The Elements of English Grammar | Michael McIntyre | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Good grammar is important


    • 3.

      Parts of speech


    • 4.

      Verbs make me tense!


    • 5.

      What if?


    • 6.

      Can't we agree NOT to disagree?


    • 7.

      Confusing the past with the present


    • 8.

      Nouns - how we name things


    • 9.

      Those little words that take the place of names


    • 10.

      When pronouns go bad


    • 11.

      A couple other things you didn't know that you need to know about pronouns


    • 12.

      Getting in and out of the preposition box


    • 13.

      The comma rules!


    • 14.

      Punctuation - it's the little points that make all the difference


    • 15.

      Putting sentences together


    • 16.

      Don't be passive


    • 17.

      What goes into making a complete sentence


    • 18.

      Fragments - just pieces of a sentence


    • 19.

      Running sentences together


    • 20.

      Add a little color to your world


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About This Class

Aristotle said, "Speak so that I may see you." Today, he might have said, "Write so that I may see you," for we communicate so frequently in writing, that how we write determines how others view us, which means our writing has to be correct according to the accepted “rules.”

Whether you are an English learner or a native speaker who wants to brush up on correct usage of formal, standard English, this class is intended to guide you through the accepted rules of writing and culminates in fun writing project.

A helpful text with exercises accompanies the class. You will find it on the Intro page under "Resources"

Meet Your Teacher

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Michael McIntyre

Prof Mac and all things writing


My name is Michael McIntyre. I taught at the college level for about 30 years, mostly writing- and literature related courses: literature, film, and also “freshman” composition, advanced composition and research, creative writing, and professional writing. I have also taught more generalist humanities courses such as art history, music appreciation, media studies, and study-skills courses. One of my favorite courses to teach is mythology.

