Music Theory Essentials : Chords, Scales and Modes | Tomas George | Skillshare
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Music Theory Essentials : Chords, Scales and Modes

teacher avatar Tomas George, Music + Audio Production Instructor

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Section 1 Introduction

      0:29

    • 2.

      Scales Introduction

      3:08

    • 3.

      Working out a Major Scale

      6:45

    • 4.

      Working out a Major Key from a Melody

      5:51

    • 5.

      Major Keys and Scales

      1:54

    • 6.

      Major Scale on a Score

      2:56

    • 7.

      Triads

      3:37

    • 8.

      Inversion

      3:21

    • 9.

      Working out the Chords in a Major Scale

      9:26

    • 10.

      Different Ways to Write out Chords

      4:11

    • 11.

      Working out Major and Minor Triads

      7:01

    • 12.

      Diminished and Augmented Triads

      5:22

    • 13.

      7th Chords

      12:16

    • 14.

      Extended Chords

      6:34

    • 15.

      Suspended Chords

      6:02

    • 16.

      Circle of 5ths

      12:48

    • 17.

      How to Change Key

      14:54

    • 18.

      Natural Minor Scale

      11:21

    • 19.

      Chords in the Minor Scale

      5:59

    • 20.

      Harmonic Minor Scale

      7:15

    • 21.

      Melodic Minor Scale

      11:12

    • 22.

      Modes

      3:54

    • 23.

      1 - Ionian

      0:47

    • 24.

      2 - Dorian

      3:14

    • 25.

      3 - Phrygian

      3:14

    • 26.

      4 - Lydian

      1:21

    • 27.

      5 - Mixolydian NEW

      2:11

    • 28.

      6 - Aeolian

      1:03

    • 29.

      7 - Locrian

      3:56

    • 30.

      Section 2 Introduction

      0:17

    • 31.

      Song Analysis 1 - Capsize

      15:25

    • 32.

      Song Analysis 2 - Floating

      18:07

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About This Class

In this Music Theory Essentials class, I teach you how to write chords, understand keys, learn how to write major and minor scales, and also the 7 different modes.

The examples I show you in this course are in Logic Pro X, but the music theory I teach is applicable in all Digital Audio Workstations.

Who is this class for?

• This class is for anyone with music with theory skills and they want to further their knowledge

• This class is for anyone who wants to learn more about chords and scales to make their music sounds more interesting

• This class is for anyone who wants to learn more music theory for a bit of music

What does this class cover?

In this course, I cover:

• Major Scales

• Triads

• Inversions

• Major and Minor Triads

• Augmented and Diminished Triads

• 7th Chords

• Extended Chords

• Suspended Chords 

• How to Change Key

• The Different Minor Scales

• Modes

• Song Analysis

• and Much More!

Join me in this 3-Hour class if you want to learn more about music theory today!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Tomas George

Music + Audio Production Instructor

Teacher

Hi, Tomas here. I'm a UK Music Producer, Audio Engineer and Composer I've been producing and writing music now for over ten years. 

I have a MMus Masters Degree in Music Production and a BA(Hons) in Music Composition.

I really enjoy creating and editing all types of music, but I especially love teaching it online.

 

