Worthwhile...History of Art: The Hidden Meanings of the Italian Renaissance | Jennifer Moorhead | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Worthwhile...History of Art: The Hidden Meanings of the Italian Renaissance

teacher avatar Jennifer Moorhead, Artist, Art Professor, and Entrepreneur

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (59m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Let's get started...

    • 3. Realism & Expressionism

    • 4. One-point Perspective Exercise

    • 5. Leonardo: Humanism

    • 6. Why is the "Mona Lisa" so famous?

    • 7. Michelangelo: Revival of the Classical

    • 8. Raphael: Individualism and Color

    • 9. Critical Comparative Visual Analysis Project

    • 10. :FinalThoughts

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

This class is a quick study of fruitful information about the Italian High Renaissance. Explore with a fresh approach of the ideas, techniques, and trends of this classical time. You learn achievements and new discoveries by artists during this astonishing era. 

Find out why the 'Mona Lisa' is so important...and it's not just her smile. Learn the development of compositions, color, and painting processes in this classical time frame. Really advance your awareness of the fine art world and begin to understand the essential basis of what criteria developed western art today.

This is not your typical art history lecture but an amazing adventure into the past with a unique perspective. Learn to appreciate art through the eyes of an artist's perspective besides just theory and analysis. Art is essential to everyday life and this class is for anyone with a creative heart. Uncover the hidden meanings, styles, and creative discoveries of the Renaissance era. 

Skills you will learn:

  1. Identify key elements and themes of the Italian Renaissance Era
  2. Identify the significance of art
  3. Compare and contrast analogies
  4. Visually and critical thinking
  5. Art terminology
  6. Think and encourage creativity

   Materials needed for the class:

      Pencil & paper... and a great positive attitude!


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jennifer Moorhead

Artist, Art Professor, and Entrepreneur


I am confident you will develop and 'find' your creative artistic 'gift' through my unique fine art teaching methods. 

I incorporate the same fine art methods that I taught in college for over 34 years yet I modify the art exercises into fast-paced, easy to understand, and simple to create. The exercises are all 'hands-on'. This allows you to really explore and experiment with the art methods...while having fun! 