I hold a Doctorate at the University of Southern California, a Master’s Degree from California State University at San Francisco, and a Bachelor’s Degree from the University of California, Berkeley. In a “previous lifetime” (or so it seems), I spent some years banging my head against the walls o... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Intro: cool. I'm Dr Michael McIntyre, and this is elements of grammar for business and academic writing. This course is designed for native speakers of English who wish to brush up on their writing skills and also for learners of English who wish to gain a knowledge about the fundamentals of English grammar. Now there are three major areas in writing, and the first is the technical. And that's what we're gonna be covering in this course. And that includes grammar, punctuation, syntax, things like this. The second is the content, and that is what you want to say. The message that you want to deliver, whether it's a story or instructions for somebody to do something, a description of an event or an experience or ah, feeling a a visual scene, or to persuade. Sometimes you might want to persuade somebody to particular point of view or persuade somebody to do something. This these are things that might be considered content and the third ist style. That is how you say it, how you come across the tone of voice, figuratively speaking, that you're conveying your writing. But as I said in this course, we're gonna be concentrating on the first aspect of writing, and that is the technical. And so you might ask, why grammar? Why should I learn this? Well, first you do, grandma or, uh, should say you do Grandma use easier table air quotes? Um, you have a sense of what is correct and what is not correct. So, for instance, if I were to say something like me teaches English, you'd have a sense that there's something wrong in the way that I said that even though you might not been ableto phrase my mistake, Um, in technical terminology, you'd have a doubt about my ability to teach you anything about the language. Well, in the same way many years ago, the character on Sesame Street, the cookie monster, uh, used to say me want Cookie. We thought it was funny. We thought it was cute, but we definitely recognized that it was incorrect. And so you might ask, why grammar? Why should I learn this? Well, first you do, grandma, Or, uh, I should say you do Grandma use these entertainment air quotes? Um, you have a sense of what is correct and what is not correct. So, for instance, if I were to say something like me teaches English. You'd have a sense that there's something wrong in the way that I said that even though you might not been ableto phrase my mistake. Um, in technical terminology, you'd have a doubt about my ability to teach you anything about the language. Well, in the same way many years ago, the character on Sesame Street, the cookie monster, uh, used to say me want Cookie. We thought it was funny. We thought it was cute, but we definitely recognized that it was incorrect. Okay, Some why? Why should we do this? Cause people care. People care. And they judge you according to the way that you speak, just as you judge others. So, for instance, if you if you got a sales letter that said something to the effect of me got great deal for you, you come tomorrow, you buy, you laugh at it, you'd probably throw the letter away. Maybe after you showed your friends and you all laughed at it. Well, air Sato said a couple 1000 years ago speak so that I may see you in the same way. Ah, CEO of an internet company. I fix it dot com fellow by the name of Kyle Wien's wrote and the articles still on the Internet. I believe you could look it up, find it that he won't hire people with bad grammar if he receives a, um, resume or an application from somebody that has grammatical mistakes. And he throws away, says your words are all that you have. So we judge each other by our language usage. Okay, so but besides catering to grammar snobs and I confess to being someone of the grammar is not myself anyway. But I walked on the whole way, doesn't decide. I walk down the whole way. And if I see it both on board with a posting on it, that has a grammatical mistake. Some of these people who will look around, take out a pen and correct mistaken walk on. It's irritating, I know, but I can't help myself. Um, I'm sure there's a 12 step program someplace form, but good grammar helps make your writing easier to read and understand and helps eliminate misunderstandings that might arise because of inadvertent mistakes. So what we're gonna do in this course is to concentrate on the technical aspects of writing as I said, for business and academic purposes, we're not compose what's called clean. Copy those silly little airports again. Um, that is writing devoid of technical errors of grammar, syntax, usage. And so, as opposed to coming, crosses ignorant hillbilly buffoon. Um, you will learn to present yourself in writing, so others see you as the educated, intelligent, cultivated and confident person that you really are. 2. Good grammar is important: one thing to remember is that no matter what your line of work, good writing is essential. There's an article I read recently. Um ah, but it would be bank robber who entered a bank and and handed the teller a note. Well, the teller couldn't read it. It is so garbled, so mixed up in its grammar and syntax, and that she had to call over the bank manager and washing the bank manager were puzzling over what the note said. The bank robber got cold feet ran away. You say so. Not a very successful business endeavor, is it? So no matter what your line of work, good writing is essential. Now this is illustrated, oddly enough, maybe even though this happened just just recently. Ah, this is illustrated by a clip from a very old Woody Allen movie movie called Take the Money and Run. So we'll take a look at the clip here, just illustrate the point. OK, and if you'll just take this to window number nine, what does this say? Can't you read that I can't read this? What's this act natural? Not just Please put $50,000 into this bag and act natural. I'm pointing Gonna chewable That looks like God. That doesn't look like gun, you know. It's good. No, let's go. Be No, do that. It's gonna George, would you step over here a moment? I wanted to see. Please put $50,000 into this bag and natural Whats app back? Does this Does this look like gob A gun? Gonna see. But what's Abney? Its act. See the act actual. Please put $50,000 act. Oh, I see. This is a holdup. Yes. May I see your gun? Well, you'll have to have this note initial by one of our vice presidents before I can give you any money. Rush? What a rush. I'm sorry, but that's our policy. Gentlemen, in the gray suit, that's G when I'm pointing. Yes, I be that I'm pointing a gun at you. That's Guo'an. Well, that's a being That's go. No. Excuse me. It was Frank. I am pointing a gun at you. Act natural Know that? What is after it attacked? Oh, it couldn't be. There's a plane. Be No, no, no, no, I'm not that that's act naturally. Gonna eat. You missed him. I am pointing a go. No, that's gun. That's G u N. That's gun. I am pointing a gun and you know, it looks like a B. But it is. I don't know. What is it that way? Maybe there's still somebody out there who thinks I don't need to learn grammar on to be an enforcer for the Mafia. But remember, even with the Mafia, you're gonna want to make offers they can't refuse, not offers. They don't understand. 3. Parts of speech: Hi. It's good to see you again. In this lesson, we're gonna be talking about the parts of speech, parts of speech, of the categories into which we put words. Knowing them helps us talk about language and grammar. Eso, for instance, if someone were to say to you the problem with your sentences, the now and doesn't agree with the verb or even more technically the subject does not agree . The predicate You have to know what these things are. You have to know what a noun and a verb or subject in a predicate. And in this case, what is meant by agree. What does that mean? Um so for some of you, this will be a review. Some of you may feel that you already know this material, so you don't need to go through this. In which case, Ah, please feel free to go on to the next lecture on. You might want to take the, uh, the knowledge quiz, the test, your knowledge quiz that's attached to this lesson. And but for the rest of us, let's get started. Hi. We have eight parts of speech, and these might be further divided into four different categories. Um, in the first, the core category, as I would call it, We have the noun is and the verbs and pronouns pronouns of the things of this world. The verbs be the things that they do, you know, the actions that they do And the pronouns would take the place of now owns. So be he She it works like this. Now, as we go forward, I'm gonna be explaining these in greater detail. But I just want to get us, uh, basic understanding. Give us a kind of an overview right now. Then you might have the modifiers thes change or alters somewhat adjust our conceptions of the announcing the verbs. So, for instance, it's not just a dog. It's a big brown dog. Okay. Ah, he ran or he ran quickly. The baby slept soundly, you see, So these would be adjectives and adverbs changing the, um, the noun or the firm. Then you have what you might call the joiners. These are the conjunctions, such as and or but although words like this and propositions which also joined parts of speech Ah, to one another, either parts of a sentence or words. So, uh, on the table or Ah, in the baseball diamond, things like this. OK, uh, and then finally you have thean motives. These air the interjections. Wow, that was great. You know, uh uh, the while being the interjection. Okay. All right. So I'm gonna explain these in more detail as we go for but I hope this quick overview gave us, um something Teoh Base Our further lesson on Thank you. You've probably heard the definition before the noun as being a person, place or thing that is now under the names for all the things that are in the world and all the things they're even out of the world in that uhm noun our names for things that are tangible. You can put your hand on ah, typewriter if you know what a typewriter is If such thing exists anymore Ah, but a computer or a car, a telephone or even right here a There will be it a dancing bear. Uhm noun is also our names for things that are imaginary. Like right here we have the ferry. Could be Santa Claus. Um I hope I didn't burst anybody's bubble there, but also things that are idealistic. We have concepts off. But nevertheless, you can't put your hand on such things as love or justice or friendship or anger. Or, you know, my feelings were hurt. Well, the feelings can't be touched, but we consider them riel nevertheless, and and the description of that is a now. So I'm gonna leave you here with a little clip of Phoebe from friends singing about something that she considers very riel love. Sweet as summer showers. Love is wondrous work, but it's like a giant page being on my announced divided into two categories. Com announce and proper announced. So as you proves the list over here, you'll see that in the one case we have boy who could be any boy or we have Billy again, we have a woman could be any woman or the specific Anita Williams and again, like, Why City, Any city or Chicago are a river or the Mississippi, A very specific river, a company, Ford Motors or a poet, Robert Frost. Now one of things that you notice here, look down. The column of proper announced One property of proper noun is in English is that they are, for the most part, capitalized And there are some exceptions. The, um, company eBay, for instance, as the idiosyncratic spelling has adopted videos Socratic spelling for itself off lower case all lower case No no capitals. And, likewise, the late poet, the late American poet E. E. Cummings Ah chose for the most part not to capitalize the, uh, the letters of his name that would normally be capitalized. But for the most part, the rule holds that proper announce Our capitalized verbs describe actions or states of beings. Let's talk about the ah action part of the definition. First, you might think of this as being action movie type actions, running and jumping and hiding and fighting the sorts of things of very for dramatic type actions. But they can also be quiet actions when you sleep, pass in action. If you just sit there and think that's an action SOS. So if somebody says you're not doing anything, you're just sitting There you go. No, I am doing something. I'm thinking That's an action. Uh, these are some of the actions that verbs describe. A linking verb connects the noun or pronoun with word that describes or explains it. And this word that describes, explains that you need to be another now, or it could be a, um, an adjective which we'll get to very shortly. But let me explain. So if I said he is sick, well, that's sick is describing he and and the is right there, which is the form of to be that we use for the third person Singular, um is linking he with sick in the same way. If I said she is a doctor, he is linking she with Dr Okay. So I could say Maggie is a doctor. Uh, and and he is would be linking. You know, Maggie, with Doctor. There are other forms of the linking verb that we should just take note of. And these are words that you could substitute the verb to be in its various forms. Um, I am. You are? Ah, he's here. It is. We are. You are. They are, um, and you could use words like not exclusively on that is to say, not all inclusively, but you could use words like seems he seems angry now. If you could say he is angry, then that's being used as a linking verb. He has grown tall if you could say he is tall well, again, you're using it as a linking verb. Now you have to be careful with with some of these words because to grow could also be in action. He has grown some great tomatoes. Eso there you're using the word grow as an action for because he is doing something. He's just not being something. It's such as tall in our example on it. Likewise, you could say this smells rotten. In other words, this is rot. Um, but if you say I smell a rat, well, that's a different usage of the word you see. Then you're performing an action. You're smelling something, So all right, so you know, So So you be careful that but it's handy to know that distinction between the action verbs and the linking firms. So now we come to pronounce, like with many of the other parts of speech, you would recognize them, though you might not know exactly what they're cold if you did encounter them in speech or in writing. But very simply, what a pronoun does is it takes the place of a noun. So instead of saying Bob is late, we would say he is late. Possibly. Instead of saying Tom, Dick and Harry went on a vacation, we might say they went on a vacation. So you see, the pronoun takes the place of the downs, and in some ways, um might save us repetition. We wouldn't have to say Bob off all the time. And also ah, saves us from lengthy exposition such as? You don't have to repeat that. Every name of everybody in the group you could just say they or them So pronounced are these little words such as I me, you, yours. Ah, he she writ him her works like that. Um, they're also what's called the indefinite. Pronounce someone. Ah, anyone. Anybody on also, what we call the interrogative or the relative pronounce Who? Which, whose words like this. Okay, so, in order, um, we're gonna learn more about pronouns as we go for we have a whole section devoted just to pronounce what fun? Okay, but, uh, in the meantime, just remember pronouns or those little words that take the place of the Now The adjective is a word that modifies or describes a now. So we remember a noun is a person place or thing. Right? So, um and so in modifying or describing, we mean that it changes the noun or or add some specificity to it. So, for instance, did you lose your address book? Not just any boat, but the address book. Is that a wolf sweater? You know, I don't want any of this synthetic material. I just like wool. Ah, you're a big boy. And, uh which hardly enough. We only say to boys who are not big boys. Okay. Ah, just give me five minutes. So it also tells us Ah, you know, account. How many? So what kind? How many various kinds of qualities and one more thing to remember is that adjectives can be stacked. So, uh, we see down below. Here, uh, the description the big brown fear star. You see, we can have a number of adjectives all going to further specify what kind of dog it is. Okay, so that's the adjective it modifies or describes a Now the adverb changes or modifies the verb. So I could say I run, but I'd be giving more information if I said I run often, which, actually I don't some lying, but ever but you get the idea. I could say the baby slept or the baby slept soundly. So I'm describing how it was that the baby slept yesterday. We went to the beach. Um, adverbs also tell us when or I put the mousetrap there. See also tells us where with words like there. Okay, so ah, a pneumonic device. Pneumonic comes from a Greek word that means memory pneumonic device up. You differentiate if you have problems between adjective. An adverb is that the adverb adds to the verb little trick there adds to the burbs. So yet it changes or modifies or adds to the verge. It does some other things too, but its main function is to do just that. And and again, we have a whole section on adverbs and we'll be talking about those at greater length. But this just to give you a quick glimpse at what an adverb does. As I said in the introduction proposition is one of the joining words. It connects a noun with other parts of the sentence. And so you notice very cleverly I am I highlighted in red all the propositions on this page . So with other parts of the sentence and the sample sentence down below. Ah, the postcard arrived for them from Bobby telling about his trip to Canada. So that's what a proposition does, very simply. And on the next slide, I'll introduce you to a pneumonic device that will help you remember the proposition. So this is it right here. The proposition box. This is the pneumonic device that should help you remember what a proposition is. So it's a little word that helps you orient yourself to or in relationship to the box. So you're in the box, you're on the boxer under the box here, to the side of the box, you're going through the box. All these words are propositions. And if you just remember what the proposition box does, it helps keep your propositions knife and nice and safe and snugly and for your use so you can pull them out anytime that you need them in your speaking or writing. The conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words. So these air words such as and but or because while if words like these that joined so I could say the boy hit the ball and he ran for space. So the conjunction and would be joining the two independent clauses. Um, if, um, Sandusky had made the final touchdown, we would have won the game. So the if is a conjunction in that case, and I could go on and on that we have a whole chapter. I promise you on the conjunction and how it's used. But perhaps at this time we've been at this for quite some time. The most appropriate thing for us to do is go to the next slide, where we have a short video that will explain this idea marvelously. Conjunction Junction What's your function? Looking up? Words and phrases and clauses. Conjunction Junction. How's that auction? I got three favorite cars that get most of my job done. Conjunction Junction. What's there? I got an button or get you pretty far on. And that's an attitude like this. And but that's sort of the opposite. Not this, but And then there's R O. R. Where you have a joint like this. Conjunction Junction. What's your motion looking up to? Boxcars? Bacon. I'm run right milk and honey bread and butter peas, right? Hey, that's dirty! But happy digging and scratching, losing your shoe and a button or two. He poor but honest and true looking up to one. When you say something like this choice, either now or later are no choice. No, I never pay. That's clever. Eat this on that growth in all fat. Never mind. I wouldn't do that, I found out. Now what's your looking up phrases and clauses that balance like out of the frying pan and into the fire. He cut loose the sandbags, but balloon wouldn't go any higher. Let's go up to the mountains are down to the scene. You should always they thank you, are at least safely. Yeah, what's your function? Looking up words and phrases and clauses and complex sentences, like in the mornings when I'm usually wide awake. I love to take a walk through the gardens and down by the lake, where I often see a duck and a drink. And I wonder as I walked by just what they say if they could speak. Although I know that I thought Conjunction Junction, What's your function? Working up cars make a conjunction. Junction tied up words and phrases in closet Conjunction junction, Watch that Wanna get you there. You're very careful. Conjunction, Junction. What's your going to get you? Your care intentions. The interjection is an exclamatory word. That is, It makes an exclamation that expresses an emotion, though without thought. OK, so, um, it does not in the sense of I feel happy, you see? So that's a thought, but But wow, you did this for me. You know, the wow is the interjection. The exclamation! Ah, goodness. What a cute baby, You know, as the drawing indicates, or when you hit your thumb with a hammer. If you are so inclined to be wielding hammers building things, you say a lot of bad words that are probably interjections. There exclamation points. Ah, but, ah, that we can't repeat here. But But that's when the introductions is now, uh, in for informal writing. You do not use interjections that much, if at all. Maybe in quoting somebody you might, but, um but it's useful for you to know what it is. So those are the parts of speech. We've gotten through them. Read more on the text to refresh your memory and do the exercises to help you learn. And other than that, we're done for this lesson. And I will see you next time. Thank you very much. 4. Verbs make me tense!: so to remind you about our discussion about firms that we had in the section on parts of speech. Verbs describe actions and they do a few other things. But you know, in this life will just take a look at the actions that groups can describe In their Many didn't varied. The asteroid destroyed the dinosaurs. Babe Ruth swung for the bleachers. He runs marathons. They arrive on the flight from Chicago. I went to Cancun for my vacation. You hide and I'll try to find you. Can you show me the way to Tipperary? So you know. So these are actions that are described by a verbs. The next slide will review very quickly some of the, um, other, uh, aspects of a bird. Remember that the action that adverb describes does not have to be an action movie action. That is, it doesn't have to be destroying or running and jumping and fighting or doing any of these other things that we like Teoh see in our movies. Um, it could be a quiet is still action. So she decided on chicken for the reception dinner. I think I'll have another beer. Why? He felt the draft or Superman slept like a baby. All these air quiet actions, but their actions nonetheless. So these air, other actions that verbs express and in the next line will take a look at another function of the verb, which doesn't have to do with action at all. Remember that verbs can also express the state of being. So as we see over here a few examples. I am a teacher. That was a great movie. You were a beautiful baby. This has been lovely experience. So each one of those forms of the verb to be, um, is labor. And they expressed the state of being not in action and in the next line very quickly will review other forms of the state of being. So there's other verbs that express the state of being besides the birth to be, and we see them listed here. Ah, he appears strong. I have become sadder but wiser least. I think I'm wiser. Ah, it feel strange. She has grown torches going quite tall. She looks like a formidable opponent. This has proven difficult. That remains to be seen. He seems distracted. Somehow the milk smells sour. Their music sounds like cats fighting, which is more and more my response to modern music. But I guess my music tastes stop developing around the time of the Beatles. Never. But now for each one of these, um, you could substitute the verb to be. He appears strong. He is strong. She has grown told she is tall. Um, this has proven difficult. This was difficult. So So in that sense, they expressed states of being and not action but their verbs nonetheless. So after that review, which I hope has been helpful, we get to the main point of this lesson is verb tense. In other words, verbs tell time. That's what tense refers to tense refers to the ability of verbs to tell time. And in English there are six different verb tenses. Well, what will call tenses? Sometimes grammarians and linguists refer to aspect or mood of the verb. But well, I will stick with the, um of a simpler term of tents. And so, uh, we have some examples here on I was You will be She has been We will have been they had been see, So each one of these casts the action or in this case, the state of being into a different verb tense into a different time. So we'll take a look at how this happened. So here we have the six tenses, the six tenses in English. Not all languages have the same tenses, or think of virgins or the time that that verbs describe the same way, but in English. This is the case. So we have the present past and future, and those are simple enough. And we'll be talking about those those that what's called the perfect tenses the president perfect, past, perfect and the future perfect. And as you go forward, I'll break those down one by one, and we'll take a look at what they are and what they do. So first will encounter the simple present tense, such as I have listed over here. I read you sleep. She works. They eat now, one of things that you notice almost immediately in the English throws a curveball at its immediately. The simple present tense is not used to communicate present action. So, for instance, if I say I read, I'm not saying that I am reading right now. I say that I really mean that I read regularly you sleep does not mean that you are sleeping right now. It means that you know, you sleep at night. Perhaps she works. Does not mean she is working right now. It means that, um she has a job. She works regularly that at something, or and again they eat does not mean that they are eating right now. It means that, uh, to sustain themselves. They are in the practice of eating as we all are. So, uh, the simple present tense is used not to communicate present action, but you communicate a sort of habitual state. Um, and it has another function as well that I'll talk about the first. I want to take a little digression in the next slide, and I'll talk about how we do express present action So English doesn't do us any favors by confusing whole issue about the present tense. Ah, because it's not the present tense, as I said about that communicates present action but a form called the progressive. That's the I N G form. And so I have some examples here that, uh, that show you what that is. So I am doing. She was doing. They have been doing? I am going to school. Mary is working right now, so eso just take a look at one of those. So, for instance, what would be the difference? What kind of difference would you hear between? I am going to school and I go to school. You say so if I say I am going to school, I communicates to you that I'm in the action right now. I'm in the, uh, in the course of traveling to school. If I say I go to school, that means I go to school regularly. I am attending school, See? So there's a difference there, and, uh, and is that difference that makes the difference between the present tense and the progressive back to the present tense in English thesis, impolite present communicates continuing or habitual action. I'll just give you a few examples, so that becomes more clear. So I could say, as I said before I go to school, I go to school at State University, Mary works at the coffee shop. That dog barks all night. So you see him? That dog barks all night. I mean, that's not even at the present time. I mean, that's just something you know the dark continually does at night, and right now it's in the middle of the day. So the dogs not doing it now. I'm not even saying that the dog is doing now. I'm just saying that habitually continually. Every night the dog barks and keeps me awake. My kids worry me to death, just something that they do all the time. So, uh, so that's something to remember the about the present tense. It doesn't communicate pros in action. It communicates habitual or continual action. And it does something else, which which is even more confusing, and we'll see about that in the next slide. So the present tense verb not only describes in action that his habitual by individuals by people but also scheduled or natch, naturally re occurring events such as the sun rises in the East. The elections are held in November. The guys are in Yellowstone National Park, shoots up more than 100 feet. Americans celebrate Independence Day on July 4th. Einstein discovered that matter and energy are intrinsically related, so they are intrinsically related. So and of course, and you're seeing each one of these cases I've highlighted in red the present tense verbs that that describe these eternal events. And that's another function of the present tense. And as we go forward, wolf discover yet even another, more confusing aspect of the present. It's for so little clipping other. So the present ends also communicates a inaction or a state of being that is scheduled or expected to happen in the future. So the president's is also used to communicate the future, which seems to be contradictory because if it's the president, how come we're talking about the future? But that's just the way it is. So take a look at some of the examples here. The sun rises tomorrow at 6 a.m. We have a test next Tuesday. This computer is going into the shop tomorrow. My sons messed around with it enough, just trying to improve it and now doesn't work at all. This is actually happened. So it's it is going into the shop tomorrow. Ah, the guy's air erupts at three PM today. Independent State is on a Tuesday this year, so you see each one of these cases. I've used the present tense verb to indicate something that will happen in the future something that's scheduled or are expected to happen in the future. And that's a usage of the president's. For now on. The next slide will go on to the next tense that we have Teoh talk about, which is the future tense. And you see how that's related to what we're talking about here. So I'll see in the next night, after all my pill. Aber about the present tense not being used to describe present action. There are actually a couple exceptions to that, and I'll describe them here. One is the event present. That is, for instance, if you're narrating a a ballgame and you say Rodriguez makes the goal. Uh uh, you're using the present tense makes the goal. Or if you're just standing on the train tracks of anybody Well, I hope you're not standing on the train drives but by the train tracks in the train station . Here she comes. Now look, eso you're somebody you're waiting for is coming. Okay, so here she comes. So that's one exception to the to the rule that the president's does not describe present action. The other is the performative present, such as I now declare you men what that I declare. You see, that's that's present action or I apologize for hurting your feelings. See, that's also present action. And there's one other exception. And that's the experiential. That's I feel I feel a draft notice. That's the simple present. I feel a draft. I hear a song know somebody singing? I hear a song, I hear someone singing, Okay. Or, um, I see you, You know, I mean, like, you play with the baby, right? You don't say I am seeing you. I'm seeing you. You know, You say I see you. I see you or something like that? Some, um But, uh, these are exceptions to the use of the present tense in which the president's does actually describe present action. Now we come to the future tense. This is the tents in which we essentially predict the future. Now, just a side note. Linguists and grammarians sometimes argued that English doesn't really have a future tense and that the verb itself doesn't change, which indeed it doesn't. But we employ a helping verb or motile auxiliary, but that, um, cavil that, uh uh that little pick immune point I won't bother us. We'll just refer Teoh this as the future tense. And so. And as I said, we do use the helping verb. Well, so as we see in the examples over here. Ah, he will go to the party this weekend. My sister will graduate in June. I will definitely watch the last episode of Desperate Housewives or whatever is more most popular these days. Wilbur will show up for work tomorrow. Bobby McGee, Will bum will bungee jump off the how? Tallahatchie Bridge. Okay, so, uh, these form some sort of expectation about the future. Now you know what happens in English. Some languages don't have this kind of future tense in English. Were able to say very definitively what is gonna happen in the future? This isn't so in all languages. In some languages, you would say something like he would jump or if he would jump or something like that. Ah, people are a lot less sure about what's gonna happen tomorrow or next year, but in English were very sure. And so we state the future as will. It will happen. So? So we'll go on. And we will, We will. Okay, um, take a look at other possibilities. for the future tense. Another possible way to express the future is using the form of going to, um, very often coming out in colloquial English as Ghana, as in I'm gonna go to the ball game tomorrow. But now will the word the Motorola auxiliary will helping Bird will and the phrase going to can often be interchange, such as such as we see over here. I'm going to serve dinner at 6 p.m. Versus I will serve dinner at six PM or I'm going to attend State College versus I will attend State College. So now the difference between those is so slight. I don't even know if we can parse the difference. But it's not always possible to interchange these two forms. For example, 11 yeah, example that I have here is if you're going to make a federal case out of it, just drop it. I don't want to hear about it anymore, Okay? If you're gonna make a federal case out of it, that's a bit of ah idiomatic phrasing. But it's not really likely or even possible to say if you will make a federal case out of it, that that just doesn't strike. The year is being correct, perhaps because of the force of its colloquial nature. Um, sometimes going to Carrie's emotional force and conviction on and intent such as and be very likely to say, I'm going to propose to her tomorrow sounds quite different from saying I will propose to for tomorrow the 2nd 1 I will propose to her tomorrow. Sounds a little bit more finical, whereas I'm going to propose to her. Tomorrow seems to be more heartfelt, so it's very slight difference. And sometimes one is more appropriate than another. However, um, in formal writing, um, business and academic, the will form that is the Motorola auxiliary. The helping verb will is much more common in the going to is used very rarely and just very briefly. There are a few other ways to speak about the future. Um, one is Fred is about to speak. And so we see this over here, Fred is about to speak, and so that's speaks to the immediacy of the future event, um, or Fred is to speak that is he scheduled to speak? Um, we can also use some of the other motor likes Hillary, some of the other, helping verbs to express contingency future. So Fred may speak tonight, you see, so that we're speaking about the future, but we're not predicting it. It's not as firm as he will speak, or he should speak tonight. I'm expecting that he will, but, uh um, but I'm not quite sure. So these other ways, too, speak about the future to express the future. Now we get to the simple past tense or be thankful for small favors. Okay, because, um, the simple past is indeed very simple. It's simpler than the present tense, which has all these different forms and meanings that it can take. And, um, it doesn't offer us the, uh, the the complexity of the future tense, in which we have a few different possibilities to express the future. The simple past is just that it is simple, and it deals of the past tense. That is a relates to a state or an event. Uh, that took place in the past and is completed. It's all done. So now the, uh, the length of time the duration of time of the event can vary. So I can say I heard a car backfire. So that's just a moment that just one moment a fraction of a second. But the event is over, Um, or the dinosaurs ruled the Earth for 100 million years. So we have a great expansive time much longer than that single clap of the, um of the over my hands or of the imaginary car backfiring, you see. So it's 100 million years, but the event had a beginning and it had an end. And both of those are in the past. And so that's what this simple past deals with. That's what it expresses. Okay, so that's the simple past, and we'll talk more about different possibilities with the past tense as we go forward, we have another way to deal with some aspect of the past, to express something about an event that happened in the past. That's what's called the present perfect. And as I say, Well, maybe not perfect, but pretty darn good. Um, the grammar joke. Okay, that's what you get when you spend too much time reading about grammar anywhere. But what this does, what the present perfect does is it expresses an event or state of being that began in the past and moves in some undefinable way towards the presence. So, for instance, I have walked my dog in the park for several years. That implies that I'm still doing it in some way or another, you know? So it's an ongoing practice, as opposed to I walked my dog in the park for seven years, so, you know, I know I could do it. Maybe my dog, unfortunately, has passed away. So where she hasn't She still keeps me company. Um, but anyway, um, now note the difference if you say something like Brick swat. Irvington threw 23 touchdowns this season. Where are we in the season? Well, if if you're sensitive to such things, you'll know that the season is over. He threw 23 touchdowns, you say? So the. And if we go back to the definition off of, um of the simple past tense, we know that. Ah, the event began and it ended. It has begun and it has ended. So we're looking at a complete event. His, you know, having thrown the 23 touchdown. If we say, however, something like bricks. Waddington has thrown 23 touchdowns this season. We have a sense that we're still in the middle of the season. So that's the difference between the present perfect and the simple past. The present perfect begins in the past and move somehow towards and even includes the present time. Whereas the past the simple past just simply begins and ends. And I was going to say something like, um uh, you know the difference if you and I met and and you ask me what I do and I say, Ah, I have taught at the university for 10 years. See, I have taught So So I'll ask you if I said I have taught at the university for 10 years. Would that communicate that I'm still teaching there? I think it would. Ah, whereas if I said I taught at the university for 10 years, that would communicate that I once did that. But I no longer do so and the taught. I mean, it could be five years ago or it could be 20 years ago that I did that action, you see? So so Ah, that's the difference between the simple present or I'm sorry. The simple past and the present. Perfect. Now we come to what's called the past perfect. And this is a little bit more complicated because it deals with a couple different points of time inside the same sentence. Or if you count the implied present when we're speaking, then we're talking about three different points in time. Um, but let me try to walk us through it, and I'm trying to explain it. So, for instance, suppose you're describing a store manager. She arrives in the morning and the window is broken. She finds that the store window is broken. Okay, So when Mary arrived at the store in the morning, she saw that the window had been broken the night before. Okay, so so now, of course, we have the implied present, and then we have the, um the, uh the past tense. She arrived the simple past in an event that has begun and ended in the past. And then it had been broken. So now we're shifting to yet another time sometime the night before, Remember? So she arrives, say, at 8 a.m. In the morning. And, um uh, sometime the night before, say, at midnight, the window had been broken. That's what the, um, that's what the past perfect does. It allows us to express two different points of time inside the same sentence and to clarify the distinction between them. So please bear with me. I'm gonna go back over the incident of Mary in the broken window yet one more time and try to explain it by the use of this chart that's hanging over my head here. Um, so now you notice over here, you'll see. Um, the present. Uh, that's the present time when you're telling a story. OK, so that's the first, you know, location of time. Now, directly in the middle is the past. Mary arrived. She saw. Okay, So she arrived and she saw those events that have been completed in the past. And and that's kind of the central past point. The locating past point. Now what the past, perfect as it is, allows us to refer to another time a time previous to Mary's arriving. So, ah, if she arrived at 8 a.m. In the morning, because that's what it says above. She arrived at 80 AM in the morning she arrived and she saw the past. Perfect allows us to say that sometime the night before, and we don't have to specify what could. But sometime the night before the window had been broken, someone had broken the window. OK, so that's what the past perfect does. Ah, it allows us to locate ourself in the present and refer to an event in the past and then refer to yet another event that happened further in the past. So I hope that clarifies the job of the past perfect. And it's a handy little device. Use it with care because you can break and you can hurt yourself, So try it at home. But be careful. Now we're going to talk about the future. Perfect. Um, which is another way to express time in English verbs. Um, and it will take some explaining to do because this little intricate for one reason, we don't use it that often. Um, I can go through a whole term of students writing papers, and I never see it, and I don't see it that much and other kinds of writing as well. But it's good to know about you we should know about anyway, so it's not used frequently. Um, it does something similar to the past perfect and that it gives us a double jump in time, but in a different way. Ah, and it does incorporate two different time periods, albeit future time, Period. So in the next line, I'm gonna explain this more fully. Okay, So the future perfect. Ah, is a way to talk about the time that is in the future for now, but is in the past from a reference point that we'll establish in the future. But we'll be in the past from that future point. Okay, so I know that's confusing, but, uh, let me just give you an example based upon an imaginary flight. Okay, so we're departing now on a plane. Okay, so So we see that we're departing now on a plane. Okay, Uh, we have traveled 3000 miles between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. So we're leaving for New York right now. Okay. Ah, And then between eight am and eight PM, we ah have traveled 3000 miles and then at 8 p.m. We will arrive, so we will arrive. Ok, so But look how the sentence is formed. Our flight leaves now at 8 a.m. So that locates us, and you don't have to say that. But but I'm just doing that for the example. By the time we arrive in New York at 8 p.m. We will have travel 3000 miles. So it's that we will have traveled, which is the, uh, the future Perfect. You see, So it's locating us in the future. We're looking forward to the future, the future event 8 p.m. And our arrival. And when we arrive in New York at 8 p.m. We will have traveled 3000 miles. OK, so, uh, the traveling 3000 miles is in the future from now, but it's in the past from our reference point that we're establishing at 8 p.m. Okay, so I hope that's clear. So before we conclude this section on verb tense, we must take a look at how we form the past tense and the past. What's called the participle form from verbs. Now, most of the verbs in English are regular, that is, they're very simple to form the past tense and the participle form used to just simply add e d. So you take the verb walk and so I walk. I walked. I have walked. Okay, so or the word? Answer the verb answer. I answer. I answered. I have answered I have answered. So always adding the e d. And I'm emphasizing the, uh the D on the end very often in colloquial English, we tend to slough over the hard constant at the end. But but it is there, and it has to be there in writing because so, uh, next slide, I'll show you a little test that you can use to validate this kind of information. OK, so here we have something that's a little bit fun. Go the wog test. So wog is a verb. It's an imaginary verbs that don't, ah, crash. Your brain cells are trying to figure out what it means. It doesn't mean anything in just A it's just imaginary word, but it illustrates how we automatically can form the regular verb. OK, so if I gave you the word walk and told you it was a verb and ask you to describe how you would communicate that you did it yesterday that you did this action yesterday, you would say, Well, I walked look very, very simple at the D or if you've been doing for quite some time where you say I have walked, Okay. See? So you just very simply add the e d. So eat, we conform the, um the past tense and, you know, and and the partisan perform, um, from a even an unfamiliar word if we know that it's regular now, in the next couple slides will discuss what happens when verbs are not regular than they when they do not conform to any known pattern on. That's where we have a little bit of different difficulty. So I've saved the hardest for last the irregular verb. How to form the past tense from a verb that doesn't follow any regular pattern that is, you cannot predict it. So if you remember our imaginary word wog yesterday, I walked or I have walked. So those are very easy. Those verbs are very easy, but there's a ah, a category of verbs in English that number to 300 that don't follow any regular pattern. And you can see from the example that I have over here that, um, you have words like think you present. It's think. I think we're yesterday I thought, or I have thought. You see, so, uh, that follows a different pattern. Doesn't follow a regular pattern because you have a verb that rhymes would think as in drink and the past tenses drank. So how would you predict that? And the participle form is drunk. He has drunk too much good. So there's no way to predict that you have. Ah, another word like rise. You know, he rose up or he has risen. Okay, so maybe you've heard that, Okay, but But those were irregular. There's no predicting, uh, what form? The past participle forms were taken, and sometimes even to confuse things further, Um, you have words that don't change it all, uh, like, cut. You know, Uh, so I cut carrots. Okay. Or, um, uh, yesterday I cut myself, You see, So the the word cut doesn't change it all between the present tense and the past tense. And then you even have some verbs that change the internal. Ah, letters of the internal vowels. Such a sit. I sit. But yesterday I sat or I have sat. So ah, generally speaking, there's no pattern to the irregular verbs. That's why they call irregular. Okay. And, uh, and there's no predicting what they are in. So one other note, if you apply the wog test, if I gave you the verb wog and told you it was irregular, you would not know how to express that. You had done that yesterday. What would it be today? I walk yesterday. I wack, I wobble, I wagon. I am no idea, you see, so it's impossible to predict. But that's that's what we call it irregular. It follows no regular pattern, and you have to learn these one by one. Now, in the text that accompanies this lesson, there is a list of the irregular verbs and their past tenses, and they're part of simple forms. You should take a look at that and become familiar with it. You don't necessarily have to remember each and everyone, but you should become familiar with the list and familiar enough that you can recognize that. Ah, well, first, you know, the ones that you use most often but just recognized the general idea of the irregular for So that's it for the verb tenses we got through those. Okay, Very good. Now we still have one other aspect of herbs to um, look at and thats whats called subject verb agreement, but we'll do that in the next presentation. But for now, um, please do review the material and take the quiz study for the quiz. It's very important that you get the whole idea of, ah, verb tenses correct. One of the major mistakes that we could make it. Our writing is not being very certain and correct about this aspect of of the English language. So, uh, I'll see you next lecture. Thank you very much. I certainly appreciate it. 5. What if?: the counterfactual, or sometimes called the subjunctive mood. That is not a tense. It's a mood, which is kind of a technical term. I don't know if you really need toe. Remember that, But But do remember that the special form in English to communicate an idea about something that is not that is that's counter to fact. And very often we refer to this in the past. But sometimes in the present, think of it is the what if verb So So. For instance, if I were to say if I were seven feet tall, I would play basketball, you see, so that were there kind of odd form. I mean, I couldn't say yesterday I were tired, you see, So so it's in a different form. It's in the subjunctive, Um, and and I am speculating about if I were tall that I'm not I'm not. I'm off more than a foot shorter than that. But if I were, perhaps I would enjoy playing basketball against very tall people. Ah, and we have a quote from a Stephen Hawking the famous physicist Stephen Hawking. We can't predict what it will be when we find find it, because if we knew that we would have found it already. So here we have again the counterfactual if we knew that. You see, he's not saying if we know that he's saying if we knew that and and so here we have what might be a little confusion about the form that the counterfactual takes in that, um, sometimes it looks like the past tense. In fact, very often, when when we're using it in the present, it looks like the past tense. But it's not. The past tense is the it's the counterfactual and I'll go on and explain that a little bit further as well. Ford, Um, and the past tense counterfactual. Ah, actually looks like the past. Perfect. If Schabowski had made that last field goal, we would have won the championship if he had made Is not that he had made the fuel goal by the time I got to the stadium or is not that he made the fuel go because he didn't make it so That special verb form communicates that something is not if I were seven feet tall. If we knew that if Grabowski had made that vehicle the bum Okay, anyway, so we'll go forward. And, uh, we're talking a little bit more about this special form of the verb. The counterfactual sometimes called the subjunctive mood. So here we see a ah, an example off. Ah, comparison between the conditional. That's possible on the counterfactual, which is, in a word, it will never happen. We're actually that's a few government. Ah, so you see the conditional. If I said if I have the money out by lunch for everyone, you see if I have the money. So in that case, the having the money, having enough money to buy lunch for everyone is a possibility. Let me check my wallet. Um, I forget how much money I have. I've kind of lost track. Haven't looked in my wallet, lady. But But if I have enough cash oh, by month, lunch for everybody. If, however, if I said I had the money, I would buy lunch for everybody. So even in the second case, the wood signals that it would be my wish. But it's not really possible, but especially in the If I had the money that indicates that signals that I know I don't. It's not a possibility it will never happen today. I'm not buying less for everybody. I can't even buy lunch for myself cause I'm flat broken, waiting for payday. So that's the counterfactual. It communicates something that is not so, But we're able to speculate about what? You know what would happen. For instance, if it were so, if we knew that if if I were seven feet told if I had the money or if that bum Chlebowski had made the touchdown So that's the counterfactual and I'll go forward just a little bit. This is very short, um, lecture. Oh, and and discuss one other small item about the counterfactual or sometimes called the subjunctive mood here, I'm going to die GREss just just a little bit. I'm still gonna remain on topic about the counterfactual or the subjunctive. Um, but I'm going to tell you a little bit about a debate that raged some time ago in linguistic circles. Um, about the counterfactual. The general idea is, um is it possible for people who speak a particular language to speak easily or to refer to or even to think about, ah, ideas that are not easily expressed in the language? I mean, so present. If your language does not have a word for something, does that idea naturally occur to you? I mean, you know. So, for instance, in English, what's the word for deja vu? What's the English word for days ago? But we don't have one. So in order to express that idea we borrowed from the French. So now it's encased in English. But what did? How did people refer to deja vu before we stole the word from the French? Maybe we didn't or maybe explained it in a long paragraph. Okay, which is much clumsier and doesn't trip off the tongue and doesn't come to the mind as easily as the word Well, so with the counterfactual now, some languages, uh, most notably most famously, some Asian languages don't have a form for the counterfactual. So there was a debate since some time ago whether people who speak naturally or who speak is the first language. Um, some Asian languages, most notably Chinese, naturally think over can think in counterfactual mode. And there's one linguist who said that they couldn't and another language is said, Well, um, uh, we just do work around some, you know? So we say so instead of saying if I were seven feet tall, Uh, we say something like, if I am seven feet tall enough, not seven feet tall, I would play basketball, you know? So anyway, but just a just little debate. Uh, but in English, the counterfactual does allow us to easily glide into thinking about the what if And you can even think about this is the what if form. It allows us to think about things and to express them succinctly. Ah, things that are not states that are not actions that never happened. So that's the usage of the counterfactual. Um, use it with care, and I'll see next lesson. 