UX Design & Research: Better UX using Heuristic Evaluation | Aman Gupta | Skillshare

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UX Design & Research: Better UX using Heuristic Evaluation

teacher avatar Aman Gupta, Pet Lover & Blockchain Enthusiast

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

17 Lessons (1h 22m)
    • 1. Introduction to the course

    • 2. H1: Visibility of system status (Concept)

    • 3. H1: Implementation & Examples

    • 4. H2: Match between system and the real world (Concept)

    • 5. H2: Implementation & Examples

    • 6. H3: User control and freedom (Concept)

    • 7. H3: Implementation and Examples

    • 8. H4: Consistency and standards (Internal Consistency)

    • 9. H4: 4.2 Consistency and standards (External Consistency)

    • 10. H5: Error prevention - Slips

    • 11. H5: Error prevention - Mistakes

    • 12. H5: Other Error Prevention Techniques

    • 13. H6: Recognition rather than recall (Concept and Examples)

    • 14. H7: Flexibility and efficiency of use (Concept and Examples)

    • 15. H8: Aesthetic and minimalist design (Concept and Examples)

    • 16. H9: Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors (Concept & Examples)

    • 17. H10: Help and documentation (Concept and Examples)

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About This Class

Right from ordering food to booking flights to even finding a partner, we use in-numerous apps and websites on a daily basis. Some of these apps and websites are intuitive and easy to use while others are horrible and frustrating.

So what differentiates a good app or a website from a bad one?

Although there can be multiple factors responsible for this, but Usability is definitely one of them. Usability means providing users with the ability to achieve their goal with minimal efforts in least possible time.

Good usability leads to:

1. Better Conversion Rates

2. Improved Customer Retention

3. Reduced Support Costs

4. Increased Productivity and

5. Greater User Satisfaction.

Now as we know the importance of usability, the million-dollar question here is how to evaluate usability and not just evaluate but how to improve the usability of an app or a website.

If you are also wondering about these questions, then you have come to the right place.

I am Aman Gupta, your instructor for this class. I have been studying and implementing UX design principles for the last 12 years. I have specifically created this class to help you understand usability and the ways to evaluate the usability of any user interface.

Who should enrol for this class?

Whether you are a designer, developer, product manager, or a startup founder this class would really prove beneficial to you. This course will teach you practical guidelines that you will be able to use immediately in your job to create world-class products and interfaces. I can confidently say that by the end of this class you will be able to evaluate a website or an app for its usability and not just evaluate you would be able to provide suggestions to improve its usability.


Additionally, for designers and product managers who are looking for new career opportunities, this class is really worth a shot. Generally, as a part of the recruitment process for these profiles, companies ask applicants to review a product and provide suggestions for improvements in the same. And I can assure you that the framework and techniques discussed in this class will really come in handy to ace these product review assignments. Although there are different sets of guidelines available for evaluating the usability of an app or a website, in this class, we would be primarily discussing the 10 Usability Heuristics given by Jakob Nielsen, as these are the most widely used guidelines across the world to evaluate any user interface.

With the help of real-world examples, I will walk you through how these usability heuristics can be used to evaluate any user interface.

So, does this all sound exciting to you? If yes I invite you to join this class and embark on this enthralling journey towards a better and upskilled you. I welcome you all and hope to see you in the class!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Aman Gupta

Pet Lover & Blockchain Enthusiast


I graduated from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) in the field of UX Design and hold an MBA degree in marketing.  I am an experimenter who loves to explore and implement new ideas.

I am a Blockchain enthusiast and I am currently busy exploring the Applications of Blockchain for various Businesses. You will soon see more of my online videos on Blockchain and its practical use cases.

With my passion of teaching and wealth of knowledge, I am confident each of my courses will help you in expanding your knowledge horizons. I look forward to see you in my class. 

Happy Learning! 