See full profile

Level: All Levels

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Transcripts

1. Section 1 Introduction: Hello and welcome to this section all about using music theory for writing your own music. So in this section, we're going to have a look at major scales at major keys. Then we're going to have a look at cords, and then we're going to have a look at seventh chords and then extended chords. After this, we're going to have a look at minor keys are minor scales, and then we're going to have a look modulation. And then after this, we're going to have a look at modes. So join me in this section. We're going to use music theory for writing your own music. 2. Scales Introduction: Hi. In this lecture, we're going to talk about scales. So why do we care so much about scales? Why scale so important? If you ever did piano lessons or maybe guitar lessons, you might have spent a lot of time playing scales, but not really knowing why You need to know scales and to be honest, scales are super super important. Scales really shows the patterns of music without known scales. We can't create cords of that known scales. We can't really create melodies. Did you actually have two different types of scales? We have chromatic scales on diatonic scales, so chromatic scales really mean that you can play any notes so the piano chromatic will be actually all of the notes someone after ever going along. This is a chromatic scale, and diatonic quite simply means the notes fit in a scale or a pattern in diatonic music. Sometimes you can have a few notes that go out of the scale, but generally, when the notes fit in this pattern or scale, it means diatonic. Sometimes you might hear someone say there's a chromatic section in the song. All that really means is there's a bit that goes out of the pattern where the notes a little bit more random than notes, a little bit more wild. Sometimes chromatic music can sound quite strange, quite dissonance. But all chromatic really means is any of the notes so notes that don't necessarily fit in a pattern or scale. Apart from the chromatic scale, which is, quite simply, all of the notes on the piano keyboard and the diatonic would be maybe a major scale, a minor scale and as a few of the scales we're going to look at as well. So, like I said, Scales is super important because they allow us to work out chords that allows the workout melodies allows watching know how to build music on. In this course, I'm going to show you how you can actually work out a major scale on a minor scale through a few simple patterns. I'm not going to get you to memorize a load of things in this course. It's just a couple of simple things that we're going to look at in the next lecture about a major scale. That's all I really wanted to say about scales because sometimes when you're learning instrument scales, conceding kind of boring and dull, but they are super important. So please don't miss any of these lectures about scales, especially if you're new to music theory, because they can really help you out when you're composing your own music. So what I'm going to teach you is the rules of music theory. However, you can break these rules, but you do need to know the rules before you break them. But I do recommend going for learning how to create a major scale minor scales on other types of scales as well. And then you can experiment. Then you can create some distant music. Then you can create something that's a bit more free. But if you look at the top musicians, the ones who create mawr free music, the ones that don't necessarily always stick to the rules, they also know what the rules are and when to break them. So thank you, fortune. It's lecture just about scales. In the next lecture, we're going to have a look at creating a major scale 3. Working out a Major Scale: okay, In this lecture, I'm going to show you how you can work out any major scale. So there are a couple of ways to knowing a major scale. The first way is to memorize all of the notes have the other way is to just use this really simple pattern. And that way you can quickly work out the major scales. If you do play the instruments, it is advisable to kind of Noel the major scales. It can be quite useful. But if you're new to music theory on, you just want to jump in and compose. I definitely recommend just using this pattern so you can work out any major scale. So for demonstrations sake, we're going to use C major, which is just the white notes. So from sea to sea C two c, just the white nights. The reason we're going to use C Major is from a visual point of view, it's very easy to see. It's just the white notes on the pattern that we usedto work out. A major scale is tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So T t s t t T s. Just remember, there's two semi tones in there. So it's two tones and then the first semi tone on then free tones on then the second semi tone. So starting with a tone all of Tony's is two notes. So if you go between so if we just count up on the keyboard to notes, so starting on C going up. So C sharp 12 which is day on a semi tone, is just quite simply going One note. So we go up a tone from, say, this will give us day big up another tone. This will give us a bigger up a semi tone your notice between e and F. It's just one note we get f And then if you go up another tone. So up from this note here this f sharp to J then you go. I never tone a never tone to be Then the semi tone which will lead us back to see So just remember t t s t t T s. That's all we really need to remember. I'm going to demonstrate this on the piano roll keyboard as well. So if you're not a keyboard player, you're used to using this piano roll editor. That's actually have a look here, so we're going to start with C, and then we'll have a look at a few of the keys as well. So the 1st 1 to say here, huh? On their remember it's a T tone, so I can't want to Is a day the Macao one to give us an eighth. It's not here and then So it's tone tone, semi tones. So we need to count a 17. Now. It will give us this one here, which is an F. They're remember tone, which will bring us so can't up, one to which will give us G and then tone again toe 12 which will give us a and then turn again, one to give us be not that not just drive you up after a while playing your major skills to be able to hear when notes are wrong as well. You recognize this pattern off a major scale on the last one is just one semi tone to bring us to see. So if I play this back now, I'm sure you recognize this is a major scale, but let's just play it. There is a shortcut way of actually moving keys, which is to drag all of the notes and then simply move this pattern to another note. So if I move this up to date, this will play a D major scale now. So that's kind of the short cut way, so you could always just start and see and then move upwards. But I do recommend starting in your key on building from there because it does make a lot more sense, especially when you're building chords on adding notes, which we will be looking at later on. So let's just go back to see. So remember, it's just tone tone, summit tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. Now let's start on a different note. Let's start on Jake. So this is never key. It's a major key, starting on a different note, which is G. So if you know the piano keyboard, the G is five nights up from C and then same persons before, So we have a tone up from J. So one to give us this one a tone up again. Want to this one bay than cemetery? Then we have a tone to give his day atone a tone again So we get this note here, which is an f sharp. So all of the keys Apartment C will have one of these black notes as well as the white notes. And then we have a J. It ends cemetery at the end. I'm just going to type this into the musical typing. Just in case you prefer working with musical typing instead of a keyboard is the first night Here is a J. So let's talk this in and then a tone above. So remember, account to notes up, that's all the tone really means. So I want to So we get this one a tone again. It was this one b semi tone this tight. Remember T t s t t T s. If you just take away. One thing from this lecture is just tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. Just remember that. Write it down somewhere. That's really how you build a major scale. That's what I'm trying to demonstrate right now. So just remember semi tone here going up again, a tone up again, a tone to give us this day again a tone which would give us this f sharp. That's right, they have shop and then a semi tone should give us A J. We can start any of the 12 notes. So any of these and that way we use this pattern that will give us the major scale when writing a major scale or you do is call it by its root name. So this starts on a G. So this is a G major scale. There are things called modes which will look at later on, which is basically where we have a scale. But we start on a different route note. But don't worry about that right now. This is how we write a major scale. So just remember, I've said it. Ah, lot already. This is one. The few things or to remember in this course tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So two tones, one semi attain free tones, one semi tone. That way you can work out a major scale in any key. So thank you for watching this lecture. I hope you found it useful. So you know how to write out a major scale 4. Working out a Major Key from a Melody: hi. In this lecture, we're going to look at working out a major key from a melody. So here's just a quick four bar melody I just wrote. I am using the Digital Audio workstation Logic Pro American spot between the score editor on the piano roll editor for Learning Music Theory. I do recommends knowing how to read the score editor and also the piano roll editor. However, I do know there are fantastic composers that just use school editor and also fantastic composers that just use a piano roll editor. So don't worry if you could only use one of them but for producing modern day electronic music. A lot of people will use primarily the piano roll editor and also for composing classical music. Orchestral music and there are lots of people will primarily use school editor, So don't worry too much if you know only one of these for now. So I'm just going to play about this melody on. Then let's work out and analyze this melody and find out what major key this melody is in so it can seem quite complex at first, but this is a very simple melody. It sticks toe all the rules, All the notes fit in a major key. We're going to work out now. So this is why it sounds quite normal. Quite boring, because we're not really trying anything exciting here. This is just a melody that fits in a major key. But to start with is good to know the rules. It's good to know how to work this out. So we have a number of notes here. So this is the melody here. The first thing I'm going to do in this piano roll editor is actually write out the notes of the melody. Okay, so let's type in these notes that we used in the melody. So I'm just going to simply look at the notes and then talked them in. So the 1st 1 here is a G. Then we have a bay. Then we have here C G B C D. I'm just going to put these in first on the way we can work this out is by looking at the tonal and semi tonal movements between each note. It's similar to working out a puzzle. We can use this to work out which pattern or which major key it is we're actually working with okay? And next we have an A and then we have this of shop and then up again to a J, which is the same as the first night. So let's just say for arguments sake, we think this is in D Major, which isn't about guests. Let's have a look. So remember the pattern tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So we're going to go through that pattern now and then see if it matches with these notes here. So we have d to start with and then we go up a tone to a just that's not here. Then we go up another tone to have sharp, thin. We go to a cemetery, remember tone tone, semi tone to a G thistle fit so far and then going down. Here we go up. A tone to a neighbour isn't a here. Don't worry. We can witness out even if all the notes of the scale aren't there. Okay, so remember tone tone, we have a b and then up again a tone to see sharp. You don't have We have a c We have this note here. Not this one so it's not going to be D okay, lets go across to and a So we have a and then above we have a tone f sharp. Above this, we have another tone which is a g sharp, which is not what we have. We have a g. Okay, go to enough shop. We can't have F because you know there's enough sharp because the first night would be a tone. So it's not going to be Africa. Try f sharp the first ones a tone which would bring us to a g sharp so f sharp here tone above This is a G sharp which won't fit. Okay, now let's have a look at the key off g. So I've just changed active of this keyboard so we can see what's going on. So we have a g hear a tone above a g will give us a We don't have a name here, so let's not worry about that for now. Atone above this will give us a day. So we have a b here. A semi tone above this will give us a C. Just note we have here. So it's all looking good a tone above this will give us a day to have a day here turned above. This will give us an A. A never tone will give us an f sharp, which is the note we have here. And then finally, a semi tone will give us a G and that set a tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone. Semi tone is G major. There are a few of our obvious signs. For example, this does resolve to G a lot of the time. The tonic will be the major key as well. So this melody starting in kind of resolving around G does give us a strong indication that it could be in G Major. However, it's definitely worth going for in practice in these patterns, having their look at melodies and even writing melodies, and then going back and analyzing to find out what major key this was actually in. That's just a way we can work out what major key melody is in by using that pattern tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. To thank you for watching this lecture just about working out the major key of a melody 5. Major Keys and Scales: Hi. In this lecture, we're going toe. Continue talking more about major keys. So now we know how to actually work out a major key. And there are actually a major keys for every single letter on every single accidental. So we have all of the notes going up. Like I said, each letter on the accidental. So this could be your A C shop or a D flat. All of these notes every single one, all 12 can be a major. Keep their also minor keys. But we're going to be talking about my Nicky's later on. There's also a difference between scale on key, So the key is for the whole piece of music, and we can actually have several scales in a key. The scales can change a lots, but the key doesn't really change that. Often we can have a key change, but this is normally quite a big dramatic thing that will happen in the song or a piece of music. However, the scales can change quite often. On the cords can change all the time. All we've really talked about now are major keys on. This sounds really simple, but a general rule of thumb is if it sounds happy, the piece of music sounds happy. Is going to be in a major key on, if it sounds sad, is going to be in a minor key. Of course, this isn't always the case. There is Miley music that sounds quite happy. But generally speaking, if it's a piece of music and you had to guess whether it's major or minor the first time you've heard it, just listen. Does it sound happy? That is probably a major key, and if it sounds sad, it's probably a monarchy. That's a really simple way of putting it. But yeah, if it sounds happy, major sad, minor. So that was just a few more things I wanted to add on the form major scales and also major keys. Thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next lecture. 