6. Can't we agree NOT to disagree?: in this lecture, we're going to talk about subject verb agreement. Um, and I'll explain in a moment what it is and will be going through this, and you start to see what it is that we mean by this. But, um, first, let me say this is very important. This is a very important area of writing. And if speech to, um it immediately jumps out at the reader if you black subject verb agreement, self eso first stay. You want your subjects in your verbs to agree? Okay, so what is subject verb? Agreement may be One of the ways to best explain it is to just illustrate what it's not so as received from a couple of the samples here. Um, if I were to say something to you as I teaches English, well, you'd immediately doubt my ability to do so because my subject does not agree with my verb . You see, they don't go together and and as we see in the heading up above um, that's another way to think of it. They go together, they go together. Naturally, they belong together. So to be incorrect, to say I teaches English, you have the correct form, of course, would be I teach English. And likewise if someone said he run fast, well, the correct form would be he runs fast. Or if someone were to say you has driven well again correctly, one should say You have driven, you see. So that's what we mean by agreement that the forms naturally go together. And we could get technical that Ah ah that the first person subject should be matched by a first person verb and the second person subject matched by a second person verb in the third person subject, matched by 1/3 person verb. But, um, but for now, we'll start toe work through this, and I hope that you'll start to see what we mean by agreement and and again another word phrase. It would be the subjects in the verb go together in English. Agreement is simple. Subject verb agreement is relatively simple. There are relatively few changes to the verb in English and and we can see that most of the changes occur in the third person. Singular. That is when you're talking about a single person other than yourself or other than the person that you're talking to you. So you know So Ah ah, you would say something like I go, you go. He she or it goes and again we we see the examples over here on the side. You would say I walk, you walk, he she or it walks, you see? So you notice what we're doing. We're adding the S to the end of the, um ah ah, third person Singular verb. OK. And even with the verb to have, it's a little bit different, but But you can kind of stretch your imagination and see that it's really the same thing I have. You have he sheer It has self. So we lose the V. But you see the same idea you add the s. Okay. Now there is an exception and we'll talk about that. But agreement is simple in English, and so that's the easy part. Now a Zoe go forward, we're going to encounter. I'm gonna discuss ah, ways in which we make mistakes, areas that Ah, this agreement all but albeit simple agreement is is confused, and, you know, so we make mistakes. But, uh, but at least to start off, I want you to understand that agreement is relatively simple. No, I said a few moments ago that we do have one exception in English to the simplicity rule. And that is the verb to be. Um, so we see here in the charts to the side here. Ah, the different forms that the bird takes. So I would say I am you Are he she or it is C. So we have three changes right there. And then, of course, in the plural, the verb takes the form. Are we Are you are they are, uh, similarly in the past tense, we have a couple of changes that we need to be aware of. I was you Were he sure it waas And then were eyes used in all the forms of the plural We were You were They were. So this is the exception to the simplicity. Ruled the the rule. I guess that ah has it that in the present tense, at least there's only one change in attitude. Third person singular. She walks something like that. Okay, so All right, so this is the exception. We need Teoh. Pay attention to it on as we go forward. As I said, we are going to be taking a look at, um, the places where we make mistakes. In spite of the simplicity of agreement in English, we do not have a problem with with agreement in the past tense, there is no changing the verbs. There's no conjugation of verbs into different forms. Ah, no matter who you were referring to is doing the action. So ah. So, for instance, the the example that, you know we have here and you should be used to my going like this by now. Okay. Uh uh. I walked. You walk, he walked. We want you walk, they want. So you notice. And And this, of course, is the regular verb to walk. Um, but there's no changing and on, no matter what the form of the verb or whether it's a regular or irregular verb. And we should be familiar with that. What that means now. Well, what those terms mean, there is no changing the verb in the past tense, so we can be thankful for that small ah benefit. And we're going to go forward, and we're gonna launch into where the difficulties arrive. So where is the problem with subject verb agreement? It all seems to be very simple. The answer is it's not in simple constructions. Nobody writes. I goes or he are other types of missile acu shins like this. The problems arise and more complicated constructions. Um and we're going to see that as we go forward. And there's several and I'm gonna take you through. I'm gonna walk you through one by one. What those more complicated constructions are where we make mistakes and also take a look at how to avoid those mistakes in our writing. Okay, so the first instance that I'm going to discuss is what might be called a hidden subject. And we have this type of phenomenon when words appear between the subject and the verb and might confuse us as to what the subject is or might confuse the year. So we have an example here. The incorrect form would be the woman baking cookies appear happy. Okay, so I don't know if you picked up on what's happening there, but you'll see, uh, that the subject is not cookies, but woman. But that's what the verb agrees with. You see, the verb is made to agree incorrectly with cookies. Cookies appear happy And so it might be that our year picks up the s you know, cookies. He picks up the plural, and then we kind of automatically maybe, without thinking, make the verb agree with cookies. But that is incorrect. And you see, in the diagram with the arrow going from woman to appears, that is the subject verb relationship. And that's it's woman that appears the verb appear should agree with the woman appears now . One way to correct against this type of air is what's called the drop test. I'm gonna come back to the drop test and what this means is the drop test You drop out or in this case, you cross out, out, uh, the words that intervened between the subject and the verb. So eso try it. You see, you can go with woman appears happy. You see, baking cookies is not part of the subject. No, that's Ah, that's a phrase that, uh uh, that modifies woman. You know which woman it is. It was a woman who is baking cookies, right? But it's a, um, but that phrase baking cookies is not part of the subject and has no effect on the verb OK , so that's the first area of error in, um uh, miss agreement between um, or disagreement between subject and predicate. The next area of mistaken agreement is in phrases that look like they're part of the subject but aren't. That is phrases that looked like they might be actually forming a plural, but they don't really, and these air phrases something like along with So receive the example here. Ah, the coach, along with all the players, are celebrating the team's victory. So what would be correct? The coach, along with all the players, are celebrating a team's victory. Or the coach, along with all the players, is celebrating the team's victory. Well, the key is that that phrase along with does not add to the subject. So it's the coach who is celebrating the team's victory. He happens to be doing it with all the players, but the subject verb relationship is between the coach. Ah, and the verb. The coach is, um, one of the areas of confusion is not only does it confused the year, might it, It might confuse the years we hear players are celebrating, but then logically as well, we are talking about the coach and the players. In fact, if we said the coach and the players, the correct verb would be are celebrating. But, ah, this is a special case. The along with form and there's a few other words that that fall into this category does not add to the subject. And so again, we can do the drop tests. And we see illustration here where we do the drop test. And perhaps you can see him clearly what it is that I'm talking about. Ah, the subject relationship is between. The coach is celebrating the team's victory, and that's what we have to remember that this along with is not a conjunction such as ant. It doesn't add to the subject. It doesn't create a plural subject. The subject remains, in this case, singular to continue from the previous slide, Um, and just speak a moment longer about the along with construction. Um, you will see that there's a few other types of phrases like this that act in the same way and along with, aside from as well as and many others that you can see in the text. But these types of construction again do not add to the subject. So So we have another example. The teacher, along with the students, is late, so you notice the teacher is like, Do the drop test? The teacher is late. However, If we had said the teacher and the students Arlie, we would say Arlie, they are late, you see. But in the first instance, in the first example, it's the teacher who is late, you know, Maybe another way to see it would be We could put that phrase along with the students first , along with the students. Comma, the teacher is late. Maybe you can see a little bit more clearly if we do it that way. But I just remember thes types of constructions do not add to the subject. This is a form that causes a lot of problems. And again because of some of the reasons that I said before the ears fooled. There are intervening words between the subject and the predicate, but, um but I tested Ah, which do you think is correct? One of your problems is too many meetings on your schedule or one of your problems. Are too many meetings on your schedule. What sounds correct? You in the next slide. Oh, discuss which one is correct and why. To begin to answer the quiz. One of the problems is okay. Ah, because remember, in this type of formation, very simple way to think of it is nothing behind the of is ever the subject. Okay, so the subject is in this case, one so so we can see from the illustration to the side that, uh, one of the billions of stars in the sky is and drama, and you can do the drop test one is Andromeda. Okay. One of the issues we will discuss is global warming again. Do the drop test. You cross off one of the issues we will discuss. Okay, so So whatever's be in front of the of is the subject. Okay, The the the of is a prepositional phrase that of builds the proposition all phrase, and that is never the subject. And you contest this yourself. Could you say off the billions of stars in the sky is Andromeda? That wouldn't make much sense, Would it? Is one of the billions of stars in the sky Now, of course, you can also say to two of your problems are and we're going to get to that in the next slide, in which case the subject would be too. Okay, but in this case, Ah, this is the case that causes the most problems. One off the subject is one. And if you just remember that, that one rule, maybe that's what we should go with One rule. Okay. But, uh ah, just remember that and you can always test it with the drop test to follow along with what we have been talking about. The off construction, the one of or in this case, we're going. Now we're going to look at two of and three of and, uh, and etcetera, Um, but remember, none of the words behind the of effects, the subject verb relationship. So that's very important. A general rule to remember. So Ah, so we have some examples here. Two of the items on the agenda our global warming and the menu for the conference, or would you rather have to? The items on the agenda is global warming and the menu for the conference. Well, if you remember the rule, nothing behind the of ever effects the subject verb relationship we can do the drop test and you'll see that the correct form would be to our global warming in the menu for the conference. You see, so too are okay, one is to our Okay, so So it's kind of the extension of what we've been talking about, you know, the over construction, the proposition of phrase. Except instead of having a one ah, off the type of construction. We have a two of end and so on and so forth. Okay, so so always remember this, um, nothing behind the oven. This type of construction ever affects the subject verb relationship. Next, we go on to what's called the expletive construction. And this is the construction that starts with There is There are. It is those types of phrases, um one of things to keep in mind is that the there or the it is in this type of construction is not the subject of the sentence of the verb is not agreeing with that There are the it a zc Over here there is a reason to be concerned. There are reasons to be concerned. It is a wild horse that they're the it in these cases is not Ah, the subject of the sentence. The subject of the sentence would be what follows the the verb. That's why we say there is a reason to be concerned. Okay, there are results. Reasons are okay. So you see what I'm saying? The verb agrees within. In this case, the noun that follows it is a wild horse. Okay, so the wild horse or the horse would be the subject of the sentence. And that's what the verb agrees with. This is the expletive construction. I'll just explain a moment longer about the expletive construction. Why? It is that, um that the noun is following the, um uh, following the verb in English. It is not possible to say something like is a reason to be concerned is a wild horse. Okay, English requires there to be a subject, or if there's not a subject in this case in this expletive construction, a two beginning of the, you know, the noun subject phrasing. Um, English requires there to be a kind of a dummy subject. So that's why we have that there is construction. Remember that there is. It is that there are that's not the subject of the sentence. And, um As a matter of fact, if we put the phrase into normal order, what we call normal order that a subject verb order instead of saying there are reasons to be concerned. Ah, you could say reasons are there to be concerned. So you see how that work or a reason is there to be concerned. So if you put it into you know what might be normal order considered normal order. You know, it might sound a little funny, but just for demonstration purposes, we put it into that order. You see how the verb changes because of the changing from in this case, the the noun reason two reasons reason is reasons are so I hope that makes this clear. And eso that's why we have what's called this expletive construction. You must remember that uncountable noun, um are always singular. So we have some examples over here. The water is cold. Milk tastes good with cookies. The air pollution is heavy today. See all of those air uncountable. And so their singular. Um and this is not to be confused with saying something like, I'd like three waters, please. You're in a restaurant. And how many? How many waters do you want? How many people are gonna be at the table? My life. Three waters, please. You're not really saying three waters. You're You're really saying three glasses off of water. It's not. The waters that are plural is the containers that the waters are in. So So don't confuse. You know, this mixed usage or this variable usage of a word like water. Um, uh uh. You would not be able to say the waters are cold. Well, you could, But then you'd be referring to, um perhaps the waters around Antarctica and the waters around Thea Arctic Circle. You see two different bodies off waters. Okay, so there is some. Just remember, generally speaking uncountable noun are singular. Another place that we might make me make a mistake is ah win for dramatic effect, we might invert. That has changed around the normal world order between the subject and a predicate, the noun and the verb. So we have an example here, would you say out of the darkening sky were swarming the alien spaceships or out of the darkening sky was swarming the alien spaceships? Well, remember that, uh, if you have a construction like this, and sometimes you might do that for for in effect, for a dramatic effect. Just imagine a a movie in which you have a picture of the sky, the cloud covered sky and all of a sudden the alien spaceships swarm out of the clouds. And so you kind of building that kind of visual image through the use words. And so you know, so that might be an instance in which you would use this inverted word order. But if you put it into normal order, normal subject verb order, you would say something like alien spaceships were swarming out of the darkening sky. So you can see that the subject is ships and the verb is weren the verb to be is properly conjugated as were so just keep in mind that if you have this type of inverted word order, you have to be careful. Teoh, in this case, not make the verb agree with sky the singular sky, but with the proper subject of the sentence, which in this case would be ships another place for potential confusion. Is there a number of words that looked like the plural? But they're not, and they looked like the plural because they sound plural off end with an s and so words like gymnastics or economics or General Motors. So but these air singular. So it's the sport of gymnastics. So gymnastics is an exciting sport, not gymnastics aren't exciting. Sport or economics is a difficult subject, not economics are. And General Motors is reporting increased earnings. Not General Motors are, you see, because it's a single company. In the case of General Motors, it's not many companies, even though it takes an s ending. So just be aware that there are a few words that looked like the plural, but they're not. And so you use the singular verb to to agree with him. Sometimes you have titles, titles of films or books that that again look like they're plural. But because you're regarding it as a title, the title itself is known. I write, I used the singing. A verb is is regarded as a singular. So we have a a few examples over here. A couple of examples Ah, 300 is a film about the Battle of Thermopylae. 300 is cause I'm referring to it as a title. But if I said that 300 Spartans are defending their homeland against the Persian invaders. It's I'm referring to. It is a number, so just be aware whether you're referring to, you know, the the title or a number. And another example is 101 Dalmations is a very funny Walt Disney movie. Um, you see 101 Dalmations. I'm not referring to a bunch of dogs in the plural. I'm referring to a singular title. But if I were to say, Ah, 101 Dalmatians are tearing up my front long there, I'd be using the plural because I'm not referring to a title, not referring to the movie or the book that is tearing up my front lawn, but an actual 101 spotted dogs are on my front lawn and they're tearing it up. Okay, so Okay, so just remember something. When you have a title, it is referred to in the singular and not to confuse it. Uh, with the plural form, even if it looks like it's plural. Collective noun are most often singular, So these air Group now owns these air. Now is that refer to a group, and there's an exception of this are actually a big exception. Maybe maybe a whole things in exception or their alternate ways of doing it. But let's just talk about first if collective noun Czar Singular. So in American English collective noun Zehr singular. So you would say the company is releasing its year end earnings. The team is in last place for the second season in a row. General Motors is announcing her rise in profits. The audience appreciates an entertaining speaker. So you see. So in this case, the, um, the collective noun Zehr all regarded as singular. In the next slide, I'll talk about an alternative way of looking at that. Okay, so but in American English, we most often regard the collective noun as being a singular body, a single group, and we have referred to it in the singular, so it takes a singular verb. One thing to take note of is that British usage, um, collected mounds are often plural, so ah, way to illustrate this is to imagine that the sports pages are reporting a English victory in international soccer and so American usage would have us read something like England winds with the S. This put the singular you see, So we have the singing reverb England wins. The British usage would have something like England win. Okay, as and they win, you see. So now may be a way to rationalize this is that whereas the in the American usage, Americans tend to look at the group as a singular group, whereas in British usage very often, uh, the's speakers of the language culture looks at the group as a collection of people like so you know, So it's not, you know, the singular team that wins. But it's all the members in the team that win. Okay, so I am just a, um uh, just a variation on this. And so if you happen to be looked looking at this video from, ah from an area that it here's two more British usage. So perhaps this is the form that you should use otherwise, if if you are in America or oriented towards American usage, you would regard the, um, the collective noun as singular. So there's a group of noun that look like they're plural, that is, they end with an S and which is normal plural form and the items air singular. But they take a plural verb. And these are words like scissors, pants, trousers, glasses, pliers, tongs, tweezers. So you know, so Ah, and very often these air used with a pair of so a pair of scissors, a pair of pants, things like this. And but even though there's only one item as in pants Okay, um, and you would use the PLO verb. So my pants are in the laundry. The scissors are sharp, so that's just something to remember. Think of these as the impostors. They pretend that the plural, even though the items themselves are singular, a form that sometimes causes it's a great deal of trouble. Is the form off or, uh so, uh, to start off on, we should remember not to confuse or with and and always adds and is. And if you have an and construction in the subject of a sentence, you're gonna have a plural. Okay. The cat and the dog were eating. They were eating the Thanksgiving turkey. Okay, So the and creates a plural or however does not add it doesn't add the two things. You only have a choice between one and the other. So, uh, it would be correct to say the dog or the cat was eating the turkey. They weren't both. Or eating the turkey one or the other. That is on Lee. One was eating the turkey. Okay, so I'm gonna talk a little bit about this as we go forward in the next couple slides. But But remember, we have a special problem with the word or because you have a choice between one of the other, not both. The rule to remember in the formation of the, um or, uh, uh, subject phrase is that the nearest possible subject that is the nearest possible now on rules, the verb. OK, so that's where we get the the subject verb agreement. So take a look at the example that I have here. Ah, the students or the teacher was late Or would we say, the teacher, the students or the teacher were late again? So remember, it's not and is not the students and the teacher. We're late. Okay, So all of them together we're late, only one group or the other. You know, either the students were late or the teacher was late and that last phrasing that I have there gives us a clue as to what it is that it forms. Thesis, subject verb relationship. The subject predicted relationship. See? So it's the students or the teacher was late because teachers the nearest possible ah, subject for the verb and you see that I've printed in red and highlighted in Reb read the subject verb relationship. But if we rephrase it, we said the teacher or the students, we would say were late. They were late, the students were late, you see. So again I've highlighted in red. What thesis subject verb relationship would be something to remember? Is that words such as each and everyone everyone, anyone, anybody these air, always singular. These are called indefinite pronounce. That is. We're not quite specifying who exactly, does that we're talking about anyone, but they are singular. And the flu, maybe then pneumonic device help us remember is the one part. And even when the one isn't phrased when you say each, we always say something like each student, each employee, these air always singular, and so the verb that goes with it that is always singular as well. So everyone wants the biggest piece of cake. Every student who wants an Asian study for the test. Anybody is welcome. Each member, those dues, you see. So those are all singing of herbs. And so this in singular, indefinite probe pronoun, uh, and you can always remember its singular because there's always a one either implied or actually expressed, Uh, so it's always singular and always takes a singular verb. Now I'm gonna talk about what's called the relative pronouns, and we'll talk more about these when we talk about pronouns. But they are important now in terms of ah, subject for agreement and these air words such as who or whom? Whoever whomever, who's that which these words like this, and and in essence, they passed through the, um, the subject verb relationship, and so they don't directly affect the subject verb relationship. But they pass it through, and I'll show you what I mean in just a moment as we go to the next slide, what the road to pronounce do and who, which that words like that is, they create a, in a sense, a sentence within a sentence, but they don't possess plural or singular properties in and of themselves. In essence, they reflect the, um, the property of the now that that related to So in the one example that we have here, Fred Jones, who is late, did not call the front office. So So you see, that is agrees with Fred Jones. Fred Jones is late. Okay, so you have to have that type of relationship that the that the verb really isn't agreeing With who? It's agreeing with Fred Jones. In this case, we could say the dog that lives down the street saved the child from the pack of ravaging wolves. Okay, so again, lives agrees with dog. Okay, not with that. Okay, so ah, And again, during the drop test, we could rephrase the sentence. The dog lives down the street and again, One more example. The pizza, which was cold, tasted like boiled Styrofoam. Okay, so ah, and again, we have the relationship. The pizza was cold. Okay. Uh, so there you have the subject for relationship, And, um uh, and that's what you pay attention to. And that's what you make the verb agree with, Uh, that's inside the what's called the relative clause. Okay, so? So the relative pronoun doesn't directly affect the verb, but passes through a zit were the relationship between the the, um the now and the verb, and the last one that we're going to look at you was done. Uh, the last form we're going to look at is question words on again. This is something like the expletive construction and that the question word what? Or wear Who, um, does not affect the verb. The verb subject verb relationship is not between the question word and the verb. Ah, but between the verb and what follows. Okay, So the subject in what is the reason for your being late? The subject is reason. Okay. The reason is we could rephrase it. Okay. What are the reasons that people smoke? So you noticed when we change, um, the plural form or change the number form of the subject from singular to plural, the verb changes. Okay, so, um, and again, we could rephrase that. The reasons are so I hope you start to see that type of relationship. Where is my car? My car is where you see. So that would be a possible way to phrase it. Or where are my keys and keys is plural. So the verb that follows it has to be plural. So so remember, question words do not directly affect the effective herb. They have no part in the subject verb relationship. But, um, but the subject is what in the question form, what follows the verb, not what precedes it. So we've come to the end of this lesson at long last. Uh um um, so, so remember, subject verb agreement is very important. And even though it's simple on the surface and in verse and in simple constructions, it is simple it zz to follow. There are a lot of constructions that can confuse this, and we have to be aware of them. And I've tried to give you some of the tools, um, that we can employ to help us maintain this proper subject verb agreement. And again, I'll remind you that there is the text attached to this lesson. And there is the check your knowledge exercises that follow that you'll be able Teoh, see if you truly I do understand, as I hope you do by at this point, Um uh, uh, the intricacies of this very important form in English grammar 7. Confusing the past with the present: I'm gonna speak very, very briefly if that's possible for me to, uh to the point of a gross mistake that I see occurring in much student right and gross meaning flagrant and extreme. And that's Ah, when we refer to a past events, an event that's happening in the past. We used the present tense to refer to it so that this is very common to re use the present tense to refer to something that happened in the past. And you must not do this in writing on this for some sort of stylist degrees reason, and you're very conscious about it. Uh, you choose to use the present tense. Um, otherwise, you should always use the past tense from referring to past events. Now, one of the reasons I think that this occurs as because we do it in speech very often relapse between the present tense in the past tense and referring to past actions when we're speaking round and that is in colloquial usage. Eso, for instance, very common type of phrasing is something like. I was sitting in my home office the other day and my son comes in, and he asked me if he could borrow the car. And I tell him Not till you finish the homer again. So on and so forth. And so I go on, But you notice how I lapse into the present tense. You know, of course I was sitting. That's past tense, but my son comes in present tense. Asks me present tense if he can borrow you see, that's present tense. And so we do this in speech. But you must not do this in your writing, in your writing, the correct way to phrase this, you know this little narrative would be I was sitting in my home office the other day and my son came in and asked me if he could borrow the car. And I told him so on so forth. So you say in writing You must be very careful that when you're referring to, uh, past events that you always use the past tense and use the correct tents in all of the forms as well. One of the most egregious examples of this kind of air agree. GIs being a word that means bad or flagrant or even evil is Ah, though you might question whether yeah, faulty verb usage can really be classified as evil. But we'll save that discussion for another day. Um, but the most egregious violation of the rule to be consistent. And that's a rule in you language usage to be consistent in the application of the verb tense is when the writer flips back and forth flips back and forth between the past and the present. So ah, as we have in the example right here. I was sitting in my home office the other day and my son comes in and asks me if he could borrow the car, and I tell him so notice that I've highlighted and read the past tenses. And in blue the, um, present tenses. And so the reader is flipping back and forth and perhaps confused and again, doesn't cause a problem in speech. But it can cause a problem in writing that we should not allow because remember, whenever you confuse the reader, you lose him or her. Okay, so your objective is to make your writing crystal clear like a ah ah, as lucid and clear as ah, free running water and not toxic spill. Okay, so all right. So control yourself or at least your writing and stay consistent in the application of verb tense on, especially when you're speaking about about an event that happened in the past, used the past tense. 8. Nouns - how we name things: you've probably heard the definition before the noun as being a person, place or thing that is now under the names for all the things that are in the world and all the things they're even out of the world in that uhm noun our names for things that are tangible. You can put your hand on ah, typewriter if you know what a typewriter is If such thing exists anymore Ah, but a computer or a car, a telephone or even right here a bear, albeit a dancing bear. Uhm noun is also our names for things that are imaginary, like right here we have the ferry could be Santa Claus. Um I hope I didn't burst anybody's bubble there, but also things that are idealistic. We have concepts off, but nevertheless, you can't put your hand on such things as love or justice or friendship or anger. Or, you know, my feelings were hurt. Well, the feelings can't be touched, but we consider them riel nevertheless, and and the description of that is a now. So I'm gonna leave you here with a little clip of Phoebe from friends singing about something that she considers very riel love sweet as summer showers. Love is wondrous work, but it's like a giant page being my announced divided into two categories. Com announce and proper announced. So as you proves the list over here, you'll see that in the one case where boy who could be any boy or we have Billy again, we have a woman. Could be any woman Ah, or the specific Anita Williams. And again, like, Why city, Any city or Chicago are a river or the Mississippi. A very specific river, a company, Ford Motors or a poet, Robert Frost. Now one of things that you notice here, uh, look down. The column of proper announced one property of proper noun is in English is that they are, for the most part capitalized. And there are some exceptions. The, um, company eBay, for instance, as the idiosyncratic spelling has adopted videos Socratic spelling for itself off lower case all lower case, no no capitals And likewise, the late poet, the late American poet E. E. Cummings Ah chose for the most part not to capitalize the, uh, the letters of his name that would normally be capitalized. But for the most part, the rule holds that proper announce our capitalized one of the properties announced is that they could be plural eyes. And this means that now is coming. Two forms. One is singular, That is, there's only one of them One dog, one computer, one truck and so on and so forth. And on the other hand, now it's me plural, which means there's two or more of them. So in the regular form Ah, you poor allies. A noun by, um, adding an s to the end of it. So if you have one dog, you have two dogs, one computer. You have to computers one truck. You have to trucks. One book. You have two books. The exception to the spelling rule is if you have announced, such as heroes, which ends in an oh, um and you would add an e s to the end of it rather than Justin s. And also you have some downs that end with a Y. And in this case, you, um, change the y two I and add es. And so we have a couple of examples here. Such is in heroes and company, which changes to companies. Okay, but emmick with the General point is, now it's gonna be plural ized and for the most part, regular noun czar plural ized by adding an ass or in some cases, in the S or an I e. S. There is a group announced that, um follows the general idea about adding s to make a plural but must make a spelling adjustment because of some issue with, ah, the, um the preceding letters. So, for instance, if you have a word that ends with F E such as knife or wife, you will change the after the in and and es, and so becomes wives or knives. You say so, uh, and the same with wolf wolf becomes wolves, loaf becomes lobes. And so these air spelling adjustments You can consider the spelling adjustments because they're pretty universal across words that have these kinds of endings. Also, um, if you have a word that ends with an O, you add an e s not just a s, but in E s o. Tomato becomes tomatoes. Potato becomes potatoes or tomato potato, if that's how you pronounce it. Ah, hero. Because heroes okay, but that's an e s okay. At the end of it. Okay, And there's another ah, your regular regular shift. And that is if a word ends with y and this very particular you have to pay attention to this. If word ends with why and is immediately preceded by a constant, then you change the white toe I and add an E s. So company becomes companies. Um, army becomes armies, but with an I e s not a y es. Okay, so anyway, um, now Ah, why you have to pay attention to this is because you do not perform this This, um, why do I shift if the wise proceeded by a vow? So boy becomes boys okay with a Y s valley becomes valleys because it's a e y at the end. So it becomes valleys just with an S, and delay becomes delays. No, There's many delays on the road to work today, but ah, but you just have a regular s. So these types of why ending words stay perfectly regular. Okay, so now in the next slide, I'm gonna talk about really irregular now now is that are very irregular in the in the pouring ah formation. Now there are some now owns that are even more irregular in the information of the plural. And sometimes these are words that come from another language, and they retain their, um, the former plural ization in the original language. So we have such words as cactus or focus, which becomes CAC Ty or folk. I, um, analysis or crisis becomes analysis or crises. Okay, So, um, on the I becomes an s, um, and not always print out so you can really distinguish the singer from the plural. Um, you have a word like phenomenon or cry another word like criterion with an O N ending. And those become phenomena or criteria. And so So you noticed that with the with phenomenon, Um, you add the A with criterion, you drop the O n. And and the, um, I There's some words in which you change the interior. Ah, vowels. Um and these are not predictable. Um, but they're a word like man, which becomes men. Of course. Women is a plural form of woman. Foots becomes feet, tooth becomes teeth. Okay, so ah, And again, these are not predictable. Andi, if you go back to our discussion about verbs, um, on our discussion about irregularity, you know it's not predictable. And so these you just have to learn as one often and in the text. You know, these issues are addressed and you'll see lists about common words that fall into this irregular pattern. And there's one other form, um, for the plural in ah, which is irregular. And that is the word doesn't change it all. So that's a word like deer. Okay, there's one dear on the hill. No, there's three deer on the hill. You see, I didn't say dears. I said, dear, um uh, one fish, two fish, you say? So you know, the fish remains singular. Now, the exception, that is, if you're talking about different species of fish, you know there are many fishes in the sea, but that means species of fish. Um, on the other hand, you could say their men efficient to see that just means, you know, the all the different kinds of fish lumped together and their many fish and another such words sheep. So, you know, uh, uh, he doesn't have a heard. He just says one sheep or he has a herd of sheep, you know, he has 100 sheep in his hurt, you see, So we don't change it. The word remains unchanging. So these air their irregular announced and I were going to go forward, and we're going to learn another aspect about announce in the next slide. This is an issue that comes up quite a bit and in writing these days, and that is creating a plural with an apostrophe s This absolutely incorrect. Um, whenever you see it, whenever you see somebody trying to create a poorer with an apostrophe s laugh softly behind your hand like that, Okay, because it's absolutely wrong. Uh, the pool is not formed with an apostrophe s. But as we've discussed just with es or in some cases, the es or the I es or some of the forms eso it. So as we see over here, it is two cats, uh, without in a possibly not to cat a possible yes, seven rooms with Justin s, not seven rooms with an apostrophe s. Okay, so the i s does the apostrophe s does something else entirely. It it indicates what's called the possessive but not the plural. So you have to remember this and in a moment will will go forward, and we'll discuss just what the Apostle Bs does. There's something in English called the possessive, which indicates some sort of ownership. Okay, One possesses it. Um, and this is formed for the most part, with an apostrophe s. So Ah, we see some examples over here, the cats bowl, Bob's car is all these air apostrophe s Mary's house the man's attitude, you say? So the apostrophe s distinguishes this form from the plural, so it's not two cats that they were somehow attached to a bowl. Um, it is the bowl that belongs to the cat. So the apostrophe s indicates something belongs to something else. Okay, so it's very simple. Ah, and we'll go forward and we'll take a look at at how you create a possessive with a plural . What do you do if the word already ends with an s? So you have a plural. Okay, so we'll take a look that, but for the singular Ah, it's very simple. You simply add an apostrophe s The plural, possessive Does something a little bit different. It does not add an apostrophe s. For the most part, it adds just an apostrophe after the s because, remember, the world is already paralyzed. Okay, so you have the girls volleyball team, so note over here. Okay. The girls volleyball team. That's the volleyball team that belongs to all the girls. So we have girls plural ized. And then we had that we could possibly to indicate the possessive, the father's plans. These are all the fathers that gotten together. They're planning a wonderful weekend trip for the kids. And so the father's plans. Okay, so it's the plural father, which becomes fathers and followed by the apostrophe. Ah, and the same with the Joneses home. That's the home that belongs to all the Joneses. Okay, so now no one of the, um uh, things to watch out for is if you have a plural word that does not end with an s, that is it's an irregular plural. Then you do add the apostrophe s So you have This is the men's locker room. See, men's apostrophe s. So men is already plural, and and you add the apostrophe s to indicate the possessive and one last thing to compare. And hopefully to make this clear for you, compare the two forms of the team's uniforms that we have over here. Okay, so one is the team's apostrophe s uniforms. Uh, what are we talking about? Their How many teams are there? Well, there's one team. It's a singular team with an apostrophe s. That means it's the It's the possessive. It's a singular possessive. But if, however you have the team's uniform pronounce exactly the same don't don't be confused. You can't really tell from listening What? What? The differences. But with an s apostrophe that indicates plural teams that indicates mawr than one team. So you know the team's uniforms? Yeah. Held in the stadium until the game day. Some something like that. Okay, so the team's uniforms more than one team has uniforms. Okay, So possibly s for the singular, but s apostrophe for the plural. Unless, of course, you know, you have one of those irregular, um, now on, such as men or oxen. Words like these, in which case you would use the apostrophe s. Okay. I hope that's clear. Again. You can consult the text. Um, take the, um, check your knowledge exercise. And, of course, feel free to post any kind of questions that you might have in the chat area we've touched on this before. Now is that looked like pulls but are treated as if their singular and in a sense, they are singular. So economics, gymnastics, Olympics, the