See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Introduction: Hi, Jennifer. Warhead, I'm so excited you're here about the Italian Renaissance. Now, this is not your typical art history class And what I say about worthwhile meaning a lot of Juergen. Not a lot of boring, sleepy lectures, but roomful full of information. And I just can't wait to share this with you a little bit about me. My background is I've taught college for over 34 years and that was inclusive art history and art appreciation. Painting drawing on. I love art appreciation in our history. So I done a combo effect of this. So I think this will be really interesting and hopefully kind of really refreshing classroom thes air, the skills you're gonna be learning your critical thinking and visually looking at things being a little more open mindedness, noticing differences that can be beautiful, strong observation skills and learn about the different techniques, color styles. And to be able to really compared, analyzed by the end of this class, what's wonderful about art? It's just slows down time. Is you just a few moments to look at things and appreciate them just to take a moment. Resource is put together to make it exciting We even do a little project in there too? You don't have to know anything about art just to have a creative love. I'm enjoying it. Can't wait to see. 2. Let's get started...: I'm so happy you're here. Let's get started to begin with, I'm just gonna share very briefly about the Middle Ages. So it just gives you a little field off what it was like just before the Renaissance. You could really see the differences that were made in the art world on the Middle Ages. It really began with the fall Roman Empire and lasted for about 1000 years. So we're looking at 500 a. D all the way up to 1500. Well, artists were primarily in my just for their workmanship. Artists were anonymous. Art was the purpose just to teach religion to people. People were not lifelike. There was basically a lot of religious themes throughout it because religion controlled it . People were clothes very serious. And there were one color backgrounds, usually gold, because gold represented heaven. Here's some examples of art from the Middle Ages. You have few mosaics here. Narrative teachings of religion see them clothed in serious religious things. Bold representing the heavens, figures air large and not like like we have describe your handwriting books and also artwork in books. There are very few books at this time. There were two major events that happened in the Middle Ages that had leached the forces in the Italian society that really made the Renaissance period happened. The black death happen between 13 42 to 13. 52. This change the whole social structure with all these nobility, where they going to find the workers because half a mark on. So everything kind of changes. This leads to a lot of corruption, leads to the loss of faith. And then there's gonna be a new emergence of human values, training to classical, to find answers and really value the reason. Critical thinking, whole new thought process, whole new structure in society out of a crisis. The next event, this is a positive is Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press. If he had seen before, those scribes, they were all hand up. Now we can mass produce, give information. The church was unable to relegate this and tell him what they could do. Anything could been parented. So this becomes a really major factor and going to the Renaissance. People are educated. They can start to see other things that are happening. The printing press was invented in 14 52. He produced calendars and leaf Let's and the one booklet that he printed out of this shop was the Bible. And that's pretty exciting at that time because the Bibles were handwritten. So very few people had that I formulated this graph to show you how the middle agers fits in with the Renaissance. You can see here what we're looking at the Middle Ages, with that crab into the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance Europe focusing on the protoblood assaults in early Renaissance. I'm choosing to artists out of these periods Giotto and meth. Ah chou reason being is they're both very important to the development of the Renaissance. We're truly going to be focusing on the High Renaissance. Three artists that were going to be looking at our Leonardo Michaelangelo Raphael. The high Renaissance disappeared between 14 75 about 15 20. If you'll note that there's a lot of discrepancies on dates, so I've gathered all this information. Just be aware this is just a basis. Let's look at the exciting changes here they are naturalism. Individual is, um, focus on perspective, complex compositions, realism, emotions, lights and darks in depth of space. See in the next section and remember, have fun 3. Realism & Expressionism: this section is about realism and expressionism. We'll be covering one point perspective into painting techniques, a fresco in a temper. The two artists are gonna be covering Chato and Martha John toes. Full name is Jack Toh Deep Mamdani. He's be very tolerant of my Italian, a member of an artist, an artist story. And I love for your understanding. So hopefully there's nothing that offends you. This is a class just to share wonderful information about the arts. Let's begin with Giotto and the lamination. This was done between 13 04 No. Six would makes this painting, which was fresco. So important is how he used certain elements. Let's do close of you as we have Christ being held by Mary, his mother, and you see a lot of passion, sorrow and that feeling. You see the typical halos as you would in the Middle Ages. Magdelin is really been one holding his feet. The figure itself has more complexity and also more realistic in the way it's done. You'll also notice in the drapery folds that they have a wonderful feeling of dark and lights. That term of using Dark and lights is called Carol Spero, to really create a three dimensional form. Let's start out with the focal point. It'll be Christ. You'll notice all the people are looking towards him. So this makes the first thing that you look at the painting. Next. Let's look at the compositional format. Baseline effective. This solid diagonal, the tree on the corner, all these floating angels last is the path of vision. You see, Christ says the focal point. Never gonna move for our eyes. Look full around. You see the group that's around him and then we travel through up the tree all through the angels brain is down again and going back to the head of Christ. Wow, This makes it excellent composition as the artist, you are wanting that viewer to look at your piece of work in a certain manner, and if you can get that done, that is just wonderful, especially to be able to view the whole piece and even go back through it again. And this is what really is fascinating. Many