Typography Anatomy and Terminology | Joshua Butts | Skillshare

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Typography Anatomy and Terminology

teacher avatar Joshua Butts, Graphic Designer and Photographer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Course Introduction


    • 2.

      Type Classifications


    • 3.

      Typeface, Type Stlye, or Font


    • 4.

      Type Anatomy


    • 5.

      Type Sizing and Measurements


    • 6.

      Tracking, Kerning and Leading


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About This Class

In this course, I will be teaching you all the different parts of letters and characters so you can identify them.  You will learn the importance of type anatomy and what terms to use with different parts of copy. I will also cover the differences between serif and sans serif type faces, the differences between readability and legibility, and about the many different type classifications

I have listed below some of what I will be covering.


  • Tracking
  • Leading
  • Kerning
  • Hyphenation
  • X-Height
  • Baseline
  • Old style
  • Modern
  • Transitional
  • Stress
  • Em Quad
  • Baseline Grid
  • Point vs Pica vs Inch


  • Stem
  • Bowl
  • Crossbar
  • Counter
  • Ascender
  • Descender
  • Arm
  • Ear
  • Finial
  • Stroke
  • Loop
  • Serif
  • Spine
  • Spur
  • Tail
  • Terminal
  • Ascender Height
  • X-Height

Open Type

  • Ligature
  • Contextual Alternatives
  • Discretionery Ligatures
  • Swash
  • Stylistic Alternatives
  • Tilting Alternatives
  • Ordinals
  • Fractions

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Joshua Butts

Graphic Designer and Photographer


Josh Butts is a Graphic Designer and Photographer. He currently works for a creative agency in Provo, Utah. He's worked with many people doing creative work usually involving illustration, logo, and web design. The classes on this channel cover mostly vector illustration but there are also many other valuable skills that can be learned from the other classes on the channel. Join some of his classes to gain from valuable experience and get better at design and photography yourself!