Olympics is my favorite sports activity. Okay, Um, uh, ethics is a difficult subject, Okay? Social studies is easy, you know, things like this. I mean, you know, so these air singular and also have to keep in mind that sometimes if you're dealing with an amount you think of it is a singular amount. So two lumps of sugar is all you need. Ah, 1000 miles is not too far to go for true love. Um, $100 is too high a price. You see all these air singular. If you're dealing with them as a single unit, an example might be in in terms of the price. The price is ah, $100 or $100 is the prices So that singular. If I said there are, ah, $100 in $1 bills scattered all over the floor, you see, So there are ah $100 bills. Okay, so, um, so if I'm dealing with it as a quantity than something like $100 is plural. But if I'm dealing with it as a singular amount, a price or a weight or a measure, then that's singular. Okay, so now we're going to go on to another little tricky aspect of noun. Uh, now knows that are treated as if they're plural, but they really come prize a singular item, and we'll take a look at those. Another form of the noun that might cause is an issue are now owns that looked like and are treated as if they're plural. But really, they're similar items. So, um, an example might be scissors. You see, there's only one pair of scissors or you see already I call it a pair, right, But there's only one item there. One item IQ cuts, and we call the decisions. But the scissors are on the table. So you see, even though there's one item, I still refer to it in the plural Um, I reuse. The plural verb are the same with pants and panties. Don't get your panties. And what is the saying goes Your panties are in a wad, you see, so that's the plural. Same with spectacles and glasses as and you know the really these things, these things that you wear like that, Uh uh, there's a singular item, but it's, um, referred to in the plural. When you use the plural verb riches, you know, his riches Uh oh are great, but it's that's a singular wealth. And if we use the word wealth, his wealth is great. Then it would be singular. But the word riches would be parole, saying with jitters. And, uh, you know, my jitters air getting the better of you see again, we use the plural. But it's only one thing, one feeling You see, I could say my fear or my anxiety is getting the better of me. That would be singular. So but jitters, for some reason or another Onley exists in the plural form, even though you might think of it is as one thing when one emotion that that overwhelms you and there's no such thing as a jitter, you can't say my jitter got the best of me. Um, and remains as in the ah, the the remains of our dear departed are in an urn on the mantelpiece. Okay, so the remains are okay. So, again, it's not you know our dear Departed did not have more than one body. He or she only had one body, but we refer to it as the remains, not to remain. Okay, so So these renounce that are treated as plural even though the items they represent are really singular. We've touched on before the uncountable Now these renounce that cannot be quantified. For the most part, though, there might be some exceptions. So such word is love. You cannot say I have 10 loves for you. Okay? I have so much love for you. Um and if somebody says I have so much love for you, you can say Well, how many? How many loves do you have for me? You see, that doesn't work because love in this sense is always in the singular. You can't say they're 20 pollutions today. No, There's a lot of pollution today, maybe 20 chemicals in the water that the oil company dumped into the lake. But, uh, there's only pollution. There is pollution in the lake. Okay. Ah, you can't say move. The furniture's into the kitchen, our into the living room or a Danny room. You can't say the furniture's furniture is always singular. Okay, move the furniture into the other room. Or were the pieces of furniture into the other room. You see, so you could say pieces of furniture. Pieces can be paralyzed, but not furniture itself. You cannot say. Pass me the salts, please. You know, you're you're sitting down to dinner, you're going out and you want to impress somebody. You know, special someone You want to impress them and you say, Pass me the salts, please. Well, that wouldn't quite impress them, right? Because, uh, they would be thinking, Well, salt is one of those uncountable noun. So here's somebody doesn't know Accountable from the uncountable announced moon. Not a very attractive choice for me. I'm gonna look elsewhere, You see, so grammars important. OK, um and likewise, I need some waters to drink. No, you'd say I need some water to drink. No, as in the example that I gave you before. Sometimes we use a word like water on to indicate a glass of water. So if a waiter comes up to the table Z, can I get you some waters? Well, he wouldn't say kind of get you some waters. He'd say, Can I get you some water and you would say yes. I would like three waters, please, because there's three of youse sitting at the table. So you see your you're using the word a little bit differently. And when you say I would like three waters, you really mean I would like three glasses of water, but for the most part would like water cannot be paralyzed. It is uncountable. Okay, Another, I don't know if you call a purely aren t. But Special trade have now owns is that now is contained an article and that's either an indefinite article or a definite article. And let me explain, it was not that complicated. An indefinite article is a word like up it's the all of it comes before the now. So ah, house Ah, pony a plane, a city. So now you notice how it's indefinite is indefinite because I'm not pointing at any particular house, pony plane or city, right? I'm just saying a city, you know, or I'm saying, Ah, house and not talking about your house and just talking about the house in general, On the other hand, the definite article, um, points at a particular how sir. Opponent, your plane or city? A particular object. So it's the Now, you know, it's not going so far in the identification of this item. This now, this person place or thing to name it. Ah, but I am being mawr specific. Okay, Mawr Definite. So that's what we call the definite and the indefinite article. Um, and we're going to go forward, and we're gonna talk about one little aspect of the indefinite article. Ah, that's important in English grammar. Now there is a variation in the rule for the indefinite article is not always ah, sometimes it's an. So if you look at the list over here, you'll see a list of words some of the words that take an as an article rather than on that's an aviator and eagle oven and umbrella. Also an hour in an honor. Now one of things that you might notice your The pattern that develops is if a word begins with a vowel or, more importantly, a vowel sound. Probably, you know, we we do this or this pattern developed in English because it's easier to say an eagle rather than a eagle, you see, so there'd be a break there and and the mouth just finds it easier to wrap around some sort of intervening constant rather than two vowels, right? Right in a row. But you'll notice an anomaly as well. Here we have, uh, an example of a couple of words our and honor that begin with a continent What? Take the end as well. So the pattern here is it's the vowel sound because we don't say how our we say an hour, you see, So that's a vowel sound at the beginning of the word. So, uh, so if the word begins with a vowel or a vowel sound, then it would taken and, um uh, instead of an ah, as an indefinite article. Now, in the next slide, I'm gonna talk about, um, some vow beginning words that don't take the and and I don't know if you'll be surprised, but, uh, or even if you're considerate, fun, but but we'll touch on a briefly and then we'll go forward from there. Here you see a list announced that all begin with vowels and, um but we use the indefinite article with it at which seems to contradict the rule that I've just established if it begins with a bow use. And but the reason that we use are rather than an, um as the indefinite article for these words, is because they're pronounced as if they had a continent in front of them. So, for instance, we say, Ah, unicorn. Uh uh. And further over here, you'll see, um, I've tried to indicate how we pronounce it. So we pronounce a unicorn as if it's a y ou Ah, you know, corn, you see, So it's not a you mean it. It's not an unicorn. It's a unicorn seeds. It's even difficult to say that, Um, we say a U. S soldier because it's a U. S. Soldier. Okay, we say a eulogy for the same reason because it seems tohave seems to be pronounced with a y sound a constant sound at the beginning of the word for the same reason we see a union or a use. Okay, So, um, and we can see how this shifts back and forth with h words, words that begin with the letter H because we would say an hour and our okay, because we do not, um, pronounce the h in that word. you know, we say it as our we don't say how our okay, we don't say, Uh, Hauer, However, you can see and compare this with the word like history that we do pronounce the h. We say history. So it's ah, history. Okay, so s so I hope this makes it more clear. Um, how we use the an and place of the ah as an indefinite article with some words and some words, we don't. So to wrap this up, I'm going to summarize the parts that noun is play. That is the parts of the sentence that now is play announced. Ah, figure into the sentence in many different areas. So let's just take a look this first. Now it's to be the subject of a sentence. So Caitlyn graduated with honors. You see, Caitlin, is the subject off the verb, Uh, in this going back to what we're talking about in in another lecture or several lectures before. Ah, the word. Caitlyn is the actor who is doing the doing That's represented by the verb graduated A. Now can also be the direct object of the verb. So the president awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor to the hero. The president awarded the medal to the hero. So what did the president award? The object of the verb is the metal. The Congressional Medal of Honor. Um now could be the direct object of verb. The husband, feeling guilty, bought his wife flowers. So I bought flowers for his wife, you see, So that's the indirect object. Hey, bought flowers flowers to be the direct object. But remember the rule for figuring out the indirect object If you can change the, um ah, the noun to an object of a proposition to two cent flowers to his wife or bought flowers for his wife than that's the indirect object. And lastly, now could be the object of the proposition. So the plane flew over the city, Remember the proposition, and very briefly we touched on it in parts of speech. And we have a lesson. Propositions coming up briefly. Ah ah. But the proposition is one of those words that tells us where we are in relationship to the box. So the noun is a matter of fact, is very often the object of the proposition. So, uh, over the city, we went to the city we went through the city, we were in the city, you see, So that noun is the object of the proposition. So these are the various rules that now is playing. They're very important parts of speech, as is our all the parts of speech. So I hope this lesson has made this clear for you and ah, again, test your knowledge in the check your knowledge exercise. Read the accompanying text and be sure to post whatever questions that you might have in the chat area. And I'll see you next time. 9. Those little words that take the place of names: as we briefly touched on in the section of parts of speech pronounced Take the place of noun. So let me explain a little bit about how that's done. So instead of saying your own name, ah, when you want to refer to yourself, it's a minute. Name is Bob. You don't say Bob is hungry. Say I am hungry. If you're referring to your friend, Sally said of saying, Sally, every time that you referenced her like Sally got the job Sally had applied for and sadly, always wanted, you might say Sally got the job she had applied for end. It always wanted, Um, instead of uttering the name of every member of your family. Such a Susan, Michael, Caitlin, Cameron, Daniel scout, Grandma Leandro and Jamie and Michael are going out for dinner. You might say we're going up for dinner, you see, so it a lot of ways pronounce aren't very economical. Um, now just a little note. Almost all languages have some kind of pronoun. In fact, one might say every language has some kind of pronoun reference, and so you don't actually have to always say the name of the person, place or thing you can use the pronoun, though admittedly, not old pronounce have are used in these different languages in the same way. And sometimes they are, in a sense, attached to the burbs. Um, or in some cases, such a Japanese. There are other words that substitute for pronouns, but at any rate, they seem to be somewhat universal. So, um, uh, we need to look at at them and how they're used and the special on the special instances in which they're used in English, And that's where we're going to do in the following lecture. So to recap, the pronouns are those little words that take the place announce and so we see a list of them here, and I don't need to read the multi, but I mean my you, yours, he sheer it. You know, some words like this, those air, the little words that we mean as pronouns. And we're going to go through this and we're gonna look at how they work. So So see you in the next life. One important concept in term that we need to learn as we go forward into our discussion about pronounce is antecedent the word antecedent and so we'll see it right here. The antecedent comes from a word that means that which comes before. Okay, so and very simply speaking, the antecedent is the word that the pronoun refers to. So, um, if if I say something like, I talked to John and he said that he would come to the party with the he refers to John John as the antecedent of he. Okay? And so and again we see a little drawing. We have the pronoun with an arrow going to the antis Eden. So the antecedent is the word of the pronoun is taking the place off. Okay, so So and, uh, we will touch on this as we go forward. And hopefully by the time we're done with these lessons because we have a couple different lessons on pronounced, this will become more familiar to you. I'm going to very quickly go through a few different examples, um, of sentences and pronoun usage. And, um, just point out to you what the pronoun antecedent relation ship is. And as you see, I'm also Ewing using a word such as referent. That is the reference. The word that the pronoun references Okay, so I don't. So please don't get confused by the, um, multiple usage there. Um, but in the sentence above, up above. Get hanging over my head. Um, we have the sentence. I heard the dog bark before. It's bit me. So you see that the, um it refers to the dog. So it is the pronoun dog is the antecedent. Okay, so and we'll have a couple other says we go forward, and these would be very quick little slides here in this example, we have the sentence. Fred told me that he was going to graduate early. So anyway, so he, of course, is the pronoun, and Fred would be the antecedent or the referent, the word or the noun that the pronoun refers to. So one of things that you'll notice is the pronoun takes the place of a noun. And it always refers to a noun, unless maybe sometimes refers to another pronoun. But it always refers to a person, place or a thing. All right, so anyway, so Fred told me that he was going to graduate early. He is the pronoun. Fred is the antecedent in this example. I heard Sally sing. She has a lovely voice, you see? So she is the pronoun. Is she, Of course, is referring to Sally, which is the now, So you and in this case, a proper down. Um, so we have again, we have the pronoun and decedent relationship. No, one of things that you notice that I go through and I'm drawing little arrows. We have little arrows running between the pronoun and the incident. Now, as a general rule, you should be able to draw a relatively short arrow from your pronoun to your antecedent to the now that it refers to. Ah, And one of the reasons that you do this is to eliminate any confusion as to what or who the pronoun is referring to. And we'll talk about this as we go forward. But you can hold in your mind kind of the mental image of the arrows running from the pronoun to the noun that refers to. Okay, so this is the last example of this sort. Um, now notice that we have one antecedent here and to pronounce that refer to that antis eaten . So Mary said she paid the gardener toe landscape her yard. Okay, Got that. Mary said she paid the gardener toe landscaper yard. So she refers to Mary and her, as in her yard, also refers to Mary, so they both referred to marry and so both pronounce have the same anticipated. Now, most of the time the antecedent comes first. That's which comes before, um, and the pronoun comes second. Sometimes in usage, however, we switch that, so we might have a sense in such as We see up above. His critics need to notice that the president has now done what they want. Okay, so his critics his refers to president. And so we have the pronoun which refers to the president, which follows Okay, so sometimes we have sentences like this. We have a couple of examples here. Whatever its merits, the tax proposal would have a disastrous effect on Wall Street. So whenever it's mirrors, it's it's referring to the tax proposal and one more. When it is ready, I'd like a piece of cake. So it referring to the piece of cake when you know when the when the cake is ready. Okay, so anyway, so But again, these, um, are one way that we're able to actually position the pronoun before the noun that it references. From the most part, the antecedent comes first as its name in implies and the pronoun come second in the next few slides. I'm gonna talk about the ways that we categorize, pronounce, and there's to do two ways. One is by what we call person. That's first person, second person, third person, and I'll explain what that is. And the other is by case, which is the category. That is how it's used in the sentence. So I hope that by the end of this presentation you'll have a clear idea of what we mean by , um, um by these categories because they are, in fact, very important in how we use the pronounce and whether we used them correctly or not. The first way that we categorize pronouns is by what we call a person. Okay, so, um, I and we are first person, singular and plural. I being singing because there's only one eye and we know there's a multitude of us, so that's plural. Okay, so I and we ah, second person is you now in English. Well, do not make a distinction between the singular you and the plural you at least informal standard English, though very often in regional dialects. Ah, in regional varieties of English, Sometimes you will see attempts to mark the plural form. So, for instance, in the American South, you'll see something like y'all, uh, you'll come back here, okay? Or in the Northeast, Sometimes you hear, use or use guys. Certainly. In the West Coast, where I live in California very often you guys is uses the plural form and guys not meaning to mark gender, not just males. It's ah you know, you hear girls and women saying Hey, you guys, Yeah. Ah, but you is informal English, both the singular and the plural. And then third person, he she or it And they Now there's a pneumonic device that I post right here, maybe help you remember. I am the first, most important person I am first. That's first person, right? You are the second most important person you know, you. So I'm talking to you. So you're this And let me assure you, you're the second most important person. And then he over there. He's not listening to us, is not in our crowd. He's the third most important person so maybe that will help you remember it. Um, I hope you're not as narcissistic, is that But, um uh, but, uh, but certainly it might be a little device. Help you remember how the person's breakdown in the pronoun usage programs have cases? Um, or a pronoun would have a case. And this term case refers to, in essence, how the pronoun is being used in this sentence. So in the example that we see here, um, he heard the dog bark before it did him on his leg. No note that the he him is are all referring to the same person. So in essence, they're really the same word. They just change according to how we use them in the sentence. So he would be the subject of pronoun is being uses the subject. Ah, the object of pronoun him is being used again as the object it zits receiving the action that is the bite from the dog and the hiss is the possessive pronoun. It's indicating the possession of the leg. It was his leg that was bitten. So this is what we mean by case. So the pronoun changes according to how it's being used in the sentence and then the next slide. I'm now very quickly touch on the different cases that are possible with English pronouns. He'll receive the pronoun cases and the division of the Pronounced into those cases and in their different forms. So I me, my your okay, your would be the possessive okay and so on and so forth, and I don't think I need to read them all for you. But take a look at him and again in the text. You'll have the complete list, and you can go through it and study it and memorized the cases. But the most important point here is that there is an appropriate case for each usage of a pronoun in a sentence, depending on what role the person, place or thing that's being referenced by the pronoun plays in the sentence. Whether it's the subject of the verb, whether it's the object or the direct object or the indirect object of the verb, or whether it's being used in the possessive. Another form of the pronoun that we should look at is what's called the reflexive pronoun. This is the use of the proton as an object as an object of the verb. Um, uh, which is referring to a previously named noun or pronoun such as? Fred bought a birthday present for himself. You see, So himself. Refers back to Fred. Um, the funny little quote from Mark Twain. Suppose you were an idiot, and suppose you were a member of Congress. But I repeat myself. Okay, so the myself is referring back to I. So, in the same sentence, you have this kind of, um, reflection. Okay, so think of it is a reflection. So very special usage for this pronoun. This pronoun is not to be used. Aziz, The subject of a sentence, as in, um uh, himself went to work yesterday. No, you would not use it in that sense, and neither would you use it if it were a standalone object. You know, like Fred bought a birthday part. A birthday present for myself. No, that wouldn't work. I bought a birthday present for myself, but but Fred bought a birthday present for me. Or Fred bought a birthday present for himself anyway, so that's the reflexive pronoun. So that's Ah, little preview on the pronoun. Now we're gonna go forward and take a look at, ah, the ways that we should use pronouns and very importantly, the ways that we must not use thumb. Okay, so But that's in the next lecture will take a little break now, and, uh, then we'll four. 10. When pronouns go bad: in this lecture, we're going to be speaking about pronoun errors and more specifically, where it is that we often make hairs. Onda pronoun Air is very often are most often an error of case, though sometimes it's an air of number, and we'll talk about that, too. Um, an error of cases, something like what we see here. Something that the cookie monster of the Sesame Street was often heard to say Me want, Cookie? So of course, we we understand that is being a state, And reason that it's mistake is me is the first person objective Pronoun went as an object of a bird verb. It should be the subject of pronoun that we use. I want a cookie or, uh, to carry this transgression against pronouns even further. If someone said him gave Cookie, too, I would recognize that as a mistake, rationally to mistakes. So, you know, he gave, uh, cookie to me would be the correct form. So we'll be looking at items like this. And don't think that the mistakes that occur are is obvious. Is this because they aren't and very often where they occur, as I've talked about before is they occur in more complicated constructions, and there's a pattern as to where we might see them. But But as we go forward, I hope we can illuminate these issues. And so, you know, you learn not to make mistakes and to use your pronounced correctly one of the first areas that we see a, um, Aaron pronoun usage is in the subject of, Well, what should be the subject of position in a sentence and where we have a compound pronoun in the subject. Okay, so compound means more than one. Okay, um, so very seldom would we hear something like me want cookie. But we might hear something like him and me. Got into it over the budget numbers. Nancy and me stayed home last night. Joined me. Have been friends for 10 years again. So now in each one of these Ah, you. We see the usage of the object of pro around the the pronoun that should represent the object being used as the subject of the verb. Um, so we're going to take a look at how we can recognize this and how we can correct it. Oh, and just know this is not that extraordinary. um uh uh. Some time ago, I received a knock at my door and I went to the door and, um and there is a fellow Stan said he was running for the school board and he was in opposition to some other school board member. Um, and he said to convince me that I should vote for him and not the other guy. He said me and him's got gotten into it lately. Okay, Me and him eso my immediate that was me. Will never vote for you for a member of the school board. Okay, Um, it's quite common. It's quite coming that we hear this. And also the join me have been friends for 10 years. Ah, that type of formation is also something that we here in speech and colloquial speech that is an every day, relax, speech. But it's not something that we can use in our former writing. We have to get a correct generate. So as we go forward, I'm going to be talking about how we can assure that we don't make this disastrous mistake in our writing. Something to remember is that the pronoun is always the same, whether it's by itself or with other pronounce. Or now, Okay, so and this will lead to a very important rule. Uh ah. And a what's called a test to see if we were using the correct pronoun. So remember, if it's wrong by itself, it's wrong in combination with anything else. OK, it doesn't change what we should start to recognize now, his case, if we have it in combination with other announcer pronounce, Okay, so keep that in mind will go forward, and I'll introduce you to the drop test in regards to pronoun usage. The drop test is a wonderfully efficient and informal not technical, um, way Teoh test whether your form is correct. OK, so, um uh, and to see it, all you have to do is drop out parts of the sentence and isolate the item that you haven't questioned. So, for instance, we have the sentence. Nancy and me stayed home last night. Is that correct, or would it be Nancy and I stayed home last night. Okay, so maybe you know the answer. Um, And if you do just follow along because the general principle remains the same. OK, some what you do is you drop out the complicating items. Okay, so we don't have any issue with Nancy, right? That's Nancy is correct. No matter what now is don't change whether they're in the subject of her object of form. Ah, but pronounced do so. And as we drop out Nancy, we can now compare the two sample sentences. Me stayed home last night or I stayed home last night. So I hope that you will hear now that the I stayed home last night is the correct form. And hence it to be Nancy and I stayed home last night because remember the rule that I just stated, um, above, um, the pronoun does not change from the from the compound to the isolated. Okay, so that is, if you have the pronoun in combination with something, it's the same as if it were isolated. So if it's I stayed home last night, it's Nancy and I stayed home last night, so I hope that's clear. And we will continue to refer to the drop test as we go forward, because in many different instances, not just this. It's a wonderful tool. So here we have another example of the drop test or another instance in which we can apply the drop test. So say we have the, um, sample sentence. Him and me argued over the budget numbers. So is that correct? Well, take a look at the sample sentences we have here in which we isolate the pronounce. Would we say him argued over the budget numbers or he argued over the budget numbers. And likewise, would we say me argued over the budget numbers or I argued over the budget numbers. Okay, So, um, as you sort that out and you make your choices will go forward to the next slide, and we'll see which one is correct. Here we have the answer. Okay. I started myself so in each case will see that he argued over the budget numbers, and I argued over the budget numbers is the, um is the usage that we should employ when we isolate the pronounce and so remembering the rule that the pronounce do not ever change from an isolated uses that is using its singly to using an in combination with any other a noun or pronoun The correct form of the sentence would be he and I argued over the budget numbers Okay, so I hope that you see from that that the drop test is wonderfully useful. And as I said, we'll continue to refer back to it as you go forward. The second area of mistake that I'm going to address is confusion of the object of case. This is where the pronoun is being used in the place off the object of the verb and sometimes where we would not make a mistake at the pronoun were being used by itself. We get confused if we use it in combination with with other items. And so the example that 1/2 here is after the presentation, the orientation counselors showed Rachel, Fernando, Tom Lee and I around the college. So is that correct? Well, again, using the drop test, we can isolate the pro down and test it. So would you say the orientation counselors showed I around the college or the orientation counselors showed me around the college? Well, I hope you that you say they showed me around the college. They showed me around the college, and so and if that's the case, well, whether it's the case or not, But it is the case that that is correct. And so the complete sentence would be They showed Rachel, Fernando, Tom Lee and me around the college again using the drop test, which is wonderfully useful. But again, this is the second, um ah ah, place where we have mistaken, um, pronoun usage in some frequency. Here's another instance where we would use the object of form of the pronoun. Um, we haven't talked about propositions yet, but the proposition you know, those little words that give us location on in reference to the box in the box to the box under the box. Words like this, um, they always take the objective case. OK, they always take the objective pro now on. And we'll see that more clearly when we get to propositions. But for right now, just to go that and, um So we would have a sentence, perhaps to Susie, Fred, Hugh, Rush and I. The movie was kind of lame. So the question is, is that correct? To Susie? Fred, you Russian I movie was kind of lame. Well, again using the drop test, would you say to I the movie was lame? Or to me, the movie was like, Well, I hope that you say to me the movie was like and and that being the case, the correct form would be to Susie. Fred, you Rush and me. The movie was kind of line. Okay, so again, Ah, uh, it's in more complicated constructions that we sometimes make mistakes, that the mistakes tend to pop up. They don't pop up in isolation. So eso don't think that I'd never say something like to do I Well, very possibly not. But sometimes we get confused when the construction is a little bit more complicated. We have to be a little bit more careful. But one of the ways to be careful is to employ the drop test, isolate the item in question, the pronoun in question. And then you could be more assured that using the correct form the next two areas that causes frequent trouble Ah, have to do wish illogical shifts or inappropriate shifts. And what I mean by this is we shift from, say, the first person to the second person. Remember, the whole discussion about the person's you, he or we shift numbers. We we change the number that we're referring Teoh. Okay, so I'll just leave it there for a moment and I'll go forward. And in the next slide you'll start to understand what it is that I'm talking about. This this shift and and as we see here, we should not be shifted. So the first shift that we want to avoid is the shift in person. This occurs when the writer shifts person also called a point of view. Say, for instance, from ah in our first example from the first person to the second person. So when I went to high school, the only language that you could take was Spanish. So can you search? See how that's illogical? When I went to high school, the only language that you could take with Spanish That doesn't quite work. Now, one of the reasons that we have this issue that we have this problem is in colloquial language. That is how we speak every day on. Believe me, your professor does the same thing. We use you the word you to indicate the general case, that general person. Okay, so if I said something like, you have to be careful crossing that street because you know there's a lot of crazy drivers out there you could get killed. Well, I'm not necessarily talking about you. I'm talking about people in general. You have no intention of going anywhere near that street. And I know that. No, but I'm just saying, you know, in general, you know, a person has to be careful crossing that street, you see, So we use you not to mean you specifically, but to me in the general case. But in writing, you can't do that in informal writing. You can't do that. So when I went to high school, the only foreign language that you could take was Spanish is a shift in person from the first person to the second person. Ah, we see another example here. When a person is driving, it's dangerous for you to be texting on your cell phone, You see Well, but maybe you're 20 miles away, you know? So what do you mean? It's dangerous for me when said, there's always somebody driving, you know? So I'm not sure what it is that you're talking about Me, but in the same reason I went from the third person a person. Okay. Ah, to you. Second person. Okay. And it's an illogical shift And so we cannot have that. One of the hallmarks of good writing is that we stay consistent. So if you're speaking in the first person, you stay in the first person. If you're speaking in the third person, you stay in the third person. So when I went to high school, the only foreign language that I could take with Spanish okay or the only language that was offered with Spanish something like that. When a person is driving, he or she ah should not text on their cellphone or to follow the sentence. It's dangerous for him or her to be texting on the cell phone. Okay, so you want to stay in the same person and we'll go forward and we'll take a look at a couple more examples of this. A couple other examples of mistaken construction in the first instance. Very often, Pete, People first starting college don't realize how hard you have to work to keep your grades up. Okay, so no noticed people is third person plural, and you is second person either singular or plural. And so we have a shift that we have this illogical shift. Um, they're starting college. I'm not. So Why do I have to work hard? Okay, so anyway, also, when an athlete wins the gold medal, you always feel a sense of accomplishment. Well, that's his middle. He wanted me. I don't feel a sense of accomplishment. Might enjoy watching his performance or her performance. Um, but I don't feel a sense of accomplishment. So, you see, we have this illogical shift and, uh, and, uh, in each case, you should stay consistent. So when an athlete wins the gold medal here, she always feels a sense of accomplishment. Or in the first instance, very often. People first done in college don't realize how hard they have to work to keep their grades up. OK, so a couple other instances where we have this illogical shift in person, another area of frequent mistakes is in that of a shift in number On. That is when we mean to be referring to a an individual, a singular entity, and we shift to the plural. Okay, so we're shifting from the singular to the plural, but not for a logical reason. It's not as if we're speaking about one person here, and then we want to reference a group of people were actually speaking about the same individual. But for some reason we shift to the plural form in referring to that one person. So ah, in the next couple slides will see how it is that these mistakes develop and what we could do to guard against them. So here we see a couple of incorrect usages of of, ah, the pronoun involving a shift in number. So take a look at these sentences and see if you can figure out before I explain why they're incorrect. So the 1st 1 is if anyone wants pizza, they should bring their plate up to the table. That's example. Someone, everyone should pick up their books and go home. Okay, so what's wrong with those? Well, the true is in the what's called the indefinite pronoun. Anyone or the everyone? Ah, how Maney is involved in any one hint. One. Okay, anyone or everyone, that's singular. But how Maney is, they will. They is the plural prone out, so they should bring their plate up to the table. That's the plural, subjective pronoun and the plural, possessive pronoun. 1/3 person, Um, and the same. In the second example as well. So these air shifts in number were shifting from the first person to the third person plural. That's incorrect. Now I'll explain what we should be using here. But first, let me touch on why this mistake is often made in writing because it is allowed in speech. In fact, it's an ancient usage. It exists. Ah, in literature, going back hundreds of years and, um but, um, present day, it's not allowed. So the grammar books tell us we can't do it. And believe me, I wish that we could, because make my life a whole lot simpler, I wouldn't have to talk about it this much. But, um, it is proper to use in day to day speech, the grammar police. They're not gonna come out and arrest you if you do this, but you must not use it in your formal writing on its being shifted number. So anyway, so, um, I'll go forward and we'll take a look at the usage that we should employ first. Remember that indefinite pronouns are usually singular. So everyone, anyone, everybody, anybody, these air singular. And the hint is that the word includes one right, just one that singular. That's just one is not to Is not every two was not every three. It's one. Okay, so enough of that. I get excited. Um, and even when the one is not explicitly stated So if you have a word like each or every as in every member of the bold club or each employee thes air, always one. These are always singular. Okay, so that's a general rule to remember. And it becomes important as we go forward and take a look at, um, this particular construction and the air that evolves from from the misuse of the singular indefinite pro. Now a couple of examples here of the correct usage of the singular and avoiding the, um, the shift in number that often evolves from using the indefinite singing opponent. So take a look at the first instance that I've marked incorrect. Somebody left their keys on the table. Now you'd say that. I mean, I'd say it, um, somebody left their keys in the table. They're not getting home tonight. Eso very possible to say Ah, but it's not correct and writing. So there's a distinction between which correct and writing and what's correct in speech and in writing, you should say somebody left his or her keys on the table. And there's a reason for the his or her that we'll get to, um, later. But But right now you want Teoh. Just remember to stay gender neutral on. You. Don't know if it's a man or woman. Boy or girl. Uh, who left? Ah, keys on the table. So you say his or her? Another example. Anyone who expects service here should have their head examined. Well, we should know by now that that is incorrect. Anyone is. How many Hint One. Okay, anyone? Ah, and how many heads does a singular individual have? Well, as far as I've been able to tell in my many years on this planet, each person has only one head. OK, so anyone who expects service here should have his or her head examined. Okay, Scott, that Okay, so, uh, avoid the shift in number Remained consistent in your application of numbers, Uh, in your application of the of the consistent pronoun usage in your sentences, there's one of the way to avoid the singular plural shift. Um, as we're talking about earlier, the first way is to go all singular. Go, go single. Um, the other way is to go all plural if you think that's appropriate. So a couple of examples all the people who expect service here should have their heads examined. So notice that we shift everything to the plural people, their heads or all taxpayers should pay their taxes on time. Okay, Taxpayers plural. There. P i students, students plural should pick up their books and go out the same door. They came in and treat themselves to an early night. Okay, Treat themselves plural. They plural their books. Plural students poor. Okay, so again, it's consistency. That's key here. So, yeah, they're all singular or all plural, but don't makes a match The last thing that I'll talk about in this lecture. But pronoun usage will be what's called ambiguous reference. So if you don't know the word ambiguous means it means something is not clear. It could have two meanings or, you know, it can have many meanings. So it's it's ambiguous. It can't be seen clearly. Ah, sports fans, um it comes from the same word that ah ah ambidextrous comes from. And so you might know that epidemic serous refers to somebody who can throw with both hands . Well, ambiguous reference could mean a meaning that could be on the one hand. Or on the other hand, you know, So it's ambiguous, and so it's not clear so, but what it means is that we're not sure who you're talking about. So take a look at the example over here, Um, and you'll see how confused you would be if somebody actually talked like this. And I've known people who talked like this. They just launch in and they say something like, So I was talking to her and she told me that He said, they're going to do the thing over there. But all the time I was thinking about how he had told me it was going to happen here, just like she had promised. You see? So who I mean? Way saying Slow down. Who's he? Who? She I mean only pronoun references I really understood were here, and I everything else is ambiguous. Okay, so that's what we mean by ambiguous reference. And there's a few cases and places where it occurs frequently, and I'm gonna cover those in the next few slides Here we have a couple of examples were down here, I think. Okay, Um ah, that illustrate some of the confusion that arises with what's called ambiguous reference. So one of the examples that we have is Tom told Jerry that he got an A on the test. Sometimes that students who is he? And they insist that Oh, it's very clear to them. It's Tom or some say, it's Gerry and and fisticuffs ensue because they're very sure. Ah, but the fact is, you're not sure because he can refer to anyone as the Arrows attest. The he could point to either Tom or Jerry. Another example is when the policeman pulled Dave over, he was angry again. Who is who's who was angry? Was that he? Is he referring to the policeman, or is he referring to Dave? Okay, so in cases like this, where you have a single pronoun that could refer to to orm or and dissidents and way we remember what the word antecedent means, that refers to the word that comes before the words the pronoun should be pointing at unambiguously. That is very clearly well, when you have to arm or possible antecedents, you have ambiguity, you have lack of clarity that has to be cleared up in the next slide. I'll show you a couple different ways that these sentences could be solved or the ambiguity in these sentences could be solved. And hopefully that will provide you a model and you go forward in your writing. Here we have, Ah, a couple of examples down below now how these sentences of the previous sentences could be rewritten for clarity. One thing to note is that when a a possible correction is offered, keep in mind that there's probably many different possible right ways to write a sentence. And and for reasons of space and time, we can't go into all of them. But but there are more than one possible ways anyway. So so here's a couple different ways in the Tom and Jerry Uh um, sentence. You could make a direct quote out of it, Tom told Jerry, quote quote, I got an A on the test. Okay, you could, uh, unquote of course, you could write the sentence like that in the angry policeman or angry Dave sentence. Um ah, you could write. Dave was angry when the policeman pulled him over. You see? So you named Dave is one being angry and him has to refer to date because it can't be that the policeman is pulling himself over, okay? I mean, policemen don't go around pulling themselves hoper, you know, pull over there. You know, I'm driving too fast. I'm gonna give me a ticket. No, that doesn't happen, OK? Eso day was angry when the policeman pulled him over, you see, so eso we shift the sentence around a little bit and we eliminate the ambiguity, Another kind of ambiguous reference which, perhaps more common than the he she they example above you, just simply somebody, um, refers to an ambiguous day and unclear they the streets are full of potholes. They should fix them. Well, who do you mean, They Who Who do you have in mind this fixing them? Now I know that we that we talked like this and and very often in casual, everyday speech, we can get away with such lack of clarity. Ah, but you can't really write like that. You say they should fix them. Do you mean the city? Do you mean the county? Do you mean ah, the department of transportation. You mean the country? What? You know, I mean, who do you mean by that? Or they should make movies that we can take our kids to. Okay, again, Who's day directors, Producers, Hollywood studios or studios? Outside of Hollywood? Bollywood studios, studios in London. Who is they? Who exactly do you mean by they anyway? So be careful when using this. This ambiguous reference to the mysterious they, um, because it's not clear and again you get away with it in speech. Nobody calls you to account, but in writing, they dio So you have to be careful. So that's it for pronouns, at least for this lecture. There is one mawr short lecture in which I'll pick up some tag ins and some what's called with Brits call one offs, um, and then will be finished with this whole Siri's. And this went on much longer than you thought it would. You didn't know These little tiny words could be so complicated. Open up such a world of of information and confusion and have so many possibilities for getting them wrong anyway. But I hope that now we've learned, um, many of the ways to protect ourselves from making these air. So, um, again referred to the text. Do the check your knowledge exercise, um, post questions in the chat room, and Oh, I'll see you next time. 11. A couple other things you didn't know that you need to know about pronouns: this presentation, We're going to pick up a few loose ends in terms of pronouns. And the first item that we're going to address would be who and whom. How do you tell the difference on why? Doesn't matter. Um and how can you be sure that you're using the right one? So now one of the reason that we have to specifically address this is because, um, whom has largely fallen out of common usage we haven't fossilized as it were in a few. Specialized usage is such as to whom it may concern or for whom the Bell tolls. But aside from that, we don't use it in everyday speech. And so we have to pay attention to. We have to learn how to use it correctly, and that's what we're going to do in the first couple slides here. And they were going to go on to some other, um, uh, miscellaneous items that have to do with pronounce. So before we can discuss how we use thes pronouns and how we tell apart who and whom perhaps we should clarify what they are. Ah, who is the subject of pronoun the subject of relative pronoun. Um and it's in the same category as I he she we they Okay, so it takes this subject of case, um, whom belongs to the object of case. It's it's in the same category as, Ah, me, him, her, us, them. And one of the ways that you can remember this is remember that whom with an m belongs to the, uh, list of pronounce that also have EMS in them. Me, him, them you can think of it as, um, blowing into the group of em pronounce. And so and I think that's a handy little pneumonic device that helps you remember as we go forward and we'll see how they actually work. I'm going to introduce you to another usage of the drop test. This one you might call the drop in role because you gotta roll the, uh, sentence into, um, another form. Um, but say we start off with the sentence. I can't believe who or whom. You don't know which. Yet you invited to the party. So what do you do? You have a sense is like this, and you want to use the correct form who room, and you can't figure it out. Well, first. You wanna isolate the relative clause. So the relative clauses, the flaws that begins with who? Okay. And, ah, who or whom you invited to the party. Okay, Got that. So that's the relative