6. Major Scale on a Score: Okay, Now we're going to have a look at a one octave major scale in C Major ascending on descending. So basically going up and then going down. So we're starting on middle C here, which is just a line below first line on this stuff here. And remember the pattern from before t t s t t t s o tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So if we start on c, remember a tone up from here? We just count to one to give his day just day here, then a tone up from day one to give us a cemetery. Remember tone, tone, semi tone. So one will give us f turn up from F one to give us Jay tone up from J remember tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. Well, give is a never tone. Give his base of A and B and then it's just semi time from here we're going to see so that's just one active up in C major and then if the same, but going down. So it's just a c major scale. Really simple. Okay, let's now have a look at a different scale f major, so it's the same pattern as before. It's quite similar to see Major apart from this note here, which is a B flat. Remember this sign here? It means a flat. So we have a B flat. So she's tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So tone up from Effort J. A turn up from G A semi tone from a will give us this one here. This to be flat and then the tone up from here on to give us a C turn up again will give us a day turned up from day one to give us this e then semi tone. Give us this effort end. That's just f major sending on descending skate. Remember, it's the other way around for descending, so descending the pattern will be semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. But this easier just to remember, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone descending is backwards. But that's another pattern that you don't really need to remember right now. Just member t t s T s. So I thought I'd show you this on the score editor as well. In case you're more comfortable with score editor rather than the piano roll editor. I think it's a good idea to learn both. So I'd say it's important to use this piano roll editor for digital audio workstations. Like able to live. However, I do think it's important to learn the score editor. Also, especially if you're working with may be jazz musicians or classical musicians who used to reading on working with sheet music. So thank fortune. It's lecture just about working at a major scale and looking at it on the school. 7. Triads: Hi and welcome to this lecture where we're going to be talking about triads and courts. So accord is basically more than one note played at the same time. And a triad is a free note chord which consists off the route or the first, the third on the fifth note. So let's have a look at this scale here. Your notice. I've written out a C major scale, so we have C d E, f, g, A, B and C, and then we're going to build on here the third and the fifth of each of these notes. So all we need to do the simplest way to do this, it should just count up from the note. You start on on, add on the third and the fifth. So this one here see the thirds have one to freeze this e. So if you just draw on a on and 45 is this one here? A. J Just add on J here. So this is a C chord, actually a c major chord. Later on, we'll talk more about chord progressions. So how toe work at major chord and minor chords and also accord called a diminished chord. But for now, we're just going to have a look at Triad. So the easiest way to build a triad is to just count up from the note we started up. So this one here a day. So this is the route when we talk about this, De Cord is actually a dean minor chord in the scale of C major. So the third will be this one here, which is an F and then the fifth. So is 12345 b, this one here, which isn't a since the same for all their records here as well. So we have the right here. Then the fed will be a J on. Then the fifth will be this one here, which is a bay I've just built of records as well. You notice there's no sharps or flats because we're in the key off C major. There's no sharps or flats and let's just hear this back. I'm sure you'll notice some of these called sounds. We have major chords, minor chords, and also the 74 Here is a diminished chord, and we talk about these different types of chords a bit later on. So That's a simple triad, and that's how you can quickly write them in. Toiling to do is just right at your major scale on, then build from their third on the fifth. If we go to the piano roll editor, we can see here. These calls have been written in as well, so we can write them in with the piano roll editor. So we have here C D E f G A B C. So remember tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone toward the mountain. Then we just add on the one to free this note here. 45 this note here. See, it matches up some of the 2nd 11 to freeze its this note here 45 and it's is not here. So you can write these in in the score editor or the piano roll editor on In the next lecture. We're going to have a look at something called Inversions, where we basically change around some of the octaves off these notes in the court to make it sound a bit nicer and a bit less jumpy. So thank you for watching this lecture. Just about quickly building triads 8. Inversion : Hi. In this lecture, we're going to be looking at inversions. So in the previous lecture, we wrote up the cords from major scale on. What I've done now is have just deleted some of those chords on every arranged this. So we have the 2nd 1 which is this day or D minor. We look at majors or minors and diminish later run. So don't worry about this right now. I just want to show you inversions. Then we have this 61 which is a a minor in the 1st 1 which is C then the 3rd 1 which is this e or e minor. Okay, so let's play this back. Sounds fine, but it sounds quite jumpy. If your notice doesn't sound very smooth in a pop music song, you probably won't have it sounding like this. So let's actually just arrange some of this a bit more so inverting your cords basically means just changing the octaves of some of the notes. This could be useful to make the music sound a bit smoother. So we have this one here, this e So if you bring us a down up to here in here already, it sounds a bit smoother. We could even bring this see down Octave if we chose or we could even put that back on change This one here, this CIA productive. So that sounds a lot smoother to me. Could even rearrange this deal here to this day here and now, when we look at this notes a lot closer together, so we can get this a lot smoother. It also depends on what the lead melodies actually doing. Sometimes it can be nice to have the top notes of the chord follow the melody. So if the melodies ascending or going up towards the end because always appear as well. So we do have different names for this, like root position, which is just the cords written out as the way before. So just the route, the third, the fifth, Then we have first inversion, and then we have second inversions. So these are just names to describe the different inversions. So in the first inversion in the key of C, the base would be the a, the fed of the triad. And so the fifth and the route would be above it and then second version. So in the key of C. This is where the J, the fifth of the Triad, would be at the bottom on the roots. And then you have the roots on the third above it. These are just different names for inversions. We also have fared inversions. But this is when we have bigger cause, like seventh chords, for example. So, yeah, that's inversions. I just want to show you quickly what inversions are, why people might use them. You can also do this in the Piano Row editor. A lot of the times just about making the chord sound a bit smoother on the easy way. To do this is to just rearrange some of the actives. So these notes are closer together, Really? So it just sounds more smooth and less jumpy than just having the root position or just having the regular triads. So thank you, Fortune. It's lecture and I'll see you in the next one 9. Working out the Chords in a Major Scale: So we have written that major scale we've had. Look at triads on inversions. Now we're going to actually have a look all the different chords that we get in the scale. Do you remember when we stacked up the triads? We did this for every single note here. So all seven notes of in C major C D E F G A b and then see again. So all seven notes from C to B when we start them up the route the third and the fifth. But we didn't actually talk about the major chords or the minor chords or even the one called a diminished chord. So each key we have a certain pattern we can work out which one's major, which one's a minor. Which one is diminished. And this pattern is major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. That's really important. So try and memorize this the best you can after a while. The second nature major Mind the mind. The major, major, minor, diminished major. I've said this many times before force about this many times. I just think major minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. So there are a few ways we're gonna write this, we can have a capital M for Major Andi a little M for minor and D I am dem for Diminished. What? We can have my favorite way of writing it, which is the jazz way. A triangle for major. A minus sign for minor on a circle four diminished and there's another pattern I want you to remember for this one major is five and four. Mina is four or five on Diminished is four and four. So they're the two patterns. Always remember for this lecture, so write them down. Major Minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major on major five and four Minor form five. Diminished 14 4 on with those two patterns and, of course, the tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. We can work out all the notes in the major scale or the cords of major scale and know all of the cords in every single key, which is super useful to this 1st 1 Here's major. We have minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. So remember, Major was five and four. So what? I mean by five and four. So this is the distance between third and the fifth. It's on the keyboard here, so it's including the first note. 12345 So this will give us the third. So that's right in this here. So this is a and A okay. And the Remember it was four count in the 1st 112341234 This will give us a G. So we have the sea, the third and a kinds Not 512345 and then counting up. 41234 We have the G. So that's a magical let's just but this gene as well. So remember, the next one was a minus, its major minor. The case is starting on the D. Remember the other pattern four and five for minor, so one to free forth. This note. Let's just put this in, is my big complex to start with. But once you get your head around this, it quickly allows you to write out any of the cords and also understand the different types . Of course, you can look at the cords and realize the distance between the root and the fed, and then the third in the fifth to find out if it's a major called a minor chord or a diminished chord. Remember with the 1234 and then 12345 So this is a day of minor chord you can hear now from the sea major to a D minor. So this is a major chord. Yuk. Unless there that sounds quite happy on the minor sounds quite sad. And you can see from up here as well. There's no black notes, it's just the white notes. So they're both fit in C major. So let's draw in this a then the Same for this A. Remember, it's minor. So we have a here 12 free four. Give us this Jay on, then 12 free for five we give us to be So this is quite complex Lecture. If you're new to music theory to patterns to remember, Major Minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. Okay, and then also major five and four Minor form five diminished four and four is not going to be that many more patterns I'm going to give you. But try and remember this. You say it once more major, minor minor. Major, major. Minor, diminished. Major, Major five and four Minor form five diminished four and four maybe. Take a screenshot of this. Just try. Remember it. Write it down to try and remember these patterns. The case of next is F So if you remember Major Minor by no major. So have a major now. So we have 12345 This would give his name. And then 1234 This would give us a say Okay, so next is a G. Remember, this is a major 12 free for five and then one to free four. Remember to count the first note when we have this here. So we have Jay the B and then a day. And then there's 61 here A is a minor. 1234 See is the 3rd 123458 is the fifth. Then we have this kind of weird one. The Diminished, which is formed four kind of an extreme minor, I guess. To have 1234 gives a bay and then 1234 Give us this. F can be a quite weird sounding chord. Maybe not use it all the time, especially in popular music. However, film score something a bit more unusual you can use to diminish them then, but to the sea, remember? So it's in a and then Jay see majors an easy one to work with because it's basically just a white notes. You noticed that those sharps or flats so we can work this out any key. So say we start on a major chord. We can work out all of the notes of the scale and then work at all of the cords on then know the different types. Of course we can use. So if we're playing the piano playing the guitar, we know which cause we can use in the key. So one little short cup. I don't really recommend doing this, but if you're new to writing music, it can help. You can write out all the cords in C major and then just direct them to say, and then this will give you all of the colds in a Alternatively, you can do this with the piano roll. So for this Okay, here we have 12 free for five, then 1234 gives this a so use even the piano roll all the score editor which ever one You feel more comfortable. But like I said previously, I do recommend being able to use both of these for writing, composing on working of a musician's. Okay, back to the score editor. You will notice all of these different sharps and flats and natural. So we will have to go and actually change the key logic. Pro 10. You just hit this button Here, choose the Keith. This one's a major and then just and set it, you'll notice. Now all the sharps and flats have disappeared because we have the key signature here free shops, which is a major. So this is quite an intense lecture. I have shown you how to work out all of the courts in a major scale and also how to work at a major called a minor chord on a diminished chord. So one last time before we finish this lecture and want you to remember this pattern Major , minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished Major and also this one as well. Major five and four minor Form five diminished form four. So thank you for watching this lecture all about working at the cords in the major scale 10. Different Ways to Write out Chords: Hello and welcome to this lecture where we're going to be looking at the different ways we can write the cords in a diatonic chord progression. So here we actually have the diatonic chord progression for a major Andi. This has a combination off major chords, minor chords and also this one here, which is a diminished chord. So there's a few different ways we can write this. We can use a capital M for major, a lower case M for minor or dem de I am for diminished. You can also put the letter off the court before this. So, for example, this 1st 1 here will be a means. It's a major. The 2nd 1 will have be of a lower case M, which means it's being minor on all the way to this diminish here. So this is a G sharp diminished so we can write this as Jew sharp dim. Another way to write out chords in a diatonic chord progression is the kind of jazz way with triangles, negative signs and a circle so a major will be a triangle. A minor will be a dash on. A diminished will be a circle, so here we will have a major say a of a triangle and then be minor. So be it with a dash then continuing along. We have C sharp minor so we have see shop with a dash Then we have day major so deep of a triangle Then we have a major so e of a triangle and then going along we have f sharp minor so s shop with a dash and then we have g sharp, diminished g sharp of a circle and then we go to a again A with a triangle. This is the way I like to do a lot of the time just from reading jazz scores. However, the most practical way of writing cords is probably with Roman numerals. So this goes from 1 to 7 in Roman numerals. We don't actually use the eighth. We go back to the first so the Roman numerals will tell you which quarter is so for example , the fourth chord. This one here this d major will have the letters four in Roman numerals. Also, if we have uppercase Roman numerals, this will mean Major. So, for example, this D major here will be a four in upper case. If we have lower case for example, this c sharp minor. By the way, it's a C sharp not to see because we're in the key signature off a major. So