it with your due very blankets or cushions. Put them around your microphone and he will help to isolate the sound. Close the windows, closed the doors suite of any noise generating equipment, such as washing machine. Now we've acoustic materials. You have to common choices. Absorbers and diffusers. Absorbers will absorb unwanted sounds and believe it or not, you're bad, you're mattress or decent absorbers. Same with cushions or pillows. So plays in near sound source. Diffusers break the frequencies and deconstruct the sounds. So here comes your bookshelf. Also, the more random stuff in your room, the better. Avoid recording in empty room with naked walls. It's the worst. Well, unless you're going for it. If you have money investing early reflection shield, which will help, but otherwise accept the limitations and test, test, test. If you're thinking of professional mixing or recording career, then you'll have to re-evaluate your situation. But for podcasting or online course recordings, well, you just need to understand the basics and to make the best out of the place you're in. Acoustics is a heavy topic. For a beginner. Like YOU, bedroom will do just fine. Just watch the microphone, cover your windows and I'm sure your recordings will turn out. Great. Thanks for watching and see you in the next one. 31. SECTION 4: Listening: I hope everything's going well and you're getting ready to make your awesome recordings. But hold on for a second. You're not done just yet. With recording comes listening. And in this lecture I want to talk to you about the power of monitoring and referencing in different environments. And I also want to give you a few tips and tricks about listening. Look at the big picture, perfectionism. It's not an acid, so throw it away. It's so easy to get caught up in details to record one line over and over again. If it sounds good, it's good, is the same. So let it go and move on. Listening balance. If you have background music, listen to your recording with the music on. If you're recording a speech, listen to the whole of it, not just few awards. You'd be amazed how forgiving the listeners are and how easily they can adapt to the noise when it stays on systems. Water, this screen. I know that recording is all about listening, but what the input is it still recording that it dropout? Did it hit the red monitor with your ears and eyes? Welcome headphones. But listen on many different systems. Reference on laptop speakers, cheap earbud, expensive monitors, test, test, test. People listen on a different settings. So test on as many as you can. Listen in different environments. Go out the door and listen through it. Listen in a car when you walk down the road in a gym on a train. That's how people consume the content. So make sure that your recordings so good in this noisy environments, turned the volume down. If you turn it down as much as you can, are the words still audible? You'd be amazed how awesome this trick is. If it sounds good on a low level, it's a start. Close your eyes and listen back to the recording. Focus on details. Just hear it. Let go of distractions. Heavy reference material. Ready? How do you like your recordings to sound like? Compare between the two and listen. Do they sound the same? Have someone else to listen to your material. What is the feedback? I bet that something that you are stressing about four hours. They don't even notice. Another pair of ears is a great help. Fresh ears listening to the same material for hours won't help. On the contrary, your ears will give into a fatigue. You will lose the sense of balance and volume. Give it a rest and listen to it. The next morning. I take five to ten minute breaks every hour of work, make a t read something is especially true when you're working on a closed cup headphones, your ears get tired very quickly. You got to the end. Great. I know that I went through the list quite quickly and some of it applies to a later state of production, but tried to remember it all. Critical listening is as much important as recording. And when you understand the both aspects, there is no other option. Your work will be awesome. 32. SECTION 4: Noise Floor: In this lecture, I'll tell you what a noise floor raise, why you should keep some of it, and why a noise gate won't work. Most of the time. Room tone and noise floor are somewhat to different things. But for simplification, I will go with noise floor to describe room down to. So all unwanted sounds will be Buzz his noises from outside. You wanna focus on the tone of your room and noises within. You will always have some noise on your recordings. How much it depends on the microphone and how far you're standing from the mike. But noise floor is not necessarily a bad thing. And a human ear will adjust to a constant low noise on your recordings. There are few things that you should do before you record your accountant. Record a minute or two of the noise floor, the room tone, city are geared to record and leave the room. This will give you a filler and noise that will match your recordings. And later on you can use it to cover any mistakes or gaps. And remember, if you get rid of all the noise, your voice will sound unnatural. So here's a full noise recording. I'll start with a signal flow overview. I'll start with a signal flow overview. Here is no noise recording. I'll start with a signal flow overview. I'll start with a signal flow overview. And here is a reduced noise recording. I'll