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1. Course Introduction: Hi. My name is Josh Butts. I'm a graphic designer and a photographer. And when the most important aspects of designed to creating effective communication can be tight in this course will be teaching you about typography, anatomy and other terminology associated with type. I will teach you how type is measured, the different parts of letter forms, what tracking, letting incurring means and many other aspects of type of typefaces. I'll also be showing you a few of the great resource is that I use to find free, high quality fonts online. I hope you will join me in this course to learn all you can about typography, anatomy and terminology. 2. Type Classifications: All right, So we're going to start out this course by talking about the two most common classifications of type, which are Sarah and Sansa. And I'm gonna show this later so you can see the difference between these two classifications of type. If you notice on serif typefaces, you'll see these little barbs or serifis on each of the letter forms. These air called cirrus, and they just complete usually the ends of each of the letter forms. And you'll notice on San Sarah that the ends of each letter form are just flat and they come to a complete stop. And one of the easiest ways to remember this is Sands means without So Sarah means it's just got that Sarah. And oftentimes, when you're talking about San Serif typefaces, they'll usually just be referred to as Sands typefaces. Now, along with serif and sans serif typefaces, there's a lot of other different type classifications which we're going to look at right here. Serif has a lot of different styles in it, and there is, as you can see down here, some other different styles, and we're gonna go over these one at a time, So old style is one of the oldest type classifications, and you can see it's based on how they were building type back when they first started. One of the things you'll notice about old style typefaces is the difference between these thick areas of the letter forms and the thinner areas. There's not a whole lot of contrast, and you can see on the Serifis right here. They're fairly organic on the shapes. Just curve around, and you'll also notice that on some of the letter forms such as, Oh, is especially, you'll see a stress. Now we'll talk about stress a little bit later in the course, but as you can see right here, this red line is showing the stress of that Oh, which is referring to the angle. Edwige. It's set out. You can see these thick areas are on the side, and it's where the thin areas of the letter form match up. That is going to tell you where the stresses of that letter form. Now. A little later in history, they started creating transitional type faces and what you can notice about these is the service air. A lot sharper. You can see on this T their service come to direct point, and there's all these straight lines where they curve around, and so they're a little more sharp and direct on the serifis you also miss. The stress on those is a lot more vertical. In fact, it's almost exactly straight up and down, and so you can see it. It's becoming a little bit more of a modern typeface with the sharp edges and the difference between the thick areas of the letter forms and the thin areas. There's a lot more contrast, and so that's one of the ways you can tell what a transitional type faces. And in these examples I have for old style. I'm using Gowdy old style, and for the transitional typeface I'm using Baskerville. That's a very common transitional typeface. Now we move over here into modern typefaces, and you can see that it becomes a little bit more extreme with the contrast and the serifis . These serifis on here, as you can see, are very sharp. In fact, they don't have any transition from the letter form to the Sarah. Also mount right here, and you'll see the stress on the O's is exactly straight and the contrast between the thick areas of law, reforms and thins are very contrast. E. And you can see in these little descriptions what each type classification looks like and now moving down here a little bit more. We get into slab serif typefaces and you'll see that the contrast on the letter forms is a little bit less, but you still got a decent amount of it. But the serifis on these are very large compared to the letter forms. And that's what Slab Serif is mainly talking about, where there's thick geometric, sarah ifs and letter forms. And so those are some of the most common serif typefaces that we just looked at. Now, if we come down here, this is a san serif typeface, and this one is Ariel, and that is a fairly common san serif typeface. And what you'll notice about the San Serif typefaces is usually there's no stress for the letters at all. As you can see many of these letter forms, the thickness is the exact same all around, so there's virtually no contrast between the thick areas and the fin areas of the Blatter forms. Now, some of the other different classifications of Type R script, and this can be hand written or calligraphy typefaces. And they can have many different styles, which will go over a little bit later. A decorative typefaces. One way you can tell if the typefaces decorative, it will usually only have one style of the fund. And so, as you can see, if I go into Ariel, we'll go into the styles. And there's like bold or narrow italic but decorative. If I go into the different styles, there's usually only one style because they've been created specifically for this. Look, now I come down to black Letter, and this is one of the oldest forms of typography, and as you can see, this is one has originally created. Um, was a very artistic form of type and really required a lot of skill to create this, And this could be really good for more vintage type of projects or something like that. So Black Letter has a lot of straight curves and really high contrast between some of these thick and thin areas, and it is very particular style now. The last type of type classification will look at is ornaments, and this can usually be built in two other typefaces. For example, this set of ornaments is a big dhoni set of ornaments. So this comes with that the donut fund, and usually this encompasses just a large number of small a graphic so you can use with different types of artwork and solves them back out here. And you can see these air, the main different type classifications that we've looked at. 3. Typeface, Type Stlye, or Font: And so now we're going to look at the difference between a typeface and a fun. And so, as you can see right here, these are different typefaces that I have. And so a typeface is mainly going to refer to the general shape of the letter forms. So, as you can see, this typeface is din and you can see the letter a how it stretches out a little bit and then curves around. Whereas you see Gotham, the is already curving right from that point, and the S has more of a natural curve all around. But Dan has more straight type of curves and straight letter forms open sands. As you can tell, there is this little cut on