of Giotto's frescos are in this crow Benny Chapel. I've selected one of Giotto's frescos, The Birth of Christ, to show you step by step process of doing a fresco. Pigment is the substance that pain is made out of, so there's a lot of different types of substance that can either be from ors or also those precious stones monitoring times. Most of its synthetic starts with one coat of plaster mixed with lime paste. This is called a true fresco. He's gonna playa sketch with red pigment. This allows him to see what his imagery is gonna look like. The next step is taking a second coat of what plaster applied to a very small area. He's going apply pigment that crushed powder mixed with water to the wet surface. When you look at this, see think. Okay, Did they do little portions of it? No, the plaster went right over what he drew, so he kind of had to figure out how things are going to be placed together. And he only gets about eight or nine hours of drying time to paint this, that it's completely dry. He can't make any mistakes or it has to be completely removed. Here it is completed. If there are any lines in between these segments, and you wanted to really combine itself together, he's going to do a Seco fresco, so he's gonna mix his pigment with a yoke. Results in the flaking over time, and we've seen Giotto being considered the first Renaissance pain. Now let's Seema thought Joe and see what he has to offer to the Renaissance period. Here's a self fortune of him. He was born Tomaso Deezer Giovanni di Simone E. Here's a painting by meth. Ah Chou. It's titled Tribute to Money, Done in 14 25. It's a fresco. This is a narrative painting that's depicting the Scriptures. Matthew. Here we have Christ and you'll notice is Hand is going pointing to the left. And then we have somebody the orange short outfit, and that's the tax collector. And he's trying to get Texas, and payment from Crux will Cry says no money nor the apostles that air standing behind him . So he's going to be performing a miracle. He'll notice where he's pointing is to one of the apostles fishing with a net to catch a fish, which will carry a coin notice with the figures, the overlapping and creating a sense of depth. Very importantly, look how small the apostle is in comparison, so it's also giving us a perspective element, as well as the mountains in the background, are very diffused in coloration. This is called atmospheric perspective. This is the right of the painting, and you'll see the tax collector on the left, which is the middle group. If you'll notice his right hand, he's pointing down. So to the right, you'll see the tax collector being paid, and you'll also see it a little bit darkened. But again, thes thes figures have individual ality. They have a look to them, a curiosity, a humanistic approach. Before we go any further with the thought chose perspective, I just want to know that the great Renaissance architect CD Paul Brunelleschi is considered the father of linear perspective. This is one point perspective. If you see the lines they all converge into one point, which is Christ space, really look at the edging of the building structure and also the steps. This is a Dominican Church of Santa Maria novella in Florence. If you look at the highlighted fresco on the left side underneath stained glass, that's the Holy Trinity by meth Akcha. This meth ah chose the Holy Trinity fresco done 14 27 to 28 Here's a detail, the fresco. Here we have Christ on the cross with God behind. An interesting part of this is the realistic representation of Christ anatomical structure . We also see with God's had that you're looking up at him. On either side are two painted classical columns with Ionic Quaaludes on top. You can see the round its ceiling, which is called barrel vaulted ceiling, and next we have coffered, which are square indents into the ceiling. What is so phenomenal about this painting? This is the first time you could see bodily forms inside a structure. Usually, this structure was so small that they wouldn't be able to even walk into Ah, hidden meeting. You'll see around God's neck. It looks like a white scarf. This isn't this had meaning is it's the Holy Spirit in a form of a dove. This is considered a symbol. A term for symbols is Aiken ology. This detail is on the bottom of the fresco, and there's an obscure option that states that what you are, I once waas what I am. You will be hidden meaning, and this is ah, mo mental moray, meaning it's a Latin phrase. Remember, you must die pretty intense about you know your feeling when you walk up there and see all of this and then you see this the skeleton down below. There's a demonstration of how that one point perspective fits in, and we have all these lines convergent into one point off this barrel vaulting. Here we have a smaller view of what we just described. Wanted to show you what it looked like on the overall scale, going to place it right on top of it to show you there's a horizon line there and that also goes below that, her eyes lined to go into that vanishing point. Let's talk about the other figures. It fits into a nice pyramidal geometric structure. The two figures in the front are the donors there, the actual people that pay for this painting. This makes it really unusual because you have real people, same jury, peoples and everything else that's going on with priests and godly people. Okay, let's look at the viewer's perspective. First of all, we have viewer looking up at the pain, and remember I talked about God's had see underneath that well, that illusion really makes it realistic looking next. If you see where their vanishing point waas their horizon eye level. And that's what the rising Linus pretty exciting. Our next section. We're going to learn to draw the one point perspective. Don't be a scared, it's easy and then you'll really understand. But perspective is all about. Here's a moment of critical thinking and jock does. Planing the lamination was married, The mother God really holding Christ said. Or was Mary holding Christ hands? Just a thought. What do you think? 