Spacing for 3D Animation in Autodesk Maya | Yone Santana | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Spacing for 3D Animation in Autodesk Maya

teacher avatar Yone Santana, Animator & Coach

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Setting up Maya for Animation


    • 3.

      Spacing keys for Easing-In


    • 4.

      Animate with Lead and Follow


    • 5.

      Essential Graph Editor tools


    • 6.

      Master Anticipation & Overshoots


    • 7.

      Animate a Character Jump


    • 8.

      Appendix 1: Pluggins & Scripts


    • 9.

      Appendix 2: Playblast & Rendering


    • 10.

      Final Thoughts


  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Are you ready to take your animations to the next level? In this class we are going to explore how to use effective spacing to animate in Autodesk Maya. Spacing describes how far something moves or changes shape from one frame to the next. By planning your the spacing of your shots you can speed up your workflow and to add a professional level of appeal to your animations. Completing this class will allow you complete control over every ease-in and out.

If you are new to Maya you don't need to worry. I'm going to take you through each exercise one step at a time. Spacing is a great skill for new animators to master and it is a easy way to begin learning the ins and outs of Maya. Students with some animation experience can also join on to improve their spacing skills.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Yone Santana

Animator & Coach



My name is Yone Santana and I’m a freelance animator, currently living and working in the UK. I love sharing the knowledge and skills I have picked up during my career and turning them into easy to follow tutorials. I’ve also had the great fortune of also teaching all things Maya for over 10 years at a university level.


You can find me on Twitter and learn more about Maya on my Youtube Channel.

If you want to learn the core skills to become an animator, then you are in the right place.