See full profile

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1. Introduction to the course: from ordering food to booking flights, even finding a partner way used in numerous abs and websites on a daily basis. Some of these absent websites our duty and easy to use, while others are poor people interested. So what differentiates a good effort? A website from a bad although there can be multiple factors responsible for this. But usability is definitely even off. Usability means providing users with the ability to achieve their goal, get minimal efforts in lace possible time. Good news. A beauty leads to better conversion rates, improved customer retention, reduced support costs, increase productivity and greater you the satisfaction. Now, as we know the importance of usability, the $1,000,000 question here is how to evaluate usability and nor just devalue it. But how to improve usability often act whatever state. If you are also wondering about these questions, then you have come to the right mix. I am a man Ghouta, your instructor For this course, I have been studying and implementing US design principles since the last well eels. I have specifically created this coast to help you understand usability and the base to evaluate usability off any user interface. Whether you are a designer developer product manager. What it started from do this course would really prove beneficial. This course will be to practical guidelines that you will be able to use immediately in your job to create guard class products and interfaces. I can confidently say that by the end of this course you will be able to evaluate off website or an app for its usability and not just devalue it. You would be able to provide suggestions to improve it. Additionally, for designers amperage managers who are looking for new career opportunities, this course is really what a short generally as a part of the recruitment process. Put these profiles come. Please ask applicants to review a product and provide suggestions for improvements in the scene. And I can assure you that the favor and techniques discussed in this course will really come in handy. Who is these product review assignments? Although there are different sects of guidelines available for evaluating the usability often Airport, a website. But in this course we would be time you're discussing that 10 usability heuristics given by type of meals, as these are the most widely used violence at coast over to evaluate any user interface. With the help of real world examples, I really walk you through. How busy is inflicting heuristics can be used any user indifference. You would admit that the best way to learn is by getting your hands dirty their food. This course will not be limited. Toy only on will provide my people exercise files and interfaces for you to work as a usability expert, you will be evaluating these interfaces, hand highlighting usability issues in there. I will also be sharing my usability findings for these products and user interfaces so that you can see how you perform. Does this all sound exciting to you? If yes, I invite you to join this course and embark on this controlling journey. Do us a better and then obscurity. I welcome you all and hope to see you 2. H1: Visibility of system status (Concept) : the first heuristics is not the civility off system status. According to this Uresti, the system should inform the users about where they are and what they are doing toe appropriate feedback within reasonable time. Simply put, they should know what's going on in the system at any given point of time. The visibility of System Status Reference toe. However, state of a system is conveyed to excuses. If you look around yourself, you will find plenty of examples where this year stick is applied dough. You may have noticed that Mess it till now. Take the example of your more before when you put it on silent mode. An appropriate symbol is always displayed to you on the screen. This symbol keeps you informed about the current state of the mobile, and other examples could be able to. The system continuously keeps on updating you about the current level of elevated. Just take a minute and think off this hypothetical situation. Howard fee. If the current state of the elevator is no displayed to you, although this won't affect your wait time or the time the elevated takes to reach from its current level to you 11. But it would definitely make you feel helpless. The visibility of the system status affects you at the psychological level, having clear and transparent communication and policy. Why the absence off it makes you feel helpless and vulnerable. And I know a very good example of this heuristic that you can easily relate to his. Your mobile phone's battery. You're more before always this place. How much batteries left village. This helps you to charge it at an appropriate time on for appropriate division. So as toe any inconvenience. Imagine if the battery status was no. Do you would have no clue about the factory would day. You might be in the middle of a payment for an important phone call on the battery made A. But with the visibility of battery status, you can easily take required action that is putting it to charge as and when required. Hence having deal. Visibility of the system status empowers you who take very quiet action in order to achieve your desired outcome. Similarly, for user interfaces, that availability of systems status plays a very critical room. When users interact with the user interface, they want to know if the interaction was successful, they want to know if there actually has resulted in the desired outcome. For example, in case of an equal most website, do you think on the add to cart button should add that item to the car? But if the card is no display anywhere, what, there is no system feedback for this indirection they use. It won't know whether the product was a little note. In such a scenario, it is quite likely that the user may at the same item multiple times because off the absence of proper system feet proposes to feedback. Is the foundation off user interface design It gives you this, informed about the current state of the system on becomes a facilitator who steal the indirection in the right direction on that, too, with minimal effort. Very system conveys its current state yearly. Do they uses the users? Trust increases. They fee that they're in control as you know what is happening in the system, and they can control it as they can see that the system is behaving. As for their expectation. There, dressed for the system increases, for example. Then he uses uploading an image on a social media platform, a completion but informs the user about the time it will take to complete that duty. So they know one. The current state off photo uploads is they don't have to. Second guess when the photo will get uploaded this year and transparent communication with its uses based trust for the system. Therefore, for a good living experience sites and perhaps should communicate the current state of the system who they uses this holistic in its essence in courageous, open and continues communication, which is the building block off all relationships, baby humans or with devices. 3. H1: Implementation & Examples: he'll not be this lecture. We discussed the first heuristic and its importance for throwing a good experience to the uses in this lecture. We are going to look at the ways your disk Uresti in our design solution. Showing their current location is the first way to communicate system status to the uses. Everyone hates the feeling off being lost both in the real and digital work, so make sure that uses know where they are in the system. Irrespective off battery is an app for that report. Having knowledge about their current position, we help them to navigate easily, which in turn will result in a better experience with that. This is a screenshot from booking dot com. On this porter, you can do multiple tease like looking for tales, booking flights, renting cars, hiring April, Texas, etcetera. This, like another Flights menu, indicates that the user is on the flight selection beach or, in other words, it is the current state of the system. Similarly, in this screen short, which is taken from Wall Street Journal reporter, the current state of the system is displayed for difficult. The user is currently on the artificial intelligence step display page. Heady is also a very good strategy who display the current state of the system. Additionally, showing Bread Comes is one of the other effective ists to show the current state, along with the part that they use it has taken to reach that state. This is a screenshot from an e commerce site here. The breadcrumbs show the path that the user has taken to reach this current beach. Having bad cramps makes it easier for users who never get to and for within the system. If there are multiple steps in boat to complete a process showing the steps completed and step many along with the current step that the user is, that can be good, too, and has experience off your users. In this example, there are three steps involved to complete this process. The system clearly shows that they use a result. Step two. It also shows that Step one is completed. Hence, Step three is still pending. This helps a user to know how much more work is spending and how much work is completed. Appropriate feedback