4. One-point Perspective Exercise: Welcome to the section on one point perspective. This Is this the basics? Very easy. All you need is a pencil piece of paper and a ruler, and that's optional. A straight ege or just using your hand is just fine. We're going to start with one point perspective. What I'm going to begin with is that something to focus? I'm gonna have a doorway, so just draw along with the lines. Don't have to be perfect. We have to think of two things. One is are vanishing point and one is ah, horizon line. Your horizon line is your eye level what you're straight looking towards. So I'm gonna pretend this is a doorway and here's some handles to it. And if I was standing up looking at this door and I put myself right up to the door, I would stand about this high. That would be my eye level. So right there, that will be our horizon line. So make a line that goes straight across what you're looking now I'm in a hallway and I'm looking. And where am I? In the hallway? Am I to the door that I could go on the right side where I'm on the left side of the whole way. I'm going to say I'm on the right side and I'm standing up and about not about 3/4 over. So I'm going to say I'm about right here. So this is my vanishing point. What really, I think changes. How we look at vanishing points is, if you move your head around, it's gonna change constantly. So you have to stay focused. Now, everything's gonna come off this vanishing point. Now we're gonna go right through that to the corner, and I'm gonna make a long right through that into the corner. And I'm gonna make a lot on each one of these. Make sure you line this up with that corner to go out over here. Line it up with that corner, Kendall. Now we have our hallway. You think my it looks really large on this side. Yes. If you're standing here and you're still looking forward, that's at large. It is. Everything else is going to be vertical horizontal. Let's begin. Let's see. I'm gonna go out through a hallway. I'm going to make a vertical line here. I'm gonna make a burger line over here horizontal line and a horizontal line up here. Can you see yourself walking into that hallway? Yes, you can. Let's have a painting hanging in the hallway. I'm going to do my vertical line. Another vertical line over here. These lines they're gonna have to match up over here. So I'm going back to that vanishing point. Don't worry if you've gone too far, this is just understanding what it looks like. That's all. So I'm gonna go right through here, coming to go this short. But here, there. You anything now going to do some horizontal lines and another vertical line? No, we'll get a painting on this wall. Hey, that's fun. So can you understand that at all it's doing? You could also do some bricks, and that would be You have to measure up really on this side here. I'm just going to do it my way, I guess. Not perfectly. But just to understand this is the perfect part. Certainly does not have to be perfect. Who Then I'll have one more thing I need to share with you. After I finish this more, you see all these lines converging. You'll notice this line here when it matched up. It fits right on that horizontal line. That's correct. Whatever is on that horizontal line is going to be straight across. There's gonna be items that are above it are items that are below it, even way below. Let's put something over here that's below the horizon line and I'm making my vertical lines going here. Gonna go with my short one? When across here, My short one going across here. Since I'm standing up, I probably could see the top of that as well. Notice. So this would be straight across this point. I also couldn't come off this matchup here. Match up here. Let's match up. There we go. How I can see the top of this and that gives me an idea. Hey, let's finish these up. Every reliever reclines and breaks her every other. Hey, you didn't know you could make bricks so easy. There isn't anything difficult about art. This is a matter of seeing it. Looking, getting that understanding, that's what's so fascinating. So I hope you understand a little bit more about one point perspective. Always remember the machine point horizon line that, uh, I would love to see your perspective joy you composed in the Project Gallery. If you have any questions at all, please don't hesitate to email me through my profile page. 5. Leonardo: Humanism: this segment is on Leonardo DaVinci, who's born around 14 52 to 15 19. This is the start of the high Renaissance, just between 14 75 and 15 20 the reason that it ends around 15 20. It's because Leonardo has already passed away as well as Raphael passes away and Michelangelo starts in a mannerist IQ style renaissance, meaning rebirth. Put together three characteristics of the high Renaissance one. The revival that classical, Roman and ancient Greek humanism, art principles of beauty, balance and order. Second is the positive attitude to want to learn and explore. New science is a man artists remastered, linear and atmospheric perspective. And lastly three. The idea of the dignity man playing a major role in the philosophy. Religious thought from human abilities to the idea that man was in the image of God. Let's start out with the Virgin of the Rocks. This was commissioned 14 83. I know this looks long, but it's important cause a story behind it. It's commissioned by the con Fraternity of the Immaculate Conception is part of an altarpiece for the chapel in the church is San Francisco Grand Day in Milan. If you look at this painting. It is masterful. Look at the grotto that the Virgin Mary is in and all that detail into landscape. You can see the plants even down below of the detail ing here he's working in oil. Painting at that is mixing pigment with like linseed oil. You'll notice in this painting, it's not harshly outlined, and this new effect is what is known for the Vinci's work. It's tomato. It's a telling in word, meaning to tone down or evaporate like smoke. So it has a nice, fine shading, and it's soft. And it has wonderful transitions between colors and tones, which really gives that essence of realism. Bramlett, they have with this painting, is ST John was the main interest for focal point, as you noticed here, Mary's nicely holding him, which is odd because usually crisis with Mary crisis down here. Also, we have the angel. That's point, so everything is directing itself to Saint John. What makes us odd as well as there are no halos, and it's hard to tell the difference between ST John and also the Christ figure. Let's look at this wonderful Pierre middle compositional format. I talked about before with the thought chose pyramidal structure that he did in the Holy Trinity. But this really adds a lot of dimension and depth to it, which is even stronger, and it deals with the order and the idea of perfection in that perfect compositional format . This type of format is still used today in Western art. It's very ideal IQ and has a wonderful sense of balance and harmony. What excellent, excellent example of perfect composition. There's a detail look at the naturalistic and attention to detail and all the leaves in the college and that wonderful sense of humanist six skin and correct proportions. Water down below is a symbol of purity, So that's a reflection off Mary. There's another detail and noticed the background, this grotto and the light that's reflected in the softness, and it really creates a very mysterious quality to it. But there's definitely attention to detail because Leonardo, believe solely and observing to learn how to draw, say he would sit at this particular grotto and noticed the rippling effects of the rocks that was caused by the deterioration of water