See full profile

Level: Beginner

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Introduction: animating can be fun, but it can also be hard and challenging it sometimes. Do you find the prospect of learning three D animation software like Mayer sometimes confusing or just hard to grasp? Well, we will been there myself included. My name's Yoni Santana and I'm a freelance animator currently living in the United Kingdom . Most of my work has been in short films, and in now I'm working in the video game industry in this class I want to share with you guys a Siris of fundamental techniques of which the 1st 1 we're gonna talk to in great depth is going to be spacing. Spacing is a technique that is very closely tied to another principle, which is called timing. Timing is all about when things happen in your animations, and spacing is more about where the objects inside of your key frames are placed. Mastering spacing is critical to be able to understand how to move things and make them look appealing and believable. However, it's got another aspect to it as well, which is inside of Maya. If we properly space are animations will find that other things like timing and editing are animations, becomes much, much, much easier During this class. We're only going to be looking at the essential tools for animation, so only being going to be learning a small section of Meyer then will be doing a series of five simple exercises I want. All of the exercise is to be simple, that you guys can start appreciating how to use these techniques inside your own work on will culminate in the Firth exercise, creating a very, very simple character jump. I'm looking forward to share these techniques with you and let's dive straight into the first class. 2. Setting up Maya for Animation: So welcome to the class, Andi. First of all, download or the project files so that you can follow along with the exercises. In this first lesson, I'm gonna be talking to you guys about how to set up mire for animation. We're gonna be covering how to set up our projects, how to navigate around the view port, how to move and key things inside of the my interface. If you already familiar with Myer, you can feel free to skip ahead and go into the next lessons. But we're gonna go just step by step and set up Maya specifically for the tools that you need for animation. Let's dive right into the first class. Let's go sitting up, Meyer to begin our animations. The first thing we're going to do is start off with a blank scene and we're going to create a reference This is different from opening a Maya file. But we're going to go into the file create reference panel, and we're gonna navigate through a folders to find our rig file, which is called Capsule Rig version one. By clicking on this, it will open up our animation rig. That should work perfectly fine in my 2018 onwards by working with references. What we're doing is creating a file that has all of the animation keys saved in it on the rig and model is in a separate file. This also has an advantage that if we ever open up the reference editor and go into replace reference, we can choose a new, updated version of the rig. Reagan Development might actually have different features, like arms and eyes, which are now available to the animator. But the power of this workflow is that all the key frame data we've been doing with the previous very version is still available to us. Second thing we're going to do is set up a project by going into file on set project. This will open up our hard drive and we can navigate through our folders to set up a folder where we want Meyer to save all of the rendered images or any temporary files that it wants to generate. It will ask me to create a default workspace, and I will say yes and we're ready to go to start navigating around our main view port window. We're going to use the mouse in combination with the cult key on your keyboard present. Hold bolt on the left mouse button and you can orbit around your scene. If you ault and middle mouse button, you can pan with your screen moving left right up and down. Andi. If you ault click and right mouse button click, you can zoom in and zoom out of your seen to reframe. We can select the rig inside of Meyer and manipulated to move across the screen by clicking on thes lines on the actual object. These will allow us to move and rotate them, depending on if we're pressing the W key to bring up the move controls, which we can move in the X Y Z axis. Well, we can click in the middle of the transform gizmo for a more free form movement. We can rotate by pressing the E key and selecting each one of the individual circles to rotate the rig. And we can also click in the middle for a free form type of movement, although this convey quickly get out of whack and is not recommended for these exercises, we're gonna be working in a side view, which we're going to get to by going to panel Ortho Graphic side. We're going to take a moment to get familiar with the rig by selecting this appliance, and we have a central controller in the middle, which allows us to move and rotate the whole object just like that. We also have some control is in the middle, which allow us to bend and twist the body of the capsule just like this. And we can add a little bit of a jiggle just like that. Also, we can had some squash and stretch by choosing the top controller and moving up in the Y axis, so also work in the lower control, and we can add some squash and stretch. We can also move the controllers from side to side to create some other squash in stretch shapes. But use the's just the little cause. It's very easy for the rig to go into uncomfortable positions. Maya allows us to create animations by saving different position or rotation data in the form of key frames, which will be stored invisible on the timeline, which is this little panel below the View port. The gray box on our timeline is our current frame and weaken. Drag it with the left mouse button across the screen on the left hand side. Underneath we have the start frames and the end frames on the inner boxes. Allow us to set a smaller range within a larger timeline. Okay, To start setting key frames, we need tohave an object selected Andi. Then we can go to the appropriate frame. Number one and press s on our keyboard on. We should see a red line appear on the timeline and have a read panel appear in the channel box to show all the keyed properties. We can add more keys by scrubbing to the appropriate frame, and pressing s on our keyboard. And we can also delete keys by right clicking and choosing delete from the pop up menu. Another way of adding keys is to have auto key enabled so we can move our objects across the screen and Maya will automatically drop keys on our timeline. This will result in my