is another way to communicate system step is to the users and to drive the interaction in the right direction when a user performed in action always show him the corresponding result off direction through proper sister feet There, for example, in this cream short, the user has added capsicum to his cut. The system intern presents in with feedback that action performed by him has been successful. This system feedback gives him the matters of destruction that is actually has been completed, and now he can and other items without worrying about capsicum. Here is another screen short that clearly indicates to a user that the transaction has been successful. Always remember that providing appropriate feedback is very crucial for building a great user experience in your product display. Progress indicators can be another great P to inform users about the current state of the system. Today, everyone wants everything to be quick. Nobody seems to like Betty, and this late even becomes harder. Then you don't know valuable. And that's why showing progress indicators can be a great tool to inform your users when an action is taking too long to get executed, showing a progress indicator help still uses to know how much off the process is done on how more they may have to pick before it gets completely. There are some basic rules off Tom who decide what kind of indicator to show based on the waiting time. For a process to be completed, there are surely take degrees of it. Then the first category is less than one second. The second get degrees, one second to 10 seconds on the dark. A degree is where the wait time is more than 10 seconds. In the first case, Vera system takes less than one second. There is no need to show any indicator as they won't be noticed by the user. In the second case, when the fate time is between 1 to 10 seconds, convert your cursor into some light animation something like this who communicate about the one going closest to your uses in the dark scenario, when the time is more than 10 seconds, showing progress indicator and an estimated time to completion is a good strategy. This helps the uses know that the process is going to take away, and in the meantime they can go and finish some other dust in the following screen. Short, you can see that chrome browser indicators that time left while downloading a file, along with the progress indicator to summarize visibility off system status is very crucial for creating a good experience for users to implement this heuristic show, their current location. So they uses in a multi step process, shorter steps completed and steps really along with the current step that the user is that RWE appropriate feedback this paper best indicators and show available contextual actions to your uses. This was all over the first heuristic visibility off the system status hope you enjoyed and learned from it. The next lecture will be on the second heuristic match between system and that the vote hope to see you here. 4. H2: Match between system and the real world (Concept): the second realistic given by listen, his match between system and burial. This heuristic states that the system should speak to use language with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user. The other dances temple, yet dictums follow really work conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order. Systems that Adair to really work conventions and make information appear in a natural order provide a better experience today uses. This is because familiarity brings comfort to us humans. For example, when you use your own voice, you versus venues, devotion off a friend or a relative. You feel more comfortable in the first scenario as your family with the center. Similarly, users feel more comfortable using a system that there's somehow family of it. The biggest mistake that UX designers me is considering ourselves as the end users off the product, because when this happens this time, designing for us is, and when they designed for us is we start using our own interpretations on understanding off objects and words to create the system, which may or may not matter with the end users. Expectations well actually and uses visit these sites that APS and unable to understand the words and terms used there. They feel confused and therefore they try to find an alternative for external help who get their Tustin. Therefore, it is very critical that the sister speaks the language of the users and matches the real work and mentions as we are discussing very Elber conventions. Therefore, our discretion would be incomplete if they don't talk about still more fit. Design skew more fit. Design, in its essence, refers to a design for a new direction that is a Muslim from the physical world. This green short taken from my books application is a good example. Off steam offic design. This application is used to display books better available in the system. This concept is similar to a library book shelf in the physical world. The biggest advantage of studio perfect design is it is off use. Has users can use these products and interfaces based on their past experience on existing knowledge, and therefore there is no or very minimal really required for users to use such interfaces . Here is another example of stew morphing design. This is a snapshot, often a web application. Banana, which used to be one of the most famous music player, APS some years ago. In this image, you can clearly see that the buttons off this music player app resemble the burdens off real music player. This is a classic example of studio perfect design. Another good example for this could be the desktop calculator. The interface of the calculator APP is inspired from the physical calculator, although their design is flat and minimalistic. But calculator user interface works just like the real one. Family in directions on elements on the calculator interface makes it easier for the users to use it without the need of anything by no, you must have understood why this heuristic execution in order to create a better experience for users. Therefore, why is any any system try to use familiar or natural in directions? Implement concepts that you users have been exposed to previously and last but not the least awake technical terms and dragons unless you and uses our family of it There breath for using simple words to have a better and effective communication 5. H2: Implementation & Examples: No, let's look at some of the applications off kneels and second heuristic, massive in system and the foot. This will help you to better understand the importance of this heuristic for providing a better experience to your uses. Warts that be feature. We're really example who understand this Uresti in that the over we process a lot of information there in India. This information that we process everyday consist of information that we can afford to forget on information that we can, for example, we can afford to forget. But we ate to this back. But we can't afford to miss that deadline for applying to a particular job. We can't afford to forget that there is an important meeting with the client Post lunch. We can't afford to forget or really grosses for delegates. For all such pieces off information that we can't afford to forget, we generally right and fill them up on our boards or dissed. This exact concept was implemented by votes up recently. Generally, users get bombarded with messages on the words of application, some from the contexts, some from their world groups, some from the family groups and some from the marketeers in this full of messages. Sometimes it gets difficult to find messages from important groups or people in their lives . Keeping this in mind what's up has introduced a being functionality recently, like the real over. You can feel it contact or a group. Hence. Subsequently, messages from that contact or group are shown on a double the other messages, thus making it easier for you to find the important messages without any unnecessary effort . The next example. Where this heuristic is applied his I sense. Here are some of the icons that would be right from the real world counterparts dress being in Mac and recycle 1,000,000,000 windows. I'd be like from the real life Be which we used to discover unnecessary stuff. It is because of this resemblance that by just looking at that I can offer trash me. You can understand what it is meant. Food similarly floated this for saving an item. Ritter. I could operating a document less I could to represent the sex functionality and home Aiken for navigating back to the home pitch. These items don't need any explanation or tree goingto them match with the corresponding the overthrow tips in the physical world We generally know that color to this danger war, etcetera. And on the contrary, we associate green color to safety, happiness and prospect. So that's why most platforms use that colorful display, other messages and a vehicle who display conformation or completion messages. The previous association off users with these killers make these messages more intuitive and easy to understand. Five and four does is another example where this use because a flight in the three ever we keep all the little documents in one form. For example, if you're planning to apply for a home, you you will keep all your homeland related documents and files in one folder. Keeping related documents