laws is relative to, um the, uh, be antecedent, you know. Okay. Um, so you dropped the whore whom and rolled a sentence, and so put it into a which might call a normal sentence. You invited he or you invited him. Okay, so and I think that you can see that you would say you invited him, and if you would use you invited him than whom is the correct form, because remember whom goes into the same category as the M pronounced. I can't believe whom you invited to the party. Okay, my seem a little bit convoluted, but that's one of the ways that we can figure it out. Um, and you can also see how that relative clause is working. There's another way, Um, or just simply that if you have a relative clause such as I can't believe who or whom you invited to the party. If you have the the, um, relative pronoun, you know who or whom immediately adjacent to another noun or pronoun. Then you use whom? Because that is that whom that relative pronoun is in the objective case and you have to reorient the entire sentence. So, um, if, for instance, you had a sentence, I can't believe who or whom invited you to the party. In that case, the relative pronoun would be standing by itself and immediately adjacent to the burbs off the relative pronouns immediately adjacent to the box, The verb. And so you can actually restate the sentence. You know, the drop in role test, you can restate it as ah, she invited you to the party. I can't believe who invited you to the party. She invited you to the party. Then you'd use who? Okay, so I hope that's clear now, Indie, check your knowledge exercises. You have a few, uh, chances to test your knowledge on your skill. And this happened formation. Okay, so remember dropping role. Isolate the, um, the relative clause and then substitute another pronoun in the place of the who or the home . And that should help you figure out which is the correct form. So let's try this drop in role test for the who or whom And what to see if we could get it to work. Uh, and for these two examples, we're going to assume that the animals that were talking about are male. Okay, so we used the male personal pronoun just because that shows case inflection, whereas it does not. But let's start with the sentence. The bear, who or whom rate of the campgrounds is notorious in these woods. So the first thing we do is isolate their relative clause whom raided the camp grounds. So what would you say? He rated the campgrounds or him rated the campgrounds? I think that we would say he rated campgrounds wouldn't work. Um, and so then who is correct? So the correct answer would be the bear who raided the camp grounds is notorious in these woods. OK, so we'll go on in the national. We'll have one more of these little exercises, and they were going to a different subject. Okay, Just one more. Um, so here we have a dog. The case of the dog. Okay. The dog who or whom the mailman bit had to be taken to the vet. Okay. So again, we isolate the relative loss whom the mailman bit So would you say, Ah, the mailman bid He or the mailman bid him and noticing that in this case we have the relative pronoun and the noun next to each other. So now we have to shift the the substitute for the relative pronoun to the end of the clause. And if you remember the rule that if you have the relative clothes pronoun next to a noun or pronoun, that's probably a sign that we're gonna be using the whom form. And as a matter of fact, I think you'll see that if you say the mailman bid, he versus the mailman, bid him the mailman bid him. The 2nd 1 is the preferable form, and that leads us to the dog whom the mailman bit had to be taken to the vet. That dirty mail. Okay, so now we're going to go on to a different aspect of this miscellaneous group of pronoun issues. Another thing to remember is that propositions always put pronouns into the objective case . Ah, and remember what propositions are and very shortly in one of the following lessons we're gonna be talking specifically about propositions, but for now, remember propositions So that those little words that shows relationships between things in a sentence, Um, and on and we can remember what they are by remembering the proposition box where we are in relationship to the proposition box. So on the box of in the box, I'm going through the box, I'm under the box Words like this. Okay, so but these always take the objective case, which is extremely important in the use of pronouns. So we see some examples over here. Ah, she bought the flowers for me, for me, not for I, but for me. I gave the president to them. Not today, but to them. She directed her comments at him. She or he baked the cake for her. The ferry wave, the magic wand over him, not over he, but over him. And they arrived after us. So not after we, but after us. So the proposition always puts the pronoun into the objective case. This is an invariable rule, and I'm gonna come back to this or continue this idea in the next slide. Ah, because there's a very special case where a lot of people these days make a very serious air in agree Gee, ISS air. There's a $5 word for your egregious meets. Very bad, Bad, bad, bad. Um uh, in the use of a very particular proposition and a very common phrase, But I'll talk to that in the next slide. This is a very peculiar instance of widespread air. Ah, between you and what what would you say between you and I? The movie stunk. Or between you and me, the movie stunk. OK, so be very careful about this, because what a lot of people might say is absolutely wrong. And this is something that seems to be widespread in our culture. I don't know exactly why it might be what's called hyper correction. People remember some vague rule and then apply it incorrectly. But I have heard newscasters to make millions of dollars a year. Professional newscasters ah, use the wrong form. Uh, which, if we're to draw any kind of lesson from might just tell us that just because you've got a pretty face and you're on TV and millions people listen to you doesn't mean you know what? You're talking about it, but I'm gonna go forward and I'm going to explain what the correct form of the between you and Army is. Now, before I tell you which one is correct between you and I, or between you and me, I'm gonna see if you can figure it out for yourself. So which would you choose? And here, I'm gonna give you two choices. And I'm gonna put that same type of construction into a slightly different form. And so maybe you can hear which one is correct. So between I and my loved one is a raging sea or between me and my loved one is a raging sea Very few people would choose. The first item between I and my loved one is raging seat. That's incorrect. The city. So it's between me and my loved one is raging sea. So the rule is, um, what works in one form or the correct format in one form and one. Construction is also the correct format in another construction. So you see, so the me has to follow the between it. So and of course, it's the rule right between is a proposition. So it takes the objective case, which would be me. But here you can see that between me and my loved one is raging state. So in the same way we would say between me and you. Ah, that were really wasn't a very good movie. Okay, so between you and me, so between you and me is the correct form. And I never want to hear you say between you and I because that would be wrong. Absolutely wrong. Never say it. Never, ever. Here's a special case. Ah, that provides us some sort of quandary sometimes, Um, what would you say? She loves that dog more than I or she loves that dog more than me. Which do you think is correct? All right, so this is a test, right? So I want you to speak clearly right now. Say to the screen which one you think is correct, the 1st 1 or the 2nd 1? She loves that dog more than I, or she loves that dog more than me. Go ahead. Okay, Got it. That's your final answer. Okay, Now let's go to the next line and we'll see which one is indeed correct. You're right. Both of correct. But it depends. It all depends on the ellipsis, which means the part left out and both phrasings are correct and belonging. Formal English. But it depends on what you mean to say that rules which pronoun form you. You So, for instance Ah, And here above, you'll see the sentences written out and the verb that's left out in parentheses and highlighted in red. She loves that dog more than I do you say so if you're trying to say that she loves the dog more than I love the dog, then she loves the dog more than I. But if you want to say that she loves the dog more than she loves me, then you use the me form. She loves that dog more than me, you see. So in this case, the the case of the pronoun is absolutely vital to your getting your point across. I mean, if you mean one, but you say the other people are going to be totally mistaken. I mean, you know, I mean, you just might be saying that, um, well, she's really mawr font of the dog than I am. Okay? She loves the dog more than ideo. Um, but the relationship solid. But if you say she loves the dog more than me. People are going to start to think, Oh, your relationships on the rocks and heading for a break up. You see, So you're not communicating what, you intend to communicate? Ah, you're improper use of the pronoun case. Ah, can lead to some pretty disastrous results. Okay, so in, Right, So it all depends on the ellipses. So when you have an instance like this, sometimes it helps to insert the missing verbs. So is it that she loves the dog more than I love the dog? Or does she love the dog more than she loves me? Okay. And just remember, that is a model, and sometimes and I just put this in in is an aside. Sometimes it's easier to remember the specific example and extrapolate the rule from that when you want to apply it than trying to remember the non specific rule, the general rule, the abstract rules. At least it's easier for me because I tend not to think in the abstractions. But I think in the specific. So remember this example and that will help you as you go forward and you have these types of constructions. So here's a little exercise following up on the previous slides, Um, find the hidden verb. So what would you say? He is taller than I where he is taller than me. So be careful because the form that you might expect is not the correct form. That is, if you expect the colloquial now colloquial, which of course means you should know by now means how we speak in everyday language. That's the colloquial the Kalo Kalo is. He's taller than me. And we'd say that and even your professor might say that. But look at the verb that is being ellipse, that is, that is not stated. And the pronoun that would go with it. So would you say he is taller than I am where he is taller than me. M Okay, I hope you would not say the 2nd 1 I would hope you would say he is taller than I am. So the correct form of the original would be he is taller than I. Okay, So again, ah, insert the hidden verb, the lips verb and that old guide you towards Ah, the proper form in this type of construction. Here's another form that's quite common. It's called in a positive. You have a pronoun and a noun against each other. Okay, Um so here is unexamined. All we or us students object to higher tuition rates. Okay. What would be the correct form we or us students on again? Another example. Management awarded bonuses to us or to we employees. Okay, so there's a variation of the drop test. That is a very easy way to figure out what the correct form is, and I'll get to that in the next slide. But just think about what would be the correct form in each one of these instances. So again, the drop test in this case, what we do is we drop the now and leave the pronoun by itself. Because remember the rule that how it works by itself is how it works in combination in any other kind of combination. So eso dropped. Announce. So would you say we object to higher tuition rates or us object to higher tuition rates? Okay. I think that you can see that you would say we object toe higher tuition rates. The other would be incorrect. It would be along the lines of me Want cookie, Right? Um Ah, would you say management awarded bonuses to us or management awarded bonuses Too weak. Okay. So again, I think that you would see that bonuses to us is the correct form. Okay. Very simple expedient solution to this question. OK, when you have the A positive that is a pronoun and a uhm noun, uh, together, such as we students or, you know, uh, to us employees. You simply drop the noun and then you can tell which would be the correct for pronoun form . Mm. By holding the pronoun in isolation pronounce of the I N g words. And sometimes these called J. Erin's who can three i n g words such as? We objected to him voting or we objected to his voting. I saw him walking in the park. I saw his walking in the park. Okay, which form would you use? And here there is not a a firm rule that you always use one pro down form rather than the other. But it varies according to the context of the sentence. And I'll explain that in the next slide in both these instances, you have to look at the context of the sentence. Um So in the first instance, would you say we objected to him voting or his voting? You see, it's not him that you're objecting to. He's a nice guy. You like him? Okay. You objected to his his voting. You objected to his voting. Where's the emphasis? Okay, what is it that you're objecting to? Not to him, but to his voting. Okay, so in that case, the possessive pronoun would be correct. On the other hand, I saw him or his walking in the park, you see? So it's not the walking that you saw that because strange to say, I saw the walking, you know. Okay, um, I saw him walking in the park. Okay, so he was walking in the park, and that's when I saw him. So a little tricky. But you have to keep in mind what the context is. Are you focusing on the action or on the say in this case, the person? Okay, so that's what you have to do in this type of construction. We objected to his voting, not him, but his voting. Uh uh Or I saw him walking in the park. Ok, another way to think about this perhaps is. Instead of we objected to his voting, you could say I objected to the voting by him. Okay. You see, so you can put it in that way and you can see that is the voting. That's that's the most important aspect of this. And so you'd use the possessive the hiss. Uh, but you couldn't say I saw the walking by him in the park. That wouldn't make any sense, would it? So I saw him walking in the park. Okay, so I hope that's clear. And again, it's not Feel free to post questions in, um in the chat area. And we'll go on to the next slide if you remember back to when we're talking about verbs and verbs in particular using the or, um, uh, you'll remember the rule. The nearest possible subject. Well, the same type of rule governs pronouns that ah involved the construction ruled by or Okay, so the nearest possible antecedent rules the pronoun. So we have a couple of cases here no serve as examples. Neither the candidate nor the supporters received their invitations on time. We get a candidate Ah, nor the supporters. So you see, So what pronoun should we use? Well, because supporters is nearest to the possessive pronoun there. It takes the plural, possessive pronoun, And I suppose you could say neither the supporters nor the candidate received Hiss invitations on time. Now, that'd be a little awkward. And so you have to have a year. Is, too would be least awkward. But technically, that would be correct. It's the nearest possible antecedent that rules the pronoun in the same way. If you would say either Joan or Fred Rico might lend you her coat, so remember is the nearest possible and decedent um so Fredricka, um, a woman's name. We assume that Fredricka is a woman. So it's her coat, not their coach. They don't share a coach there. Have one coat between them. And if they're going out in winter weather, they have to discuss or flip a coin as to who's gonna wear the coat. Know each one has each one has her own coat. Okay, that's singular. And either Jonah Frederico might lend you her coat. Okay, so ah, in this type of construction is it's the pronoun is ruled by the nearest possible. Anticipated a word about sexism in language uses, Um, and very often this comes up when we're struggling with whether to use his or her either individually or together. Ah, in referring Teoh kind of a general case. Now, nowadays we want to use the actual phrase his or her, and there's a reason behind that in the history behind that and this came about, 0 19 seventies or so, people started looking at what was before then the general usage. And before then, we would have usages such as we see right here. Every doctor should care for his patients. An engineer must double check his instruments. Each nurse should ensure that her uniform is clean. So do you see what's happening here? Well, first, the the higher paid, more prestigious, more powerful positions ah are accorded to males and the nurse who is generally thought of as being in a less prestigious position than a doctor. Though many people will tell you it's the nurse or cures you, not the doctor. But maybe it's the nurse is more important, but anyway, but she doesn't get paid as if she's more important. And so it's assumed that the nurse is a female, so we've sexually discriminated even in our general language, our assumptions as to whether males or females filled particular roles. No, it is explained. Ah, when I was growing up that the that the hiss or the he You know, um, every student should work as hard as he can. Um, etcetera, It just explained that the heat air or in the cases of the examples that we have over here that the, uh, those pronouns the male pronoun does not really refer to males. It refers to the general case that refers to all humanity much as man or mankind refers to all humanity. But we don't even use that anymore. Ah, but then people started looking at language uses and started doing tests like psychological tests and actually determined that that's not the case that we don't even though we might understand, Um uh, this issue, intellectually, still viscerally or in our real assumptions, we actually assume that if we say every doctor should care for his patients that Onley men or doctors, um, an NGO engineer must double check his instruments actually leads us to think that Onley males are engineers and each nurse should ensure that her uniform is Tween lead us to the assumption that, um, only women are nurses, you see, So the language does affect how we think. And so nowadays we use a different form, and I'll get to that in the next slide. Very simply, what we do to avoid sexist implication, that is Ah, sexist, stereotypical assumptions is that we use his or her. Okay, um and there's another way that we can do this as well. But first we'll start off with his or her. Every doctor should care for his or her patients. An engineer must double check his or her measurements. Each nurse should ensure that his or her uniform is clean. Okay, So each one of these cases note that we use the his or her. Or if you were referring to the subject of a sentence, we say he or she every doctor should care for his or her patients. Um, here, she mean the doctor. You know, the general Dr. Ah, He or she is responsible for the life of etcetera. Ok, so his or her he or she and so forth another way to do this because sometimes the his or her that he or she him or her, his or her construction gets a little bit clunky. And so sometimes what we do is we put, um ah, put the pronouns into the pleural. Well, actually, you put everything into the plural. Doctors should care for their patients. Doctors plural should care for their patients. Engineers must double check their measurements. All nurses should ensure that their uniforms air claimed, you say, because the plural pronoun doesn't reflect gender. And so we're able to use that without fear of offending somebody or being sexist or making sexist implications. Um, there's one other thing that we can do, which is to eliminate as many pronounce as possible. So an engineer must double check measurements. OK, so I've eliminated the possessive pronoun altogether. Some, uh, but whatever you use, make sure that you use it consistently and um ah, and do avoid making sexist implications or assumptions in your use of language. With all that said, sometimes gender reference is appropriate if the group that you're referring to is not the general population, which is roughly half male, half female, but you're referring to a specialized group that is all one or the other, then it's appropriate to use the gender specific pronouns such as Every boy on the boys Little League team should pick up his uniform. Okay, Because it's the boys Little League team. They're only boys on the team, so his is appropriate. Every girl on the girls volleyball team should pick up her uniform. Dido, Um, every student at ST Anthony's Academy for boys must come to the office to pick up his schedule. Okay, so again, and we could go on and on, invent all sorts of other examples. But if you have a population that's only one or the other ah, then it's appropriate to use um uh, one of the gender specific pronouns. Okay, in fact, would be silly to say every boy on the boys Little League team should pick up his or her uniform. That leaves the reader questioning what exactly is going on on that boys Little league team . Okay, um, perhaps. Well, perhaps you know, perhaps nowadays many of these teams are, um are, uh, diverse. They have both boys and girls, but then it wouldn't be called boys Little League team injury, but it's up to you to judge, um but ah ah. But remember, sometimes gender reference is appropriate. So that's it. We're done with the pronounce. Or as I've just been dying to say that that that's all, folks. Okay, so we're done with the pronounce. Um uh, do the exercises that are provided for you and that Check your knowledge exercises are read the text. Um, and of course, go back over these wonderful videos. I'm sure you're gonna show your friends. You invite your friends over, sir, popcorn, pizza and beer and show them all the wonderful videos about grammar. Okay, but, um, but we've covered pronouns, and you had no idea, As I said before that Ah, such little words could have so much going on in them and around them. But they do. But we're done now. Um, and now we're going to go on to another issue that we have to deal with in terms of English grammar, and I'll see them 12. Getting in and out of the preposition box: As I said in the introduction proposition is one of the joining words. It connects a noun with other parts of the sentence. And so you notice very cleverly, ia I highlighted in red all the propositions on this page. So with other parts of the sentence and the sample sentence down below Ah, the postcard arrived for them from Bobby telling about his trip to Canada. So that's what a proposition does, very simply. And on the next slide, I'll introduce you to a pneumonic device that will help you remember the proposition. So this is it right here. The proposition box. This is the pneumonic device that should help you remember what a proposition is. So it's a little word that helps you orient yourself to or in relationship to the box. So you're in the box, you're on the boxer under the box here to the side of the box, you're going through the box. All these words are propositions. And if you just remember what the proposition box does, it helps keep your propositions knife and nice and safe and snugly and for your use so you can pull them out anytime that you need them. in your speaking or writing to look more closely or another way to look at it. Propositions connect words. As I said, um, they connect announce s So we have the proposition of in the example over here one of your problems. So that's a now problem is a noun. Um, they connect pronounce ah, far from her by I had to stay away far from her. Okay, so hopefully there's no restraining order. It's just because I was on a trip and and so I had to stay away from her. But then I was able to return home. Okay, Eso anyway, so and her is a pro now. Okay, so and they connect noun clauses. So we have the again the from the proposition from ah, from where you are standing sees where you're standing is a noun clause and it's the object of the proposition from or alternatively, upon entering the room upon would be a proposition. And entering the room would be the noun clause that it connects. So there's so propositions connect. Noun is pronouns and noun clauses. Okay? And they do a couple other things and we'll get to that Ah, in the later part of this lecture, I have mentioned that propositions can also have figurative meanings. So so are pneumonic device iss, of course, the proposition box. And so we're in the boxer on the box. You're going through the box and on those very literal meanings those air tangible concrete meanings. But propositions can also have figurative meanings. That means we're not to take them literally. So if I asked you to write an essay on your mother, I would hope that you didn't write it on her. That is on her back. You didn't take abandon and scribble it on her skin. So that's not what I meant. I meant about your mother and about would be another proposition. But in this case, we mean it figuratively flee. And so if you say that you know someone in love, perhaps you're not talking about the city of love and it looks like Ah, the city of love would be somewhere in Saskatchewan, some place in Canada. But that's not what you might mean. You might mean that you know somebody who is experiencing the the emotion off love so I and again, But in this case in love would be a figurative meaning of the proposition and not the literal, tangible meaning. An important concept for us to grasp is that of the proposition all phrase. For the most part, propositions don't stand by themselves. There they tie together. They combine words in a phrase, and that's known as a prepositional phrase. It's a phrase that begins with the proposition again. One of the proposition box words and usually ends with a noun or a pronoun. So let's take a look at some of the examples that we have over here. Okay, so you have you let the cat out of the bag off the bag would be the proposition. Afraid so. Begins with the proposition of and ends with the noun bag. And that bag is the object of the proposition. Let's go there for dinner. Okay, for dinner would be the prepositional phrase. He's in the vicinity of the main office OK of the main office. So here we have the object of the preposition office modified by the, um by the adjective main, you see, so you can have other words inside. The proposition of phrase doesn't just have to be the object of the preposition or the now the dog chewed on the stick on the stick is the prepositional phrase on being the proposition stick being the object of the preposition, the now object to the proposition. And by the way, that's a favorite activity of my dog. We go out for walks in the woods, and she just loves to pick up sticks and chew on her favorite hobby back to back to the issue at hand. The lion was sleeping beneath the tree. So again, so you see the proposition underlined, you know, the whole, uh, word underlined and in red beneath. That's the proposition. Okay, and tree would be object of the proposition. My dog wandered far from home. So from again the proposition home being the object of the preposition and ah long example , we went through the woods to grandmother's house by the river in the next county. So we have a series of proposition of races. You see a sense it's gonna have more than one proposition of rice, and, uh, and then I have also down below. I've indicated the different proposition. All phrases through the woods. Okay, through would be a proposition would be the object of the proposition to grandmother's house again. We have. Ah, the proposition to grandmothers would be acting as a as a modifier for house. What kind of house was grandmother's house and house? Being the object of the preposition by the river by being the proposition, wherever being the object of the preposition and in the next county in being the proposition and county being the object of the proposition. So eso I hope this is helpful. I hope you start to understand the whole idea that proposition a phrase Because remember, for the most part, propositions did not exist by themselves. Propositions can also have a pronoun object that is a prepositional phrase can be comprised of a proposition. Plus, a pronoun doesn't have to always be a now because remember, the pronoun does what it takes the place of the now. So ah, so again, we have some examples. The committee gave the award to him. So too him to being the ah proposition in being the pro Now he baked the birthday cake for her. What a swell guy. Okay, so the senator spoke out against them, like whatever them is, Okay, But he was against him. Okay, So anyway, so against would be the proposition. Remember, you can say against the box. Okay, Locates us, um, in relationship to the box. But in this case, the against would, um ah, have a figurative meaning. He's not literally leaning against them as he speaks. Um, well, you know, maybe maybe another politician might, you know, if it's see if you're familiar with the the mayor of Toronto. Okay. Very Rob Ford. Very likely he might be. Have to be leaning up against the wall as he spoke, because otherwise you'd fall down. Um, the rain fell on us. So again, this is a very literal meaning of the word on it was on fell on us on would be the proposition us would be the pronoun object of the proposition. Let her sit between you and me. So Ah, here we have two objects of the proposition, you and me, Okay. And she's going to sit between us, and so the between would be the proposition she gave the flowers to me. Okay, so, to the proposition, me being the pronoun object, I hope you start to see the pattern here. You start to get the idea he store told a story about her. Mrs. Perez walked across it. It's being the object of the preposition across. I did this for them, not for us. And here we have to Ah, two different uses of the word four. Well means the same thing. But we repeat it, perhaps for emphasis and for them, them being the object of the 1st 4 spin the object of the 2nd 4 So it So I hope you see here that that the proposition of phrase does not have to contain a noun. It can contain a pronoun as the object of the proposition. One thing to remember is that proposition use is idiomatic. That is, um sometimes the proposition used in a particular form and I'll get to some examples varies according to idiom. That is just the practice. It doesn't always make sense now, Um uh, sometimes this varies from language to language. I mean, you might use one proposition in one language and another proposition that means something else. And another language. I suppose this could be even more frequent in figurative uses, but sometimes even in quite literal ones. And so we see some examples here, so When you go sailing, you sail on the lake, but in the sea. Isn't that curious? I mean, you're still doing exactly the same thing. You're on top of the body of water on the water and you're sailing in a boat. But we say on the lake or in the same, you would hike in the mountains or on the beach. That's odd, isn't it? Once you think about it, why you in the mountains? But you're on the beach. I'm your literally on the mountain. You aren't inside it, but but that's what we say. Um, somebody is involved with a person. Perhaps they're having a romantic relationship. But you're involved in a task. You're not involved with the task. Well, you could be, but more often within a task. You part from a spouse. If you want to re apart from a friend, that is your part from a person. But you part with a possession. Okay, you know. Here, take this. I want you to have this on parting with the possession. Uh, so you wouldn't do that with a person? I don't think so. Okay. Um, you're impatient with person. Don't be so impatient with me. I'm doing the best I can with me, you know, with a person. Ah, but you're impatient for something to happen. I'm impatient for Christmas To come is something I used to feel. Certainly when I was young, I just couldn't wait for Christmas to come on. Guys, I was impatient for it. I'm afraid of the monster. OK, but I'm afraid for my family. Okay, That's why have life insurance? I'm afraid for them. What might happen if if something were to happen to me, But I'm afraid of the monster. I'm not afraid for the monster. The monster can take care of himself. Okay. Ah, I agree to a per proposal. Okay? I agree to your proposal. I think it's a good idea, but I agree with a person. I agree with you to your proposal. Okay. Ah, I compare to if I want to look at similarities. Okay, Um, let's compare Ah, one movie to another. But if I want to look at differences, I compare with that. We, uh and also sometimes we don't even use the word compare. We use the word something like contrast. But, um, I live at an address, but on the street. That's curious again. The same thing that's similar to the wholesaling idea, isn't it? On the Laker in the sea, I live Athen address or honestly, I don't leave on an address. And I don't live at ST Okay, so So it's idiomatic. It's governed by, but it is. Socratic rules by special rules that you just have to remember sometimes, and I lie in a bed. But on the couch and again, same action and the same same action or lack of action just lying flat on a flat surface on a flat, soft surface. But it's in bed or on a couch, so sometimes you have to remember these things, and I'm gonna post a a more complete list in the text and you can look at and have fun. You amuse your friends, play parlour games. Or at least that's where you used to call him party games and came, uh, and, um on and try to learn these special uses of the propositions. I'm going to speak briefly about some of the specific jobs that propositions do, um uh, and this is above and beyond. You know, the function as indicating where we are in relationship to the box to the proposition box. So one thing that propositions do is they, um give time, location. So at at a specific time, the plane arrives at 7 p.m. On over days and times the meaning. It meeting is on Tuesday. We're having a party on New Year's Eve. Okay. So are in set very often non specific times. Ah, uh, it's too hot in the summer. I started working here in 2010. So? So that's one of things that propositions do they give time, Location if you can think of time as being a location, but they indicate time. Something else that a proposition can do is give time duration. That is how long something is. So when I was a child, I could hold my breath underwater for three minutes because for three minutes Ah, they can measure the time since an event. And there I just used the word. I just use the proposition. Since an event, I have lived on the coast since 2010. Okay, So so ah ah, Another one would be We got there before three o'clock. Okay? We got there before. So so propositions can also indicate time duration. Here we have a couple propositions that are dedicated to movement Proposition two, and towards we're going to New York or were sailing towards the shore. And the slight difference here is to is very often used. If you're indicating that you're going to arrive at some place, you're emphasizing the arrival. Or, you know, the intended arrival towards emphasises mawr, the movement in the direction off, but not focusing so much on the arrival. We're heading towards the shore, but we're not going to the harbor. Okay, so you catch the difference, I hope, anyway, So propositions can also indicate movement. Sometimes propositions can do double duty is the notable says, that is, they can sometimes be propositions and sometimes be something like a conjunction or not something like a conjunction actual conjunction. So eso I have just a couple of examples over here. Um, since I can use it as a proposition, I can't believe it's been more than 12 years since 9 11 of that great tragedy, that atrocity those committed upon America. But it's been more than 12 years since then, or I can use it as a conjunction that is it. Ah, it introduces a subordinate clause. So it has been many a long and worry mile since I saw home. So I saw Home has a subject verb. So it's a It's a clause, and it's a subordinate clause because it's introduced by the subordinate in conjunction since. So we have an example or another example. And, um, we're by no means limited to these two examples, and I'll provide a more, ah, complete list in the text. But but just one another example, um, before as a proposition, it's a couple hours before dinner. It's still a couple hours before dinner or as a subordinate conjunction. Before we go back to the clubhouse, let's play one more round of golf. So before we go back to the clubhouse, we go. Okay, that's ah, subject and verb. That's applause. Okay. And, uh, and before would be this subordinating conjunction. Okay, so So don't be confused. And this happens with other, uh, word forms as well. Other words as well that fall into more than one category. So you aren't always Our word is not always locked into a particular category. Sometimes it can change hats as it will, and serve in a couple of different ah functions in different categories of parts of speech . A proposition can also combine with a verb. So we've been focusing mostly on how proposition combines with a noun and forms a prepositional phrase with a noun object. But sometimes the proposition combines with a verb and forms, which might call a phrase over. That is a verb that has a very particular meaning, as if it's one word. But it's blue is printed and spelled out as if it's a phrase. So we have some examples. The phrase over, Cut out. Cut that out, which means to stop. You see, it's Ah, and it's not in used in the same way as to cut you. Don't cut the coupon out of the magazine. It's not that it doesn't mean that Write that down. Okay, that's that's another phrase over. But that will blow up in your face. I mean, so So the so the word as it were, And word in quotation marks the MIM. The idea blow up is a distinct phrase, a verb. We should go out for dinner, you see, So the go out is a, um uh is a phrase over. I'm not gonna put up with that nonsense anymore. So to put up with something is again a phrase. It's a phrase, a verb, that at that that means something quite distinct and exists is a word by itself. I'll look in on Granddad the next time I'm in town. Soto, look in on somebody is different from look, okay, It's not quite the same thing to look in to. Look. Excuse me to look in on somebody. Your order adds up to 1938. Okay, it adds up. OK, so I went out for lunch and I but a steak, perhaps for $19.38. Quite extravagant, I think. But, um, it's once in a long time. Treat Ah, you've given me something to think about to think about something could be a phrase over. So anyway, so these are some examples off these phrase over herbs, and again, I'll include a more complete list in the text. But but keep in mind that these exist, in a sense, as words by themselves, because it's not because the verb does not mean the same thing by itself as it means when it's indie the in the Fraser verb. That is when the verb plus preposition form to continue. The thought from the previous slide about the phrase over by the the new word has it worth has formed with the verb being combined with a proposition. Just take a look at this one example about how the word work changes. Meaning depending on the Fraser verb construction. So you work for somebody, okay? You work in something, you work at something, you work upon something, you work off, you work out, you work over. Okay, So So to work for somebody that's you know, you're performing labor for somebody to work in something, you know, you work in the construction industry to work at something you're endeavoring to complete a task to work upon something very similar to working at. Um, you work off. You know, I've gotta work off those extra pounds I put on over Christmas. Um, I've got to eliminate. I've got to reduce my weight. I've gotta work the pounds off to work out. Ah. Ah. That means to exercise. Okay. Doesn't mean to works outside. Okay? Or to work over. That's something the Mafia collection guy does. He works you over if you haven't paid him back. Eso in myself. Ah, these are some examples of how propositions can change the meaning of a verb. Now, the, um now the proposition part of this phrase, all verb is sometimes called a particle. Thing of it is that part of the verb is a proposition. Part of the verb. Um and we can see Just spend one more moment with this. We can see how it is different from a separate proposition. So, you see, I could say I want to write down my thoughts before I forget them. OK, write down my thoughts. And so that's one idea. I couldn't say down my thoughts. I want to write before I forget them. You see, that's putting the proposition in the wrong place. But if these this particle were acting as a regular proposition, it would head up a prepositional phrase and you actually could say down my thoughts. Okay, but but you can't because the phrases the the Krayzelburg is to write down. OK, so and my thoughts is not the object of the proposition down, but rather it's the object of the verb. What are you writing What are you writing down? I'm writing down my thoughts. Okay, So and, um, another example that we have over here is Ah, the nearest store is down the hill. Okay, so Ah, you see, uh, so that down, as opposed to the down in, um in to write down that is a proper proposition. Ah, that heads up the prepositional phrase down the hill. And, um, you could say, I'll be it a little awkwardly. You could say down the hill is the nearest store. Okay, so you see, So down the hill stays together as a whole phrase. Just like you can't say down my thoughts. I want to write, right. You can't say that. But you can say down the hill is the nearest store down the hill is where I want to go. We say so that down the hill works as a proposition. So So this is the difference between the, you know, the which might consider the true proposition and the proposition that tags along with the verb to form yet another meeting. Just a little historical note. A language historical note to end this lecture with, um sometimes you might hear sometimes somebody might tell you that you cannot end a sentence with a preposition. This is wrong. OK, um, the history of this rule of the supposed rule comes from the 19 hundreds. When learned people people who studied grammar were very deeply involved in the study of Latin Latin was considered the learned language. Everybody had to know Latin. In fact, coming out of the 18 hundreds, even many scientific treatises in Europe or written in Latin, um, so grammarians, that is, people who looked at language Ah, thought that let Latin provided the true form for grammar. Now these were people who knew many different languages much more than individuals today. Even learned people even educated people might learn today it be very common for an educated person to grow up learning Greek and Ah, Latin, perhaps Hebrew and ah, and then two tackles and master. Some contemporary European lingers ending speaking person might take on French and German, for instance, and be, you know, have four or five different languages. It's surprising, though, that they never figured out that some of these people never figured out that rules of grammar very and differ between different languages. But they didn't And so they tried to cram English into the Latin grammatical structure. Now, in Latin, you can not end a sentence with a preposition. You just can't. It just doesn't work. But in English, this is not valid. You can. There are many cases in which you do in a sentence with a proposition. And so ah, so the quote that I have above Ah, this is the sort of bloody nonsense up with which I will not put was ah, written down scribbled Ah, in a manuscript. Ah, that Winston Churchill wrote. Okay, so in some editor wrote back to him, you can't end a sentence with a preposition. Winston Churchill. You know the bulldog Prime Minister who? Ah, who led Britain and ah against Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Um, uh uh, you scribbled defiantly in the margins. This is the sort of bloody nonsense up with which I will not put. So you notice the up with which the ah, the distorting of English grammar to fit the rule sounds really funny. So you never want to write that you see, So the natural form would be This is the sort of bloody nonsense which I will not put up with. Okay, So, uh, and that's the final word to end this lecture with See you next time. 13. The comma rules!: We've seen a couple of examples of how punctuation matters in this lecture. We're going to take a look at the Kama, which is a very useful little punctuation device, and it seems to be modest and seems Teoh, not not matter that much. We could just willy nilly Sprinkle commas around our sentences, but that's not true. Um ah. There's a story from ah ah, played by Christopher Marlowe, who was a contemporary of Shakespeare. Counted to be a great play right in his own right. Um, and in it Ah, in this play, he's writing about the English Civil wars, a civil wars that racked England back in the day back in the middle era. And, um, a general who was fighting for the rebel leader, the leader who wanted to be king, uh, captured the actual king and he didn't know what to do. Oh, or he knew what he could do. But he didn't want the responsibility on his own hands. What should he do? Should he take the King prisoner? Should he put him in jail? Should he imprison him? Should he kill him? Um, this was a weighty, very important decision, and he wanted someone higher above him to make that decision. So he sent a message off to his leader and waited anxiously for instructions to come back. And so with that cliffhanger will move on to the next slide will find out what happened. So after a long day of waiting, the message came and it was in writing. So that was good. He would have unambiguous proof that he had been merely following orders and he opened it up. You open up the the message, the missive with trembling hands. And there he saw the message and he probably said a few bad words in medieval English. Um, because the message wasn't so an unambiguous, you see, because it said fear not to kill the king. But what does that mean? It is missing commas and all important commas that would change the meaning of the phrase. Depending on how you looked at it, did it mean fear not to kill the king? That is, don't be afraid to kill the king. Or did it mean fear not to kill the king? That is you had better be afraid. You had better not kill the king. Well, you know what he was being ordered to dio. But he knew that no matter what he did, he would be held to account and he would be held responsible And all because of a comma that was or was not there. Now, I hope your life never hangs on such a slender thread as a comma. Ah, but as we can see, uh, commas do matter. Commas change. Meaning. And, uh, in the last lecture I talked about Thea, you know, the phrase woman without her man is nothing. What is that? Is that woman without her man is nothing. Or is that woman without her? Man is nothing. Do you see? So changes meaning And we have a couple of real life examples over here and pointing in the wrong direction. Um Ah. This actually appeared on a magazine cover. Um, Rachel Ray finds inspiration and cooking her family and her dog. Mm. Uh, I don't want to go over to her house for dinner. Okay. And then this rule life sign and actually appeared hunters, please use caution. One hunting pedestrians using walked trails. Oh, okay. I'm not going to take a walk there. Okay? So punctuation matters and comma matters comments matter. So, uh, that's the lesson that we're gonna take with us as we go into this lesson, we're gonna find out when we should use commas and how we can use them. Sore meaning is unambiguous. Now, what do we need rules for commas. Back in the third grade, Mr. Grundy told May put a comma wherever you pause. So that's a rule life all for a long time. But that doesn't quite work. And we'll find out why. What isn't that rule work? Well, I'll give you an example from my own life. Now, you may have noticed you may have noticed that not the smoothest of speakers. Well, when I was a kid, I had a terrible stutter. Ah, much worse than ah, then I have now, um, And so when my teacher told me when Mrs Grundy told me, put a comma wherever I paused, I did. And so my writing ended up looking like this down here. Okay. For my system. Perfect vacation. I want when some place for on I will went to some Merckx camp. Okay, so I was putting a comma, right, boss, in the middle of words. Okay. So that rule doesn't quite work. What about the person who never paused at all? They just keep on talking without a break. Our puzzle of kuna like an oncoming freight train. Uh huh. They wouldn't use a comma that might not even use spaces. So again, that rule doesn't quite work. Doesn't to put a common review cause you see if we follow the put a comma wherever you Polish rule, there's no way to evaluate. With our comments correctly placed in the sentence or not, there's no way for a reader to evaluate. And there's no way for a teacher to evaluate the holes the writer has say is Well, I pause that I took a breath there, so name in Indiana. You can't get me right. The comments correct. Take place because I took a breath there. Um, but that doesn't make sense. And back that way. Madness lies. There are definitive rules. Four comma placement. Think of the Kama as a traffic sign for the sentence. It tells us where to go, where to pause it. It