creating or animation automatically for us, but we do have tohave auto key enabled. That's the button which is under the play buttons on the right hand corner. It's a good habit to add our keys manually even after we use order. Keep. I keep pressing the ESC e Every time we make a move on the campus to finish off, we're going to configure to final settings. The 1st 1 is for us to go into the Settings panel, which is on the far right hand side with little man with gear icon on. We're going to go into settings and look at our project frame rate. We're gonna change the default from 24 frames a second to 30 frames a second, because that will match the capture software that I'm currently using. Andi. It's generally a good habit to choose your frame rate before you start your project, so you'll see that we will end up with frames that have decimal points, which we will have to delete and come down into the settings and turn those frame numbers into whole numbers. So now we're going to go back into our settings on. We're going to go into the animation tab, and there were going to look for attentions on. We are going to change the default tension type now when I'm normally working. I do work with auto attentions turned on and that is how Maya Inter Pilates the animation. However, for the purpose of this exercise, I'm gonna change both of the tangent types in and out to linear. I'm doing this'll Teoh demonstrate that when you place two key frames down inside of Maya like this, Meyer will interpret late the in between space in between as 50% of that movement, and it will always place my objects right in the middle. This is normally the worst type of in between that you can possibly create and will normally be frowned upon by every animator. But it's a great way of showing students that this is the wrong in between. As we create more motion, you're going to see that that motion is always looking linear and wrong by default, because the purpose of this exercise is that we're going to create the appropriate spacing by hand. 3. Spacing keys for Easing-In: spacing is all about understanding how things move across the screen and what we're going to be doing in this first exercise is understanding how to ease in tow an action, which is an animated terms for describing how things slowed down. Now we have to be very specific in terms of creating key frames and positioning our objects specifically where we want them on screen. This exercise should teach you how many frames do I need toe accurately describe emotion and hopefully get you familiar with using some of the basic animation tools. So let's dive straight in. We're going to create an animation of the capsule moving from screen left to right on. We're gonna have it come down to a slow stop at the end. We're going to start off by limiting our frames to just 10 frames on screen on. We're not gonna worry about the timing, but just focus on where we need to place our key frames. I'll come over to frame one, and I will set a key frame by pressing s on the keyboard, and then I'll drag the capsule over to frame three and all Drake to the right hand side of the screen and set another key frame over there. We're going to come back to frame one, and we're going to move the capsule off screen left. To do this, we can click on the Z axis, and as long as we've selected that at some point, if we middle mouse button drag on the canvas, we can actually move objects off the actual screen. That'll mean that our capsule will now be in between in the middle of those two positions, and it will just appear from screen left to create good spacing. We're going to add our in between and move it so that it is closer to the spacing of the previous key frame to create in ease out or we complacent closer to the spacing of the next key frame to create an ease in. Throughout this exercise, we're gonna be adding more and more frames towards the screen, right? Let's add some more frames by selecting frames two and three with shift on, dragging on the middle arrows to move them across the time line to the right, will do the same again with the next frame, and Meyer will create two in betweens on frames two and four take frame to and move it slightly towards screen left without pushing it too far to the border, and that will create an ease out of the previous frame. And we're gonna push frame four closer towards the spacing on frame five again to help us with our ease in. We can either slide through the timeline by dragging with the mouse, or we can use the period and comma keys toe actually jump through each key frame on the timeline. We're going to continue taking the final frame and dragging it over one frame at a time and adding a new in between will do this all the way up to frame nine. With every key that we add, we're going to go back to the in between and push it ever so slightly to the right to create a new space and key. We're going to try and squeeze in as many keys as possible without going past the position of the final key frame. You'll also see that constantly is I'm working through the timeline. I'm gonna be scrubbing through a swell and seeing how the keys before and after actually influence my spacing. Feel free to make adjustments as you go along. By the time we get down to frame eight and we want to make minor adjustments, we can use the vault key and the arrows to use the nudge tool. This will shift the object on your screen around by a few pixels at a time, and we can create very, very, very fine pieces of motion. If I zoom in, The nudge tool actually works in relation to how close you are to the object, so you could be remarkably precise. So we have all of our frames. Let's start thinking about how to play back our animation. First of all right, click on your timeline and go up to playback speed and check that your playback speed is actually set to riel time, then inside of my 2019. Specifically, we have a new tool which allows us to cash are playback. Push this button on and Maya will write your animation out to disk, and you compress the play button on your timeline and it will play back in real time. Now don't freak out because it's still playing back really quickly because we haven't timed our animation yet, and these nine frames are less than 1/3 of a second. But as we spent so much time getting the spacing right, you're going to see that to re timed this animation is going to be really easy. We're going to make the timeline slightly longer by clicking on the right box and adding some more frames. And then we will shift select frames 1 to 9 and click on the left Arrow to stretch the keys across time. We're gonna do this, too, about three times the amount so will drag it to around frame 27 on. Then we will right click and press snap to make sure that all the keys are locked onto a