and files together in one. Fordham makes it easier to find. This same concept is implemented by most of the operating systems as well, similar to what we do in the real world. Foreigners in our systems are used for the segregation on grouping off data different filed in documents related to one project I gently put together undermined for you. This makes it easier to find them as and when required. Google Maps is another good example where this heuristic is nicely used, every location on this work has accordingly. In terms of longitude and latitude. These coordinates are complicated numbers, which are difficult for the majority of the users to remember. In the over, people use location names to refer to a place rather than co ordinates and any inspiration from this. Google maps also display the name of the location, along with the 40 minutes, in order to make it easier for the users to use it. Imagine if you would have to remember the 40 nets off your home or office while looking a camp. Won't it become by something to do? According to this holistic, it is no destroyed elements that should master users the over experience. But process fools also need to be seen. Well, how you operate in the real world set. Let's take the example of e commerce sites and understand how they implement this Uresti in the physical world setting. When you go out for shopping, you typically followed this process. You and you browse through the item stepped in the store, and if you find something useful or if you like something, you put that item into your car. And once you're done with selecting the items you go to the cash counter along with your cut and the cast on toe. You enter you card details and complete deputies. Same process is followed by Equal Messiah test. Then you want to buy items online store. You visit the website for the APP. You browse through the available items and add the ones you like to your shopping cup. And once you're done, you enter your car ditties and make the parties this verse really evil. As the system is replicating the re ever experience of users, only this heuristic states that the system should speak the language of the uses with words and phrases familiar to the user. This means if you're designing a system specific to an industry, you should first understand that terms used in that industry and then use them your solutions to make it easier for the users to understand. And to understand this industry. What business specific terms there is no back away. Then you can get you the research and meet users off your work. Let me take you to one of my experiences related to this involve the product design assignments. I came to know that an important functionality of the product was not getting used by the users. The product that I was working on batting only selling and buying refused costs. This product had a smile price calculator for finding the market price of an orca based on my people feathers. The functionality was excellent, but the issue was with the level of the functionality, the correct e labor, the functionality Escarre evaluated to which was North Sophia to the end uses after connecting. Usually search. I came to know about this fact and suggested that we should change the name used car price calculator as it was much more duty for the users to understand. The suggestion worked because now the system was speaking by users language with words and phrases, family a duty. So that was all about the second heuristic match between system and they re over. I believe that by now you must have understood the importance off implementing this Uresti for providing a better experience. Do you use is 6. H3: User control and freedom (Concept): that tired touristic given by deck of Newsom is user control and freedom. This heuristic states users or fun to system functions by a mystic, and we lead a clearly marked emergency exit to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dino support a new Andry. Let's look at this holistic in detail. I understand its implications on the design solutions. People often want to finish their tasks with the on the system. With so many distractions in this around these, it can lead to long clicks and 20 sister functions, which in turn can be a frustrating experience for them. In all such scenarios, users require clearly marked emergency exit to leave the unwanted state without having to go to an extended dialogue. Therefore, while designing the user interface, make sure to provide a redo on a new functionality in your system. For example, in case off a browser, the backboard themselves as an emergency exit whenever I use a lance on an unwanted beach. Another good example of this can be that recycle bin, which helps the user toe under the accident dilation often important fight. In all of these examples, you can clearly see that the system gives freedom and control who they use it. This enables users who use the system without any inhibitions because they know even if they commit a mistake, the system will help them to recover from it. 7. H3: Implementation and Examples: Let's look at some more examples to understand the importance of tired Uresti, user control and freedom for any design solution. The first example that they're going to Dick is off Microsoft Power Point in PowerPoint. If you make a mistake, you can always undo and recover from it. And if you want to go deeper, Power Point has the division history that can help you do this store to a previous state off your work in the deal. On screen Short, you can see that this heuristic has been nicely implemented by Microsoft PowerPoint. Imagine, how would you experience be if this functionality off redo and undo was missing in Power Point. Another good example of this redo and undo functionality. His Google dogs, in addition, toe a new on D do. This application also provides the functionality off version control. That means you can see on restore the previous versions off the current document. You can also see the number of addicts that made recently, and I know a very good example of this is Google key. This application provides the functionality to create and capture north on the go in this application when it by people are not is not required anymore. A user can either delete it or archive it if he may need it later, and then I use it at case or the leaves a note. The system presents him with an option toe under his action. Through this functionality, the system gives control to the user to correct his mistake. Similarly, if the user on a Kaiser not from the archives, will do, the system presents the option to undo that action. This giving him the freedom to explore the system without any inhibition. Similar system behavior can be see when they use the moves of five from one folder to another. In Google Life, that system prevention a new option to the user just in case it was not what the user intended. Here is another great example where you can see the application of this Uresti. This is the installation window for Adobe Sweet. I know this suite consists off a lot of applications and therefore quite naturally takes a good amount of time to get installed. Here is a screenshot off the sea. In this screen short, you can see that the system for wives control so the user cancer the installation at any point of time as we already discussed, the installation takes a substantial time. I'm in a scenario where the user can't afford to spend that amount of time on the installation. He can abandon the operation at any point of time and can do it later. In this case, the system gives him freedom to leave the unwanted state without having to go to an extended One of the very good examples off this his uber app. They have implemented this heuristic quite nicely during my first trip to the US by booking an uber I was wondering how is the driver? Contact me as my uber account has my Indian mobile. Um I checked on go to know that they do have the functionality. Pretend your mobile number on that. It was really great experience for me as I could use my same uber account to book a cap in the U. S s. Well, there was no need to create a separate account for that Here. The system gave me freedom, retained my information based on my need and requirement, which in turn proved to be a great experience for me as a user therefore, by a beauty, any design solution. It is very critical. You consider all those scenarios where the probability off making mistakes is high, or where the information can change based on certain circumstances. According to this heuristic in all such scenarios, the system should give freedom to the users who changed the information based on the need and requirement. For example, the option to change the current address mobile number subscription plan, etcetera. Implementing this year Stick in your design will make you users explored and use a system without any inhibition because they know even if they commit a mistake, the system will help them to recover from it. 8. H4: Consistency and standards (Internal Consistency): the four touristic given by Nielsen is consistency and standards. This heuristic states that users should not have to wonder by the different words situations where actions mean the same thing for no platform conventions. This heuristic ensures that the system you're designing is predictable and is easy to learn for your users. That consistency that they're discussing in this