rubbing against it. A beautiful example of his work. This painting was never placed in the church. It was rejected when the commission is painting to be done. Divinci did not follow the guidelines he put in Saint John the Baptist, and that wasn't part of what was wanted. It took too long, and he was being sued by them. But certainly another painting did arrive about 10 20 years later, and they think that his assistance really worked on it, which is a bro, Geo and Evangelista. Deep Reedus Painting on the left is the one that we were looking at, and the one on the right is the new one that was placed in the church. Can you tell? The difference is the main differences were is the Angels faces more subdued and sublime, and also she's not pointing. The other differences that I think are important as well are the halos air placed there. You also see the cross that ST John has so really tells the difference between ST John and the baby. Jesus can really see the difference in coloration, can't you? This pain? He was part of the trip deck meeting three pieces thes air the two other panels. It's not place exactly how it waas but it gives you an idea, and these were painted by the pre disbar others. Here's the Last Supper done by Divinci. This was completed 14 98 took about three years, and this is a common subject that was painted for monasteries and convents. It's located in the convent of Santa Maria Della Crazy. On this viewpoint, it gives the idea of the whole paint where you can see the arches above. Let's take a closer look of the anatomy of the painting. Here we have crisis, the focal point, and you have that one point perspective is you can see the different doorways, how they line up and that coffered ceiling. This time it's not a barrel vaulted ceiling. I think it's wonderful how it's dip laced with the figures on four groups of three. Each Cheer Reich is an idea that these figures really don't fit within that table. That's kind of an oddity, and also the table itself is so large that it really wouldn't fit in that room. But this is narrative, and it needs to be displayed. I know you guys air curious and noticed the corrosion. That's because the original painting was done an eight temporal, and just so and just was a mixture of animal glue, chalk and white pigment. They found mixtures of gold and silver as well. Well, DaVinci was an innovator, sometimes out successful. The painting was easily damaged in a short amount of time. Therefore, in the Last, Supper was restored in 1979 until 1999. Here it is restored. Oh, look at the color. Are you really good to see that? The landscape in the background? What's wonderful about this painting? Is that just a role feeling of moving figures? And they express a lot of emotion to get an idea. What's going on is crisis just said the one who has dipped the hand into the bowl with me will betray me. Here's a detail If you notice Christ right hand is reaching towards this bowl, as well as the third person down to his right, which is Judas. As you'll notice he's holding Ah, bag. And that bag is representative upholding the coins of which he is the betrayer of Christ. Before that, they found, which is a hidden meeting, was a salt shaker that was turned over, and that meant that it was broken trust, but that was somehow covered up and removed behind Judas, which stunned painted very darkly. So it gives it that evil feeling is Saint Peter, and Saint Peter is holding a knife in his hand and also touching, which some have said. That's Mary Magallon. But it is ST John, cause ST John was always represented as being very young and feminine looking. There's another detail. I just love this in regards to look at all their hands and how the movement gesture. You can really feel them talking to each other. There's such action going out. It's really amazing painting. I feel the rial hidden meaning in this painting is the fact that he was not using any halo . So he's depicting these wonderful images Very humanistic. Li L. Leonardo Vinci Onley completed 15 paintings in his lifetime, which is amazing because he is so famous. But his notebook is really great, and I'm gonna show you a little sketches out of his notebook at the end of the session, and then we'll be going into the Mona Lisa in the next segment. It's pretty exciting at some new fun ideas there, and another thing about Leonardo never signed his paintings. He was a trickster in his notebooks. Also, see some of his handwriting was done backwards like. 6. Why is the "Mona Lisa" so famous?: this section is about the Mona Lisa was painted by 15 03 or maybe to 15 09 depending if he kept it until his death. But the section really encompasses all the interest in all the curiosity about this painting is captivating and mysterious. And let's explore all these aspects about the painting to kind of figure out the answer. Why is this painting so famous today? Let's work together how we critically analyze the painting. That compositional structure is pure middle that we've seen before in his work in the background will see that atmospheric perspective that he's known for, and that's my motto of soft haziness. Over here we have a fantasy landscape, which is new. Guys are very important. We'll talk about that further as well as her smile and down below. Very importantly as well are her hands. Let's look at a detail of her face we can really see. That's my motto, working in the background as it really softens and you'll notice with the oil price, you can tell there's layers and layers that are placed on there to really give a lot of depth to it. Her eyes, they say, can follow you around, which is true up. I've seen her, and they discovered that she did have originally eyebrows and eyelashes painted in term. Ouch is so unusual because it's really the lights and darks that are placed on there. It's how we did the highlighting of his lips. Then let me show you. You'll notice. Here it's the lightness. So what it does it kind of on dilates across here, so it gives it a really different look. I was taught in school. I am got my undergraduate degree in painting and drawing Yetta enough credits for art history as well as printmaking. Study luck. Anyways, the landscape is pretty idyllic, and that fantasy landscape is what I was taught. Waas the important feature in this painting. This is the first time you have a portrait with the landscape. Next is her hands to begin with. Her hands are too large for her body. If you take your hand and take the end of your palm and place it right at that end of your chin and lay your hand on top of your face, your middle finger will reach about men way in your forehead. If you measure this out there too large. A colleague of mine used to take art students to Europe every year, and we visited the luv one time, and we got there rather late just before it closed. But they still let us in. I got to go in that room with the