groups words into meaning groups, groups of meaning, logical groups and, uh, in the slides of follow we're going to encounter the definitive comma rules. The first comma rule that will encounter is you use a comma when you're joining independent clauses. Joined by a coordinating conjunctions such as the boy hit the ball and he ran to first base . The ball went deep into left field, but he was thrown out at first. Okay, so there we have two independent laws. Remember, an independent clause is a clause that could stand is a sentence by itself. And they're joined by a coordinating conjunction, which is one of the Fanboys. So here, now, we're starting to link everything that we've, uh, learned together. OK, so that's number one rule when you're joining independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction. Just a couple more examples of this first rule. The joining of two independent clauses using one of the Fanboys for and nor but or yet Or so. Um, the boys wanted to stay up till midnight, but they grew tired and fell asleep. I thought I had the biggest bag of candy. Yep. Opel proved me wrong. Okay, so here we see ah, couple of the common uses, while the one instance of the common use in a couple of different examples The second rule is that we use a comma to set off or set off a, um, an introductory element. That is a word or phrase or clause that precedes the main part of the sentence that precedes the independent clause. That's the main part of the sentence. Um, and we have a couple of examples over here. Um, however, it was still cold. You see, that, however, sets off the main part of the sentence. The independent clause. It was still cold. A phrase can be seen in the next example. In the fall comma, we enjoy watching football so that in the fall is set off with a comma. Okay, so Ah, that's another example. And the third example when the rain stopped, you see, So that's a clause. That's the dependent clause. That's a subordinate clause. And when it begins thes sentence, we set it off with a comma before we launch into the main clause, the independent laws. When the rain stopped, we went outside. Now it's true that sometimes you can hear where we pause there, and very often we do, Um, but the rule again is not to put a common wherever you pause it's, ah that the Paula's happens to follow a comma. You see, that's how that works. Okay, so to set off introductory elements, you use a comma. I have a couple other examples over here just to illustrate the point of using the comma to set off the introductory element. And one is after the rain started coming down, the empire called the bowl game or another example because it was such a miserable day, we decided against going to the beach. Okay, so, um, those are a couple examples of whole clauses hold dependent clauses. Whole subordinate clauses. Ah, preceding the independent laws, the next common rule has to do with unnecessary elements within a sentence. This refers to elements that are dramatically unnecessary and sometimes even in terms of the central meaning of the sentence unnecessary. And so we have a couple off examples over here such as Susan, however, prefers going to the mall. So this might be within the context of my saying something like I, um, like to go to the beach. Susan, however, likes to go to the most. That, however, is a link to a previous sentence. But in terms of the grammar and the structure of the sentence. It is unnecessary, though it provides important information. In a sense. Another example is, um, again we're here. Mr. Pringle, who was soon to leave the company to start his own business, says, Just ID. We undertake the new venture. So that whole clause that set off in blue that's Ah, highlighted in Blue, who is soon to leave the company to start his own business. That's unnecessary is unnecessary for the overall structure of the sentence. It's additional information. That's nice to know, but it's not necessary. And then, lastly, my Uncle Fred, who lives in Florida, is a mailman, so that living in Florida is unnecessary. Information is accounted to be unnecessary information, and it's not necessary to identify which uncle it is that you're talking about because, well, it's Uncle Fred and you know OK, so we use the comets to set off unnecessary elements, and these are you used. These commas here are used in apparent technical manner. So and if you remember our discussion about the parentheses, the parentheses is always used in pairs. So here we have this encapsulating device, and if this element comes with in the middle of the sentence. Ah, these comments to are used in pairs. You always see these impairs thes thes kinds of parenthetical commas always come in pairs. Unless, of course, they're at either the beginning of the sentence or the end. Over here, we'll see a couple sentences that give us an idea off a necessary element versus an unnecessary element. Remember, it's the unnecessary element that set off by commas. And so, as in the previous, um uh, slide, we we used the example sentence. My uncle Fred, who lives in Florida, is a mailman. So who lives in Florida would be unnecessary and unnecessary to identify who it is that you're talking about. You're talking my uncle friend, so we've already identified the person. But if you say something like my uncle who lives in Florida is a mailman, you see, then that whole phrase is necessary to identify who it is that you're talking about. You're not tell you my uncle Bill? Uncle Ron, Uncle Gene Capaci. Uh, you're talking about the uncle who lives in Florida. Okay, so then that then that who lives in Florida moves from being in unnecessary element to being unnecessary element and necessary in the sense that it identifies which uncle you're talking about. So this is an important distinction, and eso the Commons will set off the unnecessary elements. But sometimes that element that can be identical to an undecided element becomes necessary . And so you don't use comments to set it off. So ah, so just remember the example. My uncle, who lives in Florida, is the mailman. And then my uncle lives in Florida is one identify okay versus my Uncle Fred Comma, who lives in Florida. Comma is a moment in which case that clause who lives in Florida, that relative clause who lives in Florida is not necessary. And so it's set off by commas. The next rule that would take a look at will be the use of commas in a series of words. Could be words, phrases, clauses, Um, and this follows appear up the pattern of a comma B comma C comma and D and ah, talk about a little variation on this in the next slide, but for right now will just take a look at that pattern. So apples, comma oranges, comma Cherries and pears, and so and so we see the example over here and the commas I have highlighted in red. So you know, calls your attention to it. And so you see, the comma comes after each item in the Siri's. Um, another example would be Tom, Fred, Mary and Joe went to the party together. OK, so and each name is followed by a comma sets off items in a Siri's Um, and sometimes you have more complicated arrangements, such as we brought beer and pizza, comma, macaroni and cheese, comma and ice cream and cake. Okay, so, uh, that's a weird a potluck type of party, but nevertheless, that's what we all brought. Okay, So, um, and the last one takes a look at the uses of actual clauses set off with comments. So the quarterback threw for 300 yards, the crowd cheered wildly, and our home team won the championship. And so way have a common. After each one of those losses. Quarterback threw for 300 yards, comma. The crowd cheered wildly comma, and our home team won the championship. Okay, so but each one of those clauses in this last sentence is set off by commas. Well, it just follows the you know the rule, Uh, following the pattern of a comma B comma C comma and D. Okay, so that's the rule. Use commas. Ah, to set off items in a Siri's the rule that I have just enunciated the ah, the comments in a Siri's up to the last item before the and is a rule that's in dispute and not everybody agrees with it. Um, some style books, uh, will not Have you used the comma before the ant s o they would say a comma b comma cnd okay , versus the method that I suggested a comma become a c comma. And D um, there's a reason that I suggested because I think it clarifies and it reduces ambiguity so we can see over here the funny little illustration that I borrowed from the Internet. Um uh, using what's called the Oxford comma that is the common before the and again. So So we invited the strippers, JFK and Stalin. Okay, so we invited the strippers, comma, JFK comma and stalling. That becomes very clear that as the drawing shows, we invited four people JFK, Stalin and, um, two strippers. What a fun party. Okay, um but without the Oxford comma, it becomes a little ambiguous and it's very possible to interpret thes sentence. We invited the strippers comma jf can Stalin. So JFK and stone becomes a modifier. What's called in a positive two strippers. And so we invited the strippers who were JFK and Stalin. So the two strippers were JFK in the, you know, the, you know, the American President John F. Kennedy and Joseph Stalin, the Soviet tyrant. Okay, those were the two strippers, I guess in the afterlife, they've taken on other occupations. And so that comma that's Oxford comma helps clarify all the items are in a serious versus doing something else versus modifying what's come before. So I would suggest using the Oxford comma Ah, versus, um, confusing your invitation list to the party now along the same idea using common to set off items in a Siri's. You also do this with adjectives, adjectives that are modifying the same now, Um, So, uh, so, for instance, it was a dark, stormy night. Okay, So dark calm, A stormy night. And so you don't use a comma after the last adjective before the now. Okay, So you noticed there's a comma between dark and stormy. Um, the the rule that you can follow here or a guide that you can follow is if you could also using and in the place of the Kama. So you would say it was a dark and stormy night, you see? So so then if you don't want to use the and the Kama would be appropriate, you could say the night was dark and stormy. He was a toll bearded man is another example that we have over here. Uh, he was told comma bearded because you could also say he was tall and bearded. You see, uh, he was a tall and bearded man. The man was told and bearded. Okay, so So if you can use an and in place of the Kama in a list of adjectives, then you would, uh, used come Okay, if you don't want to be using the and and And And of course, if you have a long list of adjectives, the Commons would probably be better. The the dog Waas. Ah, fierce, Big, growling, rabid and Harry. Okay, you see, So you use the comment after each one of those rather than an ant in between each one of the adjectives. Okay, So, uh, so the rule for a Siris for common usage holds true for adjectives as well as now. The one exception to the above rule is if you are using what's called a phrase away. Now that is a a noun. That is a single idea. But it's expressed using two words, such as, as I show in the example here, white rhino. So white rhino is a single kind of animal. It's not a rhinoceros that happens to be white. It's a white rhino, Um, and so if I wrote a sentence, something along the lines of it was an endangered white rhino. You notice I would not use a comma because I couldn't say the rhino was endangered and white, you see, because it's a white rhino. The white rhino was in danger, you see, so I wouldn't use a comma in this instance. And likewise, if I said the rare red wine was delicious again, I wouldn't use a comma because it's not a wine that was rare and red. It was a red wine that was rare. So again I wouldn't use a comment because thief raisel noun red wine is a single idea. Okay, it's in effect. It's one word, even though it looks like it's two words. So just remember that if you have a phrase a noun, the the what appears to be the adjective, uh, is not included in your Siris of adjectives. Okay, so the phrase a noun works is a single word by itself. Another rule has to do with the usage of Commons with quotes, and so you use a comma to Segway into or leave a direct quote. And so we have the example here, Tom said, Quote it sure is hot and quote it sure is unquote, Mary replied. And so you see that each one of those we go into the quote Tom said comma. And then the quote marks. And then the, uh and and then what? Tom said. Um, and in the response, we have the quote. It sure is. Comma close quotes, Mary replied. And so we used the comma to enter into and leave direct quotes, but not if you have other punctuation. So again, you know the whole Mary Tom dialogue here, Um, skin dilating and fascinating. I'm sure, uh, you want some ice water, he asked. So notice that we have the question mark because he's asking a question. But there's no comma. It's not. You want some ice water? Question mark, comma or comma? Question mark, you don't double up on the punctuation if there's another item. A punctuation. Ah, used inside the quotes. You don't use the comma as well. And this is general rule. You don't double up on punctuation. Um and so you know, Mary responds quote Sure, I'm dying of heatstroke. Exclamation point, close quote, but you don't have a comma there. And so So the exclamation point in a sense, overrules the comma on. And so it's not Quote sure. I'm dying of heat stroke, exclamation point comma closed quotes. Okay, so you don't double up on the on the punctuation in a round of quotes. But you do use the comma. If you don't have other punctuation, you use a comma. Also, when you're addressing somebody directly And of course, we don't dump use comments and speech. And that's very often where we are speaking directly to somebody. But when you record that that that speech that utterance, you would use a comma to, uh to record it. So you would say, Tom, Comma, come in here and do your homework. So that Tom, the name Tom you're talking to Tom is sent off with Comma. And if the name of the person that you're talking to that you're addressing is in the middle of the sentence again, you'd set it off on both sides as a parent. Technical? Um uh, such as I've told you many times, Comma Sally, Comma, I've told you many times, Sally, that references in the work sided are alphabetized by the last name of the author. And so you see, Sally is set off on both sides with a comma, So if you're addressing somebody directly, you would use a comma to set off donate. So here we get to the seventh and last rule for comments, and so we're almost done. So just hanging it, um, this, you might think of, is the miscellaneous category. So you use commas in, uh, dates, places and numbers, and so dates such as the example that I have Ah, where is it? It's it's over here. He was born on July 4th, 1900 in a thunderstorm. So, uh, he was born on July 4th comma 1900 comma. Okay, so also noticed. Sometimes we missed the comma after the year. Okay, after the year, we missed a comma, but you have to have the common there as well. Um, so july 4th common 1900 comma. We traveled to Akron comma Ohio on a vacation. We traveled to Akron, Ohio, on our vacation. So the Ohio is set off on both sides, as come. If you want to, you can think of the Ohio or, you know, the 1900. In this case, as parenthetical elements, they further defined further ah specify what July 4th or or what Akron in what state it is that we're talking about is. So if that helps you, um, so dates and places and also numbers and you should be pretty familiar with this. We set it off. Uh, we use the commonest set off each 1000 so $4500 would be four comma 505 00 The new car from India Onley costs $4500 off the showroom floor. So it's a new import from India. They're able Teoh employ less expensive labor and perhaps produced a smaller car, and so it only costs $4500. Okay, more than 65,000 fans attended the game. So notice we have 65 to represent the thousands and then the comma. And then the three zeros American Idol has been, uh, has been viewed by mawr than 30 million viewers. So 30 comma 000 comma and then 000 Okay, so we used calmest Teoh divide numbers into groups of thousands as well. So these are the miscellaneous uses off the comma. So we've come to the end of the discussion about commas. And you never thought that commas little tiny little marks could be so complicated? Well, they are, uh, remember, comma save lives as a sui saw. Let's see, Grandpa. Okay, so I hope you use a common there, your suggestion that we actually eat grandpa and ah and leave you. Um, we'll take a look at the example above that actually appeared on somebody's resume. And so my hobbies include cooking dogs, shopping, dancing, watching movies and billy dancing. So? So the cooking dogs is a little bit problematic, but we're also left confused as to whether this person likes to watch movies and watch belly dancing or whether it's watching movies and perhaps doing belly dancing. Okay, so, um, don't leave your reader confused. Use commas correctly, and, um, you'll find them very useful for a helpful in your communication. 14. Punctuation - it's the little points that make all the difference: in these last two lectures were going to take a look at punctuation. Punctuation? Are those little marks those nonverbal marks that help us navigate? Meaning in a sentence. Okay. They helped clarify Meaning, um, And to get an idea of how valuable punctuation is, take a look at the above samples of here. Okay. Ah, and the 1st 1 is not punctuated. And it doesn't seem to make much sense. It reads something like James, while John had had had, had, had, had, had, had, had, had had had, ah, better effect on the teacher. Okay, I have no idea what that means. But if you look at it punctuated, that is with commas and quotes and and and even a semicolon put in the sentence starts to make sense. So James, while John had had had had, had had hand full stop had had had had a better effect on the teacher. Okay, so So evidently Now we're talking about a, um uh, some sort of writing, uh, exam either an essay or an answer in a quiz or exercise. And the form had had that is the past perfect form of had ah had had a better effect on the teacher. Okay. Uh, James, uh, received a better Great say so. But the punctuation that makes the difference and this is what we're going to be looking at the period is the most used punctuation in English. And it indicates the end of a sentence is when we come to the period, the sentence is done. Uh, except for a couple of instances, and I'll get to that very shortly. But we see a couple of examples over here. You should not go there, period. That's a good question, period. Very often. Said when? When the speaker wishes that you hadn't asked the question. But that's another matter. Um, it's also used after abbreviations. And I have a couple of abbreviations here that show how it's used, etcetera. Mr. Reverend the Reverend Dr Martin Luther King, Mr Smith, uh, and etcetera E t c for set period. It's also used in numbers. Just indicate a decimal point. So 1.5 million light years, for instance, you see the period being used between the one in the five. So this is a period, but for the most part, it's used to indicate the completion of a sentence and that's the primary function in writing. The next Adam will come to is the semicolon. But I guess it's logical to put it here because its main function in English is, um, as which might call a junior period. Think of it as a junior period. That's its main function. Um, uh, I would call it that because it separates completely independent clauses and yet keeps them in the same sentence. And so, um, I give you a couple of examples here. Um uh, the boy hit the ball semicolon. He ran to first base. That could just as easily be written with a period. The boy hit the ball, period. He ran to first base. See, So the semi colon functions. The same is as a period in this way. Uhm, and another example that I have we waited outside the mall for seven hours in the freezing snow semi colon. The white screen TVs were sold out by the time we got in. So eso you see, you have to independent clauses with no conjunction in between. And as we learned earlier, you can't separate those with a comma, and you certainly can't just leave nothing in between them, but you could put a period there or you could put a semicolon. So in that sense, the semi colon functions as a junior period. Now I put this word of warning in because I often see this mistake in student writing. Students used a semicolon as kind of, Ah, it's kind of a comma, and that's incorrect in this sense. So take a look at the example that I have over here. The boy hit the ball semi colon, and he ran to first base. You see that those air to independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, and but you have a semi colon. Now we we know from the previous slide that, um, we can just leave out the and and just put the two independent clauses together in the same sentence, separated by a semicolon. But you cannot use the semi colon and a conjunction. Think of cynical and in this sense as a kind of conjunction. And so, just like you wouldn't say and and he ran to first base, you wouldn't say semicolon endurance first base, and the correct way to punctuate it would either be ah with just a semi colon with no end, perhaps a comma and the end or a period and no conjunction whatsoever. Another incorrect form that I mark down here is Ah. If the rain stops, semicolon will go out. So you see, we have the subordinate clause If the rain stops and then a kind of a full stop. It kind of you know that Not kind of, but the junior period. Remember, this chemical is a junior period. If the rain stops stop, uh, we'll go out. You can't do that. You have to have the comma there. If the rain stops, common will go out. So just a couple of examples of how not to use the semicolon as a comma. However, with that said, you can use a semicolon as a kind of super comma, and I'll explain how that is. The rule is that if you have interior commas that form a couple of different functions and would cause confusion used on Lee as commas, then you can use a semicolon in the place of the commas or one set of the Commons. So perhaps would be better if I actually show you an example. So read the 1st 1 the first incorrect sample over here on our trip. We stayed at the Hyatt, Atlanta, Georgia, the Meridian, New York, New York, the Ritz Carlton, London, England, the Holiday Inn, Honolulu, Hawaii to Hampton in Las Vegas, Nevada. So you see how the Commons don't really tell us where to stop, and I've got everything mixed up. But look at the example with the actual semicolons put in and you'll see that we have one. Ah, flowing sentence. One sentence and we have both commas, properly used and cynical, is to set off larger divisions. Not a major division on a full stop, but a but another kind of division. So So let me read that one. I'm under. Read the correct version now on our trip. Come, we stayed at the Hyatt comma. Atlanta, Georgia semi Colon, The Meridian, New York, New York Semi colon, The Ritz Carlton, London, England semi colon. The holiday in Honolulu, Hawaii semi colon. The Hampton in Las Vegas, Nevada. Okay, so you got that. So they So if you have interior commas used in a couple different ways and you know, usually some sort of long list, um, that would be confusing if you just use the commas. You can use the semi colon as a kind of super comma. So s so. We have two different uses for the, um, for the semi colon, and I think it's it's it's easy to remember. At least it's easy for me to communicate. And it might be easier for you to remember if you think of the semi colon fulfilling the role of either a junior period or a super comma. The colon are those two little marks, one above the other, sort of like a period with a dot above it. And this sets up something that follows. Sometimes it's a list, as in the example that I have here for this week's construction project. We need the following equipment. Ah, backhoe of forklift, a bulldozer and a skip loader. Okay, so, um, now I actually have no idea what they're going to do with all that stuff from not a construction type of guy. Um, but that's what they need. No get because I have the list there following the colon now. Ah, the colon can also set up a full sentence. Something like a semi colon does, but it But it works differently. Ah, because it Ah, the the statement has been set up by the colon, and it directly follows. So something like in reviewing your loan packet, I noticed the following is missing. You did not include the $100 application fee. Okay, so the colon sets up what follows? That's the function of the colon. Slightly different from the semi colon. Let me give you a couple more examples of the colon in use. So, um, one example is an A positive. That is something like a hyphen. It sets up something opposite the first statement. Bob cannot speak Colon. He was drunk. So, you see, so that colon establishes that what's gonna happen next is an explanation of the first statement. It could be a title. Very often. Academic papers are punctuated like this. Don fader versus Superman, colon aggression and intimacy into prieta pre adolescent boys groups. Okay, so the colon further explains the first part of the title. Um, lastly, you could have an introduction of speech. So instead of saying he said, um uh, you would have something like Benjamin Franklin proclaimed the virtue of frugality that is saving money. Quote a penny saved is a penny earned unquote. You see, So the colon sets up a speech or a quote or just Hamlet colon. There's nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so. And that's the quote that is set up by the colon. So these were some other functions of the colon. A quick note about other colon use. Um, you could use it in something like a biblical citation. John 3 16 John three Cold and 16. Ah, it's used obviously enough in time. The plane arrives at 10. 15. 10 Colon 15. He was the 10th hour in the 15th minute. Ah, and informal communication. Formal written communication, mostly in the form of letters. Very often, we don't employ it in e mails. Those are kind of a different format, but, um, something like to whom it may concern. Very formal. Ah, vague address with the colon. Or, dear Mr Smith. A colon you wouldn't write. Um ah, Colon, if you're writing a letter to your grandma Jo. Grandma Colon. That look weird. You probably use a common there, but, um um uh, but in formal correspondence, you would use the colon. We have a few different uses for the hyphen. That's that Dash that single dash. Um and we see from the examples that ah, you use want one of the areas that you use. The hyphen is where you have two words that form a single modifier. As if the two words were a single adjective, such as in the example Ah, a one way street. You notice that one way is really one idea. It z essentially one word or word um, reverted to the irritating air quotes and, um, chocolate covered peanuts. Okay, so the chocolate covered ah is a single adjective that modifies peanuts. And so we create and, um uh a single word, uh, with the hyphen and a well known author that, well known is a single idea that's modifying. Author now noticed that these compound modifiers are not hyphenated. If they are what's called predicated, it's Broadway only goes one way or goes on Lee one way. Sorry. Broadway goes only one way. No hyphen. The Penis were chocolate covered. No hyphen. The author was well known no hyphen. So if if the two word phrases being used as a modifier for now that is, it becomes before the noun then you use the hyphen. But if it comes after the verb Azzan, the author was well known. There's no hyphen. Okay, so and then the next couple slides. Slides will take a look at some other uses for the hyphen. There's a few other places that we use a hyphen. We use them in compound numbers such as 46 or 63. That's when we were writing the numbers out, and letters were spelling the words out there, spending the number words out. Ah, you use them in prefixes such as ex husband, Self assured mid September. So you could use the, um, hyphen in that case and what's called phrase announce so as such as brother in law or attorney at law. You see, So the brother in law, an attorney at Law and Step Father, they're actually one word, and we're forming a compound word and we're joining the compounds together with hyphens. There is one of the place that you'd use the hyphen, and that's to avoid confusion, um, or to avoid an awkward combination of letters. So, for instance, uh, if you wanted to re sign a petition that a sign it petition again you see, you would use thehyperfix. Um, this would be different from to resign from a job. So noticed the spelling. The letters are exactly the same, but we distinguish between the two. Ah, by using a hyphen in the first case to re sign the petition and the re in this case would be a prefix. Wouldn't Uh um you would say over you would write semi independent Ah, because the semi the I in the semi would run into the eye and independent and you have two eyes and that would be very awkward and, um and so eso so you would have the semi independent, um, but using the same prefix you would write semiconscious. Now, a variation of this is the word cooperates. Sometimes the word cooperate is spelled with the hyphen, and sometimes it's spelled without so you see, so the rule isn't absolute, but but But it's a good rule of thumb. Uhm, and another letter confusion combination might be in a word, like shell like Ah ah, you see how we have the two l's and shell and then the one l and like and so they run together and they confused the I, And and so the hyphen becomes very helpful and reading, um, this compound word. So this is another area in which would use the hyphen. The question mark might be self explanatory. Um, it marks a question. Um, it comes after a direct question. He asked quote, Is this the way to Tipperary? That's what he actually said. Is this the way to Tipperary? And even in our Internation, we lift our voices most of the times we lift our voices. Is this the way to Tipperary? Okay, um, when we ask a question, um and it also marks questions that are not in quotation marks. Ah, such as? And the sentence that we have over here. The example. Sentence. One question remains for humanity. Will we ever know a planet without war? Will we ever know a planet without war? So that's a question. Albeit perhaps in a rhetorical question. That is a question. Um, that does not require an answer, is not looking for an answer, but actually in the way, makes a statement, but nevertheless a question and is marked with a question mark at the end of it. Ah, but the question is not used after a direct and indirect quote such as he asked, Is this the way to Tipperary? He asked whether this is the way to Tipperary. Asked if this is the way to Tipperary, you see, that's an indirect quote. That's not the exact words the person is actually making. A statement about the question that he asked. So the question mark is not used after, Um Ah, this type of indirect questioner in direct quote. And there's one other note that you might make about the question mark is that it doesn't always end the sentence such as the period does. Ah, if Risen's you have the ah, a rephrasing of the first item. Is this the way to Tipperary? He asked. That he asked, would remain inside that sentence, you see, so in. And as I illustrate, right here, um, you wouldn't begin a new sentence that he asked that attribution of the question or the quote. Ah would still be part of the sentence. The exclamation point, which is the the, uh, the the straight line with the dot under it, Or maybe the period under it. Eyes used after an interjection or an exclamation as its name implies or some sort of dramatic statement. So we have a couple of examples over here. I'll stop that. The lion roared. Eso eso all these air exclamations or dramatic statements. Um, note that like the question. It doesn't necessarily end the sentence. So if I use it in a quote, such a stop that he screamed the he screamed would be part of this sentence. Ah, that contains the quote. Stop that so But it can in the sentence. It is a final punctuation point. Give need be the quotation mark or marks are used to indicate a number of different things . The first being a quote. Ah, a quotation. That is, Ah, when you are repeating something that somebody said, Or perhaps you're writing a story and you were giving dialogue off what One of the characters said or purportedly said So, um so in direct quotes, as as it indicates over here, Confucius said, Everything has beauty, but not everyone sees it. Okay, so we put the exact words of the person in quotes and note that in American English, the period goes inside the quotes in British English. The period would go outside the courts. Okay, So, um, it's also used to mark titles of short stories, articles, Journal magazine, newspaper articles and poems. So Faulkner's Will involved in a short story rose for Emily would be put inside. Quotes. John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale would be put inside courts. It's the title of a poem, Um and, ah, the title off a, uh, newspaper Rosemount High. Ah makes the playoffs. Eso That's a newspaper article, the sports paper pages of the newspaper. And then sometimes you would mark slang or colloquial language. Ah, in ah, with quotes when you're using that, that slang word or the colloquial language. And ca local, of course, refers to everyday speech, but not formal. But you're using that in a full piece of formal writing. So eso you do not use slang or colloquial language in formal writing except if you put it in quotes. And so, um uh, so if you're writing some sort of essay for, uh, for school and you write something like he said, the movie was, quote the bomb, okay, and and the bomb would be slang term, not formal. Um, and it's not literally a bomb. Okay, it's ah, you're using it as a slaying term, and the bomb means something special, and you're marking that specialness with the quotes. The word parentheses comes from the word from the Greek that means to place alongside. Ah, and this is what it does. It allows us the place explanatory material or an aside, that is a dye aggression from the main point inside a sentence. And I've listed over here a few of the most commonly used examples in which this happened. So first, uh, we might consider the aside something that's not in the main course of the discourse, but adds to it in one way or another, so so we can read the first item. Ah, he blamed me for what happened that long, hot night in August, although it wasn't all my fault. You see said, although it wasn't all my fault, offer some sort of digression or explanation to the main statement. Another way that the parentheses can be used is to offer a definition or explanation of an item. Eso Winston Churchill was occasionally beset by what he called his black dog a very deep depression. So, you know, in prophecies, we have a very deep depression. It offers a definition of of the black dog. OK, eso eso That's another way that the parentheses can be used. And another way is in numbered items. If you just have a list and you want a number, items use parentheses to self the numbers. And so we see the example over here. Um, there are two reasons your plan will not work. Number one or one in prince ceased its prohibitive cost two in parentheses. The opposition from stakeholders. Okay, so just serves Teoh, uh, help anouma rate items in a list. Sometimes way also used the, um, parentheses to introduce acronyms or abbreviations. And this is a useful tool informal writing, Because very often, what you do is you give the whole name of an organization, for instance, and then you put in parentheses, the abbreviation that you'll use throughout the rest of the paper. And so we have an example here, um, the data collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation parentheses, FBI So from now on, I'm going to refer to this is the FBI for its crime reports is considered to be accurate. So So now, even though you know what the FBI is and um I just use this for an example, okay. And citations. So if you're doing a research paper on their certain types of, um, styles certain styles that used what's called perent parenthetical citations in text, Parent technical citation. We see an example here. This would be an example from an M l. A style paper. So you have a quote. Ah, happy families are all like every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. And then you have the close quote. So that's the quoted material. And then where did that come from? Well, we have that information given in the parentheses between the two parentheses in this case would be Tolstoy, Page four. Okay, so I so those are some of the uses of the parentheses which places material alongside of the main material, which places supplementary material alongside the main material in a body of text. Another use for quotes. It's all we call this scare quotes. And here I have a picture of one of the most frightening things I can think of a clown. So, um, uh, the square scare quotes refer to when you're using a word, not in its normal meaning. It's already I'm tryingto shift the meaning of the word, the meaning that you imply sometimes unconventional, ironic or even the opposite. Off the d notation of the word the dictionary definition of the word A couple examples that we have here are something like it's a hang out for the very rich only the they asked. People go there, you see. So even in speech, I kind of overemphasized the word. And so, you know, I don't really mean that they're the best people. They're the best people. They think that the best are or they're the best by virtue of their money but nothing else . Ah Ah, Another thing. I mean, you might have heard your grandpa say something like, I don't understand the music these kids listen to know days, you know? So you know, when grandpa says music, you know, he doesn't really mean that he considers it music. Just noise is not music eso in. But that's an example of scare quotes when you're using a word to mean something other than its normal meaning or dictionary definition meaning and sometimes you're even using it to mean the opposite off. It's dictionary definition. Sometimes people use scare quotes mistakenly or in a wrong manner. And you can't even quite figure out what it is that they mean. Because remember the scare courts are supposed to mean, uh, supposed to indicate a meaning that's opposite of of of what the word might really indicates. So, you know, So if you see something like, please do not use staples for posting on the bulletin board, You go. So does that mean you want me to use staples or cheeseburgers and fries? Yeah. It's not really a cheeseburger. It's something else. Ah, enjoy. Okay. Okay. So you don't really want me to enjoy it, huh? Um, or don't play with fire. So I should play fire, or we will be closed on Christmas, you know? So the so called Christmas, you call it Christmas, But it's really something else. And, you know, I mean, just totally confusing. And, uh, yeah, and and And you see a lot of this Sometimes people make signs and such as this one example that I found on the internet fumigation our prices, So they're not really your prices and not really our price. I think there's somebody else's prices. We will not be undersold. Not so. That means you will be undersold. I mean, you know, because not if you put not in quotes like that. It means that it has some other meaning or free photo termite inspection. So it's not really a photo inspection. It's your just calling it a photo inspection or you're using the term photo ironically, and you see, it's totally confusing to anybody who's literate. That is. So use scare quotes correctly and don't use them just randomly. You do not use quotation launch toe Emphasize Something's OK, so be careful or I should say, Be careful. So the last item of punctuation that I'll discuss in this Latino lecture we have one more electron punctuation. But the last one I will discuss here and now will be what's called the ellipsis locate and the ellipsis are those three little dots that you see from time to time. And I mean a couple different things. One is if you're, um uh writing a story. Ah, you might have somebody say on the murderer waas. So it might indicate a ah ah a trailing off the end of his speech. Maybe that's the time that the detective is shocked or something like that. Or there's a There's a shot in another room of the mansion. Everybody goes running off before the, uh, before the ah, the person who done it can be revealed. Um, another, ah way that the ellipsis is used is when you are quoting something exactly. But you don't want to quote all the words you. So you leave a gap between, you know, the, um one part of the quote and the other part, and that's in Ah, uh, that could be seen in the example that I have here The quote. It was the best of times, the worst of times, as I've left something out there. Now you have to be careful not to change the meaning of the phrase. And so, for instance, if you're quoting, um, former President Richard Nixon, who was driven from office for various forms of malfeasance and he said once said famously , I am not a corrupt, I'm not a quirk said something like that. Um uh, if you quoted that and wrote, I'm Doc, Doc Doc, a crook. Um, well, you might be literally accurate, but but you ah, would be incorrect. As far as the quote goes, because you've changed the meaning of what the person said. And one of the way that the ellipsis might be used is in the form of a what's called a pregnant pause. Ah, so this is an attempt to replicate a rhythm of speech. And so you might have a Dracula character or a vampire. Characters say something like, I never drink wine, you see. So if I said that correctly, I don't know. But you know, But you have the dot, dot, dot to indicate sinisterly ah that he might be thinking He does drink blood, but he never drinks wine, you see, so something like that, right? So eso those or how the ah, the ellipsis is used. So remember, punctuation is something like the musical notation that helps us give meaning to the sentence, because sometimes the words by themselves do not convey meaning or don't convey unambiguous meaning. Ah, such as in the example that we have above here, um, woman without her man is nothing, because what does that mean? Well, it could mean a number of different things, and I have two examples here, and it's the punctuation that clarifies exactly what meaning is meant. So the 1st 1 woman without her man is nothing. In other words, Ah, woman is nothing without a man attached to her. Okay, so you see. But it's the It's the punctuation, the commas that frame off the without her man as a a za proposition. All phrase, uh, we should recognize that now is a prepositional phrase that gives meaning to that sentence . However, if we wrote it, Woman without her man is nothing. And that's the second example. So, uh, that's woman Colon without her man is nothing. So a man is nothing without a woman. So you see two entirely different meanings, and it's the punctuation that gives those sentences meanings. So that's how powerful and important punctuation is. 15. Putting sentences together: in this section, we're going to be speaking about how we build more complicated sentence structures more complicated than some of the examples that I've been giving. The cat sat on the mat on the mailman bit the dog, the type sentences were going to be looking at how we, ah, use a process called subordination and coordination, um, to build more complicated sentence structures. And much of this has to do with the use of conjunctions. And if you remember from the schoolhouse rock video that we took a look at when we discuss parts of speech um, you'll remember that. Ah, conjunctions join words such as, you know, we bought beer and pizza. They joined phrases after the game, but before the party, those are phrases we talked to Sergio or whole clauses, that is Ah ah, parts of the sentence that could be sentences by themselves. The 40 Niners won the game last night, so they're headed for the playoffs. You be okay. So, um, this is what we're gonna be speaking about in this lesson. So let's go forward. The two different kinds of conjunctions, the coordinating conjunction, that in the subordinating conjunctions let me explain what words mean because understanding those will help us understand what it is that these conjunctions do within a sentence. First, the word coordinating co means to work Ah, in or perform in conjunction with or in partnership or on an equal level with something and ordinator means to put into order. So to coordinate means to put in order on an equal basis. Ah, subornation, on the other hand, has to do with again ordination putting an order. But the sub comes from a word that that means below, as in the submarine, not the sandwich, but the but the vessel that we see here, the yellow submarine vessel that goes under the water. So Ah, those were the two types of conjunctions, the coordinating conjunctions and the sub ordinating conjunctions. And they link um parts of the sentence together in various ways that will explore as we go forward. Let's take a look at the coordinating junctions or as the pneumonic device frame to help us remember just what they are. The Fanboys. Ah, this word the Fanboys stands for four and nor but or yet or so and these are conjunctions air used. When the ideas that we have to express, or of roughly equal weight of equal importance. Uh, but we don't use all of the coordinating conjunctions with equal frequency. The most used, at least in American English are and but or and Or and but and or and sometimes to a lesser extent so, nor is usually used in a more specialized way, as in neither nor neither he nor I ah ah was satisfied with the outcome of the game. Neither did I want to go out. Nor did I really feel like going to bed early. Use easy event neither nor construction and in American English, yet is not used that much. It's roughly synonymous with word, but which is used, at least in American English much more frequently. But let's go on, and we'll take a look specifically at each one of these items and see how it's used in our sentences. The first coordinating conjunction that will take a look at it is the word for now. First, we should understand that this four is not the four. As in, uh, I bought these flowers for you as much as I would like to, um, it's the four that indicates a cause and effect relationship and in American English, for the most part, we would use the word because okay, so but it indicates a cause and effect relationship, as in the diagram below. Ah, we jumped in the pool. We got wet, we got wet. Four. We jumped in the pool. We got wet because we jumped in the pool. So we have that type of relationship that cause and effect relationship that's indicated by the word four. Another example that we have over here is it is impossible to see the road in front of us for the fog was so thick or the example above, it was the best of times. Four. We were happy in our love because we were happy in our love. So I hope you see that idea that's expressed by this coordinated conjunction the coordinating conjunction and simply adds parts together either clauses or or phrases or words such as in the example that I have over here. It was the age of wisdom, and it was the age of foolishness. Adapted from the novel by Charles Dickens, Um, the dog barked and the moment ran away. Now know here that the usage implies it kind of cause and effect. Why did the middleman Randall run away? Because the dog bark. So So even in just simply adding parts together, sometimes we can imply a mawr ah, complicated arrangement than just adding them or stacking them up or lining them up. A sequel. Unrelated parts. But generally, that's what the word and does. It expresses an additive nature of the elements in your sentence. Nor is a coordinating conjunction that adds and negative. That's not an oxymoron. And I hope that makes sense. It adds a negative. It was neither the age of belief, nor was at the age of disbelief again adapted from, um, Charles Dickens. Great. Not well, Tell it to cities. Um, another example would be that we have over here. Neither is John a good dancer. Nor is Lydia a good dancing instructor. So we see we have two negatives there. Another way to phrase it might be I don't like being woken up early in the morning, Nor do I appreciate somebody banging on my door in the middle of the night. So we have this double negative here that ah ah, that nor expresses the coordinating conjunction, but creates a kind of an opposition very often between ah, uh, an event and our expectations of the event. Um, so we expected him to come through force, but he let us down. We wanted to play outside, but it was raining. The boy hit the ball, but it went foul. So you see, we have this opposition this contradiction here. Ah, that Ah, that but manages the coordinating injunction or presents us with mutually exclusive alternatives. You either pass the test or you didn't. You can't have done both. It's either one or the other. You can have cake or you can have pie. I'm afraid you can't have both. Can't be a piggy about this. Either one or the other. Somebody has to work Saturday, either John or Sally, you see? So I need somebody to work Saturday. Ah, So you guys decide whether it's John Orr's Sally? Not both of you. OK, but one does. Okay, so that's what or does. It presents us with a choice between them. So So you see, it's somewhat different from, uh and because and adds them. So if I said, uh, I need John and Sally toe work Saturday, then both of them would have to work