the top of the end, and the esses are a little bit more vertically compressed. Now going down to this other typeface, Helvetica. You can see the letters stretch around this curve on the A, and there's a little bit more contrast between the thick and the thin areas of this type. Then a lot of these other type cases, and so these different typefaces have very distinguishable features. Now, if we go into some of the same type faces. I'll drive this down here. These are all the same type faces, but there different versions of it. So as you can see, this has been alternate and this is a little thicker. This is didn't pro, and so these are all the same type face, but their different styles of it, and they're created by different people. And so the way things like this happens often is where there's a typefaces created a long time ago, and people have been picking it up now and creating their own versions of it. And so it still keeps with that same style where, as you can see in this, eight stretches out and then curves down, and it's a saying with all these other versions of that typeface. But a lot of these were created by different people, and so there's subtle differences, but it's still the same type face. And now, if we're talking about a fund that might refer to the specific, uh, type style that we're using on this, So if we look at this, these are all from the central typeface, and each style of that is referring to a font or a type style So if somebody asks you what type of what font you're using on a specific project, you might say I'm using central extra light metallic. Or you can say you're using Central Ultra. Now the group of all of these types styles in one is called a font or a type family, and that refers to where I am Ah, using my type tool, and I'm creating a new block of text and then I can go to Central. And now I have all of these different styles in this central fund family or type family. Now, one of the things we're also going to look at with this in types styles is certain. Fonts and typefaces have different type styles within them. And one of the things you want to make sure of is that you're using the actual types styles that were created with the fund. And so we're gonna look at this, and this is an italic typeface, and you can see that this is a really version, and this one is faux or fake. And so that's this word photo right here is a common term for type that set in a style that's been artificially created that way. And now if we jump over into photo shop, this is where you're going to see a little bit of that terminology. Use is if I create some type in Photoshop and I go over into my character panel, this is married. Pro and Aiken go into italic right here, and that's creating its own style of that. Or I can set that back to regular. And then I can go into this little side panel and click right here faux italics, and you can see the difference between what that does to these two typefaces is the rial italics. Has his letters built a very specific way. So they're not stretched out. And this a has been created specifically for that style. This a in the regular typeface has a different style of a and it doesn't match up as well as using the actual italics for that typeface. And so jumping back into Adobe Illustrator, we have a lot of different other styles. And right here you can see this is the adobe Gurman pro. And what has happened is this is the italics that was built in with the fund, and with this italics I've gone through and he is the sheer tool in Adobe Illustrator and shared that over a little bit to create italics with it. And so it's always best to go with the italics that was built in with that fun. And that goes the same with condensed typefaces and especially with something like this, one of the problems with stretching as it can really distort a typeface. So as you can see, this typeface I have right here is Badani and is a poster condensed. And now this typeface are here is just don't irregular and you can see with this typeface. These letter forms has been built specifically around these thick and thin air ease of the font. So it's very proportional. And with this version that has been condensed right here, I've gotten the typeface and I have just squeezed it in and it stretches the font and it can really distort things and cause problems when you're creating artwork. And as you can see, some of these other problems we have with bold, it keeps all the letter forms consistent with the original typeface. When you're creating fake, bold text, often people will do this by adding a stroke to that letter form and then just increasing the size of that stroke. One of the problems that does is it starts distorting the typeface by creating inconsistencies with the thick and thin areas of fun. And so it becomes almost a different type face, and often it doesn't look very good doing it that way. So especially with Bull, do you always want to use the the original typeface version of that bolt. As you can see right here, we have extended it, and it's the same thing I've gone, and I'm just stretched out that font, which has stretched out the stems on these letter forms. But the horizontal lines on the letter forms have been stretched out even thinner. Now, when you're talking about small caps, as you can see down here, this gets a little bit trickier. Some fonts don't have small caps, and some funds to do now. This could be one of the most problematic. When you're using fake or foe small caps is as you can see down here, this typeface up here I'm using riel small caps, and the letter forms are very similar thickness to the full size capital letters down here in this faux small caps typesetting, you can see the small caps are a lot smaller and thickness than the large ones. And that's because it's just the same type as the large cats has just been scaled down. And that can create love. Inconsistencies between the typesetting and when you're reading it can look pretty bad when you're comparing it to the larger typeface, which is why using riel small caps is always the best way to go for this. Now, one of the ways that you can tell whether or not a fun has small caps built into it is you can go up to the window and make sure you have, uh, under the type panel. You can go to your glyphs panel. And if I drag that in here, you can see in this funder here. I'm going to click on that and I'll drive us that a little bit. You can see right here we have these small caps right here in the cliffs panel, and that means this Ah, funder typeface has riel, small caps built into it and other fonts such as this one. Let's say I'll go to Gotham. This you can see the small caps right here are a lot smaller than the full size cap, and that's because you can see in the set of glitz there are no small caps built into the fund, and what Adobe illustrator does it automatically creates the small caps. When in the Characters panel right here, you set that to small camps. It's automatically going to create small caps from any fun that you have, which is why it's important to go through a glass panel and make sure that you know that fun has