this one will be a minus to be right Roman numeral free. However lower case because that means it's minor. So up a case for major lower case for minor on for diminished we right lower case with a circle. So from seeing these Roman numerals, it will tell us what type of quarter is on which chord progression is in the scale. So if you see five, you know it's a major chord and you also know it's the fifth chord of the scale. However, if we're in another key, I've now changed these to the C major diatonic chord progression. The sea here will become the first, so depending on what key or in depends on where the Roman numerals are. Which type of Roman numerals notice in a major? The D was a d major and it had the Roman numeral off. Four now is a D minor, and this will have the Roman numeral off to a lower case too. So the Roman numerals do change and alter depending on what keep your in. So they are the three main ways you can write courts the first way it was uppercase m for Major Ah, lower case M for minor and dem d i m for diminished the second way. It was a triangle for Major, a negative sign for minor on the circle for diminished on the third way. It waas Roman numerals for uppercase Roman numeral for major lower case Roman numeral for minor on a lower case seven with a circle for the diminished seventh chord. So if you see any of the cords written out like this, you should be able to tell if the major minor or diminished to thank you for watching this lecture and I'll see you in the next one. 11. Working out Major and Minor Triads: Hello and welcome to this lecture where we're going to look at actually analyzing and working out what different chords are. So I have four codes here written on their score. We're going to go through and work out exactly what these codes are. Notice this first chord is actually in root position. We know it's in root position because we have gaps of thirds like this. When you say on the score, does it even gap of thirds like this? Notice in root position. The second code here, for example, is not in root position. Just drag this down one octave. Now you can see it's in root position. Let's just undo that and have a look at this first chord. If you remember the pattern for a major chord is 54, so that means five notes and then four notes. These five notes actually make up a major third, and the four notes actually make up a minor third on the piano here. If I play this chord, this is a D major chord. I know this because it's actually a major third between the roots and the third, then a minor third between the third and the fifth. Let's just have a look at this on the piano roll. This first code here. You can see the gap between the roots and the third is actually bigger than the gap between the third and the fifth. That's because a major third has one more semitone than a minor third. If you count up here, including the first and last note, we have 12345. So remember a major chord is 54. This is a major third, the five and the four is a minor third. Let's count up from here, including the first and the last 1234. So the first one is a major. From looking at the score, we can see because it's in root position because they're stacked evenly like this. The bottom note will give us a name of a chord. And the bottom note is of course, a day. So the first one is a D major. The second chord going along, we can see that this is not in root position because the gaps or not, even if I move this one here, you can see that now the gaps are even. Let's just have a look at the piano roll editor. It's a bit easier to see here. We can see the gap between the roots and the third is smaller. The gap between the third and the fifth is bigger. So I'm going to presume that this is a minor chord, so let's just count up. Remember minor is 45, so we need to count up 41234, then 512345. The second one is a minor. We can see here it starts on B, it's a root position. The second chord is B minor. Next is this code here. We can see this is not in root position. You can see the gaps larger at the bottom here. So let's just move this up. We have evenly spread notes here, so we can tell that this note here, this is still F sharp. By the way, this will be an F sharp cord. Let's go to the piano roll editor. We can see it's going to be a minor chord because the gap between the roots and the third is smaller than the gap between the third and the fifth. But let's just count up. We have 1234. Remember minor chord is 45. Let's count from here, 12345. So this is an F-sharp minor scale to the last chord. We can see here there's a larger gap here. Let's change this to root position just to make it easier after a while you'd be able to work out this code without changing it to reposition. But to start with, let's just change this. So this is an a. Let's move this to an I. There we go. These three notes. First one is the second one is an F-sharp. The third is an a. Let's have a look. It's actually the same as the first chord, but let's just go through. So we have a larger gap here. So this is a major third. So we have 12345. Then we have a minor third, 1234, when it's a major triad from the root to the third. Then a minor triad from the third to the fifth, a major chord. And when it's a minor triad from the root to the third. And then a major triad from the third to the fifth. It's a minor chord or a minor triad. That's how you can work out the codes. Of course, after time, after listening to a lot of music and analyzing theory should be able to hear if the cause or major or minor. But this is a way you can go in and actually analyze the notes and analyze the chords. Now we know we've got a major chord, a minor chord, a minor chord, an a major chord. We can see on the score editor and on the piano roll editor that we have a major, a minor, a minor, and a major. That's just a way of analyzing the chords. Just remember this little pattern. I'm going to say it once more. 54 for major. So between the root and the third, you need to count up 512345 and then 41234. This is for a major chord, and then from minor it's the other way round. It's a 451234, then 12345. So that's from minor, minor form, five, major 54. It's all actually based around the third. I'm just going to change this, the major to a D minor. All we need to do is drop the third, and that will change it from a major to a minor. You'll notice here 123412345. This d is now a D minor chord for triads like this. So three note chords is all about the third. If we have a minor chord and we raised the third by one semitone, will now become a major chord. We have a major chord and we drop the third by one semitone. Become a mindful. If you wanted to quickly change a chord from major to minor, we need to do is just drop the third. If you want to quickly change a chord from minor to major, or it needs to do is just raise the court in semitone. Remember though the diatonic chord progression, if you're changing a record from major to minor or vice versa, it might be out of qi. However, I recommend starting with a basic, starting with the diatonic co-op regression. And then you can always experiment, you can always change cause you don't necessarily have to stick with the diatonic chord progression, but I think it's a good place to stop. So thank you for watching this lecture, which was all about working out different triads. 12. Diminished and Augmented Triads: Okay. Now we're going to have a look at diminished and augmented courts. So going back to the diatonic chord progression in a major key, the diminished is the seventh chord. So in C major, seventh note 1234567 will be this Be so the way we work out a diminished chord is Eva to minor third stacked on each other. All we count up four notes, including the first and the last note. So starting on day 1234 would give us a day. So this is a mind offered and then another minor Third is another four notes op. So 1234 So this cold here is a diminished chord. So the actual word diminish means to shorten diminish something so diminished chord is basically a shortened course Serbian minor would be this. So we have 1234 Then 12345 So already do is get a minor chord on drop the fifth down a semi tone. So we have a minor third and then another mine deferred. So that is a diminished chord. So in every major scale, with seven, of course, will be diminished chord. So if we're in, say, D major, the seventh will be this note here, which is a C to conceive, account up seven or just drop one semi tone to find the seventh. So this will be a C sharp diminished. So 1234 and then count up another minor fed 1234 So this c sharp diminished that this is for every major scale. The seventh chord will be a diminished. A diminished chord can sound a little unusual, however, it could be useful for a lot of classical music. You don't normally find this in popular music, but it can be interesting to add some suspension or to add a tense part in your music. So this called here is actually a big diminished. Let's just play this now and have a listen out for this cord. We really just using this as a passing chord. So when you're using diminished chords and also augmented chords, normally there would just be used for passing chords to add a bit of tension and then released when you hit your a major or a minor chord in this case, a major chord so Let's just hit us. So this court here, the second cord is the diminished. It is good for at intention as a passing chord, and now we're going to have a look at a ornamented court. So an augmented chord is like the word describes augmented to make larger. So all it really is is two Major fared, stepped on top of each other. So let's just start with C. So to turn this into an augmented chord, there's a few ways we can do it. We can take a major court and then just go one semi tone for the fifth night, so this will be a C augmented. The other way is the count or five notes from the starting note or toe have two major fared stacked on top of each other. So 12345 and then 12 free for five in C. Though you noticed this note, it's not in C major. This is the note in C major G. So we now have a G sharp. So this isn't actually in key, So in a major scale you don't technically get an augmented court, you can have a break. The rules these rules, I'm telling you, are just the baseline. This is what should start with. But you should also explore new ideas and try. New things do go outside of the basic rules, so this augmented court does not fit in a major scale. However, you can use it for dramatic effect. You can use it to make your music sound a bit more colorful or interesting. However, in a major scale, it tactically does not fit. But that doesn't mean you can't use it. So this called here is actually an augmented chord, and you can see here I have this accidental because it goes out of key, so diminished, augmented here it does sound quite unusual. This come in useful for classical music as well. This could be used for for orchestral schools, film music, where you want to add a bit of drama. But normally for popular music, you would tend to avoid on augmented chord and also a diminished chord. So remember, diminished is basically just super minor chord, so it's therefore, and four or two minor fared stacked on top of each other. On the or commented Cord is basically a super major chord, so It's two major Fed stacked on top of each other. We can count up five and five for the notes, so let's just have a look at sea again. So 12341234 This is a C diminished on Let's Can Top Five and 51234512345 This is a psi augmented the both very different see diminished and say augmented. The can be useful for creating drama in your music. Become useful for suspense. And that's how you can work out a diminished triad on an augmented to try out. So thank you, fortunate lecture. I hope you found it useful and I'll see you in the next one. 13. 7th Chords: Hi. And welcome to this lecture where we're going to be looking at seventh chords. So you previously we just had a look at the free? No, Try it. So we had the route, the third on the fifth, and now we're actually going to have a look at another third. On top of that which will make our chords 1/7 court. We do have different types of seventh courts, but the main ones we're going to look at in this lecture are going to be a major seventh. A minor seventh on a dominant seventh. So you remember with the triads, we had the route. So this is see on, then 1/3 above that. So this is a major food above which will give us a and then above that we have a mine. Efird above This should give us a G on November 7th. All we're doing is adding another third on top of that to give us 1/7 chord. So it really does depend What type of third above, We can have a major furred above or minor third above. So with the sea here, if we have a major fed that will give us this cord, which is a C major seventh. But if we have a minor third above, it would give us this cold, which is a C dominant seventh. So it's a C major chord with a minor. Seventh on the C minus seventh will be a C minor chord, which is this one with a a minor seventh on top. So I'm just going to explain these free seventh chords quickly, but go into more detail exactly how to work these out a bit later on First called is a major seventh, so we've got a C major chord here and all. We didn't get adding a major seventh, and the next one is a minor seventh. So that's with a minor court with a minor seventh on top. So a minor fed above this give us this minor seventh chord on the next one. It's kind of a strange one. That's the dominant seventh. This only happens for one of the cords in our diatonic chord progression for a major scale , so this is a dominant seventh, so it's basically a a major chord, but with a minor seventh on top on this occurs on the fifth chord off the diatonic chord progression sewn. See, we can't up 512345 This would look here on the G. So if I play a G now to G major chord on def, we add the seventh above this. This will give us this note, which is a F because it's not enough sharp because we're in the key of C, which has a F says F natural. So this, actually, if you can't hear 1234 this is a minor seventh on top of a major court. So it's kind of a major, minor seventh but easy way of writing that is just called a dominant seventh in Blues, though they do break the rules. I don't stick to this diatonic major scale where you just have one dominant seventh. They have a lot more dominant sevenths. That's why blues music sounds a bit more interesting. Sounds a little unusual because they do kind of break the rules and the have, ah, lot more dominant seventh so they might have a number of different dominant seventh and blues music. So let's just break these down individually. Name. So that's have a look at a major seventh chord. This could be written a few different ways. It could be written with a match I m a. J or Seventh, or even with a triangle, which you might get in jazz music. So when it's a triangle there to a C triangle seven, that will mean it's a C major seventh chord. So there are a few ways to work this out. So a C chord here to have C eight and G so it's five and four to work out a major triad. So 12345 between the route in the 3rd 1234 doing the Fed in the fifth on. Then we actually stack on another major third above this. So just count up. 512345 So we have this card. Another way of thinking governor is just a semi tone down from the root octave above. So we have a see here on the octave above, obviously etc. Semi tone down is this note would be, and then we stuck on the other notes. There is a C major seven or never way thinking of it. It's just the seventh note off the scale so in C major. 