heuristic can be at various levels for example, consistency within an application or group of applications. Consistency with respect to the industry, black from specific consistency, like by designing foot IOS, Android etcetera. So to make up for that easy and it due to to use, make sure that it is consistent at all these levels. Let's start our discussion with consistency within an application or group of applications . Microsoft Office Suite is one of the most apt examples who understand this level of consistency. There are a number of applications in Microsoft Office Suite like Microsoft, PowerPoint, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft work, etcetera. All of these applications for were consistently out, which in turn makes them intuitive and easy to use. For instance, if I use it has been exposed to Microsoft PowerPoint, and he's going to use Microsoft except for the first time. That consistency between these two applications makes it easier for him to understand the new application the user can. Celebrities past experience with power equate to easily understand the layout of exit, thus reducing his land impolitic off and giving him a sense of comfort. This was an example of how consistency within a group of applications can make life easier for your users. Now let's proceed for the and look at the importance of consistency within a single application through the help. Often example. In this application, snap, shoot the inland charitable fields in the later table I've represented by purple color text . This means that when a user clicks on a purple color text in the table, it gets got money to an auditable field. In this demon, each represents a somebody off. A latter day does it. In other words, each woven expended leads to dedicated information. Pitch could never get through the expanded view. I use the needs to please call the three dots, Aiken written done, presented with the available options. Once the user clicks on the addict of you leak, the system never gives who the dedicated information beach so This is how the system works . While using this application quite naturally, the user will start assuming that purple color text in a table means like add it. But imagine what will happen if England on the data tables within the same application. The purple collect text is used as a week to never get to the dedicated information pitch. Corresponding to that. True, how do you think it will affect experience off the user? The user will get confused. Why do you see any system a user forms of mental more than off the sea? This mantle model is Matty, but a blueprint of how the system works after the user experience, is it in this case they use? It won't be able to form a TM mental model off the system. By using this application, he will expect that clicking on the piper teletext within a table, they make it added. But if that system behaves differently and now he gets him to a different beach, his mind, we always be in a confused it. He always have to guess if the Piper Colette text in a table means in line at it for navigation. Therefore, for a user to form a PM mental model of the system. Maintaining consistency within a single application is off utmost importance. This was all about maintaining consistency within an application or a group of applications . 9. H4: 4.2 Consistency and standards (External Consistency): Now let's move ahead. I understand what we mean when we say mentally consistency with respect in the street or a platform. In this case, maintaining consistent is simply means implementing standard you a conventions fuller through the industry or platform. Generally, when users interact with the new system, they use their past experience to decode it. So if you fall under standard U. N conventions, it becomes easier for your users to use your system. Simply put, it increases the usability off your system. For example, simple things like putting your logo on the left hand side and making it applicable to redirect the user to your landing or home pitch. Providing a sign in button on the right hand side corner off the site can make a system family you to your uses at least early. This makes the learning curve off your platform much smaller for uses. Therefore, why it is any for particle platform. It becomes very crucial. Who considered its guidelines? For example, IOS Human interface guidelines, material design guidelines, etcetera. Using these talent conventions will help you to make a product more predictable and lead level. Jacko's low off the Web user experience states that users spent most of their time on sites other than use. This, in turn, means that users expect your site to work the same way as all other sites they have used. Foreign directed. If in case your side breaks a standard convention, for instance, if it has a sign of button on the bottom left hand corner instead of hope right hand corner , you are forcing users to learn a new team and adding a new pattern to the standard convention. Liston decreased cognitive load for the users. Therefore, try to follow the standard convention unless baking a standard convention is necessary. What base about the better user experience. 10. H5: Error prevention - Slips: the fifth heuristic given by Nielsen is Adam Revenge. This hubristic states even better than good other messages is a careful design, which prevents a problem from agree in the first place, either eliminate Adam tone conditions or check for them, and presents users with confirmation option before they come into the action. According to Nielsen Norman Group, There are majorly two broad categories off errors that uses me slips and mistakes. Let's first discuss about slips and the possible ways to prevent that. After that, we will move to mistakes and the vase to prevent it. Seeps occur when the user is trying to perform one action but ends up doing some other action, which often December. This intended action, for example, where he accidentally puts conditions on his head as you make it to bishop or when I was a types letter as instead of a by typing on the ticket. Boot slips, as the name indicates, are generally made when the users are not fully attending about the task at hand and are on autopilot moves in case off slips users are quite family of it going. Additionally, there also comfortable with the procedure to accomplish that goal, but the accident people from the wrong action while trying to accomplish their goal. This generally happens because we don't devote our full attention toe tasks that we practiced regularly and as a consequence, people from the no action, the main culprit off slip, that others are expert users who believe that they have mastered that us and therefore need to pay less attention to complete it. To prevent slips, we need to certainly guide the users so that they stay on the right track and there are less chances of committing an error. Here are some of the tips that you can use to minimize these slip type others, although it's not always a good idea to impose a constraint on users choices. But in certain scenarios where there are clear rules that define acceptable options, placing constraints on the user's inputs can help our sleep tight airs. For example, by looking at 40 a user needs to select the check in and check out date, in this case, there a site in news which go on the acceptability of the dates. One of the rules is that the check out they can be earlier than the check Indeed, if in this case they use us represented with free range dead selection, they mislead on accidentally selected check out it. That is earlier than the check Indy in this case, as the rules are defined for dead selection, therefore, placing a logical constrain can guide the uses to select appropriate dates for better understanding. Let's take a real world example. Here is a screenshot off a teleporter in this porter. Once the second date is selected as 50 happen that dates before this date becomes unavailable for selection for the check out date. As the rule clearly states that the total debt can be earlier than the second, it therefore inactivating bad experience to check. Indeed, X as a subtle guide for the users to award this slip type letters. Providing suggestions in some cases can be helpful to await slips. There are various scenarios where users can commit others, but providing suggestions can prevent these adults from happening in the given screen Short . You can clearly see that the platform offer suggestions for the names off cities and areas based on the initial type letters. This is the in order to minimize the human errors. There is a high probability that users may misspell Mrs Saada or Mississippi while searching for them. But in this case, as the platform for Web suggestions based on the initial letters entered the chances off after they do this significant, according to the research connected by Lisa Norman Group offering battered before values can be another good way to prevent slip tight letters scenarios. Their users are required to perform rapidity, actions or scenarios their users are required to use. Decision offering appropriate before values that are likely to satisfy their real world requirements can be greatly to avoid others. For example, Google keep application for Android. A user can create a note and can then set a reminder for the sea in this at while citing very minder. The preset options are