Mona Lisa's up by myself. You know, it's at 15 seconds of Oh, my gosh, absorb everything that I'm looking at and I got to go right up to it were otherwise there. So many people in there. They're just rows and rows that you can't even really see it. And I took time to really investigate in that painting really engaged May, and it was her hands. They're so beautiful life like soft looking. He could almost touch that. That intrigued me the most. So when you look at the Mona Lisa, look at it in your own perspective, be curious. You don't have to listen to everybody but really look and observe. And last but not least, who is she? There's so many speculations, and some contemporary scholars say that it's Lisa Gardini, but they don't know now what creed? The buzz of why this painting became so famous is what happened in 1911. The painting was stole. People were in a frenzy. After two years, it was found. It's a pretty interesting story. You can look it up and read about it, but now this paintings really important. Here's some other supposed facts of the Mona Lisa that made it famous Napoleon Hannah for several years in his bedroom. That was kind of big deal. A lot of writers mythmakers. The 19th century prompted interest. Jackie Kennedy brought us the United States in 1963 for display. It has its own room in the loof, and you cannot buy or sell the painting. An Andy Warhol printed the image in a colorful pop art style. This image is everywhere. Let's look at one more article about Mona Lisa that was printed in September 7th 2007 is the Mona Lisa is a self portrait of Leonardo da Vinci. They did it. Computer study on this and in this article is well, they talked about the dentist head. Think that tight lipped expression had to deal with some congenital palsy? Ah, friends Surgeon also looked at this, and this puffy treek is probably due to a stroke. Now let's look at some fun artwork that the bona Lisa has inspired. Here's an illustration By tomorrow shops in you can kind of see that idea of the portrait of Leonardo and the porch of the Mona Lisa. Next, what we have and this is pretty interesting. This is in 2016. It's the burning man. It's a festival, and they were inspired with this creation. So I have a couple of these to show you. Yes, this is the most expensive painting in the world, and this is a painting by Leonardo da Vinci, and the title to this painting is Salvador. Monday. Now this is privately owned. It was bought in an estate, and it came to the market in 2017. Isn't it absolutely magnificent and mesmerizing? So for over 40 50 million, and this is the only Leonardo Da Vinci painting that is owned by a person versus being one of the museum's pretty exciting 7. Michelangelo: Revival of the Classical: welcome to the section we're gonna be learning about. Michelangelo Perotti 14 75 15 64 originally was saw that this was a self portrait, but scholars have found that later is attributed Digit co pay No del Conte around 15 35 years, Michelangelo's first famous sculpture piece, and this is called the P ETA and its meaning, pity or compassion. It was done between 14 98 and 14 99 before he was even 25 years old. This is made out of marble, and it's the same Peter's Basilica in Rome. Let's quickly look at this. It has a beautiful, pure middle design, and it's a three dimensional form. This is dealing with Mary Holding Christ after he died from the cross, and that's similar to that idea of John Toes when he did the lamination. He has certainly surpassed classical and Roman antiquity. Look at the detail ING gold structure is phenomenal, except for one thing, because he does take a little given take. If Mary actually stood up, she would be close to six foot six inch is much larger than the Christ figure. But because of the clothing and the drapery around her that doesn't show her as a Norma swimmin, but she has to be a little bit larger. Order toe. Hold him. Otherwise, it had been a very distorted looking composition. Here we have Michelangelo's David. This was carved out of one piece of stone. It was actually a used piece of marble. It was done in 15 01 to 15. 04 He was approximately 26 years old when he started this project. David is located in the Academia Gallery in Florence, Italy. There is another statue of this, but this is the original one. If you'll notice the is on a podium, the statue itself height is 13 feet five inches, all together with the pony. Um, it's 17 feet high. And this is important because as the viewer, you are down below and looking up at the statute, if you remember back in pot shows with the Holy Trinity, he also had an idea where the placement of your is the statue. David comes from the biblical story of David and Goliath. David was always represented as the aftermath of what happened, and he was holding head of Goliath. But he breaks apart from this tradition. He's depicting this strong, beautiful, youthful man. David has this look that he's thinking about what he's going to do. He's confident and ready for action. What's so important in the sculpture piece is that Contra pasta. This is dealing with the weight off David, and this figure is placed on one foot. There's very little backing of that little tree stop behind them to give him leverage to keep it there because of the marble. But it has this wonderful, relaxed feeling and balance of weight. That balance itself is considered asymmetrical balance because it has a feeling of balance . It's not some magical because it's not placed evenly. Look, beautiful, detailed. He is. His eyes are larger. We really need to be able to see them from below as well as his hands. But look of his hair and the muscle structure Definitely Greek, Roman, idyllic, beautiful and enemy Anna topically correct. If you look in here, his hands, I mean, you can also see his veins and everything just so clear. I love this angle because you really get that field of looking up at him and he looks so riel and lifelike. What a beautiful piece. Let's go to the Sistine Chapel, where the beautiful paintings off Michelangelo exist. The Sistine Chapel is in their posture. Look, palace, and this is the prime residence of the pope and Vatican City, Italy. The Sistine Chapel was painted by Michelangelo between 15 08 and 15 12 before we go any further, so you can really understand what it really looks like. This is a drawing of what it looked like prior to Michelangelo painting it. It was actually pain and blue with stars, so you actually can see now the architectural format that's already there. Let's look at his painting and he feel noticed. What is all this other architectural elements in there? That's what he painted. So he used a device called Grizz I Ingres. I means he's making these architectural mouldings using gray value changes. So what? They look three dimensional, but they're not really. I think it really adds such to created touch to this because it looks like people