1234567 This note here. So you have the route the third, the fifth on the seventh. So it's basically a stack of thirds. So we have a major food than the mind offered in the major fit. And that is a major seven. Okay, let's have a look at the minor seventh. So down here we have the diatonic chord progression for C major scale. So we have seen major D minor E minor F major G major, A Mona be diminished, and C major. So let's just have a look at this called here this d minor. So if you want to turn this into a D minor seventh chords, we first of all have the D minor, which is day F A. So that's the triad on. Then add the seventh. We just stack a minor third above this. So just count up four notes from the A from the 5th 1234 would give us this note here, which is a c I never way are thinking of it is the seventh note in that key. So the seventh note, but starting on a D will give us a C. So 1234567 or never way of finding the minor. Seventh is the camp two semi tones down from an octave above the roots. So we have the root here, an octave above. This is obviously a day as well than two semi tones down one to give us this note here, which is a say. So this will be written as a D minus seven or D M on the seven on the next one we're going to look at, which is kind of unusual, is the dominant seven, So this is basically a major chord with a minor seventh. But instead of calling get a major minor seven, we just call it a dominant. So if you just see the symbol of seven just by itself, for example, a C seven, that means we're playing a C dominant seventh. So not a C major seventh seed dominant seventh if you see the seventh. So let's wait the site. Let's work out, See dominant seventh or C seventh. So we have the Sea Triad, which is a C A G, and then we add on a minor third above this which would give us this note here, which is B flat. So in our scale here off C major, this B flat does not fit. So technically, the dominant seventh chord will only fit on the fifth chord. So in C Major, the fifth chord is A J. So we have this note here, which is a G above this, we have a B above this, we have a day, and above this the note will be an f. So let's just play this on the keyboard. We have the J. You have the bay above this we have the day. So the hairs are trying g major triad. And then we add a minor seventh above this so we could even add a mine. Efforts account up for 1234 to give us this f All the other way is we grew up on Arxiv From the rip on you go down to notes, so want to This will give his death. Or we could just play the seventh note depending on what Kieran so for in C major. But starting on G, the next will be G a B c d e f. That's the seventh. Add on the other notes. Remember that only technically works on the fifth court. Of course, in blues music, Onda love, jazz and other styles music they can kind of mix up unfrozen, dominant sevenths. Whether technically not meant to be there, it can make it sound a little bit more unusual, but that's kind of the style of music. But I recommend if this is all new to just starts of the rules and later on, you can break the rules and kind of go a bit more crazy. But to start with, just think of it this way. So in our diatonic chord progression here C d E. After ABC, let's just add on some seventh notes. So let's just go to the piano roll here so the sea we'll be adding a B. This is a major seventh. The 2nd 1 is a minus seven. This will add on a C. So we're just going up and stocking up birds and we just sticking to the case. Next on A this will be a d next one s, so this will be an F major. Seven. We have this A. So it's a cemetery between e and f on the one after this. G, this is the weird one. This is the dominant seventh. This is a major chord with a minor seven thistle. Give us an F on then we have a which is a minor chord. So above this we will have a mine. Efird. So this will give us a G on above this we have the diminished bomb, which is kind of the weird one. So this will give us and I so this diminished chord, which is kind of this weird one here. So we have kind of a super minor. But above this we have a major sevenths. We have Ah, a diminish major seven kind of unusual one. This won't really be used very often, but there just in case you need to know. So remember a diminished chord. You actually adding a major seven on top of that so fit in the diatonic chord progression. So this will give us this court part of an unusual one can sound quite nice if you want to add a bit of tension and then going back again to the sea give us a major seven. So major seven is really nice sounding chord sounds quite luscious. We do have a little bit of a clash between these two notes here be in the sea but octave apart. So it's not too much of a clash but can send a little moody bit mysterious on you. Get the nice beauty off the major chord mixed with this of semi tonal movement hair of the seventh for the major seventh. So that's at this one as well. And let's just have a look on the score. That's Ah, so I'm just going back to the score editor and just correcting a couple of those notes there because these are all white notes because we're in C major. That's another way of looking at it. Just stick to the key. Say, for example, we're in a major key, has a c sharp, F sharp and G shop. So all these cause in the diatonic chord progression will have the notes that fit in that key. So that's another way of thinking of it to think of the notes in key, But yeah, there. The mayor wants to think about a major seventh, so C major seventh fear you just stacking on a major fed a minor seventh, so that's played the D minor. Seven were stacking on a minor fed on top on, then a dominant seventh. So it's a major chord and staffing on a minor. Seven. Front up. And that's only technically meant to be played on the fifth Corddry, which will make the seventh a dominant seventh on the rest Riva, major or minor. Apart from this one here. Which is, of course, the diminished chord, which the seventh. So it's kind of a diminished major sevenths, a kind of a weird one. But the three main ones are major seven minus seven on, of course, a dominant seventh. That's just a quick crash course into seventh chords. Of course, we can extend this even more. We can add 93 cab at 11. We can add for teens who can extend these cause. We can do a lot more with the cause, but this is just an example of how to use the basics for seven, Of course. So thanks for watching this lecture on. I'll see you in the next one 14. Extended Chords: Okay, now we're going to have a look at extended chords. It's an extended cord, is basically adding more notes past the seventh chord. We got a few different ones. We get ninth, we're getting 11th and we get 30 of court. So let's start the knife. If we go upon major scale starting on C, we have 1234567 Then it repeats, but toe one. But the easiest way to think of this is to call 18 So we have 12345678 And above this, we have 9 10 11 12 13 Then we don't actually get any chords above 13 because they'll actually loop around around. If remember, our seventh courts, I'm just going to play a C major seventh to have the see the roots. The third, which is a the fifth, which is G the seventh, which is a B. If we stuck, I never fared. On top of that, we would get a knife. I've never fared on top of the happy will get on 11th. Never fared. On top of that, we will get a fair team. I have never fared on top of that, we will get back to see actually a loop around around, so that's as far as we can go. Is 1/13. The reason we call these notes 9 11 and 13 rather than 24 and six. It's just because we're stacking these above the note. They're going above the seventh. Of course, with versions. It's not necessarily going to be above some of the notes, for the easiest way to think of it is a knocks it above the root note. So a night, for example, think of this as the knife scale degree rather than the second. So let's just have a look at one of the courts. For example, see major nine. So the C major. This refers to the core part of the cords. So this is the C E, the G and also the bay. The seventh is the core part record on then the nine. This refers to this note above, which is the knife, which is a day. So it's basically just stacking on another third on top. And then, of course, an 11th is stacking. Another fared on top of that. So this note here, which is an F on the 13th is stacking on another note above this as well, which will give us this? A. We don't have to play all of these notes in a chord. So you're playing 1/13 note. We don't have to play 1234567 notes. We can remove a few of them, but we talk about this a bit later on. We do have different types of nights 11th and 13th so we can get a sharp knife or a flat knife. 11th will be a sharp 11 for flat 11th. The 13th can also be a sharp 30 or flat for team. So the default for a nine is a major night, and this is actually the same note for a major on a minor scale. So if I play a C major seven chord on an ad on the nine, because the night scale degree of C major isa deep and I'm just going to play seem minor, this is a C minus seven on the night scale degree of C minor. Is this now as well? So the nine is actually the same for major and minor, going up to the 11th this is actually the same as 1/4 ready. So the fourth is a perfect fourth is called a perfect fourth because it's the same for a major and the minor scale. So I'm just going to play See Major nine now, and they had this note here. 11. I'm just going to change this to a C minor nine, and then we add the 11th. It's the same. No, it's a perfect fourth. Essentially, it's an 11th the 13th though it is different from major minor, so is a semi tone lower for minor on the cemetery. Higher for Major, but you probably won't be using Affair team that often. But just remember, the knife on the 11th is the same for Major a minor, but the 13th is different for major and minor. So is a few ways you can wear them out when you're playing these college. You might not need to have all of the notes when you're playing an extended cord. For example, this chord here this Ah see major 13 playing a lot of notes plane, seven different notes. So say you want to play this chord, but don't play all of the notes a few things you could do is have the bass note, play the basic or remove the base, and you could even remove the fifth. The fifth is the same for major and minor and isn't always needed. She could play this chord with the base being played on bass instruments, so maybe you can remove the fifth. So I'm just going to play a C major seven chord and now a C minus seven called If I Remove the fifth. So here's a C major seven chord with the fifth removed, and here's a C minor called with 1/5 remove. You can still tell it's a major seventh on a minor seventh chord because the fifth is the same for both of them, the third and the seventh for the most important. So if you're gonna play any extended chords, make sure you always leave in the third and the seventh, because this will give you the harmony. This will give you the backbone off the cord. But for some of the other notes, I recommend just usual here, have some musical judgments, but remember to leave the third in the seventh, so let's just go over extended chords again. So this is really way. Add on more notes above the seventh. So you have your route. You have the third. You have your fifth. You have his seventh. Then we're just having mawr thirds on top of this to extend the harmony all the way up to 13 after 13 loops round. But you can get a knife, 11th on the 13th called. So do you recommend experimenting with these extended chords? But it's not always essential to play every note in these extended chords, so you can substitute some of them. But always leave the third on the seventh. Let's just go to the score editor. No, on. If you're right on notes, we're just going to be stacking them above. So this I'm actually stacking to make a ah, 13th cord. So all we're really doing is stacking the notes above inferred to create some extended courts. So that's extended gods, and that's how you can build them. So thank you for watching this lecture on. I'll see you in the next one 15. Suspended Chords: Okay, Now let's have a look at some Scots or suspended chords. So of suss cords, all we're really doing is replacing the third even fourth to make a sauce four chord or the second to make us us to court suss fours a lot more common than suss to. So if someone says play a saw scored normally will mean Assad's fourth chord. But suss to can also be used. You can use suss cords or suspended calls for a few different reasons, so the most common way is to add a bit of tension or suspension. So, for example, if I play a C major chord now, for once the other bit attention, I could replace this 1/3 of 1/4 on F on resolve it by playing the C major so I could play the so scored Resolve it by playing the normal triad, also with the suss to cord, so I can add a bit of tension of the C two. Resolve it of a triad. So it's just a quick little way to add a bit suspension and replace your tried replace your regular court with the sauce scored and then go down to the tryout if you replacing it with a sauce. Fourth chord on Go up from the Triad. If we're placing it with Asus, two called. So that's the traditional way of using a saw. Scored. Also, your notice if we're playing a saw scored. Can't actually tell if this is major or minor. Were playing the root note a perfect fourth on the perfect fifth, which could be used in a major or a minor called. So I'm not actually sure if we in a major key or a monarchy. Same with the suss. Second, we have the route, the second on the fifth, the seconds the same for major and minor. So if we have a selection of different chords that say, for example, a Jesus for on, then a DCIS, too, and then I see Cece full, I'm not actually sure if this is C Major C Minor could be either. So it's the easy way to add some ambiguity into music, so we're kind of losing. The feeling of a major key or a minor key can sound quite mysterious at times, but it really depends on what you're trying to create with your music. So the more traditional way. It's a just use it to results to replace your tribe and then play your triad so we can go downwards with a source for So I'm just playing an inverted G, then a ceaseless full on them to see we can go upwards with a ceases to, so I'm going to play a minor, then a C system. Let's see, so you could just hold it for longer as well. If want to add even more attention, then you can eventually resolve it to the triad on the same of a sauce to you can hold it for longer. Repeat it. Add tension to build up so this could be good for a buildup, for example. So that's the traditional way is to use it to kind of add suspension, add tension to your music and then resolve it when you play your triad. So right now we don't know if we're playing in a major key or a minor key, displaying a combination of different suss chords. So that's us four Chord says to called Asus two chord so this could be seen major or C minor. Only when we reveal the third that we know if we're in a major a minor. For example, this fed here, which is a flat. That means we're in C minor. We have a in natural. This means in C major. However, we don't have any notes. That means we're in a major or minor replay, a process for or sores to. That's never useful way of using a saw scored toe. Add some ambiguity into music. We also noticed that previously when we've looked at court have actually stopped, um, in thirds. So we have a major. The seventh 9 11 in the 13th. You notice they all stack inferred with sauce cords. Don't stack in first to these Suskind's don't really have a strong root note. Actually, when you invert these chords, so I'm just going to avert this cease us four verse again. It doesn't really sound like a C chord anymore, so we invert them, remove them around, kind of morphing them into new chords. So there isn't really a strong foundation of these chord, which is why they consume quite mysterious, ambiguous and can add tension because there isn't really a grounding to these cause. They're not stuck from thirds like previously. We have a root, 1/4 and 1/5. We have a root a second in the fifth, so not a strong is difficulties, but they can have a use. So that's it. That's what suss cords are most commonly most commonly uses. A source for you can also use a 60. All we're really doing is moving this furred and replacing it with you before for a second on the thirds. Really, where the sense of a major or minor called comes when when you remove that chord sounds a lot more open, which is why I saw scores can be described as open chords because they don't have a strong sense off major or minor to them. So thank you for watching this lecture on. I'll see you in the next one. 16. Circle of 5ths: Okay, so now we know how to work at the notes off a major scale. And we also know that seven different chords we can use for each major scale. However, sometimes thes cause might get a little repetitive. Or you might not even want to use thes chords so we can refer to something called the Circle of Fifths to actually find different keys that near the key way m so this could be useful to actually modulate or change key completely, or to even temporarily goto a key and use and cords from that key and then go back to the key that we're in. So here we can see the circle effects is