really small caps. Because if it does, Adobe Illustrator is going to use those real small caps. But if it doesn't, Adobe Illustrator is just going to scale that typeface one of the easier things to distinguish these in adobe in design. If I go here, um, I can go to my preferences panel, and I'm going to go to advanced type eso you open your preferences and this advanced type section, you can see the small cap set. I have set that to 100% and so what this means is when it creates fake small caps, is going to scale those two. Usually it will be set to 70%. Um, but if I said this to 100% all the time, then when I click on here and I go to my character panel and turn on small caps, that means it's automatically going to scale these small caps to whatever I set to 100%. And so this typeface, minion pro it Ari has small caps built into it, which means it's going to use those small caps and said it 100% of the scale that they should be. And so that means that these are full size small cap letters. If I go Teoh, say Gotham, let's just try Gotham Bold. These small caps it's showing in here are set to 100% but since it doesn't have small caps , it's just scaling the letters to 100%. So you won't have that problem when you turn on that feature. And this is also another easy way of finding out whether or not a fun or type fix has small caps built into it is by the scaling of these letters. And so I'm just going to try another one. Baskerville old fast. Let's just trying. I am, Yes, like the text Baskerville regular. And so this typeface doesn't have small caps built in. Good, because these air the full size of the capital letters. And so if I could scroll down through some of these different typefaces, most of these typefaces I have don't have small camps by this fonder hair Playfair display . This one does. And so these air very slightly smaller than the actual size caps. But you can see that these are true small cap letters. And so let's go back here in the Illustrator and I'm going to zoom out. I've showed you a lot of different funds that I've been using. And so now I'm gonna show you a few of the different places where I find ah lot of really high quality type faces. Oftentimes these we're gonna have all these styles built into them. So I'm going to go to a new browser window and one of my favorite websites I'd like to go to is fonts dot google dot com. And this one has a lot of really good typefaces in a lot of them are really high quality. So in this website, one of the waste navigate. You can see all the different typefaces right here in the main screen, and you can change it to your own type. So sample text here and I can apply that to all the funds and get a really good idea of what the type that I want is going to look like I can change the scale of that and apply that to all the funds and really see what they're all going to look like. And now if I want to filter out ah, a certain typeface that I want. I can uncheck these different type classifications and really narrow it down. One of the things I like to do is check the number of styles because the more styles of fun has, the more flexibility I'm going to have with that fun. And so let's say I just want a sands typeface or a sans serif typeface. Then I can check that, and I want to have a lot of styles. And now these are all some really good sands typefaces that I can use one. I like his monster out. And so if I click on that, this is gonna show me all of the different styles it has on that typeface. And so it has quite a lot, actually. And so this is a really nice resource where you can download all of these fonts for free. One of the other resource is I like is fun squirrel. Now, fund squirrel has ah lot of really good funds. A lot of these are actually links to Google funds. Um, and it has a lot of other really good free funds throughout the Internet. Some of these will have fewer styles, so you can see milkshake. This is a decorative typeface, and it's a script typeface because only have one style. And so if I click on that, you can get an idea of what it looks like. You can see the number of styles and you can also filter out the typefaces on this website through the different style similar to Google funds. So say I want 12 or more styles and one fun Here is this fun aileron and I can click on that and look it some different samples that it has, and I can scroll down and look at all these different type styles built into that font family, and what I can also do is click on this test drive and try out some of my own sample type sample text right there, and it's automatically going to update it to whatever I have this set to say want heavy and 72 point type, and that's going to give me a really good sample, and then I can download the open type file. And so those are just two really good resource is where you can find a lot of good, high quality funds for your projects. That air usually gonna give me a lot of different styles and options to work with. And if you know of any other good websites that have good free funds, feel free to post in the comments section of the course so that we can take a look. So I'm going to go back into Adobe Illustrator in the next video. We're going to be looking at some of the different type terminology and anatomy of the new letter forms 4. Type Anatomy: So one of the first things we're gonna look at with this video is how type is aligned. And so I have this word right here anatomy. And if I turn on these guides right here, you can see some of the different terms that we're gonna go over. Um, this bottom line right here where all the letters line up to is called the baseline. And I have that marked right over here. And that's the line that, as you can see, the base of all these letters are lining up to this line. Right here is the X height, which is where all the lower case letters are generally going to match up to or the X. That's why it's called the X height. Because of Standard X will line up from the baseline to the X height. This area right here is a ascender or the cap height, where this line on the top is the official cap height. Oh, and just really quickly I'm going to show you a D sender. Is any part of a letter form that extends below the baseline and an US under is any part of ah lower case letter form that extends above the X height, That line right there. And so this is what the sender is. And this is D senders. And so now we're going to go back to our anatomy layer on this is area where a centres such as this letter H which I'll add right in here. You can see that matches right up to the cap height. It's all under that real quick and soul. Zoom in right here and you can see the cab height, the baseline, the X height, the Ascender or cap Hyatt right here where all the top matches up and the descend er line. Now with different funds, they're going to have different X heights and Ascender to kept height ratios. So you can see and these two funds right here they're both the exact same size, both 87 point, huh? And you can look at this down here. You can see I have Baskerville and Helvetica. And where the X height matches up on Baskerville. It's