are sitting on these architectural pieces and they're not really this, I think, add some tremendous fascination. This is one of the symbols. A symbol woman in ancient times supposedly spoke of prophecies and Oracle's I've Got Lots and lots of sketches were made, just like in Leonardo's paintings and ideas. And one thing about Leonardo Michelangelo. They certainly didn't get along at all. They tried to a contest between, um, neither one showed up. They were very much in conflict. Leonardo had a lot of fun. Michelangelo had a lot of stress. Michelangelo's true passion was being a sculptor. How did Michelangelo get those drawings up there? First of all, he made what they call a cartoon. It will be a full size artistic sketch on paper for painting. Once he gets that up there, he perforate. It's the paper with like a pin and goes all around the edges, so he has his little holes that outlined the image. Then he pushes or pounces. Charcoal through those holes takes the paper up, and there's this image. He's going to be doing a different type of fresco instead of on wet plaster. It's gonna be called meso fresco, which is a semi what plaster the stories that are painted on the Sistine Chapel for nine biblical scenes with profits and symbols. These scenes come from the Old Testament, from the Book of Genesis. This painting was restored in 1994 and will look much different. The reason it needed to be restored is because of all the smoke that accumulated after so many years because of the Sistine Chapel used by the colonel's to elect a pope and in part of the service was burning wood. And certainly the smoke deteriorated. These paintings here's the Sistine Chapel restored. You can really see the difference of coloration. We're gonna be viewing this particular biblical story of the creation of man. Here we have Adam on the left, relaxed position and to the right, we have God. That's with this building drapery in case with all these angels, and it looks like the winds just whispering him away. There's a lot of action and intensity. The drama that's created in this is God reaching out to Adam's hand, and Adam's hand is kind of lift. It's like all the yes seduced lived his finger and you'll touch God. This is where your curiosity sets it. What do you think? How do you interpret this? This is what artists about it makes you question and think and open up your eyes. Really seen now for the hidden meaning would be showing you some injuries in just a moment . And I want to be thinking about what was Michelangelo saying by painting that the drapery image that surrounds God and angels is an outline of a brain. Next, we have the outlining of going around that imagery of God. This is supposedly to form the brain, as you can see in this diagram. So what do you think about this? 8. Raphael: Individualism and Color: this section is about Raphael, whose another great artists of the Italian Renaissance, Raphael, was born in 14 83 and had a very short life span of 37 years and died in 15 20. Here's a self portrait done in 15 06 This is one of Raphael's earlier paintings, which is titled Marriage of the Virgin. This is Oil on Panel, done in 15 04 Already seen his work, the clarity of his composition, also the richness of color he uses. What's happening in this painting is Mary is getting married to Joseph Will Mary had a lot of suitors. If you'll see all those gentlemen behind Joseph to the right, they're all holding these rods. But in this story from The Book of Golden Legends, it said that Mary would know which one off a suitors that she was going to marry, because at the very end of his rod that he's holding is a flower. You see something not very happy cause he's breaking his rod with his knee buckled, gestural. All the figures are he certainly admired Leonardo da Vinci, and he got along pretty well with Michelangelo. He has grouping of figures in the back, moving around, and he's included. The one point perspective I know you guys know at one point perspective is, and can you see where it all goes to that vanishing point? Well, it goes straight to that small doorway on the bottom level. That building Raphael did a lot of portrait. It's He is very prolific in a short time span, and if you look at his portrait, it's There's so much attention to detail, especially in the clothing. And if you'll notice the hands are on top of each other, also showing his rings a hint of display of his great wealth. I'd like to talk a little bit about color and how color was so important to clothing in the Renaissance. And with Raphael's use of color, this a really good time to introduce it. Let's start with the color red. Certain colors are more expensive to make and harder to make than other colors. There's a president's on that red is much harder to make, then it would be like a number color number. Raw number colors come from Claes. Red portrays this high social status, royalty, gentleman power and prestige. Here we have a portrait of acne, all those wife Madalina Dundee. We see her portrayed with a very serene, realistic portrait of her. She is also located in the landscape, such as her husband. Although landscape is much more serene than you would see of Da Vinci's landscape, you also see the crossing of her hands, all the jewelry she has on her to portray her wealth. But now let's look at the colors that she's wearing well. She's certainly not wearing that red that her husband more these air the colors that she's wearing. She has a really nice we consider kind of a royal blue, a more toned down red and black. These colors that she wore would reflect the reddest, mixed the touch, agreeing to tone down the red. Grander royal blue means chastity in the sacred sphere, majestic black being seriousness, wealthy refinement and distinction. Let's look at a few more colors and what they represented in clothing and the Renaissance era Light blue meant a young, marriageable woman. Green youth, love joy. Gray was a modest religious dress purple, which is a controversial purple and violent, but we'll just go with the word purple right now, but purple was very majestic and they actually ran out of that color, and it was made from the mucus off a sea snail. And they used it so much that the snail became extinct and that colored and come back many years later that they did it scientifically, found it accidentally, so it was very, very expensive and only limited to those that were royalty. Orange was considered a less degree of red, so it's like a peasant would wear that. And white, which even today we, we think in that same way is purity. Here we have a painting, the entombment 15 07 We've seen this before with the lamination and P ETA indefinitely. See, there's an influence of Michelangelo's work in his piece. What really is striking about this is that composition that's being developed here. You don't have that pure middle design, so he's creating his own style. It