start with a signal flow overview. I'll start with a signal flow overview. As you could hear, the last one is the best. I was able to reduce the noise but keep the voice sounding natural. So why I don't like noise gating? Well, noise gate will omit any signal that is below the threshold you said. And you may say, Well, the noise is below the threshold of my voice. I can just use that. That's true, but listen to what happens when I set the gate on my recording. At the rear of a diaphragm is a voice coil, a coil of wire which also vibrates. At the rear of the diaphragm is imposed. A coil of wire which also vibrate. When there is a pause in recordings, the gate works, but when I speak the noise is back in full circle. Why is that? Well, the noise is on my voice recording still and that goes through the gate. So to reduce the noise or use special plugins and audio restoration software. You can also use option in Adobe Audition called denoise. Otherwise try to get the noise under control at the source, which can be tricky with cheap microphones. And also don't forget to record the filler, the noise floor. You will come in handy even if you record with different microphones. Thanks for staying until the end and see you in the next one. 33. SECTION 4: Other Tips: In this video, I want to share with you a few more tips on recording, some basic, some more advanced. Even if you're starting with a mobile phone, I'm sure that with time, you will want to invest in more gear and equipment. So knowing how it all works is your first step. Let's get started. Understand you're recording what you going to record, what equipment do you have? Where are you going to record? And when planning is crucial, have it already before. You don't want to improvise on the spot. Well, unless that's the whole point of your product started the source, correct. Mic placement is a must. Watch the input levels when you record. You can always tell when the recording was messed up at the source. Use small numbers of microphones. That advice is probably for the future. When number of microphones doubles, there is a potential acoustic gain decrease by 3dB, meaning that you have to turn down the input of every additional microphone to avoid feedback. That's why it's quite tricky when you have to set up a large band on a stage. Use shock mounts where possible. I talked about it before. Shock mounts, especially when recording with condensers, will reduce vibrations and low frequency bumps during the recording. Keep audio cables away from power cables. They will induce unwanted noise and interference. Suite of your phone interference and destruction. You don't need these three-to-one rule is a rule of thumb. It means that if you are using two microphones, the distance between them should be three times bigger, then distance from the microphone to the source. This will reduce phasing, also known as comb filtering, where frequencies cancel each other out. Because of delay in sound. Use polar patterns to omit unwanted sounds. Keep microphones away from loudspeakers to avoid feedback. Use headphones when monitoring your recording. Test your equipment before you start recording and listen back to the test. Always record more than you need. If you're in the zone, you can record everything in one take. But if you're unsure about delivery or style or a particular line, just record more. It's much harder to set it all up again for a retake. So when you're in a spot, record as much as you can. And the last one, experiment. Try different settings, placement environments, blankets wherever you want. Record standing up or sitting down in the morning or at night, especially in the beginning, it's important to learn the basics and that's why you're here. But also it's important to experiment and try as many different settings as you can done and dusted. Thanks for listening. Just remember recording is fun and don't worry if it's not perfect first time you do it. The more you practice, the better. 34. SECTION 5: Mono Vs Stereo: In this lecture, I want to talk about mono stereo and which would you choose? So let's start with a quick overview. Model. It's one signal. When you record yourself with one microphone, it's a mono signal. You can palette, which means move it to the left or the right. But it's still going to be just one signal. If you duplicate it and pan one to the left and other to the right, it's not going to make it stereo. It will only make it louder. By about 3dB. There's double sound intensity. So remember, while a modal signal can be fed through a pair of headphones or speakers. It won't make it stereo. It is still the same one signal. Stereo. Stereo means having two input signals. For example, when you record acoustic guitar with two microphones at the same time, one signal goes to the left, the other to the right. It is only the most basic description because the subject of stereo phonic sound is very deep. For example, there is a difference between stereo and true stereo that can apply to convoluted reverbs intrudes stereo, two input signals are split into four and spread to left and right outputs. There can be other types such as mono to stereo, joint stereo, intensity, stereo, mid-side stereo. But for now, let's keep it simple. Two input signals to output signals, stereo. So how does it affect you? Most cameras and clip microphones have so-called dual modern connectors. Meaning they will record two identical signals, one left and one right. Now, with