a lot lower where the X height is on Helvetica and so this is going to make a big difference in how you're gonna want to set your type because of how the X height ratio on Helvetica is a lot bigger to the camp height of that than it is on basketball. And you can also see that for the same point size Baskerville is a little bit shorter than the cap height on Helvetica. And so these aerial differences, you'll notice in the different typefaces. And so I'm going to hide these and show you this next set of letters and show you some other differences with these lines. So right here you have your dissenter line and all these dissenters on these letter forms. You have your X height on all of these and your cap height, but you're also gonna have with certain typefaces and fonts. You're gonna have different cap heights and a center heights on some of these. As you can see right here, the capital letters are all lining up to this line right here. That's a cat fight, but you can see right here where the ascender it matches up to align a little bit higher than that. So if I use my type tool and I click right in here and one l that's gonna match up to that same age and so you can see how the center hype can often be the same as the cap height. But sometimes it will be different. And so that's something that you'll also want to watch out for when you are creating type in your projects. And so now we're going to go in and look at some of the different anatomical terms for lower case letter forms. And so we're gonna start up here with the A and look at terminals so you can see the end of the in fact over here, where you can see the end of the E. A terminal is the area of a letter form where it tapers off and it stops and will high that and show this next area. This is a bull, and so a bull is in typography, seen as the curved part of the letter or the circular part that encompasses a counter which will look at in a minute. You can see over here on the P there's a bowl, and in fact, a bull would also refer to this curve very on the B. You could see on the D. There's a bull right there and on the cure. There is also a bowl, and we'll zoom back into the A and high that and show you the spur. And so in typography, a spur is a small projection type element that comes off of the main stroke. And so the next thing we'll look at is the crossbar. Now across bar is any horizontal stroke on a letter form such as this, where it encloses an area. And on this letter, you also see it has this small encompassed area which is called on I. Now when I is also referring to a counter but specific to the letter heat, which actually brings us to looking at a counter. This right here is known as an open counter, and so on. Open counter like this is the partially open space that's within a character. But it's open at one end, and we'll look at this right here. You can see this area that's open is called the aperture, and the Apatow refers to the gap that creates an open counter. Now we'll hide these and show you. The next thing with counters is closed counters now. Most of these letter forms have closed counters. You can see in the O and the G, Also in the p Q B amedy these air all close counters, which is an area that's just completely enclosed by a character. I'll come in here to the F as we talked about earlier. This is known as a Sarah and on the F. There's also a cross stroke, uh, now across stroke is a horizontal line in a letter form similar to the crossbar, but it is not enclosed within the letter form. So, like as you can see in the letter T, there is also across stroke right there now, also particular to the letter F. You'll see this top part is known as a fennel. Fennel is the curve top part of enough that comes to an end and moving on to the letter G. There's a few different parts of the letter G you'll see on the top is the bull, but on the bottom is called a loop, and now loop is a particular to a lower case G in most typefaces, where there's what's called a two story letter form. Now, two story letter form is where it has two of these parts. As you can see in this letter? A. This is called a two story A No. If I add a another type of in a, uh, I'll drive that out right here, and I'll scale that up and then I'm going. Teoh, use a Berlin Sands. Now, this is what you would call just a single story a where it's only in the lower part of the letter form, where this is a two story. This will come back over here to the jail where this is a two story letter. G on the loop on a G is the completely enclosed area that's usually below the baseline, which would be where the bottom of these letters is meeting up. And now on a double story G, where this connects right here, the loop and the bull is called a link and see the concessional energy. There's actually quite a lot of different terms when referring to the different parts of it , especially this small area right here on the top of the G is known as the ear. Now, the years usually found on the letter J, and it's a decorative little flourish up on the top of the boat, so I'm gonna hide these now and we'll move over to the letter G. And you can see this is similar in some of these other letters is called The Shoulder. Now the shoulder is a curve stroke that's beginning at the leg of a character such as Letter N or H, and even in the letter M and a soccer stroke that's aiming downward on these letters and I'm gonna zoom into the letter I and you can see this the small dot on the top of the lower case Ira J, is called a dot or a tittle, and so that's pretty self explanatory. Now, in this next letter, this is Ah, lower case Letter J. The small, tapered off end to a letter form is called the tail You can see on the lower case letter T . There's also a tail. And if you come down to the letter why you can see a tale that descends below the baseline ? This will come back over here and go to the next letter on a letter K. You can see a stem is a primary vertical bar on a letter form. So as you can see the stem of the letter l is right here. And many of these other letter forms have a stem. Also, you can see right here on the letter f on the being the these air all the primary stems of these letters. If you come back in, we'll see now the leg is the down sloping part of ah letter form, usually on Ah que or the upper case are which slows down from the letter. We're gonna move over here to the stroke. Now. The stroke is in all letter forms. Generally, a stroke is a primary portion of the letter form that creates the letter says you can see in the P. The stroke is what makes up that letter. And in the O now, while we're looking at the oh, we're going to look at stress as we talked about earlier. The stress is a diagonal, a tilt of any letter form. So if you think about it, I telephoned. It would have a lot more stress than these letter forms now for come over here to the s. This stroke right here is the main curve stroke of the lower case, or uppercase letter s that's known as the spine and you'll see. Also in the letter s is a beak. Now the big is the sharp spur that's usually found at the top of letters in these Roman type of