has a very elegant, a symmetrical balanced. We certainly have the focal point with Christ face and everyone looking towards him. Another thing I think that comes pretty interested in here is the color usage. Notice what Christ color of what he's wearing. So what do you think that the pink color met this the virgin and child with the infant ST John the Baptist. You can definitely see the influence of DaVinci in this work with the Coolidge the spoon motto that's being used. But he has a really elegant composition. It is pure middle. He has a true understanding of the anatomy, and it comes across so skillfully in this painting. Not only that's that sets of serene and emotion and softness, here's our last piece will be discussing in this segment. This is Raphael's fresco, done between 15 09 15 10. It's titled the School of Athens. It's It's okay in the Pasta Lick Palace, the Vatican city. Now, if we remember the Apostle IQ Palace, somebody else's nearby painting during this time frescoes. So Michelangelo's hanging out. I think it would be pretty interesting. The title basically refers to philosophers in the classical world rather than any particular school of philosophy. We have a whole group of philosophers with different gestures, and they seem like they're debating or talking referencing to each other, and they all encapsulated in this Renaissance building structure. Now the balance here is pretty symmetrical. You could take a line to separate it right down the middle, and it's almost smeared like so. This is definitely a symmetrical balance. What makes an interesting, though, are the two front groupings a strong foreground, middle ground and definitely a background. Raphael really pushes space by thes arches. Here you have one in the foreground, you're going way in the background, another arch in a barrel vaulting, another arch and another Arjuna, Open sky. Wow! As a viewer, it really invites you to enter the space and get really engulfed into the scene. So it has kind of drama and theatrical approach to it. Let's get up a little closer to this and discuss a few of the members that are there. I'm just gonna name a few Plato Aristotle hair CLI teas who's considered the weeping philosopher. And that's a self portrait off Rafia. The hidden meeting in this painting is he's betraying. Leonardo has played him and down below. You'll see the philosopher. Her client, he's is being portrayed by Michelangelo with this weeping philosopher kind of correlates to his moody personality. I hope you enjoy this class as much as I did in the next section. I'll be explaining about the written project, a comparative analysis 9. Critical Comparative Visual Analysis Project: this section is about the project for the class. What? I want to start out with this. What is critical and visual thinking? I've summarized this myself. The critical process is really starting out with observing. So you have a visual element and you're gonna be describing that so observation skills are very important. Then you're gonna analysis eyes it and this isn't interpreting it. It's really your thinking incubation process. And then, lastly, is your evaluating it. And this is your judgment that you're placing on it. Why is it good wise it not good. Go back to the project. This is a critical comparative analysis. It's a written short essay. At least 500 words you're gonna be comparing in contrast ing two paintings here, some questions for the visual analysis and art. These are just a few that I've written down to help you get started with. This first seem to really think about is describe these two paintings in detail that your reader would easily visualize them just with your words. That kind of gives you your your set place right now, I thought this might help you with this diagram. Or you could just make two lists and be one for each of the paintings and then find which ones correlate to be the same things that be the color usage or how they're compositional structure is. And then you can really get a basis of how you're going to work or a set place. How are you gonna work that? I'm gonna give you a little example of what I'm looking for. I've chosen these two pieces. This is John does the last Supper. We didn't do this in this section, but I know you know his work and that we've got Leonardo with the last Supper. So I'm just gonna go through and see what I noticed to be the same. First of all, the theme or subject matter is the same cause it's the last Supper. So the same elements air happening here. We have the 12 apostles with Christ. What do I see differently? Definitely in Leonardo's last Supper crisis in the metal crisis. Certainly in that one point perspective, he is the focal point. When I look at Jonah's work, I've got a really look around before I see Christ. I noticed that he's deferred because of his halo, so that signifies who he is. And it's a gold haloed, not one of those dark once he has a little bit of perspective in Hiss, but not as intensified is Leonardo's. They are kind of underneath some kind of covering more. Leonardo's this place inside a building, you can tell. The difference is that the drapery folds the gestural expressions that Leonardo has versus Giotto's work. They're just either turn left or right, so this is really the beginning of the analysis of it. These are all the things that I start to notice that are different or are the same. So it's start writing these down to help you build up. How are you going to write this and please, for goodness, eggs? It's not to use the word pretty or ugly, and it's it seems like that's a person it comes out of. A student's mouth is Oh, well, that's pretty, and I like it. And then that's all they say in a critique. So go a little further with that. Be a lot more descriptive. You're gonna be visually, critically thinking and analysis izing. After this, I have to two examples that you can use or you can do whatever you'd like. And don't forget to put these up in the project gallery because I'd like to see how you interpret the class and how much information you gathered. I think you're gonna really be amazed of how successful you really are. 10. :FinalThoughts: I want to thank you so much for taking my class. I bet you noticed my pen. Mona Lisa here. Because now you know, detail on you're looking for things. If you have any ideas for classes that you'd like to learn in art appreciation, just let me know You could email through my profile page and please look at that because I have different things going on. You can see other classes that I teach e Also, please follow me because I will notify you of new classes are being published by me. I'm gonna share with you a class that you might find interesting. At the very end, I have references of the re sources of the information that I've gathered. And don't forget to upload your project in the project gallery. I love to see what you wrote about