audio book recordings, podcasts, or online courses, you want to stay consistent. One of the Amazon Ac x requirements for audiobooks recordings is be consistent in overall sound and formatting and be comprised of all mono or stereo files. Itunes or YouTube don't have this kind of requirements. So what do you go with? If it's just the dialogue, I'll say model, There's absolutely no reason to go stereo because you want the voice to be in a center anyway. And stereo will take twice as much space. Well, maybe if you're recording an interview and have two speakers and two microphones, you can pan one slightly to the left and one to the right. But if this tray tab dialogue, there is no reason to go stereo. But remember that some devices will record as dual Mono. So when I receive recordings that were recorded like that, are usually split them into model and just use one truck. What if your podcasts has background music Here, you have to make a decision. Either you remake it as a mono track, which I do for podcasts, or you can leave it as stereo. And then remember that your voice will be split to left and right channels upon export. So to summarize, if you're dealing with a dialogue, keep it mono. Single instruments, mono, unless you're doing a stereo setup for the music that you want to use in your podcasts. You can either bounce it down tomorrow, but then lose the stereo field or keep it as stereo. 35. SECTION 5: Effects on Input: Thank you for joining me in this lecture. I would not talk to you about using effects on input with hard day and should you use them at all? So there are many different effects that you can add to your recording, such as rivers or delaying ZIM, or modulations like this. Of course, there are other effects that are more nuanced but help you to achieve the sound that you want. The most important ones are compression, an EQ. I want to show you how to use them properly because the subject is as wide as the sea. But the quick overview will surely help you. Compressor evens out the recording, makes quiet sounds louder and loud sounds quite. So your audio level is consistent. Eq deals with frequencies. You can either add or remove unwanted elements of your recording. Not actual sounds that as clicks or popes, but parts of sound such as low frequencies or high frequencies. So if I cut low frequencies, I sound like I'm on the radio. It's important to know how to track down your signal in case you have some equipment issues. And when I cut high frequencies, I sound like I'm underwater. Ooh, ooh, ooh. Okay, so what do I mean by using these effects on input? Well, you have two options. You can either record your sound and then add the effects later on. It's called postproduction. Or you can add the effects during the recording. So as I showed you before, this microphone has some options that will affect the recording on input. So if I select to cut the low frequencies, I will record without them. I won't be able to get them back. So should you use effects on input? And why is this an option if you can do all that later on? Well, in the past, all the recordings were done on the analog equipment, analog mixing desks, analog compressors and affects. A pro, audio engineer would know all these and how to get the best sound at the source, how to control the recording, and how to cut unwanted sound. It made sense. And also, you didn't have to play with a patch bay later on. Right now you do everything on a computer. I prefer to record as natural as possible and then work on the audio. Of course, other people have their own workflows. But for me it's a destructive method, meaning if I apply something on an input, I won't be able to change it back. Of course, there are exceptions. If you can hear or see on the meters a constant low rumble. Of course it makes sense to carry out an input. You have to do it later on anyway. Or if you've tested different settings on your microphone and one makes your voice sounds so much better. It's smart to use that one. Otherwise, you'll have to do all that work later on. Or if you're recording something really loud. Now this is quite dangerous, but you can apply a little compression. I rather not. You can play with input gain first. And of course, effects such as delay, delay, delay or modulation on input r, absolute No. Fortunately UNI lived during the times that testing different effects on your recording does not mean permanent change. You have loads of options and freedom. I prefer to get the recording as natural as I can and then use EQ and compression later on. You can of course, do it your own way to stone overdo it because you won't be able to go back later on. 36. SECTION 5: Buying the Right Gear: So the question I hear over and over again, it's worth gear should I buy either for recording podcasts or audio books or online courses? Which microphone, which headphones, which audio interface? You don't have to spend thousands to deliver your message. Thanks to the internet, distribution is free. You just need to invest a little time in learning and little money to get a decent equipment. And today you can get that for cheap. So what should you get? This, of course, depends on the content. If you're recording a talking head video, an interview, or a course like this, you need to invest in a lavalier microphone. These, like I said, are sensitive, but because he put them near your face, the other noise will be in the background. This microphone is around 20 or $30. So