provided as today, tomorrow and next month. In this scenario, if instead of these three sets off today and tomorrow actually dates I presented to the user, there are chances that he may commit an error. It can happen that the user may get confused with the dates and they're around it. But with these preset options off today, tomorrow the chances off errors are reduced significantly. So these other possible ways by which you can prevent slip that address from happening 11. H5: Error prevention - Mistakes: Now let's move to mistakes the second type of Adam that users can commit by interacting with your product, you must have hard. This famous adage Toe is whom this rule applies while interacting with user interfaces as well, in case off user interfaces mistakes. Then he happen when uses, develop an incorrect mental model off the inter fees and, because of the development off the wrong mental model users trying to accomplish a goal that doesn't solve the situation. In order to prevent users from committing mistakes, you can use these techniques. Gathering user data is the first technique that you can use to prevent this kind of mystics to prevent mistakes. It is the responsibility of the designer to understand the users mental model and their expectations. And there, after designing a system that matches them, you can use various usually such techniques to figure out users mental model and then expectations from the system make contextual inquiry. User interviews feel status, etcetera vie for existing products. Conducting usability testing can be greatly who are not. The why behind users, mystics and their expectations from the system sticking to design conventions is the second we by which you can prevent these kind off. Others, as discussed previously as well. Deck hopes low off the Web user experience states that you just spend most of their time on sites other than use. This, in turn, means that users expect your site about the same way as all other sites they have used foreign directed. So whenever you side deviated from the normal design conventions, the probability off uses committing a mistake increases. For example, hyperlinks or in short legs. A text that is expected to work as a hyperlink is definitely given a different color than the rest off the beach. And in some cases it is also underlined to communicate to users that despicable now on your site. If you're using the underlined, differently colored text who just highlight a particular point and there is no leak associated with the text, you are breaking the normal design convention. In this scenario, user may click on the text thinking it Toby Link that reflects more detailed information, but as according to you, it was never meant to be leak. It won't begin there, any of you. This is quite the opposite off what they expected, based on their experience off using and interacting with thousands of websites. So it is very critical that that desire has mental model and interpretation off. Our system should be here. Should Matthews is mental modern and expectations from the system showing a preview off the final dessert can be another great V tow. Avoid mistakes committed by uses. For example, while taking the plane down off any document. Orientation and size adjustment plays are very critical. Therefore, generally all critics off fears provide an option to preview how your printed papers were directly. Imagine if there was no preview option, you would have to either guess or commit a mistake before we get the right fit. Therefore, having a preview off the final dessert can reduce the chances off mistakes committed by your uses before proceeding any further. Let's summarize and device what we have studied till now. Under the fist touristy, this heuristic mainly deals with other prevention and eliminating other prone conditions in your designs. Foolish and for this, you need to understand the types of errors that a user can Me. There are basically two types of errors, slips and mistakes, slips Alcoa When the user is trying to perform one action but ends up doing some other action which often resembles is intended actually to award these kinds off. Others ps logical constraints in your design solution right contextual situations to the users and offer better before wells. Mistakes are the second type of others that a user can be and mistakes. Then he happened when users developing incorrect mental model off the inter fees who would use this kind of error, gather user data to better understand the mental model and expectations idea to design conventions and give the functionality to preview is it's, I hope, that I know you have clarity on the types of errors that users can commit while interacting with the system and, more importantly, what can be done in order to minimize these others. 12. H5: Other Error Prevention Techniques: we now know they have a different set of techniques for preventing asleep at all. But since directing a mistake from getting committed, but there are certain techniques that can be applied to both of them, which they will be discussing now. Although Villas I has focused on creation by ideation or destruction is a very critical part off any system, any data or creation that is being deleted by the user has taken both work on time to be created. Therefore, when he was that tries to believe anything, it is absolutely necessary to ask for his confirmation. There is no scope off out of here. Although putting a confirmation dialog may come at the cost of some extra clicks for a little delay off the process, it is still highly recommended who have this dial in order to make sure that users really wants to believe the selected data provide, settle contextual Arab warnings to your user why he's in the act of committing and added this can help him to recall from the era even before committing it, for example, while creating a passport. If you site has some specific format highlighting which all criteria are not met can help user to avoid committing. And Adam, it is always a good idea to prevent an adult from happening then to rectify it. 13. H6: Recognition rather than recall (Concept and Examples): one of the key qualities of a good design is its capability to minimize the community or the mantle Lord off its uses. And this is exactly what is stated in the sixth heuristic given by lives this heuristic recognition better than recall states. Minimize the users memory load by making objects. Actions had options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to, and I do. Instructions for use off the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate to reduce the cognitive Lord of users. It is very important that you implement this heuristic in your design. Let's take some real life examples to better understand this Uresti. Have you ever experienced that is subjective? Question is much more difficult to answer, then an objective or multiple choice question. Have you ever you laced that? It is easy to recognize a family of face, then to recall the name of that person. This is because to recall something you need to exact pressure on your brain, which in turn leads to call me to do. On the other hand, that omission means the grieving information true cues this can involve multiple senses a story on a particular context. Therefore, the initial is always easier than the corny. Now let's go ahead and understand recall in terms off user interfaces. As the name suggests, the call is something that we need to retreat from our remedy. Logan is the perfect example off recall in case of an interface design. When you low into a site or an application, you need to recollect and retrieve you using me and password for humanity. In the best case for statement, you must see it you about the past. For that you may have entered while creating the past. But it all depends on your retrieval and recollection from your memory and very comes to the commission. A drop down for the site. Man, you can be a great example. In case of a drop down or the site menu. You can see all the possible options, and you can easily does whatever you want. There is no need to remember or retreat anything from humanity. The following screenshot is from a porter, which lists there's the actual properties for selling. To find your design home, you re apply certain filters and constants. Late price Ridge number of rooms, city type of property, for example, a flat and independent villa applaud etcetera. As a number off filters increases, it becomes difficult to remember that in this scenario are back. A solution can be who saw the selected filters up front with the user mystics of even need to remember them, which in turn reduces the cognitive Lord off the user. Similar is the case with this screen shoot, which is taken from a used car selling port. In this solution, the user is recognizing and not recording this time. Squeeze shoot is taken from a teleporter on the initial pit that black for us for the origin destination. They're with it. Number of travelers etcetera, and when you select everything, it displays the flights available for you til even on the desert beach. The search criteria entered by the user is displayed in order who keep him informed about the selections. He made it. Hence you can see that user interfaces that promote triple mission over record. I always going to provide a back by use and experience. Today uses has my following this heuristic. They