Saturday. But I need John or Sally to work Saturday. I just have one. So or presents us with mutually exclusive alternatives. The coordinating conjunction yet is very often replaced in American English, at any rate, by the word but by the coordinating conjunction. But, um, so as a conjunction, it's used in the sense of it was a dreary day. Yet for some reason I was strangely happy, you see, So we set up in opposition the same with words. But though much more common in American English would be the phrasing. It was a jury day, but for some reason I was strangely happy. So there's nothing wrong with using it. You're just not that common in American English. Over, I will note as an aside, sometimes as ah conductive adverb, it is used in American English. So, for instance, according to the example that I have over here yet, such things do happen. So using it as a conjunction adverb at the beginning of a sentence is perhaps much more comment in American English, then its use in the middle of a sentence as a conjunction. So we come to the last of the coordinating conjunctions. So, um so expresses a logical extension. Okay, so it could mean in order that each of broccoli, so you may have dessert in order that you may have dessert. Okay, study hard in school so you can get a good job after you graduate in order that you can get a good job after you graduate. Okay. Ah, it also expresses the idea of with the result for the reason. Therefore, an idea like that. I wanted a book, so I went to the library. The little boy ate the whole pie, so he got sick. So it it also expresses Theo idea of their four or with the result. Okay, so that's the last of the coordinating conjunctions. Ah, there is a ah, and exercise, uh, attached to this lesson on the coordinating injunctions and the subordinating conjunctions which I will discuss starting in the next slide. So now we come to the subordinating conjunctions. And remember the subordinating conjunctions are those conjunctions that ah, well, they subordinate, which means they put lower in order of importance. They support the main idea of the sentence. They are not part of the main idea. The sentence, which is what the coordinating conjunctions do. Okay, so now we see the list Here on, we have the ah pneumonic device with web. It's OK, and this helps us remember just what the's are. So just like we learned Fanboys for the coordinating joins us, the weapons help us remember the subordinating conjunctions. And please don't be too distracted by the little bouncing rabbit up there. But we have words like when? Wherever. Where? Ah, while, although after as as though for be because And before for I if ifs a big one. Okay, very, very often used the tea for till or until for though Also used is old though, And the s percent, sir. So that so? Um so these are the subordinating conjunctions Now what these do is they communicate logical connections and so conjunctions just don't willy nilly. Naval things together joined things together. They show logical connections between parts of speech. So they indicate times such as when, while the indicator reasons such as because or so that they indicate Ah, concession. Such as although right, it's good. So these are what the subordinating conjunctions do now? Ah, in the text. You'll see a complete list and you can study those and and and learned those. But But now let's go on and we'll take a look at some specific examples off the types of logical connections that the subordinating conjunctions facilitate. Now we're going to look at the way in which the subordinating conjunctions form logical connections. And so the list over here shows us some of the, um, time indicators that subordinating conjunctions form Eso ah, for example, is always darkest before the sun rises. Always freshest after it rains. Or while I was outside working in the yard, he was inside watching the football game on TV and drinking beer. Great. But he he is, isn't it? Now, one thing that this last example offers us too is that we can see that the subordinating conjunctions allow the subordinate clause to come before the main clause guys. So with the coordinating conjunctions, the Fanboys, the conjunction has to come between the two clauses. The boy hit the ball and he ran to first base, wouldn't make any sense to say. And he the boy hit the ball. He ran to first base. Okay, so that wouldn't make sense. But you can have such a construction with the subordinate conjunctions, you can have the subordinating conjunction and the subordinate clause come first. And then after that, the main clause. So since the zombies attacked you, see, that's the subordinate flaws. I just have not been myself another meaning that, um, the subordinate conjunctions provide force is a relationship of cause and effect. So, for instance, in the sentences here we see ah, such an example as it was impossible to see the road in front of us because the fog was so thick or you'll see the alternative possibility since the fog was so thick. Though, of course, this is a different usage of the word or different meaning of the word. Since then, we saw above in which it was used to reference time. And here it's too used reference. The reason why something is, um uh, and and another such word Why? I wonder why the vampires hate where wolf so much Can we all just get along? So see So, um uh, so these words indicate some sort of cause and effect, some sort of reason why something is, and that's another usage of the, um a certain class of the subordinate conjunctions. The supporting junctions also communicate the conditional the if on, and it uses several different words to communicate this, the first of which being, of course, if if all the polar ice melts, the seas will rise and my desert property will become beach front and ah, have a very attractive beachfront property s. So don't promise me anything unless you really intend to keep your word See? So that's the condition. Um, I will love you till all the seas go dry from a Robert Burns poem. I'm going whether you like it or not. Whether you see so thes their words that communicate some sort of condition being attached to the main clause, the subordinating junctions also communicate place and man, or such as again with the example Ah, sit where we like or the escaping POW hit in the deserted old house where the enemy soldiers would never think to look. Or he was telling me all that as if I really cared or as though I really quick cared So so these communicate place and manner the last category meanings that we will look at for the subordinating injunction will be that of what we might call concession, such as and again with The examples were here. Although I usually like Brad Pitts acting, I did not think this was a particularly strong performance or while Guantanamo soup was delicious, the Peking duck was really bad, and note here that the usage of the word while is different from what we used before. It, while can refer to time. Ah, while it was raining, we stayed inside and played Parcheesi. See, Ah, here the while has a meaning close to that of old, though, and and you could also use by word phrase such as even though, so this is the concession aspect of the subordinating consumption. We've reached the last segment of this lesson in the, uh, coordinating and subordinating conjunctions on The last thing we want to look at is the difficulties of sentences that we can construct using these devices. And so in the pages that follow and the slides that follow, I will be touching on the four different patterns of sentences that arise from these elements. The first sentence that will look at will be the simple sentence this sentence as its name implies, does not have any kind of complications. It's, ah, a single independent flaws such as the boy hit the ball, a mom called Tommy to dinner. I hear birds singing, going, Ah, this is a sentence that does not employ any of the conjunctions because it doesn't have any other clauses attached, though, as the example indicates, though, um, it can have such phrases as a proposition phrase as the marathon Iran through the woods. And we haven't looked at what a prepositional phrases yet, but we will. But, um, it can have phrases in it, but no other clauses besides the main independent clause. So that's the simple sentence. It has one subject, which is either a noun, a pronoun or a noun phrase, and one predicated that is one active verb. Acting as the verb of the sentence, the compound sentences formed of two independent clauses, joined by a coordinated conjunction that is one of the Fanboys, Um, so we have sentences like Mom called Tommy and he ran home. The boy hit the ball and the crowd cheered. You see, so each one of those sections, each one of those independent clauses, could stand as a sentence by itself. So the boy hit the ball. Could be a sentence. The crowd cheered. Could be a sentence. Um, and and of course, all the other Fanboys could be employed, such as The ball flew far into left field comma, but it was caught so it was caught. Could also be a sentence. So this is an example of a compound sentence. It's putting complete sentences together using one of the Fanboys, the complex sentence forms of sentence exactly like what we're looking at with the subordinating conjunctions above. So it uses all of those, uh, rabbits, all the subordinating conjunctions. So So we have examples such as you understand that the president does not control the economy or when the warm winds of April drive away the cold of winter receive flowers springing up in all the fields. So when the warm winds of April, that's the subordinate applause. That's the dependent flaws. And And we could go through all the all the Web. It's all this subordinating, conjunctions and form example sentences. If, for instance, uh, if the rain stops, we'll go on a picnic. Um, when, uh when the rain stops, we will go on a picnic or, um, when I was young, I used to wrestle on the college wrestling team. Actually did is great fun. Um, eso We could use all of those subordinating conjunctions to form a complex sentence, which is one subordinate clause and one independent flaws. Okay, so and again, note that the subordinate loss income, either at the beginning. Ok, um although I usually love to watch movies, I don't feel like it tonight. Okay, although, okay. Or, um, uh I stayed home while my wife went out shopping. So while my wife went out, shopping would be the subordinate clause there. Okay, Right. So that's the complex sentence. The compound complex sentence combines the various elements that we've talked about before . It combines a, um a pair of, ah, simple sentences game, the each one of which has a, um uh, subject verb relationship is subject critic. It really realized, chipped in forming a compound sentence. Hence the compound. Ah, part of the name. And it has a complex part and that it has also a subordinate, Klaus joined by a subordinating conjunctions. So we see that it will have the, um, one of the coordinating conjunctions and one of the subordinating conjunctions at least I mean, it can be much longer. In fact, some sentences are very much longer. So the example that we have here is the sentence. I went shopping on Black Friday, but I did not get anything, although I had hoped to buy a widescreen TV. So So you see, we have the coordinating conjunction, but and the subordinated conjunction, although and this kind of construction, of course, as I said, it's called a compound complex sentence. So that wraps up this lesson and we've certainly learned a lot. I believe we've learned about coordination and subordination. We've learned about the conjunctions that we used to form these relationships between parts of sentences, the coordinating conjunctions and the subordinating or the fan boys in the lab. It's We've learned the different kinds of sentences that are formed in these relationships by these conjunctions. And, um, I want to thank you for sticking with it. Ah, this has been quite a quite an excursion through the formation of sentences, and you're to be commended for it. Now, please do take a look at the text. You can use that to Ah, refresh your knowledge and review and have notes full notes about what we've gone through year and as well Try the, um, test your knowledge exercises that are invaluable in your solidifying your learning. So that's it for now. Thank you very much. I'll see you next. 16. Don't be passive : I'm going to speak briefly about another kind of sentence sentence that I haven't dealt with. Its what's known as the passive voice is first note that is the passive with the V, not the past, as in the past tense, something that happened yesterday or last year or 100 years ago. Eso is not the past tense, but the passive voice Now. First, let me remind you of the pattern that we have been discussing. The pattern we've been discussing has been that of subject object verb. The boy hit the bowl. Mary baked a cake. Come, the dog chased the car. So that's the normal or canonical Um uh, pattern in the English language called the Active Voice. There's another pattern that is equally possible, and that's we're going to be discussing for just a couple minutes. This other kind of sentence is called the Passive Voice Sentence, and it follows the pattern of something was done by somebody. So I'm gonna give you a couple of different examples. Ah, first in the active voice and then the passive voice, and you can start to see how the form changes between the two. So the normal form and then using the airports again. Many people saw the ad for the new computer or in the passive voice. The ad for the new computer was seen by many people. Um, maybe less complicated. Our team won the game versus in the passive voice. The game was won by our team. Okay, so start to see the pattern there and the next slide, I'm going to show you a little diagram and show you what happens to the various parts of the sentence and the rearrangement, as it were, from the active voice to the passive. Please. Here, I'm gonna break it down a little bit more. So hopefully we can see what's going on in the shift from the active voice to the past, the voice. So again, remember, in the active voice, we have the order of the subject than the verb than the object. So in the sentence, the very simple sentence the boy, it's the ball. The boy is the actor, the person place or thing who's performing the action. And then the verb comes and that's to hit the verb it In the past tense, the boy hit. And what do the boy hit the boy hit the balls. The ball is receiving the action. It is the object of the verb, however, in the passive voice and and we can see little crisscross. I've drawn here what happens to the parts of the sentence. The ball who is receiving the action crosses over to become the subject of the sentence. The ball was hit by the boy and then the actor of the action. The boy uh who's performing the action becomes the object of the preposition called the object of the proposition. Usually the privilege proposition by. So that's usually the form used in the past, the voice and the and the verb takes. The form of was hit is hit is being It has been hit. It takes that kind of form. Okay, so we have this kind of crisscross, um being performed here in the transfer from the active voice to the passive voice. One thing to note about the past the voice is that in this form, the subject that is Thea, actor of the action may disappear altogether. So, for instance, when you were a kid and you're playing and you have your friends over and you're all playing inside the house, maybe a rainy day or something. Um, and from the other room, your mother heard a big crash, some things being smashed, and she went in and found her favorite vase in pieces all over the floor. And she asked what what happened? And very cleverly his Children are. You said the vase was knocked off the table, so you notice how in use in the past, the voice you would have managed to avoid saying who precisely knocked the vase off the table? Well, that's what the past voice allows you to do. I give you an illustration as to why English language culture doesn't like the best voice. For one thing, our culture likes to ascribe responsibility, either blame or credit to particular actions. Um, in the passive voice, kind of, for that reason, is a favorite of politicians and very often business people who don't want responsibility for particular actions ascribed to them. So here's a story. Many years ago, Ah, long time before a lot of you can remember some of you you might be around my age might remember this, Um, when Richard Nixon was driven for office for essentially running a burglary operation out of the White House in what was called the Watergate scandal. Well, before he was forced to resign, he tried to explain what had happened. That uh huh, essentially actions that were inexplicable, um, and inexcusable that he was using the power of the presidency. Teoh Ah, to recruit a team of essentially burglars to burglarize various offices of political opponents and obtain private information. So in a So he tried to explain this and he said mistakes were made so notice that he didn't say I made mistakes. You didn't say I really messed up, you know, it's my fault. I take the blame. He said mistakes were made there, kind of made. They're out there and they were kind of made. And we're not gonna talk about who made the mistakes or whose judgment was at fault here. We don't need to go into that. They're just just their mistakes never kind of made that kind of developed in this cloud this amorphous cloud Anyway, So eso you see where I'm going with this? Uh, we're not very fond of that type of speech. That type of language uses that obfuscates the the actor and responsibility. Keep in mind that language is Aziz. Much part of culture as it is. Code is not just code to communicate, but breathe. Express our culture in language and their something about English language culture, at least American English language culture that is not terribly fond of the past. The voice. In fact, you know, many, many writing guides will tell you you should not use the passive voice or at least not used it frequently. Um, sometimes, however, you have reason to use it. So, for instance, if I were showing you a baseball that I had acquired that had been hit out of the park by Babe Ruth many, many years ago, I might say this poll. Imagine I'm holding a baseball right here. This ball was hit out of the park by eight route. Um, so you see, was hit out of the park by Babe Ruth. That's the passive construction, and I use that construction because I want to emphasize ah, the aspect of the bowl. That's most important. So there are valid reasons to use the passive voice. Unless you have such a valid reason, you should avoid it. If for no other reason not because of the bad construction, but because there is a lot in our culture of language that does not like it. So I hope this is helpful in clarifying this aspect of the English sentence we're going to go on. But before we do, you might want to take the test, your knowledge exercise. That's Ah, that's attached to this particular lecture just to make sure that you have a firm grasp of the passive sentence. 17. What goes into making a complete sentence: tense. We talked about words in the previous lesson in terms of the parts of speech and what words do. And they have meanings either in and of themselves. Or they provide linkages with with other words. They help us combine words of groups of words. But by themselves, words don't have meaning or their meaning is not complete. For instance, if I said train, you might ask, What about the train? Is a train coming? Ah, is she going to take a trip on a train? Does she like trains? Does you want me to look at the train? Uh, does you want me to train her dog? Does You want me to train for the big game? You see so words by themselves Ah, have a meaning that is inconclusive, ambiguous, incomplete, so on. And that's why we need the sentence. The sentence is a unit of meaning that helps us convey our complete thoughts. So you might ask yourself, Why is sentenced? Why do we have to know what it's sentences? Well, the conventional definition of a sentence is that it conveys the complete thought. It contains a complete doc, though that's not a good technical definition. it will do for the moment, and we'll get to more specific definitions later. I think back on my train. Example earlier. Uh, it's bad enough if somebody doesn't spell out there complete thought in speech. But if they don't, at least you can go back and ask, What about the train? You know, what are you trying to tell me about the train? You know, Please tell me more, but in writing where all you have are those little black marks on a piece of paper or on the computer screen or whatever color you choose to make it a roar. But but all you have are the letters that you write down and the words and the combination of words, that's all. There's no going back and asking for further information so you're writing will be much less effective, much more less intelligible, much less clear if you don't learn to write in complete sentences. So that's why we're going to be discussing what the sentence is and how to effectively use it. Sentences are necessary. They're necessary in business and in academic writing. One reason is very practical. That's the convention. Those are the rules of the game In academic writing, your instructors, your professors will grade you down if you do not write in complete sentences in business writing as well, you lead a confusion customers or or so put them off because they think that they're dealing with somebody who doesn't know how to write properly in the language or what's considered proper. Ah, and in general, you very well run the risk if you don't use complete sentences off coming across as illiterate and not very intelligent. So that's why we need to know what a sentences. So what a complete sentence. Sometimes these or similar definitions are offering that a sentence is a way to express yourself. It's a group of words that makes this statement. It's a group of words that begins with a capital letter ends with period or some other form of punctuation ending punctuation. It's a group of words that includes a subject or a bourbon or one of the most popular and one that I was taught when I was younger is the sentence is a complete thought. Well, these are all partly true and true in the kind of a vague and general way, but they're not really helpful in that they're testable in that we can look at our writing and actually tell whether we've written a, um, sentence or not. So ah, at this we go forward and just next couple slides, we're going to discuss how we can tell whether we have indeed written a complete sentence. One issue with these is that they don't want to define what is a sentence versus what is a not sentence again used. It was irritating air quotes. Um, take the last definition, for example, sentence to find as a complete thought. It's true in a way, but not a good definition, because it's inexact. What is complete mean? Um, so here's someone just were to step on your toe and you yelled, Ouch! Ah, you could argue that's a sentence because it's your complete dot. At the moment, you don't think anything else, but it's not a sentence. So we need some other type of definition for what? It's sentences, and that's what we're going Teoh get at. In another way. The question of a complete thought fails us as the definition of a sentence. Sometimes, for instance, I'll give my students a sentence, such as the cat sat on the mat and asked whether that's complete sentence or not. And some students will say it's not a complete sentence because they want more information . What color was the cat? What kind of man was at what time of day was it? Where was Were there any other animals in the room? So Ah, so you can have something that is a complete sentence, though it might not satisfy all your particular requirements for information. So what is a sentence? Well, the fact is that a sentence could be defined quite objectively. Uh, there three requirements for sentence and those are a subject which is either a noun pronoun or a noun phrase. And I'm gonna be explaining all of these a predicament, which is a verb acting in a particular way in the sentence. Um, not just any verb, but a very particular kind of burb or fulfilling a particular role in the sentence and what's called an independent clause. So three requirements. And once we learned, those will be able to tell immediately whether a group of words is a sentence or not. So the first requirement of a sentence is that the sentence have a subject. And this is not that the sentence has to be about something as in the subject with roses, a name of ah, 19 sixties era play and film. Ah, but that there is a person, place or thing. Remember the noun or the pronoun that takes his place, a person, place or thing that is doing something. Ah, and awkward is this might sound as funny as it might sound is doing the doing that the verb is doing. So there's a verb attached to that person place to think so. And I have some examples here, and you can look over at at the examples. Um, the cat sat on the mat. So here we have this sentence again, were very involved with cats. Um, the cat said on the map, you see? So what is the cat doing? The cats sitting okay. Ah, the boy hit the ball. What did the boy do? He hits the ball disease. So that's the subject of the verb. Uh, the dog barked. What does the dog do? Well, the dog bark, you see. So it's the It's the person place or thing that's doing the doing that the verb is describing. Okay. Ah, now, not on. Not always Does the verb have to be an action for? But as I talked about Tom likes action movies. Okay? He likes them, you see, So there's no movement involved in in that verb. But Tom is the subject of the verb. I thought I did well on the test. The teachers taught otherwise, but I thought I did well, you see, So I is the subject. And what is I doing? Well, I am thinking, OK, or I thought, OK, so that's the subject. It's the requirement. Ah, number one of a sentence. And at the end of this whole lesson, of course, there's a text in attached and you can read that. But also, you have the opportunity Teoh test your, uh, your acquisition of this knowledge by taking a short quiz. And if you remember back to our brief explanation of Buddha verb, does um remember that a verb can also express not only action, but a state of being. And so the subject of a sentence could be being expressed in a state of being. So, for instance, again looking over at the examples, I could say scout is a golden retriever Scout would be the subject of the sentence. She seems to be a nice dog, and she would be the subject. Or Fred is light Fred being the subject of the verb to be. Joanna is tall, Joanna being the subject. And ah, Pedro looks very efficient, you know? So so these are the expressions of a state of being, and the noun that is attached to the verb is the subject of the sentence. The second requirement is that the sentence contained a predicate, or, as you might know, it a verb. But I like to use the word predicated because it is the, um, definition of the verb acting in a particular way and in particular relationship with the other words in this sentence. Um, a sentence can have more than one verb, but but not all of them are the beaver off the sentence. So I hope that's clear in one way or another. And as you go forward, it will become more clear. It the predicate is the verb, acting in a particular role in the sentence. So you might think of the main verb off the sentence. It's the doing that the subject of the sentence is doing OK. So So for instance, in the examples that we have the cat sat on the mat. Well, we talked about the cat being the subject. What is the cat doing? The cat is sitting. The cat sat. The soldier raised the flag again. The soldier is raising the flags with raising the flag is what the soldier is doing. So we see this relationship goes through all these sentences. We celebrated Christmas at home. What do we do? We celebrated Christmas. We celebrate it. Okay, so do so. I hope you start to see that kind of relationships with Smiths live on Main Street. What do they do? You know, they live on Main Street. They live. Okay, So or reside, they dwell. Okay, um, so and in the same way. Ah, the you know, the quiet actions likes Tom likes action movies. I thought I did well in the test. Um, the you know, the likes would be the verb likes would be the verb of ah of ah, of the sentence. You know, Tom likes action movies. Thought would be the predicate of the sentence. I thought I did well on the test in the same way the you know, the verbs. Um uh, the, um The verbs that express the state of being, Ah, scout is a golden retriever, you know is, you know, the verb to be would be the the predicate of the sentence Scout is a golden retriever, and so on and so forth. So So I hope you start to see these types of thes types of relationships because the subject and the predicate are in relationship with one another. Okay. And, uh, and if you can identify one, sometimes that'll help you identify the other. So sometimes we have problems. What's the subject of the sentence or what's the predicated? Uh, sometimes the trick is just see if you can grab hold of one and then figure it so So that one is the subject. You You, uh, say okay. What is this subject doing? What is the hat doing? Well, it's sitting on the map. So sad. Must be the Ferb. Or if you can identify the main verb, the critic, it then you work backwards from that and say Okay, So what is sitting? What's doing this sitting? Okay. What Sat the cat. Okay. All right, so So I hope this starts to become a little bit clear. And as I've stated before, we have a text attached and you can have a little quiz. And of course, you can ask me any questions that you might have. The third requirement of a sentence is that it contained an independent flaws. And so I have to explain what this is. And in some cases, that might get a little bit complicated, but I'll do my best to simplify it. A independent laws. The laws that could stand is the sentence on its own. That's number one. Number two is It is not dependent. Okay, so what's dependency? Okay, so let me give you a couple of examples of dependent clauses. Maybe you can start to get a feel for just what they are. If you understand this, come when the rain starts to because we were late. So do you notice what's happening as you listen to me? Say those things will besides that you're getting irritated, I'm sure. Ah, you're waiting for me to finish the sentence, okay? Because it is raining. We will stay inside if you understand this please raise your hand. Okay, so you see, So each one of those clauses that begins with what's called a deep end in conjunction or subordinating conjunction requires an independent laws to complete it. So you cannot have a sentence that is only a dependent laws or a dependent clause does not make a sentence by itself. And so, um, if you wrote, um, if the plane arrives on time period, that would be a sentence fragment. It would not be a complete sentence because it does not have a an independent clause attached. Um, eso I hope this kind of explains what it is that we want to um, uh, understand about this requirement and I'll explain mawr in the text. And of course, you can test your knowledge in the quiz as we go forward to go into more depth about the independent laws dependent flaws. Um, take a look at the example that I have over here. The, um the independent laws is not dependent on something else. It doesn't depend on something out. So example, we have the sentence because I don't finish my sentences. Now that's a dependent clause. And as such, it's a sentence right minutes, not a complete sentence, and it's largely the because that makes it so go. So there'll be two ways to correct us when we get more into this when we talk about fragments. But right now, Ah, there's two ways to correct this one as you can drop because I don't finish my sentences, that is an independent flaws. It's not dependent on anything else in stand by itself on also, I could add an independent laws to that dependant laws because they don't finish my sentences. You are getting irritated, you see, so that you are getting irritated is an independent flaws. It doesn't begin with a because, or a win or a while, or if it constabulary by itself as a sentence. We have a couple more concepts to deal with in terms of the sentence. But first I want to congratulate you on sticking with this so far, because grammars tough, it requires a lot of concentration. Teoh get straight. So no, so we want to talk about now is the direct object. So we have the subject of the sentence, and that's what is performing the action. The direct object receives the action so again. I think that we can understand sometimes better if we use example. So in the example, over here we have the boy hit the ball, you see? So the boys a subject we should know this by now. And hit is the verb. That's the predicate. What did the boy hit? He hit the ball. OK, so the ball is what's receiving the action. It's the direct object and some of the other examples that we have Sally drove the car into the wall. Well, one Sally drive, She drove the car. Okay. Uh, so car would be the object. The direct object of the verb after the game that saw players celebrated their victories. Okay, so what did this player celebrate? They celebrated the victory. The victory would be the direct object. What would be the subject? Little quiz. What would be the subject? The players, they're the ones who are celebrating. Okay. And celebrate would be, of course, the predicate. The president gave this speech before Congress. So ask yourself what's the subject of that sentence? What is the person, place or thing that's doing the doing? Well, that would be the president. What did the president do president gave? What did the president give? Oh, he gave the speech. So that would be the direct object. Something to keep in mind is that some verbs require a direct object. So, for instance, the verb to catch doesn't quite make sense without a direct object. So, for instance, if I said something like Fred caught, you'd be left wondering. What did Fred catch? Did you catch a cold? Did he catch the ball? Did he catch a giant marlin? See, So the verb to catch requires the direct object. And so I believe the verb to have to have something in terms of, ah, to possess something. So if I said they had, you'd be wondering, Well, what do they have because Did they have a nice house? Do they have a new car? Okay, so did they have a lot of trouble? So you require a direct object to be attached to that usage of the verb tohave. Some verbs, on the other hand, can take it or leave it. They ah ah, They can either take a direct object or go without a direct object. So I could say, for instance, John left is in he went away or he left something specific. He left the party or he left his keys on the table. So in that sense, the verb to leave and many other verbs like that can either take a direct object or not. The indirect object also serves an important function. And the sentence? We have to be able to identify that as well. It identifies two or four whom in action is being performed. So you might have a sentence. The president sent the victims of the hurricane aid. Okay, So what would be the direct object on what would be the indirect object? Well, we should be able to tell by now that the direct object would be that which the president sent. What did the president send? He sent aid. Whom did he send the age to? To the victims. Okay, so you see, so you can rephrase that original sentence. The president's and the victims. The hurricane aid. As a sentence, he sent aid to the victims of the hurricane. So that's two or four. Whom inaction is performed. Okay, Uh, another example. Example Number two in In the examples to the side here, the company offered its employees a raise. So what did the company offer? They offered a raise. Whom did they offer the rays to? To the employees. And so you see the restated sentenced here? Ah, they offered the rays to its employees. Molly baked her mother a birthday cake. What did Molly bake? Well, I hope you didn't bake her mother. No, I would hope that she baked a birthday cake, but she baked the birthday cake for her mother. So again, you can see that we can rephrase the sentence. She baked a birthday cake for her mother. Okay, so that's the indirect object. In a very simple way to be able to figure out what is playing the role of the indirect object in the sentence is to see if you can rephrase the sentence using two or four ah to ah to discover what is Thea indirect object. As opposed to the direct allergy. Because we don't want Molly baking her mother. So there we have it. You survived. You should get a T shirt. But besides that, you should by now have a thorough grounding in what constitutes a sentence in English. And what are its components now? in this same section in a different video. I'm going to go over briefly another kind of sentence. But I will save that for another lesson for another day. And in the meantime, you congratulate. Congratulate yourself and go off and have a well deserved reward your T shirts in the mail . 18. Fragments - just pieces of a sentence: all right in this sequence, we're going to be discussing the sentence fragment and, as you saw in the slide deal, the opening sliding in the sequence. A sentence fragment is a piece of a sentence. It's not a complete sentences. It's as if you broken glass on the floor and you had pieces of glass or fragments of glass all over the floor. And so, by that analogy, a sentence fragment is a piece of a sentence, not a complete sentence. If you remember from our discussion about the sentence, a sentence requires a subject, which is a noun or noun phrase or a pronoun, a predicate, which is a verb and has to be a bourbon right form and it independent clause eso. The sentence requires all these things in any sentence or anything pretending to be a sentence that is missing. One of these requirements is a sentence fragment. We have to be especially aware of what a sentence fragment is because this is a very major error in writing one of the major errors in in putting together formal writing. We cannot communicate in sentence fragments, and we'll talk a little bit about why that's so Ondas. Well, in this sequence we will be looking at how to recognize a sentence fragments and how to correct them. Okay, so now we'll continue. Thank you. As I said, above the sentence fragment is one of the most serious errors we can have informal writing . And one of the problems that we encounter in in correcting the sentence fragments or instances of sentient fragments in her sentences is that we very often speak in sentence fragments. And so they seem natural and ah, but we must eliminate them from our writing. So But But But just to this point that we use it in speech. Take a look at the ah, at the example here of ah ah, Possible or a sample? Um, exchange between two people. The 1st 1 says, team do OK, kicked butt. Okay. Happy camper, huh? Ok, so all those of fragments. But that is not an impossible dialog between two people. Probably guys discussing the fate of ah, one of them's favorite teams. Okay, so, um so this is the one of the reasons that it's so difficult. Teoh, Correct sentence fragments and recognize them. So we have to be alert to them because the necessity to speak in a complete sentence is an artifact of writing, not of speech. And in the next slide, very briefly, I'll touch on another source of confusion about sentence fragments. The rule about fragments is not just an arbitrary rule. One of the reasons that we have such rule informal writing that fragments should not be used or cannot be used in this from writing is that they can confuse. They can leave ambiguity, which means a confusion about what exactly is meant. So take a look at the example that we have over here. The policeman raised his patrol car so angry you could spit. Tom finally pulled over, you see, So who was so angry he could spit? Was it Tom? Or is that the policeman you see? So it can lead to confusion? That's a very simple example. But because the the phrase so angry he could spit, which is a sentence fragment, is not directly connected with anything and its adjacent to two different ideas, it could modify either one. That is, the who is so angry could be attached to either the policeman or to Tom. So that's one of the reasons that, um that the fragment is not allowed in former writing because we need clarity in a lack of ambiguity. We need to be very definite about what it is that we're communicating and what it is that the reader understands from our writing, something that might cause us some confusion is that a sentence fragment might actually give us a lot of information. So if you remember my conversation about the sentence, what qualifies the sentences? Being a sentence is not the amount of information that it gives us. So the cat sat on the mat, for instance. Uh, does not is not disqualified as a sentence because we want to know where was the mat? What color was the man? What color is the cat was the disposition of the cat? What was the name of the cap? What time of day was it had to can't eat And it's Kimball will get, you know. So all these other questions that we might be interested in do not disqualify that phrase. The cat sat on the mat, um, as a sentence, and in the same way we could have a sentence. That or a fragment of sentence fragment that has some significant information in it but still does not qualify as a sentence. And so we have an example here, Uh, after the coach encouraged him so much last year, and he seemed to improve with each passing game. See, that's a fragment, and we'll talk about what makes it a fragment. Even though it seems to have a lot of information in it, it is still a sentence fragments. So what determines whether something is a sentence or a fragment is not the amount of information that it has in the sentence, but there are other criteria and quite objective criteria, rather than our judgment as to whether we're satisfied with the amount of information that's in the sentence or not. Another problem we might face and dealing with fragments is that we might be used to seeing them in other forms of writing. Besides academic writing and formal business correspondence and even other forms of business running, such as advertising, such as the examples that I have over here on sale nationwide, the best way to find and book great travel deals, our biggest election ever, all the essentials and for less and always punctuated with an exclamation point. No noise, but, uh, sometimes quite often. So we're used to seeing these forms in writing and writing that we see every day. So perhaps we don't pay attention to them in our forms of writing in which they're not allowed. But we should. We must. Perhaps another reason we might find it hard to recognize fragments in our formal writing is that even when we read fiction or poetry, even material that's considered great we might encounter fragments and so not recognize them as such and and not realize that, uh, these were forbidden and the forms writing that we're discussing. So a couple of examples here Ah, the, uh, poem by Ezra Pound in a station of the Metro, which is a kind of, ah, modern American haiku. Ah, the operation of these faces in the crowd petals on a wet black bow. Really a wonderful little poem, but it's a fragment. It's a sentence fragment. We have an example from James Joyce, the Great um, early modern writer novelist, who wrote Every life is many days. Day after day, we walked through ourselves meeting robbers, ghost giants, old men, young men, wives, widows, brothers in love, but always meeting ourselves now. That last phrase, punctuated as a sentence but always meeting ourselves is a sentence fragment. So what do you do? Um, we're used to seeing it in print. We're used to seeing fragments and print. We're used to hearing fragments in speech, but we must learn not to allow them into what's called our formal writing either academic writing or our business writing. As I noted above, um, as we have the requirements for a sentence, must have a subject must have a predicate, and it must, um, have an independent flaws. So conversely, the common reasons for fragments is that is missing subject. It's missing. The actor of the action is missing a predicate that is missing a verb. That actor is not doing something. We don't have the subject verb relationship or it is entirely a subordinate laws or a dependent clause. It does not have an independent law. So these are the reasons four sentence fragments and as we go forward in this lesson right now, we're going to take a look at some examples and learn to identify sentence fragments of For all of these reasons, we might identify. The first reason for a sentence fragment is that the sentence or the grouping awards that pretends to be sentenced is missing. A subject's missing the door of the action, so we have a few examples here. Um found the writer behind his desk cradling a bottle of whiskey. So that's interesting. Kind of an interesting picture. But who found the writer you see that's missing becomes too violent again. Who becomes too violent, or although more satisfying than some, for the most part, is not satisfying enough well again, what's more satisfying or what's not satisfying enough, you see, So these are sentence fragments because they're missing a subject. Correcting a missing subject fragment is very simple. You simply add a subject subjects missing at a subject. So, uh, the example that we have over here the ah ah, fragment embroiled in a scandal. Okay, so remember, we're missing a subject. So who is embroiled in a scandal? The governor was embroiled in the scandal. So do you see how that works? This probably one of the easiest fragments to correct. So simply add a subject of the problem. Ah, is that is missing a subject. Another reason or reason number two for hay sentence fragment is that the sentence or the group of words pretended to be a sentence, is missing a predicate that is a verb and adverb acting in a central way in the sentence. Um and so we have a couple of examples here the authors, that the work was significant. Well, the authors What? That the work was significant. They they thought they said they claim they argued. They denied. You say so. So we're missing an action here that's related to the authors. Or it appears that it would be related to the authors or another example that we have the bulls in the middle of the streets of Pamplona. Um, what were the bulls doing in the middle of the street? Ah, what was being done to them? The bulls were running, the bulls were going the people, the bulls were being tormented by the crowds. And if you don't know about the bulls running in the streets of Pamplona, if you can't get to Pamplona, Spain very difficult word for me to say for some reason, Um ah, looking up on YouTube very interesting and a little bit crazy, but uh, we have to know what the bulls are doing or what's being done to them or else it's a sentence fragment. And so now we're gonna go on to the next reason that we sometimes encounter sentence fragments or even create sentence fragments. And like we saw with the missing subject fragment, correcting a missing verb fragment is likewise easier. You simply add a Verba. So So the actor is doing something and not just sitting there. So the fragment that we have the very fun image of the bulls in the middle of the streets of Pamplona becomes the bulls stampeded in the middle of the streets of Pamplona. So you notice that we added the verb stampeded. OK, so that's one way that we can correct a missing verb fragment. Now, um, perhaps another way would be to add a phrase with a verb in front of the bulls in the middle of the streets of Pamplona, such as the people taunted the bulls in the middle of the streets of Pamplona. You know, maybe maybe the bulls in the middle of the streets of Pamplona is not the actor that we want to focus on, but At any rate, correcting a missing verb fragment hat has to do with inserting a verb. And so we have a subject for relationship somewhere in the sentence. So another reason for a sentence fragment is the sentence or again, to some, to be tedious. The group awards that's pretending to be a sentence does not have an independent clause. And if you remember back to our discussion about the independent flaws, an independent clause is a clause that has a subject and a predicate. Um, and it does not begin with one of the subordinating conjunctions, such as If we look over here, we'll see the sentence. The boy hit the ball. But what is not a sentence is if the boy hit the ball or when the boy hit the ball. Or though the boy hittable. All those beginning words that I've highlighted in red are subordinating conjunctions, sometimes called dependent conjunctions. And if our sentences composed on Lee of that flaws, then it is not a sentence. It's a dependent conjunction and needs something else. Now, in the next line will take a look at a couple of ways to fix that condition. Correcting the no independent loss fragment can be done in two different ways and I'll go over these and we have Ah, a couple of examples over here. Um, and remember that in the text there are several other examples as well as at the end of this whole exercise, you'll be invited. Teoh, take the chicken knowledge exercise. But, um, but the no independent laws fragment is a fragment that has what appears to be a sentence. It has a a clause that is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. But the problem is that it's contains a subordinate conjunction at which governs or rules