letter forms. Now we're going to come down here to the last few letters in the alphabet where we're going to see on the V and the W will have. Vertex is the Vertex is generally just the outside point at the bottom of a character where two of these strokes are meeting together. And on the opposite side of that, you'll see the crotch right here in the UAE. The crotch is this area of the letter form on the top of where two of these strokes meat and create this portion of the counter. And the last thing L. C in these letters is the diagonal stroke. And so that's the same as you'll see in these other strokes right here. The diagonal stroke is on these letters on the bottom, where the main primary stroke is diagonal. And so zoom back out to all of these letter forms and we will hide these. And now look at the uppercase letter forms. And so we're going to start again with a you will notice with an upper case. A. It's like an upside down V. Where? At the bottom of the view. You remember we had had the Vertex right here? Well, with an a, the top of that a is going to be called the A pets. And that's what you call the area of the top. Where to diagnose strokes of a letter for meat. And again, as we have seen, we have the crossbar on a which is the horizontal stroke that goes across a letter form. And we're gonna Hi, Viz. And then we got in the letter C. We have our open counter and the area where it doesn't connect is called the Apertura. And you have our clothes counters, uh, in the letter o and in the letter Q, where the inside of lower form is completely closed off. We're gonna have these now and look at the bowl. So a lot of these terms that you can see are pretty similar from the lower case letters. It's on the lower case A. There is a spur and you can see in a number cases Gee, it also has a spur that extends out from that letter form. There's tails on the letter J and the letter Q as a very particular tail on it, that is quite noticeable. And on the letter K, as we talked about there's ah, leg, and in the upper case, letters are you can also see that leg now the stems are those same straight vertical bars on the letter forms like you can see right here in the letter T. And in the letter l one of the different terms we're going to look at here, though, on the letter l is this area right here that's called the Beak. And as he saw that on the letter s in the previous set of lower case letters right here on the end of that s is a beak. Well, an uppercase letter. L also has that big now. Well, we're back here looking at Serifis. I'm going to show you These areas are called brackets and that is a distinction of a serif where a surf could be exactly straight or the brackets could be tilt curved a little bit more in the letter o, we have stress, which is the angle of it and going over to the letter s. There's the same spine, which is that primary curved stroke that makes up the letter in the letter T. We have an arm now the arm is upward. Sloping stroke or just upwards straight stroke that doesn't connect to any other strokes on either side. So on this letter to you can see it has an arm here, and this other side of it would be another arm knows them back out. And we looked at this before the Vertex on the V and on the bottom of the W. There's also these two Vertex is, And on the letter Z, we have the same diagonal struck that we saw in the lower case letter form. We're gonna hide that. And now look over these two somewhat unique types of these letter forms with us. See, you can see this area that comes up that's called the barb That is a serif that comes around and it points back up on the letter C and you can see how it looks. Kind of like a barb. And for certain letters or fonso, you're gonna have Vissel area that extends out from different letter forms that's called a swash, and it is usually found in more decorative type faces. Or sometimes there will be different options for certain typefaces that you can add a slush to it. This is also most common in script typefaces that are gonna have those difference washes. So I'm going to zoom back out, and now we're going to look at some different open type features. So when you're installing a fund, most fonts will either be true type or open type. If you have an open type front, you can go under window and go to your open type panel, eso, which all pulling it right here. And I'm going to show you how to use a few of these different features with your typefaces . So the first thing we're going to be looking at is over here, and that's ligatures. So ligatures were created by type designers when two letters that were next to each other cause some problems when they were getting really close. You can see this effortless I right here when they're next to each other that's so close that it creates this uncomfortable space. And so what type designers have done is created in a lot of different funds. These ligatures, which are connections between letters that could cause problems when they're too close to each other. Most commonly these letters R fl if I were usually involving the letter f and L, and when you're typing where you can do is, ah, I'll go to my type tool, And I'm just going to start out with many in pro because that's a really good typeface to to show this example with, and then I'll just click right here and type F f l. And you can see right here. It's not using the ligatures because I have in my open type panel, the ligatures right here, standard liquor trees is turned off, and that way these letters are just typing out the standard letters from the typeface. So Aiken Dio is delete those and turn on the ligatures. And then when I type in appellate like that, it's automatically going to connect them when I only have one letter by itself. It just types out the standard letter, but it can automatically recognize when a ligature is needed, for depending on the letters that are next to each other. So if I had an l. It's automatically going to connect that or an F and an eye. It automatically connects those letters. So I'm just going to dilate that and come back out. And so these are ligatures. The next thing that you can look at is right here is contextual alternatives. And I'm going to show you in this fund right here. This is Aphrodite E. And if I delete these and just type in a regular s, that is just a standard s from the typeface. But if I turn on contextual alternatives, then is going to add one of the alternative s forms for that type face. And if you go into your glyphs panel on your window type and cliffs, then I can drag this in. You can see right here for that s if I select that, you can see it's right here in the typeface. And if I go under this little panel right here where it says show and this drop down menu, I can find all of these alternatives goto alternatives, or I am actually going to go alternatives for current selection. And I'm going to zoom in a little bit and you can see These are some of the different alternatives that you can use. And if using the latest version of Adobe Illustrator just by selecting a letter, you can automatically go and look at some of these different