minimize the cognitive load off their uses 14. H7: Flexibility and efficiency of use (Concept and Examples): any application or website has majorly two secs off uses. No, I fuses and expert uses no ice users at those who are new or rather inexperienced on the system. Why expert users are those who have been using the system for quite some time and a family of it. This heuristic states. You need to design a system that can support both the noise uses and the expert uses. It should have hold on uses and help them to accomplish their goals, while at the same time it should facilitated expert uses to finish their task. Witty This is the selling touristic doing by Jacob News. Nielsen defines this heuristic in the following day. Accelerators unseen by the Novaes user may often speed of the indirection for the expert user, such that the system can cater to both. Inexperienced and experience uses allow users to tailor frequent actions in this heuristic . The prime focuses on accelerators as they can speed up the indirection for an expert user. Why having no effect on the working off the noise or inexperienced uses? The example of accelerators can be keyboard shortcuts that can make the system much more efficient for expert uses Let's understand it through a real world application. Let's take Microsoft PowerPoint as an example. If you want to copia text in Power Point and then paste it, there are multiple ways to do it. You can either go to the attic tip and select the GOP Oaks in from there. And then once you have corporate the text you can again go to the addictive and click on the based option toe pace. The corporate text as to faster and more efficiently, is to use the tools, even just beyond that. But in this is Eben all the commonly used action buttons I provided so as to make the system more efficient for the users, and then that her and the most official option is to use the keyboard shortcut control, see or command See I control or command E. There are many other examples releases. This heuristic applied on a regular bases, for example, while installing a software application, Vigen Liga two Options default installation and adverse installation here before installation is my father. Inexperience uses who don't know what customization is to me. Why the advanced installation is for the export uses who have back and knowledge about the system and therefore can make that require customization. By providing these accelerators in your system, you make it flexible and official for users based on their expertise and requirements. 15. H8: Aesthetic and minimalist design (Concept and Examples): the air touristic given by Nielsen, his aesthetic and minimalist design. This heuristic states dialogue should not contain information with this irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit off information in a dialogue competes with the Taliban units off information on diminishes their relative visibility Onley. Limited amount of information can be processed by the human brain at the doing point of time. Therefore, it is very important to make sure that your design solutions are aesthetic and minimalists . If the user interface is visually clatter or presents a lot of information at one go, it may become difficult for the users to understand and digest it. They may not be able to focus on the desire, information and the desire actions. Herring, a minimalist and aesthetic user interface, makes it easier for the users to focus and work on it. This, in turn, results in an increased efficiency and the better user experience for uses. So the first step under this heuristic is to remove the unnecessary platter from your screen. The more information you show do you use this, the less offered they actually see on The less you show, the more they can see. Let's understand it better to another example. Look at these two pictures here, which one signifies what was required on the interface and picture to represents what was presented to the user. Now imagine if they use this task is to locate the drilling machine. You will observe that it is much easier to locate. It'll picture one, then picture, too, because there are less things to focus on. Similarly, has the amount off unnecessary information increases on the screen or interface? It becomes increasingly difficult for the users to locate the important information. Every pixel on the screen is an expensive piece of real estate, so better use it piously and remove everything that is unnecessary. Like here. Element images, redundant features, etcetera. But still, there will be cases where, even after removing the letter, you will be left with a lot of information that needs to be shown on the screen. For example, in case off enterprise applications, there is a lot of data that needs to be shown on the screen inside scenarios. Creating proper hierarchy and sections for the information helps a lot to make it digestible for the and uses use techniques like progressive disclosure. Who showed the information. Progressive disclosure means showing or disclosing the available information in progression in progressive disclosure. Instead of showing everything on one single pitch, information is broken down into logical chunks and then present it to the user to make it more usable and digestive. Take the example of a visit the way it solves this exact problem off, displaying a large amount of information by breaking it into smaller, logical groupings. This leads to better focus and less errors, which in turn means a good experience for the uses. Reasonably using appropriate colors shapes on high, like he can guide by users attention towards the important information on your beach. I helped them in accomplishing, there goes. Implementing this heuristic will help you uses to find their desire information and take the require action to accomplish their goals. 16. H9: Help users recognize, diagnose and recover from errors (Concept & Examples): that night. Heuristic given by Nielsen is help users recognise, diagnose and recover from others. This heuristic states error messages should be expressed in plain language. No calls precisely indicated the problem on constructively suggest a solution. The first thing then committing and added is not being able to understand what has gone room and what can be done to recover from the others. So whenever you this commit at it, help them by explaining what has gone wrong and what can be done to recover from the other . One of the important points to know down here is that the area should be explained in a language that users understand. Most off you would have encounter our messages were that system throws of technical job wins in order to explain what has happened. These technical messages, instead of helping the uses, leave them confused and lost. Only the end user is meant to be a technical person. These others make sense. Therefore, always use the language that you use us understand while showing an error message. Here is an example to display the scene in the first image the, um, messages quite here and easy to understand the message simply convinced the user that there is a connection at it. Do you want to reconnect or you want to cancel the operation? However, in the second image, the other messages presented in a more technical toe, which is not easy for a user to understand, thus living in confused and lost. Let's look at some more examples to understand this heuristic better. This is a screen short from a vector graphic porter three p. While searching for a graphic on this platform, I intentionally typed no play on live with an at Instead of play and liquidity. As there was no graphic available for this system, the system presented me with an error message that it wouldn't find any results for my search. It literally use any technical jargon for language that would confuse me as a user. Additionally, it also displayed the feeders that I applied for this search factors and photos on this platform. There are a total of four filters that you can use to refine your search chisels, namely vectors for those PSC's and Aiken's. During my search, I applied to filters, letters and photos. But when the system couldn't find any result for my search. It presented me with an option to remove these filters on. Brought in my search criteria. This is a good way to let users let it nice and recover from others. But even better approach has been implemented by another portal, which provides videos and motion graphic templates for the creative projects. This screenshot is taken from the same boat on this porter. I intentionally type cat or four instead of cats to see how the system behaves for a search query that it can't find. This portal has done a nice to in terms of helping uses that nice and recovered from the others has visible in the screen. Short. That system couldn't fetch any results for my search query and therefore it present it the option to remove filters that I have applied to board in my search criteria. This is similar to what we have observed in our last example off freaky, but this portal went a step further by suggesting actionable tips like trying new searched . Um, check your spelling in order to make sure that they use it, entered the collect words, clear your figures so that the size criteria is bottom. This is a great example off. How to help your users Little nice diagnosis and recover for matters. Let's