that, uh, that clause and therefore can't qualify as an independent law. So the example that we have because it's dangerous to play in the street, period Okay, so what? What? Because it's dangerous to play in the street. If I said that to you because it's dangerous to play in the street to go, what so eso We shouldn't play in the street or we should block the street, you see, so there's a lot of different possibilities, but ah, so there's two ways to correct this one. We just simply delete the subordinating conjunctions. Delete the because and just simply say it's dangerous to play in the street the other way. To correct this problem, this fragment is to add an independent flaws. So because it's dangerous to play in the street, I want you to stay in the backyard, Okay? You know, So I want you to stay in the backyard, which have highlighted in red over here, um, is the independent flaws and helps that that dependent laws form a complete sentence? Okay, so remembers two ways to correct a no independent loss. Fragment one is just to delete the word that is the conjunction to depend in conjunction that makes it a dependent flaws or to add an independent clause to complete the thought by adding an independent clause. Reason number four for a sent his fragment is that the verb is incomplete, so we're almost a sentence. But the verb isn't quite right. So again, if we look at the examples, we can see in example such a stress injuries caused by carrying heavy loads. Well, the complete verb would have to be are caused by carrying heavy loads or can be caused, you see, So the verb isn't complete, and so it's not a sentence. Another example would be seem in dying of scurvy well again, were dying, are dying, have been dying. You see, we have to complete the verb so And without that complete verb, it's not just a verb. In any old form, it has to be a complete verb. And of course, we have to have a verb that agrees with the subject. Um, but without that, we have a sentence fragment, and ultimately we have to correct it. And before we get to the end of this lesson today, we'll be talking about various ways to correct these conditions to correct the wrong verb fragment. Presently, we have to put the verb in the correct form. And very often this kind of air is just simply because we forget helping birth. We we, uh, miss it in our original writing, and we don't pick it up in our proof reading. But the example that we have here okay, is that concussions caused by playing football without a helmet. Okay, so that verb caused is not in the correct form. So there's number different ways to correct this. Concussions can be caused by playing football without a helmet. Concussions were caused by playing football without a helmet. Concussions have been caused by playing football without a helmet, and, of course, we can also use that fragment as a noun phrase. Concussions caused by playing football without a helmet should be corrected by outlawing the game of football. So please don't throw anything at the screen. If you haven't I love football. That just an illustration. It's not in position that unnecessarily advocating. Okay, so you can use that phrase concussions caused by playing football without a helmet as a uh um as a noun phrase that becomes the subject of entirely new sentence. Or you can complete the verb. OK, so now we'll go on to the next item. Thank you. So this reason we have for a sentence fragment is that we have a phrase lack in the structure of a sentence, and even though it might communicate some sort of information, it's not a sentence that doesn't have the subject verb relationship. And some of these fall into the category of the examples that I gave above, um, years in advertising or fiction for emphasis, such as somehow in the middle of oldest on sale nationwide, from coast to coast, over the bridge and through the woods, running down the field as fast as he could. And so and, um so each one of those is a sentence fragment. It lacks the structure of a sentence, and, more importantly or more specifically, it lacks a subject verb relationship and an independent clause. So it just a phrase. And even though it has a bunch of words and it and those words might convey some sort of significant information to us, they're not sentences from the slide. Previous, we saw how many fragments Oh, are phrases. They don't have any subject verb relationship at all in them. And so, um, so using the examples that we had above, I've constructed a few example sentences from them, and you'll see the phrases highlighted in red and the and the independent clause that's attached to them underlined. So somehow, in the middle of this, which you remember was, you know, one of the phrase that somehow in the middle of this, I managed to keep my sanity. This revolutionary product is on sale nationwide so that on sale nationwide would be, you know, the phrase, and sometimes we might see it isolated as a sentence by itself in a piece of advertising but not suitable for, um, uh, formal writing. So this revolutionary product is on sale nationwide. Our show is broadcast from coast to coast, over the bridge and through the woods to grandmother's house. We go, and so that simple we go is in independent laws. It has a subject and a verb, OK, subject and predicate. So the whole sentence is complete now and running down the field as fast as he could. Jones eluded the onrushing tacklers, so that is a complete sentence now because we've added independent laws. Jones eluded the onrushing tacklers, so correcting the phrase fragment is sometimes just a simple as adding a independent laws to the phrase and completing the thought and as well as supplying the necessary its subject , predicate and independent loss now related to number five. And so this is either reason number six or its recent five A or B or however you want account. But related to the phrases are sentences or phrases that are separated from the whole sentence and very often for emphasis. And so we have some examples here him again. His final words were published period three days after his death. So you noticed that three days after his death is punctuated as if it were a sentence. But it's not, and it really goes with what came before with the complete sentence that goes before. But it's incorrectly punctuated as if it were a sentence. And so it's a sentence fragment and we can see in the corrected version, his final words were published three days after his death. Okay, would without that sentence break there Another example that we have is Ah, I was time warped, period cast backwards into June. Okay, so here. So we have again. We have this this phrase that separated from the sentence, probably for emphasis front, probably for drama. But you can't do that. Informal writing. You have what you would have to write something like I was time worked and cast backwards to last June. Okay? I was time warped and cast backwards to last. Jim, you see? So there we have the complete sentence and not the fragment that's broken off and made to stand by itself, as I indicated above the incorrectly separated phrase fragment can be easily fixed by simply joining the, um, uh, incorrectly separated phrase to the independent loss to the main sentence. So So here we have the example. Babe Ruth was well known full stop period for his partying as well as its playing. So now that's second part of that of that example for his parting as well as his playing is a sentence fragment. But we should see that we can easily join that fragment to the independent laws to the sentence. Babe Ruth was well known and create the complete sentence. Babe Ruth was well known for his partying as well as this playing okay, so very simple. Fix your just delete the period lower case, the in this case, the capital F, and we have a complete sentence. So in this lesson, we've taken a look at what a fragment is, why it's considered serious, and, uh, and the different forms that the fragment, um can take and a surprising one little air I can, uh, occur in so many different ways. And but I hope that we've learned from this and as well we have learned how to correct this occurrence of the sentence fragment in our own writing, and again I'll remind you that you can read the text that's accompanying this lesson. You can also take the the test, your knowledge exercise that's also attached. And of course, if you have any questions, please feel free to get in touch with me and ah, and make your inquiry, but thank you very much and I'll see you next time. 19. Running sentences together: Now we're going to talk about the run on sentence and there's various issues involved here , and there's even various names, and so you shouldn't be confused by that. Sometimes we refer to that run on sentence. Sometimes the common supplies, sometimes the fused sentences and two sentences that are fused together. But I'll explain those. But first I want to discuss what we called a run on sentence because that name causes some confusion. Sometimes students, I think that what we're referring to is a sentence that is too long. Um, just a long sentence, as in the colloquial term of somebody who runs on, he ran on and on, he wouldn't stop talking so you know. But that's not what we're talking about in terms of the run on sentence. So, uh, this does not have anything to do with a sentence being too long. There's no length rule for a sentence. William Faulkner, the great American novelist of the mid 20th century activity, road sentences that were 500 words long. James Joyce Ulysses contains a sentence that is more than 4000 words long, so there's no requirement that a sentence be cut off at any particular like so that's the first thing. And I'm gonna go forward and we'll start to understand what we mean by a run on sentence. Or perhaps you'd understand it better if we talk about the fused sentence. That is two sentences that refused together, which is backed is what it is that we're talking about. So following upon the idea about the length of the sentence. And you know that's not what we're talking about. When we're talking about the run on sentence, keep in mind that a run on sentence can be relatively short, as in the sentences that we have here, Um, the boy hit the ball, he ran to first base. Okay, that's it. Run on sentence. And I explain why. Why? It is, um and also the ah, the twin of the run on sentence, which would be the common spice. The boy hit the ball comma. He ran to first base. Both of these were incorrect, and there is equally incorrect as the sentence fragment, and I'll be explaining why, as we go forward, one way to think about the fused sentence is that it is the flip side of the sentence fragment. If you remember from our conversation about the sentence fragment sentence fragment, in a sense, has too little of a sentence in it to be a sentence. Well, in the same way the run on sentence and the common spice sentence what we're calling the fused sentences. Two different kinds of the fused sentences have too much in that to be a, uh, sentence to be a proper sentence. In a sense, it's cramming two sentences into the same space, much like Azzan are illustration here. We attempted it cramp two cars into the same space on the street. What you end up with is, besides a collision end up with two cars fused together at the bumper, which is not the proper way for cars to be joined, right, anyway. So, uh, you could also think of the the fused sentence as being the writing equivalent of speaking rapidly and not taking a break is if you or somebody else were saying something like the boy at the Bali ran to first base. You see, there's no break in there, but there has to be, and that's what we're gonna be talking about. So the analogy I used above is that the run on sentence or the common supplies sentence is actually an attempt to James two sentences together without proper conjunction. And so that conjunction. Um, if you remember back to the conjunction function that comes very important in dealing with this type of group dramatic collision. And we see below the, uh, example of the run on sentence, the boy hit the ball, he ran to first base, you see, And so and you can see in green and blue, the two independent laws, what should be sentences by themselves. What could be sentences by themselves? Ah are illustrated and a comma splice. The boy hit the ball comma. He ran to first base. That comma cannot serve as a conjunction or adjoining device between the two independent losses between what could be two sentences. Okay, so that's where the mistake is. And as we go forward, we're gonna take a look at what we can do to correct that air. A digression for a moment or a tale of a Teyla's. I title it up here. Um, that is a tale, a story and of a tale, which is what the Kama looks like sometimes. Doesn't it? but what we should remember, what we always need to remember is there is no absolute right or wrong in any of these things, which does not mean that you can violate any rule because they're not absolute in the sense they are held together by the conventions of our society and conventions of our communication. But, um, what is allowed in one language is not in another. And sometimes what is allowed in one language at a particular period in time is not allowed in another period of time. And a good example of this can be seen in the opening sentence of Charles Dickens tale of two cities. Now he does something here that is an English instructor I would not allow, and what he does is he joins a Siri's, a long Siris of independent clauses together with commas. So let's take a look at this, and I'll read this and follow along and look at the comments that have marked in red as joining these independent clauses. It was the best of times. It was the worst of times. It was the age of wisdom. It was the age of foolishness. It was the epic of belief. It was thesis e zin of light. It was the season of darkness. It was this spring of hope. It was the winter of despair. We had everything before us. We had nothing before us were all going direct to heaven, were all going direct the other way. So you see now, if I received young Charles Dickens's paper or his short story or his novel even today written like this, with all these Commons, I might be tempted to say common supplies. You can't do this. You have to use periods or conjunctions. But in his day it was evidently allowed or he took poetic liberty. Um, but in our day you cannot write like this on it. But but just remember, as always, uh, there's nothing in language that's absolute. It's all a matter of the conventions and the rules of the day, Perhaps the first way over. Not the first. At least the simplest way to fix the fused sentence condition is to create two sentences. That's simple enough, right? Put a period where you don't have anything or where you have the comma. So up above, we see two incorrect examples. Um, the boy hit the ball. He ran to first base. That's with no comma break there. But just, you know, the run on condition. Or alternatively, the boy had the ball comma. He ran to first base, which is also incorrect. And we should recognize that now. And so you see the correct version above a swell? Uh, the boy hit the ball, period. He ran to first base. So if you have a run on condition, one of the simplest ways to fix it is create two sentences rather than cram news two sentences into one sentence, which is terribly wrong. Okay, now we're gonna go on, and we're gonna take a look at a few other ways that we have to fix this condition the next way that we might consider fixing the run on condition. The fused sentence condition is to link with a coal ordinating conjunction. So remember, that's one of the Fanboys. So an but or so words like those. So we have a couple examples here, actually, more than a couple way off. What? 41234 above. Okay, uh, the boy hit the ball and he ran to first base. So you see, have color coded the two different independent clauses. And remember, those independent clauses could be sentences by themselves and right. I mean, we took a look at that. In the example above, we saw that one of ways to fix diffused sentence condition is actually create the two sentences out of the two independent clauses. But this is another way we could use a coordinating conjunction. So the boy hit the ball and he ran over space. The crowd cheered. Four. That's the coordinating conjunction for the boy had hit the ball. The ball hit the ball. But you see, he was thrown out at first. So the But there is the coordinating conjunction and the boy hit the ball semicolon. He ran over space. And so in this way I'm using the semicolon as a coordinating conjunction, which, in a sense it is. And when we get to punctuation, I'll explain how that is so. But just take it on faith right now that we can use Theseventies colon as a coordinating conjunction to join within one sentence two independent clauses that is two clauses that could be sentences by themselves. And then we're going to go on. We're going to take a look at another way to join to fused sentences or two sentences that have been fused together and fix this condition. The next way we have a fixing diffused sentence condition is to create a complex sentence. And if you remember our discussion about sentences, what that involves is the, uh, the use of the subordinating conjunction one of the Web. It's And so we have some examples here, uh, the 1st 1 being because the boy hit the bowl, he ran to first base. And so again, you've noticed that color coded the dependent clauses or in green, the independent clauses are in black, and the subordinating conjunctions are red. So because would be the subordinating conjunction because the boy hit the ball would be the subordinate flaws and he ran to first base would be the independent flaws and so on and so forth. So the boy hit the ball before he ran for space, so that before he ran to first base, we're making that clause subordinating. Ah, and the boy the ball would be the independent clause. And so this is what we know is a complex sentence. Another example would be after the boy hit the ball, he ran a first base. Uh, and again, the after the boy hit the ball would be the subordinate flaws here and first base would be the independent on one last example would be the boy ran to first base, which, which would be the independent laws, while the crowd cheered. So while the crowd cheered would be the dependant flaws with subordinate flaws. One last method we have of fixing diffused sentence condition is to create another kind of complex sentence Onley. In this complex sentence, we don't employ one of the lab. It's one of the subordinating conjunctions. Uh, and we can take a look at the examples above and we'll see that this possibility exists when both clauses in the run on condition ah have the same subject. That is the same person, place or thing is performing the action. So ah, so we see above the incorrect version the boy at the ball he ran to first base. So we should recognize this by now is a run on sentence refused sentence condition. But we can drop the second subject and create a sense in such as the boy hit the ball and ran to first base. You see how that works? And so so, actually, the second clause is not an independent clause, so we don't have a run on condition. Ah, the second clause is defective. It's, ah be a fragment. If it were punctuated as a sentence by itself. The next example John Cook dinner. He proposed to his girlfriend. Now again, we should recognize this as a run on sentence. Or if there were a comma after dinner, it would be a comma splice. But again because it is John who is both cooking dinner and proposing we could write it John Cook dinner and proposed to his girlfriend Um, the last example. The lion roared it, then went back to sleep again. We should recognize that as a fused sentence condition, A way to correct it would be to drop the it and insert a conjunction. The lion roared but then went back to sleep. So both clauses have the single subject of the lion. But the second clause does not have the lion stated explicitly and is joined to the first laws with the conjunction. So this is the last way that we have of correcting the run on condition or the fused sentence condition or the common sliced condition. So Ah, now again, you can use these, um, tools. Teoh, correct your own writing. And I urge you first to go to the test. Your knowledge exercises in this section and, um, just hold them, sharpen them. So you're able to recognize when you have the run on condition or the fused sentence condition and and see if you can tell which method you might like. Teoh correct that condition. 20. Add a little color to your world: we're going to start off this discussion of the adjective by simply reminding ourselves what it is that an adjective does an adjective modifies. And now that is it. Changes announced in some ways makes it more specific, expands upon our idea of what it is or limits it d limits. It s so for instance, we could talk about a dog. Or we could further refine the description by saying the barking dog. And then we could even further this Ah, the limit. Our description of the dog by the vicious black barking dog, you see. So each time we add an adjective, we narrow the range of possibilities we change or modify what we mean by the now. Now, also note in the last example the vicious black barking dog. You can also stack adjectives, and so you don't just have to stay with one adjective. You gonna have a number of different adjectives up. You can't have an unlimited number, probably because the mind is not cannot grasp or stack, and I'm limited number. But you're gonna have, you know, a few adjectives that that all modify or change our idea of what denounce is in English. the adjective usually goes before the noun. So, um, the red truck, the white duck, the large box. And so you see this pattern, right? The adjective goes before the noun. There are a few adjectives that don't and we'll talk about those in a couple slides. Um, but the adjective goes before the now. So just as the adjective goes before the noun, um, it comes after a linking verb. So the truck is read, the duct appears white. You have phrases like this, and there's a number of these phrases over here. The milk has turned sour, so the adjective comes after the, um the noun. Ah. And in this case, to call the subject complement. Um so comes after the linking verb. So anyway, so just remember this in this form, the adjective usually does not come, uh, before the linking verb, except in, um, unusual constructions. Um, red is the color of my true love's hair. OK, so I just made that up. I don't know, comes from something, but, um, you see, so in that case, for emphasis, I placed the adjective first, but you notice it sounds a little bit unusual and not idiomatic. orc local in English. There are some post noun usages of the adjective. And so we see over here the the examples that I've listed and these were just a few. Usually these are idiomatic phrases, thes air, kind of fossilized and built into the language. And so we have the person responsible. I'm looking for the person responsible for this. Um, now, note immediately that this is different from the responsible person. So I'm looking for a responsible person is more of a general situation, whereas the person responsible becomes much more specific. And in this case, um, we're usually referring to somebody's responsible for something bad that happened. Um, and we also have other phrases. Well, such as Code red, Grand Theft Auto and only, uh uh, either the game or the or the name of the crime. And in this case, the, um, the auto would be the modifier. Okay, Um Nacho Supreme. What kind of nachos? Their supreme nachos. But we call him Nacho Supreme. You know, the supreme would be the adjective notary public. What kind of notary? A public notary. Okay, but But in this case, we put the adjective last private first last What kind of private? Well, it's the first last private, but, um, in this case again, the adjective form comes last and Paradise lost the name of the great epic Home by John Milton. Um, what kind of paradise is a lost paradise? But ah, but the adjective lost comes after the now in this in this form. So these are unusual, um, and they are usually locked into the language in their set phrases, but just something to keep in mind. Sometimes we're gonna have phrases or even flaws. Is that modify a noun, sometimes easier called adjectival phrases and clauses, though they have other forms. And we'll see, um, in the 1st 1 the man in the green coat is a famous writer. In the green coat is an adjectival phrase. It's a, uh, prepositional phrase to in the green coat. We should recognize the end as being a proposition, and it's functioning as a um as an adjective. The whole phrase will proposition Alfred's functioning as an adjective here. He grew up in a town where he was born. So the town town is the noun that is being modified and the claws where he was born and again we should note that the this is applause. It's got a subject and a predicate, the subject and a verb. He is being the subject, the pronoun subject, and was born being the verb. And this again is an adjective clause modifying town so sometimes phrases and clauses can function as a Z as adjectives. In a sense, though, we can also identify them. Ah, as in this case, in the first case, as a prepositional phrase and in the second case as a relative clause. Okay, But sometimes you know their their function. The alternate function is as an vegetable phrase or clause. There's a small group of adjectives that only work with linking verbs. And I have a few examples over here. Um, the monster is alive, you see, So I could say the monster is alive, but I can't really say I saw the Alive monster, right? Okay. It just doesn't work s Oh, this is the kind of adjective that only works with linking verbs. Um, the princess is asleep. Okay, I can say that. You see, So we have a linking verb is in both cases, you know, linking verb to be but I can't say the prince kissed the asleep princess. That doesn't work. So something like a live or word like asleep on Lee works with, um, the linking verb Aziz. The complement of the subject and other adjectives like this are afraid alone aware. So he was afraid. Um, versus I saw the afraid Boy, you can't really say the afraid, boy. Okay. Okay. So anyway, so just remember, some adjectives only work with linking verbs now is can function as adjectives as well. So you can have a noun that modifies another now and so the first now is being used as an adjective, and examples of these are listed over here. Um, you could say a foot race, a company store, a spaceship, a car salesman, dog food production car cost. Ah, coffee cup. So in each one of these cases, the first word foot company, space car, dog production, and coffee are now is in their own right. But here they're being used as adjectives. Um, so you be possible to say I hurt my foot in the foot race. Say so. The first foot is functioning as a noun. The second foot is functioning as a um, as an adjective that modifies race that changes the racer limits. The type of race further defines What type of race was It was in a boat race, Was it? Ah ah. Car race was in a bicycle race and each one of those being announced, by the way. No, it was a foot race. Okay, so just remember, announced in sometimes work as adjectives, verbs can sometimes serve his adjectives as well. And so you see the list down here? Okay. It's Ah. Um I'm kind of squeezed into the top part of the frame here because I needed room to build the chart. But eso you see from the verb bore as and you know he's boring me. Okay. Ah, he's not speaking of anything of interest to me, which might be the case with this group grammar lecture, but I hope not. Um, but you can see that he is a boring speaker. Okay. Boring. Right there is from the vote form within the adding that the i N g ah, uh, means something different from he is a board listener board as and he is being bored. OK, so, um so you have a difference in meaning between boring and board. In the same way, these are confusing instructions or confused students. So you see. So, um, I think that we can construct a kind of rule here if used the I and G form. That means that the pronoun that follows is is performing the action, conforming the action of boring or confusing. Whereas if you have the e d form on and you can think of that as being kind of in the passive voice, um, then the then the noun, as in the listener or the students, um, is in essence Ah, this the object of the action is receiving the action. So the students are confused by the confusing instructions. OK, ok, so and again, you have the depressing situation or a depressed patient. So so? So that so. The psychologist heard about the depressing situation from the patient who is depressed from the depressed patient. Um, that is a frightening lion or ah, the frightened hikers. No, we're confronted by the frightening lion. Good. Um, we had a disappointing result versus a disappointed lover. You know, somebody who has been disappointed in love. Okay, so I heard you're pleasing words I am now a pleased parent. No, my child has done so well in school. And you're very kind to send me your pleasing words. Your words pleased me. Okay, So? So a difference between pleasing and pleased. And again, I heard the shocking news. I read the shocking news in the newspaper. If anybody knows what a newspaper is these days, maybe not. Okay, but, um, I was a shocked reader. I was shocked to read that. Okay, so I so you can use verbs, Adjectives? Um, but they mean something different, depending on whether you put them in the I n g form or in the past, participle form well, with the D adjectives can also be used to compare. And how we divide these up is you either have to things that were comparing or we're comparing three orm or things and and so we used slightly different forms, depending. So I could say, for instance, Lord of the Rings is a better movie than Titanic. Now, please don't get mad. I'm just Please don't a man if you don't, I agree with that. I'm just using this as an example. We get some on then you have the superlative, which compares three or more things, and we could say something like some people say Mohammed Ali was the best boxer in the history of the sport. So best eso you noticed. We don't say he's the better boxer in the history of the sport because there are many different boxers. Remember three or more. He's the best boxer, and in the next couple slides will break down the usage of the comparative and superlative a little bit further. The comparative looks at two items, puts two items up against each other and compares them. Um, and this form generally ads in E. R. So of the two brothers, he is taller. She is smarter than her father. Johnny is faster than Tommy. Okay, so we have the er form here. Um and remember, this is when we look at two items and compare and or contrast what we call the superlative looks at three or more items and this form takes the e s t ending. So of the seven brothers, he is the nicest of all the stars. Ah Cyrus appears the brightest in the night sky. She is the best player on the squad we call him Speedy because he's the fastest runner in the flats. Okay, so it takes these forms, take the e S T ending. Okay, So s so we make a distinction between comparing two items, which is the comparative and three or more. Which is this superlative. There are some irregular forms in the comparative, and we have to just memorize these, um, on and they are words like, good and bad, less and much. And so I'll go through these and so So I'm bad. Uh, you're worse, but he is the worst of all UK. So no notice the difference there? Um uh, I'm I'm Well, thank you very much. Tomorrow I hope to be better. And next week, I hope to be best of all. OK, so you see so good. Better? Best or well, better best, um, less, you know, Um, no, I earned less than he did of the two of us. You earned the lesser amount. Um, and she earned the least of all. OK, so there you see some examples how those air used Look, um, and much mawr and most Okay. I had much happiness at that time. Um, I could have had more happiness if things had been different. But the most happiness I have ever had in my life has been when I met you. Okay, they, um So you see, these are the irregularities in the comparative and superlative forms. Okay, so ah, and again, in the text, you will see Ah, Mawr. These spelled out and more examples given. One thing to note is that the e r E s t ending our Onley used with single syllable adjectives. And so, um uh I cannot say he is intelligent er than his brother. I could say he is smarter than his brother, but I cannot say is intelligent stir than his brother. That doesn't work, I'm afraid. And so what we use with multiple syllable adjectives is, um words such as mawr or less. He is less intelligent than his brother. He is mawr intelligent than his brother. You see, So ah, and another example. Just just one more example capable. The word capable. Um ah. He is the most capable employees I have ever had. Or he is more capable than most of my employees. Okay, More capable. So I'm comparing him against uh, somebody else okay, He's Mawr. You know, Fred Jones is more capable than, uh, Ivan Smith. Okay, so he's more capable. That's too. That's the comparative or the superlative. Ah, he is the most capable employees I have ever have. So eso remember when you have a state adjective that has more than three syllables Ah, you do not use the S T or the er form. You used the modifying comparatives, such as more or most, um, less released. So adverbs tell us how something is done or where or when or in what manner. Ok, they modify the verb they change the verb they add to the verb adverb adds to the verbs. That's a pneumonic device. And, um, if you find yourself ah ah remembering the difference between the adjective and the adverb , perhaps it would help you to remember that the adverb adds to the verb. So some examples that we have over here is the cheetah ran quickly. How did it run? It ran quickly. So remember you go back to the verb and and it links with that. I worked on the paper yesterday. When did I work on the paper? You see work on the paper yesterday. Ah, you left to your keys There. Where did you leave them? Ah, you left them there. So you know, these are all adverbs. And he answered her kindly. In what manner did he answer her kindly in a kindly manner. And so they're amusing kindly. Ah, when I say kindly manner amusing and is an adjective. But he answered her kindly. Ah, that modifies the verb. So remember, adverbs add to the verb. They modify the verb in the same way that an adjective modifies or changes announced makes it more specific. So an adjective does the same for a verb. So he didn't just answer her. He answered her kindly. And so I know how we can change that. By changing the adverb, we can change the manner in which he answered. He answered sharply. He answered loudly. He answered cruelly, Um or he answered kindly. He answered gently. You say so. Each one of those adverbs changes our perception of of the manner in which ah, he answered whoever here, Um and that's the job of an adverb. One thing to note is that and verbs usually add an l. Why not always? And I'll talk about the exceptions in just a slider to, but they usually do. So we see from the examples here he answered her kindly. She worked diligently. The bee flew quickly from flower to flower. He spoke angrily. You see that? So you see a pattern developing, right? Ah, For the most part, adjectives add the L. Why ending? Um, to the adjective. Hey, was angry. The angry man. You see, that's the adjective form. He spoke angrily. Okay. Um ah, she was brilliant. Um, the brilliant girl. Okay, She played brilliantly. Okay. You see, So when we modify the verb for the most part, we add the l Why? There is a class of adverbs that don't take the l y ending or don't always take the l y ending. Um, some of the adverbs kind of straddle the border between what we call the flat adverbs, and which might think it was a regular adverbs, but, um ah, these might include ah, words or phrases such as drive safe. You could also say drive safely. So see, So that's the word that could go either way. But run fast is fast, is definitely a flat adverb. You could not say run fastly. You know, that just wouldn't be allowed. I go slow or go slowly. Okay, but slow Could be a flat adverb. Sleep tight. You never say sleep tightly. Okay? So tight in this sense, to modify sleep would be a flat adverb. Ah, hit hard. Know if the coaches ah is exhorting his team hit hard. Um, that would be a flat advert you couldn't say. Um hit. Hardly in the same way. Work hard, you know, work hard. The hard would be modifying work, right? So then you know it's an advert because it's modifying the verb But you cannot say hardly You'd have to say work hard, fly high Do not say fly highly you see so high in this sense is always a flat adverb. And lastly, we have the slogan the advertising slogan think different, which is not a usual usage. Usually one would say think differently What the advertisers wanted to think different. And so they used ah, a flat adverb form off the, um adverb or the adjective different and and used ah, flight advert form of the word This form last lane Just a little historical note used to be more common than it is now. Um, the ah Bible gives us such a phrase as exceeding Blatt. Nowadays, we say Exceedingly glad. Exceedingly glad. But when the writers of the King James Bible in the 16 hundreds wrote the passage, they wrote exceeding glad Shakespeare about the same time, actually, ah wrote in Richard the second marvelous great. We would now, right? Marvelously great. But Shakespeare didn't feel the need to add the l y, um Ah, and a little bit later, Robinson Crusoe writing Ah, ah, uh, Or as Daniel Defoe wrote in his novel Robinson Crusoe, the sea went dreadful high and again dreadful is being used as a flat advert there, Um, we would again right today dreadfully high, and I So here's this class of adverbs that are flat, sometimes always flat, and sometimes according to the situation or according to the particular usage. So over here to the side here I have a, um, enlisted ways that adverbs indicate or that they modify Ah, they give direction. Edgewise. Sideways extent. Completely. Holy frequency. Always annually. Seldom. Um, sometimes the instrument microscopically sometimes location regionally worldwide. Time early. Sometimes today. Yesterday um, the modality maybe necessarily, perhaps possibly Probably. So these are all adjectives, um, and Ah, and the thing to remember here is they are not always, apparently connected to the verb. OK, so it's not the same type of adjective as to Dr quickly or to drive fast, but they are modifying the verb. So yesterday he went to school, you see? So yesterday modifies went doesnt modify heat. Okay. It modifies went. When did he go to school? When did he go to school? Okay, we're not saying who went to school. We know who went to school. When did he go to school? He went to school yesterday So that that type of word modifies the verb adverbs also modify the modifiers. Okay, so if you have a word modifying a modifier, either an adverb or an adjective, what you call that word that's doing the modifying of the modifier is an adverb. Okay, so playing with tires, playing with tires, playing with tigers is extremely dangerous. Okay, So notes that dangerous is an adjective. It's being modified by extremely extremely is an adverb. Okay, It's not just dangerous. It's extremely dangerous. Okay, that super is not just hot. It is a It is very hot. Very is an adverb. It's modifying hot. Are you completely sure? Completely modify. Sure, sure. Being an adjective completely would be an adverb. That movie was exceedingly boring. Okay, again, Exceedingly is Ah, modifying boring. She is quite stunning. Ok, quite modifies stunning. My professor is rather boring. This lectures rather boring. Okay, The rather would be And, um and, uh uh, uh uh adverb. Um he runs very fast. Okay. You see, so he runs very fast. He runs fast, Fast is an adverb the varies modifying the adverb So the admiral can also modify another adverb. I've given you several examples where it's modifying the adjective, but it can also modify and and verb. She studies diligently, you see? So, uh, or she studies very diligently. I want to emphasize knows it's not just diligently. It's very diligently. Okay, So Ah, So the word that is modifying a adjective or an adverb is also an adverb Note that, um, ad verbal phrases and clauses also exists. And so you have phrases and clauses that function as adverbs, even though we have identified them earlier as other forms. And so in the first example, my mother was born in a tiny cabin in the mountains of New Mexico. Okay, so so here we have a Siri's off proposition. All phrases, uh, that are modifying the verb. OK? Born. Where was she born? In a tiny cabin. Where? In the mountains. Where? Off New Mexico. Okay, so So these proposition of phrases are also known as at verbal phrases because they're modifying the firm. So, um, I picked my way carefully over the rocks to avoid following falling. So again, we have the the the the infinitive phrase to avoid falling to avoid falling. And it's modifying how I picked my way or why I picked my way in in that manner. Okay, so that's an adverb beall phrase. Now, the wrestlers worked out until they could hardly stand. So here we have a clause. Remember, Clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate, and this is also known as a subordinate clause because it started with one of the one of the lab. It's one of the subordinate conjunctions until they could hardly stand. But that is modifying working out the worked out idea in the sentence. Okay, so, um, add verbal phrases and clauses also modify the verb. There is a group of adverbs that causes a little bit of difficulty. Um, because sometimes we confuse exactly how to use them. First, I'll show you how they should be used. Eso eso We see some sample sentences over here every summer. We usually go to the beach. However, this year we're staying home. So noticed that, however, is in a separate sentence by itself. The judge found the Wall Street bankers guilty of defrauding investors. Therefore, that's the conductive adverb The judge scented them sentenced them to the maximum penalty prescribed by law. Okay, so therefore is a conjunctivitis adverb in. So it's an adverb and it modifies the verb, but it also joins. In a sense, it creates a logical connection between that which preceded and that which follows. Okay. So Rodriguez close down his legal practice 20 years ago, he has nevertheless continued to work pro bono on cases for the poor. Pro bono means for free. Okay, so in a way that nevertheless is the conjunctivitis adverb, you see how it creates a logical relationship between closing down the legal practice and continuing to work. Okay, Um, first get an education, then see, that's the conductive adverb. Then you'll have the armor opportunity to do what you wish to with your life. Okay, then. Okay, so these air the conjunctivitis, adverbs, and there's a few more and you can read more about them in the text. But this gives you an idea about what they are and how they work these conductive adverbs or sometimes called the false conjunctions. Uh, because it's very easy for us to confuse them with the regular conjunctions with the true conjunctions. They show a logical relationships sometimes that cause and effect relationship such a word as, therefore, sometimes they show opposition. Such Azaz, however, does. But it is to remember that they're not conjunctions. And you can't use the miss conjunctions because if you do, you end up committing probably a sentence air such as the common spice or the run on sentence, which, as we stated a few lessons ago, is a egregious air. A very bad thing to do. Okay, so all right, so these are the false conjunctions on, and we'll take a look at how it is that they are so and how it is that we should use them so the false conjunctions have a meaning that similar to the true conjunctions and take a look at. However, the word, however, is one of the false conjunctions, one of the conductive adverbs. So you see that in the example that I have over here, the, uh, the correct example would be Tommy got a home run, period full stop. However, we still lost the game. I could also write the same idea practically the same idea time We got a home run comma, but we lost the game so noticed that the but places the second clause in the same sentence that we start with a second sentence. Ah, in the first example, when we use however. Okay, so they have ah, similar meaning. Um and I think that's one other areas that we get confused as to their function now. Ah, very common air that I see in student writing, especially is using such a word, is, however, as if it were a true conjunction. So remember, it's a false conjunction is not a true conjunction. And, um, we have an example here, Tom, you got a home run comma. However, he still lost the game so noticed the Kama places the second clause. However, we still lost the game in the same sentence as the first lost. But we're using that, however, as if it were a conjunction. It's not. This is incorrect. This is wrong, OK, And, um, in the next slide, I'll explain why and how it is wrong. The conjunctivitis adverb does not work the same way as the conjunction does. The false conjunction does not work the same way that the true conjunction does. And I just demonstrate this with a simple example. So we could write time. You got a home run, but we lost the game. Okay, So noticed. That's one sentence with the two clauses joined by the coordinating conjunction, but but noticed that we could, right. Using the word, however, Tommy got a home run period. However, we lost the game, we could write. Tommy got a home run. We, however, lost the game, or Tommy got a home run period again. We lost the game. However, OK, we lost the game, however. Okay, so, uh, notice how, however, as an adverb can move around the sentence, you can't do that with but and I'll show that in the next slide. So remembering from this slide before how we could move, however up and down the sentence um, the true conjunction cannot do that. It has to begin The true conjunction has to begin that loss so we could write. Tommy got a home run, but we lost the game, so that sounds all right. But it would be incorrect for us to write. Tommy got a home run. We still but lost the game or time. We got a home run, we still lost the game. But see on that does not work at all. Whereas we could write, We still, however, lost the game. We, however, lost game, you see, So, uh, the however could move around isn't adverb even though it provides a relationship between what? What went before and what? Ah, we'll follow it. It is not a conjunction proper. Okay, so the true conjunction in the false conjunction don't work the same way. And so that's why you cannot use the false conjunction the conjunctivitis, adverbs as, um as if they were true conjunctions. And in the text you'll see a list of these conjunctivitis verbs. The ah Ah, Words such as however nevertheless, moreover, therefore thus words like that that cannot be used as conjunctions even though they perform a logical function very similar to conjunctions. But you have to be careful. Just one more word about the conjunction adverb. Um and this is about how we can properly use thumb. Okay, so we know now that we cannot use the conjunction adverb the false conjunction as if it were a conjunction. So we cannot say, as we see in the first sentence example over here, uh, we traveled England. Then we hopped over the channel to France. It was a matter of fact. There might even be some confusion if you wrote that. Because how do you know? How does the reader know that it's not? We traveled to England, then we hopped over the channel to France. I mean, so you're not quite sure which way to read it. But beyond that, it does not work. The word then does not work is a conjunction. So there are some possible alternative ways to write this this pair of sentences or there's these two ideas that are correct. And so we see the 1st 1 we traveled to England, and then we hopped over the channel to France. And so you use the conjunctivitis adverb with a conjunction proper and and then say so you can't use then by itself as a conjunction. But you can use it in combination with a conjunction. Or you could just make a full stop. You could create two sentences. We travel to England, period. Then we hopped over the channel to France. Okay, so you just begin a whole new sentence or, Ah, something very similar to that. In the last example, we traveled to England, semi colon and ah on. And I'll get to the rules on the semi colon when we get to punctuation. But we traveled to England semicolon. Then we hopped over the channel to France. And so the semi colon provides a full stop. And then you begin what is essentially a sentence by itself. Ah, fresh. Okay, so then we hopped over the channel to France. So, uh, so you see some different ways that we can use the conjunctivitis adverb properly and the one way that we cannot. So those are the adjectives and adverbs. And while they are not the root when the trunk of the sentence such as, you know, they announce and the verbs they do in very important ways shape, modify color limit and expand our understanding off what is being said in the sentence. Um, so as before, how remind you and urge you to take a look at the text to, ah, do the check your knowledge exercise and, of course, to post any questions that you might have regarding the adjectives and adverbs, um, in the chat area and the question area. And with that, I will bid you a fund, a Jew until we meet again.