called the Circle of Fifths because it quite literally goes round in fifths. So if we start and see here on we go and clockwise, C T. J is actually a perfect fifth. So if we have the notes, see, and then Jay, this is actually a perfect fifth. So remember, I try it. So C Major, the fifth of C major is Jake and then going from G today. This is 1/5 as well. So to play a G major triad, the fifth night is this day and then the fifth note of day will be this now a So going back to the circle of Fifths Next one isn't a so quite literally just goes round and fifth. So all the way around until we go back to see and it repeats. And each time you go around the circle of fifths actually adding a sharp so G has one. Sharp and D has two shops, has free shops. He has four shops. He has five shops F sharp has six shops and then when we get to s shop, actually changes to flats. There are a few different ways to do this. You can change the flats of it earlier or later, but I like still f sharp. So it's bang in the middle. So here f Sharp has six shops and then on the flat actually has five flats and then we're going down flat. So we go to a flat, which was four flats e flat, which has free flats B flat, which has two flats f, which has one flat, and then see which has no flats or sharps. So around the circle of fifths, actually adding a sharp each time until we get to the middle of it. So when we get to West Shop and then we're actually taking away flats and if you go the opposite way, if we go anti clockwise two C to F, This is actually a perfect fourth, because if you have a perfect fifth and your inverted, this will make a perfect fourth. Two C to F is 1/4. A perfect fourth than F to B Flat is actually a perfect fourth because in the scale of F major, there's a B flat. It's a perfect fourth, and it's also a perfect four from B flat to a and then a perfect four from the flap to a and then a perfect four from a flat two D and then a perfect four from D flat 12 shop, etcetera lthough. Wait till we get back to see So the interval clockwise is a perfect fifth on the interval. Anti clockwise is a perfect fourth, so this can allow you to quickly work out what key is next to the one you're currently on. So for on sea we have two options while actually free options. When you consider the minor keys. But let's just have a look at the major keys to start with, and then we'll have a look at this inner circle for the minor keys. So the major keys. You can even go perfect fifth to a relative major. What you can get a perfect fourth to go to another relative. Major cities are very closely related major keys that you can easily modulate to, or you can even borrow cords from temporarily, so we have a lot of options. We don't just have to use the seven chords from the C major scale can also borrow some chords from this F major scale, or even some from this G major scale. The reason they're closely related is because if we go either to the right, only one accidental difference. So G. Major hasn't f sharps. It's only one no difference. So they are very closely related on if we go anti clockwise F. This has a B flat, so this is just one their difference as well. So it won't sound two different if you temporarily moved to one of these keys. However, if we do want to move to, say, a D flat which is quite far away from the sea. For a few ways, we could do this. We could ever go around the circle of fifths, gradually move around until we get today. Or we could just abruptly go to D flap. It could sound a little strange. Is a lot easier just to go to the keys. That next to the one you're working on, Which is why this circle of fifth is really handy because we can just quickly see which keys weaken go to how many Sharps or flats they have and also their relative minus. Now let's have a look at the relative miners, so the six note of every major scale will give you the relative minor scale and C major the six. Note. If we count up c d E f G A will be this a minor. A minor actually has the same notes see major in a different order to see majors rooting around the sea on a miner's actually rooting around ace. It's the same note to see Major so C D E f g ABC that starting on the a minor. So if a b, c d e f g a So it's the same notes, but in a different order, really. Starting on the six notes. This is really a type of mode. We have a look at modes later run, but it's easy to think of. This is just the relative minor, so just think of the major scale, which ever made a scary starting on in the six Now above that will give you the minor scale , the relative minor scale. So if we're in G major, for example, the six note will be e 123456 There's no here. Just a G major also has this F sharp in Stephen F. So in major scale will have the same notes of G major. But starting on a for E f sharp g a B C D e A. So that's a relative minor. We're going to be looking at minus girls in more detail later on. But just for this example, so you understand the circle of fifths. So the relative minor is a different scale, but it has the same notes as the major scale, but it starts on the six note off the scale, and that's the same for all of these. And if you go around this in the circle, this is the same as well. So 1/5 from a well, give us a 1/5 above a will give his bay f shop then continuing on could be 1/5 all the way around. And if we go the other way perfect four from a we give his day, then a perfect four from D will give his G, then see etcetera and all They ran sets 1/5 caught twice on It's a perfect fourth on to localize. So having a look at the circle of fifth gives us lows of options so far. And see, we know that we have of seven chord of C major. But we also know you can borrow some of these course in G major if we want as well. And some of the cause from F Major And also this a minor, which is a relative minor, maybe even this d minor on the e minor. So I have a lot of options here. So say, for example, we're playing the song in C major on. We want a new chord. So I've got C Major. We've got a minor we've got G Major. We want a new chord and the other ones don't really work. Onda, We don't really want to use this diminish court because it sounds a little strange. What we can do is use the circle of fifths and actually borrow called from G major. So Jim Major doesn't have it be diminished. Work out the chords in G major. So it goes major, Minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished, Major. So be is the third night Fergie major on remembering the pattern. Major, Minor, minor major Major mind Diminish Major. So that's how it can work at the court. In the major scale, the 3rd 1 is a minor. So we could borrow this b minor if he wanted to. To say we're playing a song in C major. We could have seen Major a minor G major, and then goto be mine every wish so we can have a few more options. That doesn't really sound too weird. So I'm just going toe play this on the keyboard Now. I did use a few inversions there just to make it sound of its mover, but to me, that doesn't really sound that weird because it was only one accidental only one note difference. To make it out of the scale that we can go back to see what I have to stay in. This keeping just temporarily used some of the notes. We could do the same going to f. We can add a B flat to say We're playing a song and it doesn't quite work. We want a new chord, but we can borrow a cord from another closely related key, which in this case is F major. So say you're in C Major and we're playing some notes. Let's just use the be diminished again. His example we don't want to use be diminish because it sounds a bit strange. However, we're just wasting that cord or wasting that note, we could just modulate to F Major. And if we have a look at F major, it relies, it doesn't have a being natural, has a B flat. And if we have a look at the notes in F major, so remember to wet the might of tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tones, it's F g A B flats for tone tone, semi tone. It's a flat so be major Hazar B flat on because this is actually the fourth scale degree of F major Moan up minor major. It's a B flat major, and if you don't want to use a diminished chord, this could be quite useful. So, for example, you could play See Major, which is obviously in C major. We could add in a B flat major, because from looking at the circle of Fifths, it's closely related. Key has B flat rather than be natural on in F major. B Flat is a B flat major chord. So let's have a look at the piano keys here. If I play a C major, first of all, and then I go to say any minor which fits in C major and then we go to a D minor. Next cord could be a thats not here, which is actually a B flat but have inverted the bay. So just play that again. Could be seem a jester in C major, a minor D minor, and then be flat. So this just gives us a few options that didn't sound too crazy. Didn't sound too out there. It'd fit out of a bit of color out of a bit of interest because we're mixing stuff up a bit . We were temporarily going out of key, but went back into keys. It's absolutely fine to do so. This is just a quick great to find new chords that fit in your scale, and it doesn't have to just be and see magic. This could work in any 12 of these major keys. We can also do this with the minor keys as well could modulate evil way with the monarchies and also of the major keys we can modulate from the major key to the minor keys or the minor keys to the major keys so we could do this temporarily or we can actually change keys . So in this lecture, we've really just got over ways of doing this temporarily. How to just add accord or just going another key temporarily, and then go back to the original key in the next lecture. We're going to actually look at how to change keys. So thank you for watching this lecture all about the circle of fifths, which is a really useful tool. Know which keys you can modulate to which keys you can borrow. Notes from on which ones are closely related. So thanks again for watching, and I'll see you in the next lecture. 17. How to Change Key: hello and welcome to this lecture. Were we actually going to be looking at changing key? So previously we had a look at the circle of Fifths, and we had a look at how weaken temporarily use cords or notes from another key and then return back to our key. But sometimes you might want to have a new key center, so there are a few ways to do this. But the easiest way to do this, it's what she creates, intention and then resolve it by going into the new key. So let's just have a look at the piano keyboard on the five chord actually create tension. So in C major, the fifth chord is a G major. The reason this creates tension when we're in C major because of the third note in the fifth chord, this is a B creates tension because it's just a semi tone away from the tonic of C. So we're in C major. I noticed there was tension on it resolved, so I played the D minor G major, which adds tension, and then it resolves the C major. So if we want to smoothly change key, the easiest way to do. This is the kind of trick, the listener, but at intention and the resolving to the new key. So if the example of see, we go to g resolve to see so what we can actually do is play the fifth off the new key, be want to modulate to or the new key want to move to and then resolve this to the new K. So let's just look at the Circle of Fifths. I'll explain this a bit more. So if you're in C major here, we want to move to G Major. The easiest way to do this is to actually play the fifth of G Major, which is a d major court. The reason I know this is because in G Major, the fifth note is a day or we can get the circle of fifths to see the fifth as well, because this is 1/5 apart. So in G Major, the fifth court is a day, but this is a D major on a team major. The Triad has a day in F sharp in the A s O introduced in this F sharp. Already we're introducing this new accidental That's in G major on creating tension and this tensions gonna resolve to the J. So let me just explain that one small. So when changing keys, the easiest way to do this is to create tension and then resolve. So what we need to do is play the fifth cord of the key. We want to change Dio and then resolve it by getting to the Cuban moving to. So if you want to move from C. J, we need to play a d major chord which is the fifth of G on. Then play the first chord, which is a G and that will resolve. So we're going to create tension by playing the fifth chord off the new key and then resolving it. So from looking at the keyboard for in C major just playing some chords in C major. So if one to move to G major night, we have the fifth of G major, which is a day, and then resolve into the G. So we played the fifth chord and resolved it by playing the tonic all the first chord of the new key. So I'm just going to play some chords now. So we've got C major eso were still in C a d minor F major, which is Sophie's still in See on here. We want to change, play a d major on, then resolve with the G major. That's the easiest way of do Nas most simple way to create some tension by the fifth. Because whenever we play 1/5 whenever we played the fifth, like this one here, this G major just naturally wants to resolve up to the sea. It's because this bay wants to get to this. Say, uh so exactly the same. But we played 1/5 of the new key. So let me just write this in the piano roll here. So I'm just going to type in some chords that are in C major with them against add the fifth off the key one to move to, which is a D major. So, looking at the circle of Fifths, the fifth of J is this one here a day, so we're gonna play d major on. Then we're gonna play a G major, and then we've kind of cemented this new key of G major by ad intention from the day and then resolving it with the J. Okay, so I've drawn in some notes here on the piano roll editor, and if we look at the score, you can see here. I've got a they see Major, and their next I have a clear e minor, but just inverted. This'll be is dropped. Inactive. Just so it's a bit smoother then that have a d minor on. Then I have a minor and reposition in here. I have an f major See down inductive then here, this is the important one. I have the d major and then that resolves to a a g major. And now we've actually changed. Udoji Major, we could play over cords that are in G major. So there's tension here created by the fifth off the new key. It actually wants the key center to change this G Just because of this tension created from this f sharp wanted to go up to this Jay. Okay, so you might be thinking What if I want to modulate the other way? Why? If I want to modulate anti clockwise moment modulated clockwise so through the circle of fifth and fifth. But what happens if you want to modulate the other way so I want to modulate and fourths. So the way we do this is very similar to the other way. But this time, when we get anti clockwise, use the fourth chord as a pivot called to our new key. So that means if we're in C major, I want to move to F Major. Need to play the fourth chord of F major and use this as a pivot court and then play F major. So just from looking at the circle of fists but going anti clockwise and fourths, the fourth chord off F is actually a B flat on a B flat major. Also, by looking at F major when there it has one accidental, which is this B flat. So the notes of F major go F G A B flat on from the pattern major minor minor major. The B flat is a major car, so if we're in C major and we want to modulate to F major, we need to play a B flat and playing this be flower. Also attention because this wants to resolve down to the F because the notes of B flat have B flat D and see what's a resolve down. And what's this B flat to resolve down into the A so resolved to the F major? So we're tricking the mind similar way to before, but this time using force rather than fifth. So So it's similar to before. Instead of playing the fifth of the chord, we're gonna play the fourth of the court to resolve to the F. So I've added some chords into this piano roll editor. It's very senator before, but this time we have a B flat major chord resolves into an F major court. So let's look at the score. You can see here we have different chords that are all in C major. And then we have this B flat here, this B flat, which is the fourth chord of the Q one to modulate Teoh. This only works when we're going anti clockwise. In the circle of Fifths, we're going clockwise. He's fifth spot, anti clockwise. We use fourths, so this B flat is their fourth major