it's more than affordable. It's battery-powered, so it's a class downside. It's a bit noisy. I do know is reduction later on, but you have two options. You can either invest in more expensive sensitizer, which is around $600 and less noisy. Or you can educate yourself on audio cleanup techniques. Next is voice recording. Podcasts, audiobooks, screen capture tutorials. Here you want to reduce the room sound and find the best microphone. A vocal booth audio interface and a nice Mike is preferable, but you can upgrade later on. When you start, you most likely will be looking at USB microphones. Everyone talks about blow mic, USB, snowball, Yeti. You must understand that these condensers are extremely sensitive. And I assume that you will record either in your bedroom or office with Windows, neighbors, and passing cars? Yes. These microphones are easy to operate. They will pick up background noise there he's the rumble. So be careful. What I would suggest is to opt in for a dynamic USB microphone. As I discussed with you in previous lectures, dynamics are not as sensitive. Yes, they require more gain, but they will reduce the background noise. The downside, well, we've more gain, there is more hayes. So we need to educate yourself on reducing that and test if you can. Amazon has a return policy. So if you don't like the gear, swap it for something else. And you can get the starter microphone for up to a $100. So you won't break the bank poke shield if you decided to go with the condenser, pop shield is a must. You get pops and mouth noises. Even with dynamic, it will help. You can get one for a few dollars. Stands and cables. Most of these USB microphones come with small desk stands and cables. You don't have to spend money on that. For up to a $100. You can get an acoustic shield. If they're a bigger one or a small one. They will help you to reduce the reflections in your room and to control the sound. So if you have the money, it's a good investment. Headphones, it's important to have accurate representations of sound. These sony headphones that I use are standard at SEX Amazon audiobook company. They are awesome for monitoring and editing dialogue. You want to hear all the imperfections and edit them out. They will set you back around 50-60 dollars. So again, not that bad. Okay, so let's have a look at the starter pack. Lovelier, 20-30 dollars, batteries, $7 for 20, headphones, $50. So around a $100 for a set-up like this. Now for a voice over setup, USB microphone, less than a $100, a pop shield, $5, headphones, $50, reflection shield, a $100. This will cost you around $250. Both options together around $350. And you can get a free version of Pro Tools or Udacity. Or it can get Adobe Audition that counts with some noise cancelling options that will help you. I know it's not the cheapest. It's not $10 microphone or $5 headphones. But if you want to deliver decent quality content, it's a start. And later on, you can dive in into more expensive and Advanced Care. Downside is that you will still get some echo, some noise and other issues. So another part of the equation is to educate yourself on simple audio editing techniques. Thanks for watching, and I'll see you in the next video. 37. SECTION 5: How Often Should You Record: At this point, you should understand your gear and principles of the recording. And in this lecture I want to talk a little bit about psychology rather than actual sound recording. And the question is, how often should you record? I know it sounds silly, but stay with me. So we want to record because you're a creator, you have a burning ambition and passion and you want to make it tangible. Show it to people. Doing a podcast, audio book, or online course is something that you love. And all sounds great. But there is a downside. You wanna make it as soon as possible. Have it ready and release it to the world unless you are audio professional. But then you wouldn't be taking this course. Recording is an obstacle. You love talking, writing, scripts, designing. But when it comes to actually recording, you see it as a process, something that needs to be done and got our width. And that's cool. But you can limit yourself without thinking because it means that you record only to get it done. You want to experiment, you won't test you on spend time to improve your recordings. I know, I know you want to improve and that's why you're taking this course. Talking from my own experience. Once you learn the principles of recording, you'll set it up, listen to it, say it's good enough, and just get on with it. The danger is that you want to experiment in a test enough, and that's normal. Everyone does that. I do it too. When something appears to be working just good enough. People don't want to try new things, they stay with all then tested something that always worked. But the difference between good and great is amount of work that you put into the improvement. So how often should you record yourself all the time, especially in the beginning, not only to improve your diction, reduced the arms and ours. You need to test in different rooms with different mike placements. You'd need to test different software, polar patterns, what you eat when you record and so on. Right it down saver template. Make notes on what works and what doesn't. And don't try to make it perfect. The first time that your friends and family listened to your recordings on cheap headphones, on loudspeakers and listen to what they say. All