alternatives down right here. And that's the nice thing about the open type panel is You can check that on. So by default is going to be using the alternatives built in for that, and you can go through and I manually just change which ones you want. And so not all fonts are going to have all of these different options. You can see that I'm using effort ivy, and it doesn't have the zordon ALS or fractions. And so, depending on which type face you have, that will determine what kind of alternatives you have for it. So I'm going to move this down here, and this is a similar with a stylistic alternatives uses at ST Method this typefaces adobe a government pro. And so if I just like that right there and turn off the stylistic alternatives, then that's just going to type a regular e. But if I turn that on, then is going to add a little alternative you to that letter form. Or I could add an R or turn that on and at a different type of in our and so with a contextual and stylistic alternate, as you can see that you can easily access a few different options for certain funds quite easily just by checking those on enough. And that's just that'll be the same with these other type of letter forms using discretionary ligatures. This is similar to the F and I together is with the sea and this tea. If I have that on checked right here, discretionary ligatures and I do without, then it's going to connect those letters together. Sold. Delete those right here. Now, earlier we talked about swash is and letter forms, and this is back with the Aphrodite E typeface again, and this is just a regular letter form. But if I check the swash is alternatives right here. Swash. Then when I type in a day, it's going to add a different swash onto that letter form, and this can really give you a lot of flexibility when creating certain type setting to create some fun and artistic type. Now we're gonna go down here and look at fractions and Gordon ALS typefaces will have two types of letters and a slash in between them. That's made specifically for fractions. So a lot of people will sometimes go to type in a fraction, and they'll simply just go here and type in, you know, five slash eight. And that's not the right way to do a fraction, because these air standard characters and they're not going to be a complete fraction the way it should be typed out. And this is not the proper way to create fractions. One of the ways you can do that the right way is by going into a typeface. We're gonna click right here, and you can find the position. And there's always a numerator and a denominator when creating fractions. So if I check numerator and then any numbers I type are going to be in the numerator position of a fraction. And so I'm and let these and to create the SLASH. If you don't want to go into the Cliffs panel and try to find these different characters, Aiken on a Mac and a PC, I can just hit option or halt and shift and one and that's going to create the slash right here, which is a slash that will go in between a fraction. And I If I check my position on the open type panel and had denominator and I type any other number, it's going to be in the exact fraction Foreman and the way you can double check that this fractions been created right is you can go into the glyphs panel and all zoom out a little bit and go to where some of the pre built fractions are. And I'm just going to type in three force and you can see that they're on the same levels. This three matches up with that for and that four matches up with at five and the slashes air the same. You can see if I use standard slashes right here. These are much larger, and these are not going to work for fractions. And so this is, ah, really simple way that you can create accurate fractions. Now, one thing just to know these air only with specific funds, some funds will not have characters or letter forms. They were created specifically for fractions, and so just keep that in mind and another way you can easily create these. Using the open type panel is literally this type. By using the fraction auction, I can automatically type in fractions by using the slash, and I don't have to use any of those shortcuts. But with certain typefaces, this may not always work, and so just keep that in mind. And now one of the other things were going to be looking as Ordell's. And so what orginal czar are superscript letters or numbers that come directly after the first character? This is usually seen in numbers where you're saying third or fourth or second, and so one easy way to do this is by using this ordinance. Check Mark, and it's basically going to create superscript letters like this after the first character . So I have a four and anything after that before a space is going to be in superscript. But then if I hit a space and I type in another character, then that is going to be a full size character and the letters after that are still going to be in superscript, and this is going to be the case with words to the first letter of the word is always going to be in a full size character and the rest of that word before the space after it is going to be in the superscript. And so after his name out right here, you can see all the things that we've looked at in this video have been involving the general terminology and an enemy of letter forms. 5. Type Sizing and Measurements: now in this video, we're going to be looking at how it type isn't measured. And so I have some type right here. And if you click on that, this is set in 72 point. Now when I'm saying 72 point, that's not referring to this distance of the W to the bottom of the why. It's actually referring to this right here. Um, when type was originally created, it was created in blocks, and those blocks had one letter on each one. The way it's measured is from the bottom of that block to the top, which is called one M. And so the way type is measured is from the bottom of the lowest letter to the top of the highest letter. And then it gives a little bit of extra padding on top of that. And so you can see this is 72 point in this line right here is showing the distance of a 72 point block, and so that as you can see, that's one M, and often times they would use spacing and whether uses these blank blocks when they're creating spaces on letters. And those blocks were the same distance horizontally as vertically, and that's called on em quad or an M square because it's one M horizontally and one m vertically. And so, if you've ever had experience with coding or development, you may have heard of EMS before usually encoding its referring to a percentage of the parent typeface. And so that's what it comes from is based on a 72 point Taipei's. And now, if you're wondering what 72 point is referring Teoh, I'll go up here and the way type was measured is in either points pikers or inches. And so there's 72 points in one inch, and so that means of this right here of a drag these down a little bit. Then you can see this would be one inch tall from the top of that line to the bottom of here for type. And there's also six. Pike is in a niche, and so a six pica is an image would also be