fourth off the court of F. And then we resolved to this F So I'm just going to play this chord progression now, so just have a listen out for this B flat on also what results from a B flat to on a So it's this semi eternal movement that allows it to result. So it's just here that we've used is Pivot court. Are the B flat into a major, and now we trip the mind to believe that F Major is the new key. There are other ways to actually change key that have to do it this way. You can literally just start playing a new key to stop playing the court of the new key. And after a while, the brain will think this is the new Keep my sound a little weird, however, is a lot easier and smoother to create tension on, then to resolve it into your new key. So this could even bay. For example, playing could be flat to go to F Major or playing a day to go to G major. So now let's talk about the monarchy's so the relative miners actually have the same notes as the majors, so we can't really add an accidental and then resolve this. What we just do is kind of similar, really. We just played the fifth chord off the miner called we want to move to and then play the minor chord and that will resolve this. So, for N. C. Major, we want to move to a minor. We have to play the fifth of a minor, which in this case is a because this is 1/5 from a. So if we look at 1/5 up his knee, so I want you to do is play this called here, which is e or in this case, it's actually e minor. What we need to do you is playing in the minor. This will resolve into an a minor. This is because when we play a minor playing this note here, which is a bee which wants to resolve to this A we can resolve it to this A by playing gay in a minor. So we have the minor resolved Teoh. So it's very similar for the minor keys. We just need to create more tension on then release it. So we do this by playing the fifth of the monarchy and then releasing get again. Okay, we can also change. My Nicky is the same way as major keys. So if you want to move from a Mona to team owner. We need to introduce this new accidental, which is an f sharp in this case, and we want to add some tensions well, by playing the fifth on the fifth off A is a B 12345 So we have to play a B minor chord, which has the notes of B, D and F Sharp introducing this F sharp and wants to resolve up to this G and the weight can resolve up to this J by playing any minor card. So it's the same, really, in a minor key. If want to move to the key next to it in a circular fish to the right, we have to play the fifth off the key. Want to move to so Renee Minor Right now. Now we have to play a B minor on, then play the key. We're moving, too, which is the e minor, and it's also the same as major keys going the other way. So if you want to go from a minor to a D minor, we have to play the fourth of a D minor, which is a G minor. This will introduce this flat here which is a B flat because the notes of G minor are J B flat on day to introduce this B flat. So it's really about creating tension on introducing these new notes of the new keys. This is quite complex subjects. I do recommend that going for in exploring this on the keyboard as well or in your digital audio X station. But let's have a look now. So in a minor, then we play the fourth chord of D Minor, which is a G minor introducing the B flat, and then we can play the D minor. So let's look at the keyboard. If we're in a minor, we want to move to D minor. We have to introduce the fourth chord of D Minor, which is a G mine, and this G minor introduced this new accidental, which is in this case is a B flat, So we need to go for a minor G minor D minor. If you want to change minor keys, this is a minor here, and then I'm going to play a G minor. Then I'm going to play a demon. So it's just another way of changing keys. But introducing the accidental on having that semi tonal movement that creates that resolution. So we have that tension here from the B flat resolve it with the D minor. So this movement here, so I've covered a lot of different things in this lecture is probably being the most complex lecture so far. However, I'm just going to recap this stuff I've covered in this lecture so far. So if you want to change key, the easiest wave, just do this. It's great tension by playing the fifth called but the fifth chord of the New key on to move to. So if you're moving from C to G, you want to play the fifth of J. It's a D major. Then resolve this with a G major. And if we want to go anti clockwise in the Circle of Fifths, we have to do the same. But this time in fourth, because remember clockwise, his fifth on anti clockwise. It's fourths, so we have to play the fourth chord of the nuclear one to modulate, too. So if we want to move from C major to F major, we have to play the fourth of F major, which is a B flat, B flat major chord on the F. So you have the movement of the B flat to the F that releases that tension, and it's the same for the minor keys. If we're going clockwise, we have to play the fifth chord off the Cuban to move to. So from a minor to E minor, we must play a B minor Andi if want to go anti clockwise, we have to play the fourth off The key want to move to? So if it moving from a minor to D minor, you must play a G minor because this will introduce a new accidental. There's nothing to remember if you're playing a new key one to introduce the new accidental into play that new accidental. So listen, I get used to this new notes or the other way you can do it. It is quite simply kind of force your way into this. New kids keep playing the chords of the nuclear on. Eventually, listening will get used to this. It was not smooth as the other method, but it will eventually work. So if you don't see Major and you want to move to D Flat major, this will take a while to go around the circle of fifths Eva, anti clockwise or clockwise. However, you could just to stop playing a D flat Major Kordic to sound quite abrupt and strange. But after a while, the listener well get used to it, so that's another way of doing it. It's not the smoothest way you can let you just just move into the new key. But using pivot notes and also creating tension on resolving this tension into the new key is the recommended way to do this. So thank you for watching this lecture. I hope you found it useful. We've covered a lot of different things. It has been quite complex at times. I do recommend having a look at the piano keyboard on working out some of this for yourself . If you do want to learn how to modulate or change keys, so thank you again on I'll see you in the next lecture 18. Natural Minor Scale: Hello and welcome to this lecture where we're going to be looking at minor keys. So it previously we've had a look at major scales, major keys, and now we're going to do the same with minor. So the reason why we haven't really looked at minor scales or keys so far is because I wanted you to understand how the major scale works, how to work at the notes in the major scale. Also work out what chords you can use in the major scale before we have a look at the minor scale. Because they are closely related, they are quite similar. We do have different types of minor scales, but this lecture we're just going to have a look at the natural minor scale. So generally speaking songs in a minor key up cider sounding thin in a major key major keys , a generally more happy. However, you can make a song in a major key sound sad, and you can make a song in a minor key. So unhappy. But these are just kind of general rules. You hear people say minor is sad. A major is happy when we hear the word minor key. Most of the time. This will be talking about the natural minor key. Everyone's our harmonic minor and melodic minor, but the natural one is the most common one. This is the one that naturally related to the major key. So this is why we call it a natural minor. So there are actually free main ways we can work out the natural minor scale. The easiest way on the way I recommend is first of all, learning how to relate it to the major scale. So every major scale has a related minor, has a natural minor scale that's related to it. So if we have a look at C major, we have the notes. C D E F G a B C. Let's just right these out on the piano school here, so we have the notes here off C, D, E, F, G, A, B and C. The way we work that out was actually by using the pattern looked a previously tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi toe. So that's how we can work out a major scale and enough for minor scale actually has the same notes as a major scale. It might sound different. However, they use the same notes. So, for example, on a minor scale we use the same notes as a C major scale. So the way we actually do this is even we can top 612 free for 562 cans up from C D E A F g a or we count down free. So one to free, including the first note So 12 free. And this is how we find a relative Minor is either six nose up or free notes time. So it's the same notes. So you be a B c and then and all this because this is the active, so a J C D e f j So I just need to reorder these. I'm just going to reorder these. So it goes from a to a the case the notes go A B, C d E f G. Hey, so is actually the same notes as C major in a different order, and they're rooting around the A rather than the sea. We can also find our natural major as well, so we just need to count up free to find a natural major so minus a major count up free major to minor account dime free. So this is one way we can find the minor scale. It's just look at the major scale and find out its relative minor. There is another way, though, to find the minor scale and that is actually altering the major scale. Just written out c major scale just by using the patterns, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone seven tone and also see Major. It's just the white notes as well, so it's quite an easy scale to write out on. You can change this into a minor scale just by remembering this little pattern flat in the third flat in the six and flat in the seventh. So what? I mean, it's just take it down one semi tome. So the 3rd 12 free is this A. I would just change it to an E flat. And then the six, which is actually a so 123456 is a bring it down a semi tone to a flats and then bay, which is the seventh bring this done semi tome. And here we have C minor scales who have C D E flat F G a flat B flat and C so have changed . This major scale into a minor scale could go the way around. If you want to change a minor scale into a major scale, all we need to do is sharpen the fair. Sharpen the six and Sharpe in the seventh by one semi tone. So we just moved this up on someone, turn the third, move the sex up, one semi tone and then the seventh, but one semi tone. And this will create a C major scale you can see here. C D E f g A B C So honest is flat in the 3rd 6 and seventh. So this is how we create a minor scale. So this isn't of way of doing it. Just remember that little pattern to change a major scale to a minor scale flat in the third flat in the six were flat in the seventh. So let's try this in a nitpicky. Okay, so I've just written out d major. So the notes of the major is D E A f sharp, G A B C Shop day, and we use the same pattern to change this to a minor scale orders flat in the third to flat in this f sharp here to N f. So you turn that into an F, and then the seventh is the sea shop. I would change this to a C. However, we also need to flat in the six. We change this be to be flat. So this D minor actually has a B flat, and the reason it has a B flat is because it's the relative minor off F major. Remember, if we're in a minor scale and we just count up free notes 12 free in the scale we find its relative majors. This relative major of D Minor is F major. That's why it has to be flat because F. Major has a B flat so that civil way finding a minor scale is just transform a major scale into a minor scale by flashing the third flat in the six of flossing, the seventh off the scale. On the other way, the third way of finding out a minor scale is to use this pattern tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. So that's another person. If you want to remember it, you can just work out the notes like we did with the major scale. But with this pattern actually the same pattern in a different order the order before was tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone. So just using the same pattern, but starting in a different place. But starting back free notes, starting on this tone here. So it's tones, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. I don't normally use this pattern, but it's good to know as well if you just want a workout. A minor scale. So that's you see minor, for example. Let's start of sea here on Let's right in the next note. So we need to get up a tone to start with. So a tone from See, we give us a day. So let's write in a d here and then up is a semi tone. Swedes go up a semi tone now, so cemetery from day is actually but a flat. Then we need to go up a tone from a D flat. Remember its tone, semi tone tone. So we need to count up to semi tones. So from the D flat 12 give us a s okay. Then up from an F is never tone. So this will give us I j Okay, then we need to go up a semi tone from J. So this will give us this note here, which is a a flat. The reason we're using flats rather than Sharps is but based on its relative major. So the relative major of C minor is actually an e flat. Major goes, remember, we just count up free notes. So seedy is e flat major on this obviously uses flats rather than sharks. Because in the circle of fifths, if you go clockwise upto halfway, we use shops anti clockwise. We use flats. So if we look at the circle of fifth here, the flat is on the left here on clockwise chooses flats on the relative minor. Is this c minus? That's why we use flats. Just if you're a bit curious Ways in flats rather and shops, it's all based on its relative major scale. Okay, so going back to this have a flat, and then we got one tone and then we have b flat. Then we got another tone again, and this will bring us back to see. So this is the pattern. If you want to work out a minor scale, its tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone. It works in all 12 keys. So this works on whatever note you start on. This is how you can find the minor scale. So let's just go over the freeways again. The first way is to find out the relative minor off a major scale so we can do this by counting up six notes or down freedom. So let's just say Let's just change this back to see Major. So if we count up 6123456 you know the relative minor is a minor, or we can count down free 12 free from the tonic on that would give us A, which is a minor. So these notes Elif it in a minor. Obviously you'll start on end on the A. The other way is to change a major scale into a minor, scanned the way we do. This is flat in the third flat in the six on a flat in the seventh, so this C major scale has become a C minor because now has an e flat and a flat on the B flat. On the other way, it was to use this pattern tone, semi tone, tone, tone, semi tone, tone tone. And then we can draw out our natural minor scale. So thank you for watching this lecture all about the natural minor scale. In the next lecture, we're going to have a look at the harmonic minor scale on the melodic minor scale. So thank you again for watching and I'll see in the next lecture. 