whole key frame. Press the play button on the right to play back your animation. Now, in real time and without much adjustment, we've already started to create a much smoother type of animation, so you might be wondering why this technique is important. Well, on the top, I have a new animation made with just two key frames, and Maya and Maya is trying to ease into the final frame by default, while the bottom is the animation that we've just made notice how they feel different. They're moving the same amount of space across the screen from left to right. But they're doing it in different ways because the in between spacing is different. If you're struggling to tell the difference, practice the exercise again, and this will help you develop your eye for spacing and to start off understanding how to ease in and out. 4. Animate with Lead and Follow: every object has a center of mass, and this is the main rotation point of an object. As an animator, you can change where the center of mass is to create different types of leading actions. Now, even with our simple capsule rig, we can create our position key frames like we did before. And now we're gonna add in rotation key frames. Now the rotations can also favor certain frames. And if those frames drags slightly behind that, the position key frames will start creating something that's called overlapping action, which will create a very fluid and lifelike feel. Toe are animations, so let's dive straight into the next exercise. So previously we were animating by selecting the middle controller and rotating and moving the capsule from there. However, if we select the bottom controller, you'll see that it has a different pivot point, and we can actually move and rotate the capsule from the bottom. We're going to try and create the illusion that as we move the object from the bottom, it's going to lean back more and more. Almost a ziff. It was being pulled along by a rope, so let's start blocking out our animation by grabbing the capsule on frame one and moving it to screen left. That's press, Esther said. Akif frame. And then we'll go over to frame five, and we will also drag the capsule to screen right this time and press s again for another Keith. Now let's come back to frame three, which is the middle position, and we will have our in between. And we will move the capsule slightly to screen, right so that it favors the fifth frames spacing so we can raise a nice ease in, well working. Remember to scrub through the time line a few times to visually check your spacing as you go along. It's important to set our keys manually. If we made this section, Only using auto key will run into a spacing era where you see that as I move the capsule up on frame three. The capsule will remain up as it goes into frame. Five. This is because auto key only keyed the Z axis, which is what we animated as it moved across the screen now to avoid thes issues. What we need to do is set a key manually on frame five and then come back to frame three and move it up and you'll see that we start having the capsule moving up the screen and back down to the position we'd originally keyed. Always remember to set your keys manually. Back in our scene, we're going toe. Add more in betweens on frames two and four to greet and ease out by favoring the spacing of frame one and ease into frame. Five by doing the same thing will then add more in betweens to the edges of our frame range . Now I've built some custom buttons to speed up my workflow on my shelf on. I can add in betweens without selecting and dragon on the timeline. If you'd like to do this to please watch the first appendix video where I show you how to customize your workflow, we're going to keep on adding new in betweens on either side of the starting frame in the end frame until we have 11 keys on our timeline. Now, if you're ever in doubt on how much to move the rig when sitting in between, remember that we just have to move it slightly beyond the halfway point, favoring either the start frame or the end frame. Remember to scrub through your timeline a few times to get a visual feel of. If you're spacing is working, let's work now on adding rotations to create some drag, select all the rotation properties in the channel box and right click and press delete Selected. This will remove all the keys on the rotations, which we were not currently using. We can start animating them now from scratch. Create a key on frame one by pressing s to set our initial rotation. And now let's change our rotation space from world toe object so that the gizmo follows along with our rotations. Will do this by pressing and holding the e key and left mouse button drag and drag onto the object space. Now let's go back to frame six and rotate the capsule back a few degrees. We already have the start of seeing the rotations drag behind, but we need to add more keys to improve the rotation. Spacing. Let's go to frame nine on set A key frame by pressing s on our keyboard on, then will go over the frame 11 and will rotate the capsule up until it's almost vertical if we come back to frame to who will space the rotations the same way as with the positions, the rotations will initially be small and ease out of frame. One. We can place our mouse tip on the top point of the capsule rig and use the commander period keys to scrub through the animation. The tip of the mouse could be used as a visual reference of where we need to position the top of the capsule. We will then try to leave the tip of the capsule dragon behind and on frame, for it will just have to point back towards the general position of the previous frame that's come over to the end of the timeline and extend our frames to 14. We can then go into the Rotate X property in the channel box and said its value to zero orochi will automatically said a key, and we can now work backwards, making the rotation spacing very small around frame 14 and larger. As we get to frame 11 you can play back your scene, or you can scrub through the timeline to check to see if your animation flows correctly. Scrubbing has the advantage that you get a sense of how fast something needs to be moving so we can extend our timeline, select all the frames as we did before and read time section by extending the key friends by clicking left arrow and snapping them to the timeline. Remember that in animation, it's not important to get things right the first time round. Even on looking back at this playback, I can always make small adjustments to the timing by selecting key frames on moving them over. Even adding two extra keys in the right place changes the way the animation feels, and I don't need to really change any of my keys. I just need to add more time in the timeline. 