feedback is important. When I work with clients and clean and edit the recordings, I usually ask an advise them about their setups. And you wouldn't believe how small change of distance or microphone placement can help? It means less work for me and much better sound for them. A microphone is your friend. It makes you audible to the whole world. Don't overlook it, learn it, test it, make sure you know it better than anybody. And it will take some time. But I guarantee you'll be glad that you took it. Thanks for watching this video. Now, quickly record a line or two and listen to it, and jump to the next one. 38. SECTION 5: What if You Mess up: In this short video, I want to talk to you about fear of messing up. So he talked about getting it as good as you cannot the source and the first stage. But it would if you mess up and you will, it's part of the learning process. And especially in the beginning, there will be many frustrating moments when you trying to find the sound. So a common advice would be to try again, have another go, make another take, and that's cool. But I want to talk about specific situation when you can't do that. So for example, an interview that you conduct it, a guest that you had, maybe you recorded your whole material and only after you realized that lip smacks a noise, make it really hard to understand. So what's then? Well, you have two options. Recall your whole material again, if you have time and if it's possible, or audio editing and restoration. Unfortunately, I won't cover it in this course because you are learning by recalling, not audio postproduction. But I want to show you that you have an option to either do it yourself or pay somebody to do it for you. So listen to this audio full of leaps, marks before and after audio editing. I'll start with a signal flow overview. It's important to know how to track down your signal in case you have some equipment issues. I'll start with a signal flow overview. It's important to know how to track down your signal in case you have some equipment issues. As you can hear and see, I was able to turn problematic recordings into a decent sounding audio. So before you start crying and cursing, be aware that not all is lost. Yesterday may be cases that are beyond audio restoration and editing, but for most, it will work. Unfortunately, it's not as simple process. So before making important decision, check with audio professional and ask for advice. And of course, in the future when your career grows and you start producing more content, educate yourself in simple editing in restoration. Thanks for watching the video and see you in the next lecture. 39. SECTION 5: What if You Hate Your Voice: So I have another rather psychological short lecture for you. Not about recording, not about setting up. Let's paint the scene. You've just finished this course, you know a thing or two about recording. You have your dream setup, it's all ready to go. Let's record your first chapter and you're done. Smooth and easy. That wasn't scary, was it? Well, this Now listen to your recordings. Suddenly you hear yourself, oh my God. Do I really sound like this? It's whiny, nasal, boring, slow, etc.. You find out you hate your voice. Of course I'm exaggerating. You probably heard yourself speak in the past, and you probably hated that too. And why is that? And this is really how people hear you too. So to answer your second question, unfortunately, it is the recording shows how people hear you everyday. But why is it different when you hear yourself? Well, to put it in a most basic terms, you not only received vibrations, the sound from your mouth, but also from your skin, your bones, your skull, your whole body reacts when you speak, and it affects the way you perceive your voice. Unfortunately, no one else can hear it. For many, it's a huge barrier. But if you want to pursue your dream of making a podcast or an online course, you need to learn how to love your voice. First and foremost, to record yourself as often as you can and listen back to it. At some point, it will start bothering you and you get used to hearing your own voice. Just make it a daily habit. Record, listen and delete. I, for example, still do a quick readout of every script I finish, even after the first draft, I capture myself with a QuickTime and then check how I sound, what mistakes I made will I can improve upon. And that leads to second advice, improvement. You can control your peach speed, emphasis and presence of your voice. When you listen back to your voice, don't think about how much you don't like it. Take notes. Hm, maybe I should eliminate this arms and ours. Maybe I shouldn't make more pauses or change Peter little, breakout the monotony. And third, recognize what do you like about your voice? And ask other people what they think about it too. Yeah, improve on weaknesses. But what's more important? Focus on the good parts. And I know it sounds a little bit narcissistic and shallow, but learn how to love your voice and get used to hearing it. My partner often says that I like listening to my own voice. I listened to it because I want to improve the sound of it. But then yeah, I do like it. So you must overcome this bias. Because if you have hard time listening to yourself, how do we expect others to do that? So I hope this helps your label. Don't get discouraged. Keep practicing. Thanks for watching this video and let's jump to the next one. 40. SECTION 5: Eating Before Recording: So before I finish up, Let me give you a few tips on somewhat overlooked aspect of recording. What to eat and drink. When you record, your recording will be as strong as the weakest link in when it comes to your voice, you need it to be the strongest. So obviously, you want to avoid anything that will dehydrate you. Cigarettes and alcohol will have the biggest effect on your voice. Black coffee and black tea are not the best choice either. The other thing is food. You should really avoid eating a big meal before your recording session. Your energy will be diverted into digestion and you have to edit out all the stomach rumble that the microphone will pick up. Of course, you don't want to be hungry. That will also cause unwanted sounds from your body. So what should you do? Apart from good night's sleep? Always have water nearby. Room temperature, it's the best as cold water will contract your vocal chords. I also like to drink green tea because it calms my throat. Some people say to avoid acidic foods and drinks or dairy products. Others say to eat a sour granny smith apple and that will help. I say, learn what works for you. Principles such as no cigarettes, coffee, or alcohol will help. Also, good night's sleep and frequent breaks. But the minute you feel fatigued and your voice feels tired, stop. You're not doing yourself any favors. And you also want to put on the best show for your audience. So for example, I can be quite energetic and ready to record in the morning. But with time as I get hungry, I get irritated. I lose my energy and enthusiasm. I can fix it with frequent breaks and healthy snacks throughout the session. But I know if I break for lunch and have large meal, it's really hard for me to get back into that morning mindset. So in my case, it's better to pick up next morning and to do something else in the afternoon. You know your body and your voice better than anyone. So start your recording with a plan, but don't be afraid to stop when you feel it's not your day. Otherwise, you will spend hours recording when you know you're not giving your best. And next day, when you listen back to it, you will hit delete and start over again. 41. SUMMARY: Wow, you made it. I know it's quite a lot for couple of hours. So if you feel like you need to just go back and re-watch the lectures is just the beginning of your journey. You only scratched the surface. Now you need to decide which way you want to go. Podcasting, music recording, audio restoration, or sound design. There are plenty of opportunities, but each one of them starts with basic knowledge of recording setup. Things that you learned in this course. And before I say final goodbye, owner, sum up everything that you learned. It's easy to take things for granted. And I want to show you how much you already achieved. In the first proper section, you learned all about the most important piece of your equipment, the microphone, the difference between dynamic and condenser, and which one is better for your content. You looked at directionality and polar patterns. You learn how you can use them to reduce the outside noise. You learned the basics of a microphone. And why is it important to choose suitable one for your voice? In the second section, you studied all other necessary equipment, stands, connectors, cables, microphone clips. All these have placed in your recording setup and you shouldn't dismiss them as boring. You watched the lecture on audio interface, and now you know the importance of it. And of course, speakers and headphones. You understood how crucially is to have a good listening gear to the fund started in Section Three, setup. After a short lecture on signal flow, you want and listen too many examples of different recording setups. It's okay to read about this stuff, but now you know how it all sounds and you can make much better decision about your purchase. You finished off with the lectures on software setup. It's important to understand that all, all your programs operate on the same basic principles. Then the recording. After gaining knowledge about your equipment, you learned about sound recording, distance from microphone, your environment, listening techniques and recording tips. Go back to these lectures. I know there may seem short, but there's plenty of valuable content there. And implement all the tricks and tips that I showed you and the recordings will be amazing. In the last section, we looked at less popular topics such as psychology of recording your voice and dieting. Of course, you also learned hard recording facts about mono and stereo affects on the input. But in this section, I gave you more theory than practice, which is important too. I included an important lecture on buying the gear. You explored few possibilities with budget in mind. And now you have an idea how much you need to spend on your recording setup. That's it. I have to say it's been fun teaching you all that stuff. And I hope you enjoyed it as much as I did. As a thank you. I prepared a short ebook for you, the summary of this course. So you don't have to go back to the videos each time you want to remember something, you can jump to this document instead. If you enjoy this course, feel free to leave me a comment or feedback if you wish. I had been doing audio music and recording for years and yet I still learn new things with every project. And I'm sure I can learn a lot from you and your feedback to thanks again and maybe see in the future.