take another example. This is a screenshot from the neck fixed up site. By blowing into Netflix, I deliberately entered a wrong passport in order to understand the system response to this matters. It really indicated to me that the password I entered was in current logically, there could be two reasons for this at all reason when I remember my passport, but I misspelled it or after the wrong spelling had reason to. I actually forward my passport and therefore under the wrong one here the system proactively with the option to rectify both of these others. For the first scenario, other can be rectified by just looking at the message. Incorrect password. Please try again music and simply type the password again and recover from this. And for the second scenario, the system provides a leak to reset the password. Now look at this logon screen short. They confirm it only education for two. Here you will find that district stick is not followed properly here. Also, I tried to enter the wrong password against my registered email I d to observe the system behavior. Once I entered the wrong password, the system presented me with a confusing at a message he made. What password ISn't good? Do they engender? Everybody has more than one email. I d like one personal Gmail or Yahoo email. I d. One working, my lady When Appellate Me lady etcetera Exeter. So when the system says either email password is in good, they use it is bound to get confused. If sewn correctly, the user would have toe only deal with the password head. But now he has to also verify the correct email I d. Put that porter. Thus, you can see that this is a bad example. Off, however, mess addition Bischel here is another example. This creation is taken from chronic at me. It's an online education. I bookmarked the page from this portal on a year ago, and when I try to retrieve that pitch, the portal gave me a page not found along with the message. It also presented me with a link to the home pitch in order to help it recover from this. Another interesting example for this heuristic is from camera on only four do that provides tools for easy creation, off social media posts, banners and other media due to some security procedures, Can you ask me? Toe reset my passport for resetting the password. They sent a link to my registered email i D. And using the link sent in the mail. I change my password for my camera. No. After resetting the password ones, I tried toe again use the same league to reset my password a set in time in order to understand how the system behaves and manages. This added. So as soon as I clicked on the league, I was presented with this ad. A message that you link has either expired or has already been used. Please request a new link for the sea. So that's a very good we like that uses no, that they have already retained the pastor, and in case they want to change it again, they can do so by getting a newly by. No, you must have understood. How important is this heuristic in order to provide a great experience to users. So why design any system makes you that it helps users that nice diagnosis and recover from others 17. H10: Help and documentation (Concept and Examples): that tent and the Last touristic given by Jacob Nielson is held on documentation. This statistic states, even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search. Focused on the user's task list concrete steps to be carried out and not be to lunch. In an ideal world, we were expected for that to be so in duty that uses shouldn't need help in the first place . But that's not the issue. The growing complexity off two days user interfaces requires a system to provide help and documentation to excuses. Moreover, or uses a defendant. What might bill is it asked for some uses. My proved to be difficult for others. Therefore, having appropriate documentation and ways to help you uses is a good practice. Why pretty any design solution according to this realistic, the help and documentation on your platform should fall of these considerations. First and foremost, it should be easy to find. Imagine if the users are unable to find the help section when the faster than the whole purpose off having the help section gets defeated. The next consideration is to provide help that is focused on the user's tusk or, in other words, provide help that is contextual. Another important consideration, while creating the had documentation for your product is to bend down the help information into a list of actionable points. Let's look at some examples to understand this heuristic better. Here is a screenshot from the Airbnb reported. Airbnb has provided a dedicated help section so that you just can't easily searched a frequently asked queries and clarify the adults. This is a good way to implement this heuristic and help of the uses if they get stuck. Somebody here once a user clicks on the help the system presents that uses with a list of recommended articles which more or less covers the frequently asked questions. In this help section I use it can search for this query and alleviated results are shown. According for example, when a user types booking confirmation, all the help article it's related to booking confirmation are shown to the user. Here is another example which I have personally found very effective. This feature is taken from a platform back fascinated online safety course host e. The help section on this platform is quite extensive. They have categorized help section into a logical groupings dust, making it easier for the users to find the relevant content. These topics really prove useful when the user is new and it's still a member. Entry cases off the platform, moreover, use escape also search for the quay and find element because to debt. Using this platform, I recently published My Own Land Education for two with the name popped Edotco. As I was new to the platform, I got stabbed multiple times by publishing the courses back with an extensive and easy to use help and documentation section. Most of my career is got result. I was able to launch my own land school without the need of external help. According to this holistic, the have documentation should be contextual or, in other words, should be focused on the user's task. The full well screen short is taken from a tower portal. Here. The system provides contextual help to excuses want. Actually, help simply means providing assistance alone that us that uses perform while creating a new account on this platform, the system provides the flexibility to the user who use either is humility or mobile number to register himself. Here s this temporal rice corn actually had to the user by telling him that if he uses his mobile number for registration, the system were asked him to do RTP verification. So if in case he can access is mobile at that moment it's back. I don't register using its humility. Here is another example to make this concept even more theaters. This screenshot is taken from Airbnb while creating an account on Airbnb the plateau asked for a government i d as government i d is a sensitive piece off information. Therefore, many people may not feel comfortable to share it before knowing what it will be useful. The system here doesn't big job by explaining to them the purpose of collecting this information. The platform clearly does. Its use is that the information is required to keep the platform safe and to prevent any kind of misuse off the system. Additionally, it also provides a navigation league in case that wants more help on this subject. On taking the leap. The system that gives to detail Health Beach were other important point. There's had mentioned like the kind of ideas accepted how to add an i. D. What needs to be captured in the idea, etcetera. This is a great example or fried contextual head to the users. Another important consideration that we discussed under this holistic is to bring down the help information into a list of actionable points, which users can follow to resolve that issue. A tent here is an example to demonstrate this. This screenshot is taken from Microsoft Exit. This image represents the help section of Microsoft Excel in the future Help section, the system lists out commonly asked, where is to help out excuses? When a user clicks on an iota, links the system never gets him so delicately. Which correspondent with that? Well, in this example, let's as you that they use it clicks on the first leak can what next? Two numbers? Ah, one clicking believe the user is taken to a page where a detailed explanation is given to resolve this quail. In this image, you can clearly see that the system provides the user with a list off actually able steps that he can follow What is all this way further along with that text, the system presents element images to the user. He ordered a result this way in the best way possible. Organizing health information individually prominent steps is always a good approach to resolve you use. The square is, I hope this example clarified the importance of showing help information has a list of actionable steps. Let's summarize the points that we discussed in this Uresti. The head information should be easy to find, should be focused on the user stuff and should be presented as a list of ex naval points. So this was all about the 10 and the last. Heuristic Health and documentation hope you enjoyed and go to learn something new in this lecture.