5. Essential Graph Editor tools: the graph editor is a great tool that animators used to create refinements to their animations. You could be very precise because you can actually, visually see the spacing of your animations as a line on a graph. Now we're not gonna learn every feature inside of the graph editor, but we're going to focus on two main aspects that we're going to use. The 1st 1 is we're going to learn how to smooth out our animation by removing any bumps or hitches in the curves. And then we're also gonna learn how to re time things so that we can move things in time inside of the graph editor as well. So with that, let's dive straight in. Now that we've got our animation mostly late out, we can add additional detail by growing into the graph editor. We can do this by going into Windows Animation editor graph editor, and I'll bring up the graph editor, which weaken drag to the side and docket to the side of our view. Port will need to select our central controller to bring up the animation curbs which reflect the key frames in the timeline, except that here we can also see the spacing we've currently been animating in the Translate Z channel on in the Rotate X Channel as well. Here we can see as theme curve gets larger, spacing is further apart in between each key. One of the things we can do smooth are tension keys out. We can do that either in the timeline, by selecting all the keys and go into tangents and switching to automatic. Or we can use the buttons, which are on the top of the curve editor as well. Part of what we're going to be doing is smoothing out the curves and reducing any bumps that may appear will do this by going in closer to each individual key we consume in by using the same view port navigation controls to select keys. It's actually easier to drag and select on a specific key, then is to click on it. Maya seems to have a very small hit area, and what we want to do is drag the keys up and down while using the shift key so that it only moves up and down and not left and right at the same time, so that we can adjust how these tangents actually work, we can see that the curve becomes shallower and shallower on this is to reflect. The object is easing in. At the end of the timeline, we can see that the line is perfectly straight across our screen and this means that the object has stopped moving. The graph editor doesn't allow us only to smooth things out, but we can go into thier rotate X key, and we can manipulate multiple frames at a time. If we scrub over to this key and we drag it up so that it is horizontal, the angle of the capsule will now be moving at a constant angle so we can select both Caries and move them up, and that will increase the angle. Or we can also do the opposite and grab both keys. Drag them down and the angle will be less pronounced like that. The graph editor can allow us to experiment with our spacing and not really worry about making changes, which we can just undo with a few clicks. We can also manipulate the tension handles toe, add additional level of smoothness to the animation. It is always easier to do this by clicking and dragging on a key and then clicking and dragging on a handle to make an easy selection. We want to add some empty keys at the beginning of our animation. We have to select all of the channels and then all of the keys and shift and drag to the right to move our animation across time. Remember that in the graph, editor time is represented by the horizontal axis, and spacing is represented by the vertical access. We can now play back our animation, and we can also make additional changes inside the timeline. Even modifying the timing by two frames at the end can help us just add a little bit of polish. 6. Master Anticipation & Overshoots: to make our animations visually clear. We're going to use to key principles First, which is anticipation and the lumber, which is over shooting Anticipations are small moves that happened before the main action starts moving. This will attract the attention of the viewer and help that visual clarity over shooting is what happens when objects come to a stop, which they should never jarringly stop on a single frame but have a number of frames that go over and past the main motion and come to a settle. Let's see how we can use these techniques inside of our work. Let's pick up our rig and think about the minimum keys necessary to describe the motion of the capsule anticipating moving to screen, left over shooting and then settling to a stop in. The timeline will go to frame one and said, Our initial key, then on frame to we will anticipate to the right while dragging the top of our capsule towards the left in frame. Three. This will be the mid position of the movement, with the top still dragging further behind. We will then go to frame for, and we will overshoot past the end position and we will add some overlap to the top of the capsule as it rotates past the base on frame five. We will have another smaller overshoot this time in the opposite direction on the left, just moving a little bit to the right on adding a rotation towards the screen. Right as well. Onda. We will finish off on frame six, moving it slightly to the left and ending up with the capsule perfectly vertical. As we flip through these six frames, we can start seeing the initial blocking of our movement. Let's add a few in betweens on frames two and four to start describing the ease out and change of direction of the capsule when we have large changes spacing, weaken, copy frame three by right, clicking on the timeline and pasting it into frame for also by right clicking on the timeline and choosing paste. We will modify frame for later, but we're saving its current position now to allow us to keep track of where we want this in between. On frame to we will favor the spacing towards free and one keeping the tip almost stationary like we did in the previous exercise. Now Let's go back to frame for and move the position of the capsule slightly to screen left and rotate the capsule just to the right, past its vertical position to show a change of direction. We will also add to extra key frames off the frame. Five. Favoring the position of this frame so that we can create a nice he's out. Let's focus on the second half the animation by moving the active you in the timeline to start now on frame. Seven. Let's add in in between on frame eight on. While we're going to be moving the position of the capsule to favor the following frame, we will take the rotations and move the drag back to favor the rotation of the previous frame. This will create a nice flow toe emotion. Add another in between and frame nine this time, and we will continue to make the spacing tighter and tighter, favoring the position of the next frame on the rotation of the previous frame. Every time we see a big pop in the motion, it is a sign