equal to If I put it right here 12 points in one pica, and this will give you a good reference for how type is sized for when you're creating type . It will give you a good reference point, and you can understand how the type was originally created 6. Tracking, Kerning and Leading: All right, So I miss last lesson. We're going to look at a few different methods of setting type from the character panel. So I'm going to drag in the character panel right here. And one of the first things were going to be talking about is tracking, and so tracking you can see is right here. And that is the distance between all of the characters and one of the easy shortcuts you can use an adobe illustrator. When you select all your type is using this panel, you can click up or down on that's going to solely track in those letter forms. Now, if I hold down, shift is going to change that by 10 points at a time. Um, what I prefer to do is using the keyboard shortcut, which, as auction or Ault and left Arrow Key or right Arrow key, which is automatically going to track those letters closer together or further apart. Now turning is kind of similar to tracking except Kern. ING is referring to the distance between Onley two letters, and so tracking is the distance between all of the letters and Kern ing is when you have two letters that air too close together. For example, You see this E in this are there too close together And so I can do is click right in between of those letters and go over to here, which is the Kern ing, and I can change that holding down shift and then increasing that Kerney and what I can also do is similar to the same keyboard. Shortcut is just clicking right in between two letters and holding down option or all. And just turning these letters out and what I usually want to do is find a reference for these letters. Soul usually is like the distance between two straight lines and try to make that distance equal between all these letter forms itself right here between our in em, I think that looks pretty good. And then I'm going to decrease that distance right here. And so now if you look at that, that looks a lot better than when it did before one of the terms they may find some people referring to pork earning is Keming, which is kind of a play on the fact that when the are and the M is too close together, it looks like coming, and so coming is just the result of poorly done Kerney. And so one of the places you can go is this website right here, type method dot a c and I'm going to open it up in a browser right here. And this is ah, funnel Web site that will help you practice Kerney. Well, what you can do to get started is you just move one of these letters and then it gets you started on these different practice, the typefaces and the way you do it is you can click on the different letters, and then you move them around to exactly where you think that they should go. And I think that's pretty close. And then you hit. Compare. It is going to show you a comparison of where the Kern ing should be in reality. And then you can look at the solution to see what it really should be. Look at what you did and you can see the comparison bolt. And so if you go through a few of these, then I'll give you some really good practice on your turning like this. I can move this p over a little bit and then hit Compare and and that actually was pretty close. And so if you just go type dot method dot a c, then that's going to give you this website that will help you practice some of your different turning. And so let's go back to Adobe Illustrator and there's a few more things that I'm going to show you in in design. And so a lot of the shortcuts, they're going to be similar between Photoshopped and it'll be illustrator and in design. If I create is my type tool and create a box and I'm going to right click and fill that with some placeholder text and I can select all of my type. And with this I'm going to increase the spacing between these lines and that is called letting, and you can see that in the character panel right here. This is a leading, and so if I am, increase that, then the spacing between these lines is going to increase on. One of the things this is going to help with most is readability, and now those air to turns that are actually pretty important in typography is understanding the difference between readability and legibility. Now I'm going to move this type over just right here, and I'm going to copy it, holding down option and dragging that over there, and I'm going to do the opposite. Avoided before. And you can see if you were to look at both of these paragraphs separately when reading something. Which one do you think would be easier to read? I would say most people would think this paragraph is going to be easier to read because the lines air spaced out a lot more comfortably, and I don't feel very awkward reading this. Where is this? I'm looking at these lines that are really close together, and you can see some of the D senders are starting to bump into the senders on this other line. And so that's not really good. When you were setting type, what I was talking about right there is concerning the readability of these paragraphs, because now, if you hear the term ledge ability that's referring to the ability to distinguish certain letter forms apart from other letter forms, and so you can see this type right here. I'm placing the ledge Ability isn't as good because these letter forms are all jumbled up, and they're not written out very cleanly. And now this may be something you want for a particular style for a project. But generally you want to the ledge ability, especially for large paragraphs, to be very legible. And another word for these paragraphs would be coffee. Now, you may have heard of copy before, but if you haven't copy is just another word for the type or the text on a page. So now I'm going to delete these. And if we go back into understanding the letting of these paragraphs, one of the best rule of thumb is that I like to follow is the higher the X height of a certain typeface, the more you're generally gonna want tohave the leading. And so I'm going to do it. This paragraph over here and copy that over. And I'm going to use a typeface. Helvetica, because I know that this typeface has a much larger X height than Baskerville, which I have over here. So this paragraph might have a little bit too much leading and the shortcut you can use to increase or decrease the living is similar to the one an illustrator that I was using Option and the right and left Eric E. But instead, this time I'm using the up arrow key to decrease letting on a down to increase it. And so, if this I'm going to want the letting on these just a little bit more like that. And so now this reads much nicer. And with this Helvetica paragraph right here, I might keep that letting pretty consistent where it is, because since the X height is a little taller, you want more space in between these lines of text where you see this visual empty space And so I hope you enjoy this course. And if you didn't please give it a review so that other people can enjoy too.