that we need to add additional in betweens. This convey very from scene to scene, but let's came to new adding another in between on frame 10 to create a change in direction on the overshoot will add a new in between on frame 12. We will also copy the previous key and paste it toe help favor the position of the previous frame. However, the rotation will overlap and head further towards the left of the screen. Now let's go ahead and add two more betweens this time on frame 13 and 15 on frame 13. Let's favor the position of the next frame. But again, let's continue to drag the rotation behind towards screen left. The spacing here could be a little smoother. Let's add another between this time on frame 14 and continue to play with spacing Well, then go over to frame 16 under. Just the in between, we will position the capsule slightly more into screen left, and then we consume in to see some further detail will take the rotations and we'll roll the capsule to the right so that there's a visual dip. When it moves, we will then add another in between on frame 17 and we will roll the capsule to those right well, moving its position slightly to the left so it gets closer to the final frame. All that remains is for us to have three more small in betweens. But these are only gonna be small rotations that are going to go left right on, then left again. We're going to keep pushing the final frame across the timeline and we should finish off on frame 22 scrubbing through weaken. See the detail of the animation that we've created. It's a good time to look into the graph editor in the next exercise and see if we can add any further refinements. 7. Animate a Character Jump: So I've come to the part of the project where we're gonna put everything together and we're gonna create that very simple character Jump. Now we're gonna use our little character, Rick, and make him jump across the screen. But using the same workflow that we've used so far, we will always block out the main poses first. And then we will add a Siris of in betweens and later on you should be comfortable now with moving things, scrubbing through the timeline and also repositioning the timing of your key frames so you can create a fluid jump. Now we're gonna take it step by step, So let's dive straight in. Now. We can make our capsule rig more character like if we go into the display layers tab and press the first box on the islands to reveal the characters eyes, even though we revealed these controllers were actually going to animate them last. But we do want to keep them at this point. Now, let's start posing. Grab the top yellow controller and rotate the eyes to the side so it looks like he's looking to screen. Right? Okay, well, we're animating. We're going to be using all of the supplying controllers for creating our character jump. So it's really important that we select and key all of the controls at the same time by clicking and dragging on the screen and pressing s on every key. So let's start by blocking out our main poses to describe our character. Jump on the first frame, select the bent controllers and lean the character back slightly. Now go to frame to and rotate the middle controls to make him lean right in anticipation. Post before the jump, select both bend controls by pressing que on. Then revert to the rotate. Tool will select the top controller and change its pivot to object. And then we will squash it down in the Y axis. Roberto at a small rotation at the bottom of the character as well. No in frame three leaned the capsule forward to help describe the takeoff position at a bit of a bend to the body and stretch the body a little bit to screen. Right to really given the impression that he's jumping off, we really want to create the impression that he is also rolling forward slightly. Now. Frame four will be our main breakdown and we will pose the top of the jump here will bend the body back a little bit, and we will also rotate the main body controller back as well to create a bit of contrast in the pose frame. Five will be the post just before the landing and the body back a bit more and use the main controller to point the body back towards the previous frame. It's a great time to add some stretch to the body and keep the flow of the animation. But don't forget to leave a small space just between in the body and the floor. Then we will land on frame six. Here. We're gonna have a big shape change with the impact, so we're gonna squash him down but still keep the position and rotation dragging towards the previous frame frame. Seven will be overshoot as he rolls forward. Let's keep a little bit of squash. Aziz. Well, now in frame eight will be our final frame on. This would just be the recovery, so he's gonna be pretty much vertical. But feel free to lean the capsules slightly to the right. Now. Let's review opposes by plane back our animation, and you can also feel free to pause the video at different stages here and try to look very closely at the poses that I've created and tried to make your own. Now let's refine our blocking by working our way down the timeline and adding in betweens for every single key that we've created. So let's go forward and added in between on frame to and favor the spacing of frame one. This is gonna be a subtle motion before the anticipation so we can see a big changes. The character squashes down. Create a new in between on frame four on Let's refine the takeoff position. Lean the capsule to the right with the main body controller, and let's stretch it up a little bit. We want to create a nice line as the character takes off, adding in between on freight six and favor the rotation towards the takeoff pose. And let's also take the position and favor the spacing towards the top of the jump. Start thinking of creating arcs with your spacing on the jump, so add a little bit of a curve as we go up. Let's keep adding more in betweens on frame eight will favor the spacing of the top of the jump and pull the capsule back a little bit, and there will start also stretching the body a little bit. Now lean him back so that we can follow the ark of the jump on the way down. We have enough frames on the impact, so we're just gonna skip forward and add a new in between on frame 11 to favor the spacing off the overshoot. As the character lands, it has to rotate quickly and get into the next pose on frame 12. Here you may need to adjust your spacing of frame 12 and 11 and you'll notice that I need to move the position of the capsule back and forth after I rotate the capsule. This is to make it look like it's actually rotating from the base. To help us visualize the spacing of the arcs, we can use tools like the editor will motion trail. We'll do this by going into Visualize Creditable Motion Trail, and this will draw a spline curve on our screen, which will show the spacing of the capsule. The spacing of our jump should follow a parabolic curve. But to make this trail more curve like, we do need to add more in betweens, especially around the top of jump. To delete the editor Bill Motion Trail, click and drag on any line section of the trail and press delete on your keyboard. We will add additional spacing on the top of jump and focus in adding in betweens on frames 68 10 and 12 frames eight and 10 are at the top of the jump. So they were both favor the pose on Framed nine. The rotations on the bend of the body should actually help describe his swing as the capsule jumps through the middle section of the jump. Remember always to tighten the positioning at the top of the jump and rotate the capsule to the right on frame eight, and we will rotate it to the left on frame. 10 frame. Six will favor the spacing of frame seven as the capsule quickly leaves the ground and goes straight into the jump. Now that we have enough frames, we can use the motion trail to refine the shape of our arc on the way up. Now let's go to frame 12 and favor the spacing of the previous frame place we currently need to add the most in betweens is where the rig changes direction at the top of the jump , you may have noticed that there is too much spacing between frames 12 and 13. That's because we're actually missing and in between here, so the number of frames going up should equal the number of frames going down in a jump. Let's add 10 blank frames at start of our animation. Just I have a small pores before the jump. Going back to frame one will add a very minor rotation to both bend controls. This will create a moving hold, a subtle motion that will just keep the character of life for a few pixels on screen. We'll add in betweens now on our new frame number 12. Add a little bit more drag to the rotations and favor frame 11 just so that it drags out. We'll add two extra in betweens again at the top of the jump, which is now situated in frames 20 and 22. Use the nudge tool for pushing the rig a few pixels at a time and then rotate the capsule so that it favors the previous frame, and then the following frame come into the end of the animation, we will need to add more in betweens to define the settle at the end of the jump will push our last two frames down the timeline, and we will create a settled by adding to rotation poses at a time. On frame 31 we will rotate screen left, adding in between on frame 32 we'll add more rotation to the left. There is an in between. I forgot to put in a frame 30 but now we can go back on. Do do the opposite swing by adding more in betweens on frame 34 35. We'll swing the capsule to screen right this time of those two frames, but it will be a swing that's less pronounced than the previous one. Then we will go to frames 36 37 and swing it a little bit to the left. Add one more in between on frame 37 add a tiny swing to the right. Return your animation so there is now a key frame every two frames while scrubbing through make adjustments by removing time in between frames where we want to change the timing. Or we can take the last keys of the swing and double their timing. Spend some time zooming in and adding a small rocking motion to the capsule. Looking back, we can see that we need a very small amount of time to do a jump. But the time to settle is much longer. In the graph it weaken. Smooth out any bumps we see in the Y axis in the X axis, we will remove all the keys in between the takeoff on the landing. We can smooth out the Z rotation, but during the landing we should expect to see a few bumps here. Z rotation can also be smoothed out. By changing the height of the curve with scale tools, we could make the settle more pronounced or more subtle. Have the capsule swing until it stops naturally. Lastly, we can offset the keys of each bend control by selecting them in the timeline and pushing them forward one or two frames. So create some quick overlap. Now check your animation for one final time, and if you wish, you can watch the second appendix video to learn how to render out video 8. Appendix 1: Pluggins & Scripts: plug ins are a great way of optimizing your animation workflow. One of the plug ins that I recommend to use is between machine, which you can find if you Google search for Get hub and Twin Machine. And that will take us to the Get home page, which we can scroll down and click on the download button to download the latest version of Twin Machine. If we navigate into a downloads folder and open up Zip, we will look inside the folder for the Mel version of Tween Machine, and we will copy the files between machine on the XML library into our documents. Meyer, 2019 Scripts now open up Meyer and in the Mel command line. Type in Tween machine semi colon with the M capitalized that will open up the between machine interface. Now Twin Machine works by allowing us to go in between two key frames and set a break down . We can control the spacing of that breakdown by moving the slider left and right to fever either the previous key frame or the following key frame. Now this basing could be read as a percentile on the read out at the top and it's important to know that all the key friends we create our linear and move in a straight line if we moved capsule up. So we create a diagonal line across the screen, go into the middle and then put a key frame slightly towards the initial position. What will happen is that we manually have to move the capsule down to start drawing out an arc by hand and come into another key frame, set another in between and then move it down a swell so that when we scrub back weaken, start seeing a curve appear. Let's load some custom scripts by opening up the script editor, which is in the bottom right hand corner and let's go to file load script. Now I've created a Scripts folder that should be available with your skill share project. Andi. I will have a file called my Useful scripts dot mel Select and copy the blue Tween machine semi colon script and drug it into the shelf with the middle mouse button. We can also save the following to remove in between and add in between scripts by selecting them and this time going into file save script to shelf. This will also allow us to add a name to the button, and I'll use just a plus and a minus key. We can further customize our interface by going into the shelf editor on the little gear at the right hand corner. We can then make sure that we're on the right shelf. On that. We select between machine script, go to the folder, and in our hard drive, we can navigate to where there is the Tween machine icon. Now you can call up between machine whenever you want to, and you don't have to type in the Mel command. Our new plus and minus buttons will allow us to add in betweens and removed them at the click of a button. This will push all of the key frames on the timeline left and right accordingly. This is also very useful when we have key frames that are very closely packed together, we will have to go on to frame to and push the plus button, and that will roll the key frame to the right, making number two and in between frame, and we can do the same on number four, and it will push the key frame again to the right to finish off. We're gonna execute some scripts by creating some custom hot keys. We can do this by going into Windows, settings and preferences. Hot keys. They will bring up the hockey editor. Now we can do placate our entire list of hot keys by going into the gear tab hit in duplicate, and we will give it the name Hot Keys, who then go into runtime command editor on Go Back to Our Scripts Editor and select the script, which has multiple lines at the bottom, and we will copy it by selecting it and pressing control. See on our keyboard. Back in the hockey editor, let's press the new button and give our script and name. We'll call this one toggle spines, and then we will come down to the text box and press Control V to paste our script. Something that I forgot is that the hot key name can't have any spaces in between it. So just change the space for a underscore on. Then I'll press the save button again. Now let's come over to the Edit hockey's four panel and choose custom scripts. Here. I'll have a list of all of the scripts that I have saved and the hot keys that I can assign to them. If I click on the right Most panel, I can choose a keyboard shortcut for my Topol splaying script and are used the letter T for this one For the removed key frames are used control, comma and for ad in between our use control period. Remember to press save and you're all set. Now. If we come back to the interface and we used Tiki, we can show and hide our splints, which is very useful. While animating Onda. We can also add in betweens and remove in betweens by using the hot keys instead of the buttons. 9. Appendix 2: Playblast & Rendering: In order to save a video of our animations, we're gonna have to go and set a project. First, we're gonna go to file set Project Navigato a skill share folder and choose Select folder or tell Mayer to create a default workspace. And now, any images we play, blast will be saved inside our project. We're gonna turn off the display over here by clicking the button, turn off the grid and then we're going to right. Click on the timeline and click the options box for bringing up the options of the play blast. Our change, the type of video we're going to save. Two Quick time, which is Q t and change the compressor toe H 264 Hope boost up the quality to 80% on if you're on a PC. You might have trouble seeing quick time since Apple stops supporting quick time for PC a few years ago. So you might have to go and download something that's called quick Time alternative, which is a plug in that somebody made. If you're on a Macintosh, you can use a V Foundation Now back in Mayer, let's change the render size to use rent settings. Turn the scale up to one, and let's reduce the frame patting down to one. We can then tick the box to say file, and we can give it a folder, location and descriptive name. Push the play blast button and admire will effectively do a screen grab of every frame in your timeline and pack it into a little video for you. This is the normal way that animates is share their work for review. However, if we want to render out, are seen for presentation will have to go into Windows Out liner on Reveal a area light which is hidden inside are seen press shift H to reveal the light, and then we will go into the render settings. Now, in the common panel, we will choose the image type by pressing PNG. There, we will come down to the frame animation panel and choose name hashtag extension so that it will save an image sequence. Unfortunately, Mayer does not render out videos, so we also have to choose our start frame and our end frame. So we're gonna be rendering out in our world, so I'm gonna have to go into render render sequence and choose the option box to bring up the properties and confirmed that we're going to be rendering the front camera before we were ready. With impressed render sequence on Arnold will spend a little bit of time rendering out every single frame. Be aware that this could take a long time, so I'm just gonna pause the video and jump into the end. So we will end up with a folder with all the images saved inside here, and we have to piece them together into an image sequence. At the time of recording this video, I didn't have any software available to me, so I had to use photo shop. But the process works pretty much the same for any video editing software they might have. We'll just have toe locate our file inside a photo shop in this case, and go into open and choose one image and tick the image sequence check box here and hit open. Well, you can confirm that frame rate is 30 frames a second, as it was in our project. Are images should now be pasted together into a sequence which we can play back, and then we will export the file by going to file export rented video, we'll choose folder location for us to save our new folders. I'm going to go into my movies folder in the project. I'll give it a new name. I don't check. My settings are all correct. That is rendering NH 264 Good quality on press. OK, OK, just push the red button. We'll end up with a movie file that will play back are rendered animation. 10. Final Thoughts: so well done on making it to the end of the class. I hope you've developed a new appreciation for spacing inside of Maya and that you can start applying these principles to your own work. Key takeaways that I want you to take away from this class is really that you can't give Maya too many in between key frames to do by itself. And it's your responsibility. Is the animated toe actually create those key frames? Hopefully, you've also learned how to use techniques like anticipation, arcs, overlap and follow through to create more fluid types of animation. And even with very basic position and rotation, we can create very appealing poses that will create fantastic animation. Now I want to take this even further because this is just the beginning of some of the foundational skills that you need. As an animator, I hope to create a few more classes on skill share where we'll take these principles even further and get closer and closer, creating mawr complex character animation with more complex rigs and more principles. But let's take it one step at a time. Practice these foundational exercise as much as you can until you've mastered them perfectly, and I'll see you in the next class. Until then, happy animating