19. Chords in the Minor Scale: okay, Before we move onto the harmonic minor scale, let's have a look at writing out the cords for a natural minor scale. So this is the pattern if you want to remember it and we're also going to work it out So the pattern goes minor, diminished. Major, minor, minor Major Major. So remember, the lower case M is minor of capital M is major on the circle is diminished. It's actually the same. Is working at the diatonic chord progression in the major scale in a different order. The major scale starts in this fed here. Major minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. But we're just going back free and starting on this minor. So it goes minor diminished. Major, minor, minor. Major Major, you don't have to remember this, but it can be quite useful. So that's what the site festival written at the key of C minor. The 1st 1 is a minor. So remember this pattern as well Major equals five and four. Minor equals 45 on diminished equals For before augmented as well, which we look out in the harmonic minor. This will equal five five. Okay, so let's what this light festival. That's Karen top free and then can took five to find the Triad. So see, that's can't up free 12 free. We have this e flat here and then 45 We have this, Jay, That's what this out. So you have. So we can never count up and find the Triads. Or we can use this pattern of minor, diminished major, minor, minor major major. But for this 1st 1 let's just work of that. So we have the route, which is the sea that you flat on a G. So if you count up from C to B flat 1234 including the first and last note, this is for the account up again from a flatter G 12345 So we have formed five. Looking at this, Form five will mean minor. The 1st 1 is a minor. So let's just wait this out and then we check it with this pattern. Just a double check. But this is the passing toe work at the cords of the natural minor scale. The 2nd 1 is this day, so if we can talk free 12 free, we have an F on, then for five, we have this a flat. Okay, so let's start. Indeed. Let's count upto F 1234 Let's count up to from F to a flat 1234 So we have form force, quite unusual sounding chord. That's because it's so diminished. And that's check with the passing up here. Yep, it's a diminished next one. We have a flat. Remember the flats? From over here is the flat on. Let's add on the third. So have 12 free. Which is this G and then 45 Just this B flat. So let's have a look at the flat in here. So let's count up to G 12345 Let's count up to be flat. 1234 So this is five and four, which is a major. So the federal is a major. Okay, the four form. So that's count up free. This f So one Teoh free. You haven't a flats and then 45 We have a C f A flat and see. That's fine. F can't its way flat. 1234 a flat to see. 12345 So we have four or five four or five means a minor. So here we go. We have a minor sits matching up on the next bomb, which is a G. So let's add on the 3rd 12 free. We have this B flat on Let's add on four on five, which is a day here to have JB flattened e g scandal to be flat. 1234 So we have four. That's cantor began to a day 12345 So we have form five, which is another minor which matches up here as well. And then we have in a flats. So that's can't up to the 3rd 12 free. This will give us c on, then up to five. So we have free 45 I'm counting that again because the same note just a different active. So to five, which is a flats. Okay, so from a flat to see 12345 and then from C to B flat 1234 So we have five and four, which is a major. And if we look here, we have the capital M, which is a major on the last one. This be flats. So let's just count up to 312 free. We have a day. Let's count up again. So we're free for five. We have this f Okay, so we have a B flat a day and F and that's count up from B flat two D 12345 So have 12345 and can't up from D to F 1234 So this is a major again. And if you look on the pattern here adds up again to a major in the last one repeats again , back to this minor. So we have a c minor, then sets to see new flat on the G. Let's just say this back. So there we go. These are the cause of the canoes in a natural minor scale. So you can go through a work of that. You can work at the scale and then work out the third and the fifth. Or you could remember this pattern minor, diminished major, minor, minor, major major. So that's how we can work at the cords in a natural minor scale. So thank you for watching this lecture, and I'll see you in the next one. We look at the harmonic minor scale 20. Harmonic Minor Scale: Okay. So previously we had a look at the natural minor scale, but we do actually have to of a types of minor scale, the harmonic mind scale on the melodic minor scale. So let's first of all, have a look at the harmonic minor scale. So here I have the C minus scale, and sometimes when you're playing in the minor scale, you might switch between the natural minor scale on the harmonic minor scale and sometimes even the melodic minor scale. And the reason you might want to swap from the natural minor to the harmonic minor is because of the leading note, the seventh note Here in a major scale, we have that leading note. We have that same eternal movement between the seventh on the first note that creates attention when we play the seventh note that semi tonal movement on resolves when we play Note number one. So the C major scale, we have this tension on resolves and you know instantly when C has played. But this is the tonic that this note is what the key is based on. But when we're in a minor scale, we don't have that same eternal movement we don't have that leading notes, but we can create that way of the harmonic minor scale and to create a harmonic minor scale or we need to do is just Sharpe in the seventh note off a major scale. So a C harmonic minor scale have this sharpened. Seventh will have this major seventh, and the reason we want that is so we can tell instantly Sears the tonic and resolves into this sea. So if I just play the scale so it sounds a little different, it sounds a little bit more mysterious. Even sounds a little bit more Eastern sounding than Western music. Let's just hear that again. So we kind of create some interest in signs for this. More importantly, gives us that leading note here the B to the sea. This works in any. Keep correct that leading notes and then we know instantly what key it's him. However, when we have this sharpened seventh in our minor scale to create its harmonic minor scale, we actually have some more unusual cords can be interesting, but sometimes you might not want to use these courts. Let's just work out the triads for this harmonic minor scale now to ever see. And the third night will be this e flat here. And then the fifth will be this Jay. So the first will be a C minor and going along we have this day for now There's an f on then the fifth. Is this a? If we have look at this So we have the day. So 1234 And then if we can't up again 1234 So this is actually a diminished form four. So the next chord of this scale will be a d flat diminished. I'm going along. We have this A flats want to freak. Then we have a G on the make up again J I bay. Then we have this court hears e flat G and a beef. We look at the piano keys. Here we count up. 12345 12345 This tax five and five notes. This actually creates an augmented cause. We have a e flat augmented chord, and this is the first time you've seen an augmented chord. It's basically a major third stacked on a major third. Okay, so we are creating some interesting chords with this harmonic minor scale. Because of this sharp and seventh note going alone, we have this f So let's count up 12 free. Then we have a flats and then we can to begin for five way, have a c So here we have in F minor. So you don't actually had a major chord yet? Let's go along to G. That's can stop free 12 free. So we have a B here and then we can to begin for round again. Five. We have a day. So here we have a major call. We've had our first major court. So we have a g major, then going along we have a flat and then 12 free have a c and then up again see on e flat. So here we have no flat See on any flatten if you count up. 1234512345 and four. We have a major chord to have a flat major and then we have the last one, which is a B not be flat, Remember, because this harmonic minor was Sharpe in the seventh. Remember? This is a being not be flat. So if you count up free 12 free, you have a day. So we have a minor fed there, then we can't up to 53457 f. So this is actually another diminish Cordova Bay a day and f So 12341234 form for is the minute should have a be diminished. Okay, so, uh, yeah, quite interesting chord progression, to be honest. So I'm just going to write out the pattern here. So the pattern for harmonic minor scale is a minor, then diminished, then augmented that minor on the major. Major diminished. So yes, quite different. You can create some interest in sounds. Sometimes you don't always want these sounds. Sometimes you don't always want these chords, so you can swap back to the natural minor. However, when you have the natural minor, you're not getting that leading tone. Not again. That strong sense of the tonic. Sometimes you might not want that strong sense, but sometimes you might want people to know what the key is. That's just feel like this one as well. Remember? See you flat on J. It starts in the minor So this is a harmonic minor scale. It does have its uses. It can sound a little different than what you might be used to. It does introduce another diminish called andan augmented chord, but it can't create interest in sound. And of course, it does give you that leading notes as well. So that's the harmonic minor scale can be interested in. It can be useful, but you can actually spot between the harmonic minor scale on the natural minor scale. On we have one more type of minor scale, which is called the melodic minor Scale, which we're going to look at in the next lecture. So thanks for watching on. I'll see you in the next lecture where we look at the melodic minor scale. 21. Melodic Minor Scale: Okay, let's now have a look at the melodic minor scale. So previously we had a look at the harmonic minor scale. So let's just play this. But quickly. So this actually has this leading that here, this b to a C. So when we play, this be adds tension and then it resolves into the sea. We know that C is the tonic. There is one problem, though, with this harmonic minor scale. And that's the gap between this, a flat on the B. So the gap between the six and the seventh is actually a tone and 1/2. It's free semi tones. So this is where this big jump that can create kind of strange sound comes from. It's the difference between the six and the seventh. It's what we do for a melodic minor scale is we just raise the six up a semi tone. So in this case, we raise this a flat upto in a and now we still get the leading note from the seven to the one, and we don't really get such a big jump. And if we actually look at this scale, the second half of it is actually a major scale. We've flat in the sex in the seventh that no, it's that changed it from a major scale to a minor scale with changes back to a major scale . Because if you remember, we turn a major scale to a minor scale by flashed in the third flat in the sixth. Fleiss in the seventh, we've actually show up in the sixth and seventh back to a major scale. So you've kind of got this hybrid half mine are half major scale at the moment. But this is one way we can still have that leading notes in a minor scale and also get rid of that large jump. Get rid of that one of the half tones to try and make it sound a little less unusual. So we want this one. We're ascending when we're going up from the seventh to the first this part here. But when we're going down, though, when we're descending, we're going down the scale. We don't necessarily need that leading, though anymore. So traditionally, what you do in the melodic minor scale is you go back to the natural minor scale when you're descending. So when you going during the scale. You go back to the natural minor scale. So when we go down the scale or descend, you can see here that I go back to a natural minor scale were flat in the seventh again, the flat in the six on. We still have this flattened third note. So up the scale we sharpen the six Sharpe in the seventh and down the scale we flatten this six and flat in the seventh, so ascending. It's kind of a hybrid half minor, half major scale, which is why we have this leading note. And we also get rid of that large jump that we created in the harmonic minor scale and descending. We go back to the natural minor scale because we don't need that leading time. We don't need to lead up because we're going down the scale. So let's just hear this melodic minor scale ascending on, then descending. So the melodic minor scale, as the name suggests, could be useful for creating melodies. But you can also swap between the harmonic minor melodic minor and then that reminded scale . It really does depend on what you want to happen in your track. However, if you do want to write chords with this melodic minor scale. The cords are slightly different because we do have this sharpened six. No as well. Let's just ah, right out some of these courts. So if you do want to know what caused to use for the melodic minor scale, we're going to work them out here. The melodic minor scale is less used than the other ones. However, this is still good to know. So the fierce cord we have see the we have a mind offered and then f g the first chord for working out. See you flat G 123412345 is a minor chord. The 1st 1 c minor. Okay, the next one day. So we have 12 free. We have an F on then g A normally in a minor scale. This would be a diminished, however, because we've sharpen this six note. It creates another minor. So day 123412345 Remember, Form five is minor. So we have another minor on the Fed called. We have any flats and then we can't up 12 free. We have a G. You can't began 45 We have a B natural room, not a B flat, a sharp and seventh because we're in this melodic minor scale. So we have a flap j and obey. So this is a different called than what? We're used a in the major on that. Reminder scales, if you count up. 12345123455 and five. Which is an augmented court to have a flat augmented. So got strange. Called here on the next one. We have enough. We count up free 12 free. We have this major third here because we flat in this six. Remember on then. For five to see. So we have an F major court. 123451234 Okay, Next we have a G. So remember, the third here is a B way. Have a major fed and then 45 We have a day here, so we have five and 4123451234 We have a G major. So we have enough before analogy. Remember, if there's no m sign or diminished or augmented, it just means it's a major chord. Okay, Next is this eight on them? It counts up. So we have Teoh. See, since 12 free. So have a minor fed for five to this e flat on here. We have a diminished course. So the difference to in here. 12341234 for four. Which is a diminished courts who have a dim a diminished. And then the last one here, this be That's just count up B c and d mind if Ed there and 45 to s so have obey DNF. So if you count up 12341234 Another diminish court to have a baby diminished. Okay, so records for ascending in a melodic minor scale. The pattern is minor. Minor augmented Major major diminished, diminished. That's kind of a strange one. Minor, minor augmented Major Major, diminished, diminished. And of course, we go back to the natural minor scale one ascending. So let's just wait this out quickly. Just gonna type in C minor. It's the first ones, obviously a C seven. But see, then we have ah in a flat, which is here, then I have a G. So the descending, which is the same as the natural minor scale first won't be C major. The 2nd 1 b c d E f. You have a B flat day and F 123451234 b flat, Major chord Third on we have a a flats Got to see. So I'm just stuck in this inferred. So if you look at this here a flat 12 free for counts up. 123 and then 45 we have any flat. So here, let's count up. 1234512345 and four. Remember, five and four is a major, so you have a flat. Next we have a G. So that's just count at 12 Free. That's B flat here. And then for five to this day. Let's count on here. So we have a J 12 3/4 this B flat. 12345 Remember, Form five is a minor, so we have a G minor. Then after this, we have an F Let's just count at 12 free this'll a flats and then full five to see. So here we have a f minor. If you can't hear 12 free for 12345 So we have four and five, which is a minor. So here we have f minor. Okay, next is the flats. Let's count up 12 free to a G and then for five to be flats s. So we have any flat G on a B flat. So if you can't up 1234512345 and four, which is a major so ever e flats. Okay, then we have a d. So if you've got 12 free, we have enough. I have minor fed there for five. We have this a flat here, so I'm a day f on a flat so we can hear now. You should hear that this is not a usual call. This is a diminished If you go 12341234 Form four is a diminishing hope. You can hear the difference between this on a minor called for example. So we have a d diminished then of course, we end on the C minor so descending it's the same as a natural minor scale. But if we just right at the core types, descending now from a lot of minor scale, it goes minor, major, major, minor, minor major diminished. So for ascending its minor minor augmented major major diminished, diminished on descending from a logic minor scale, the cause will be a minor, a major, major, minor, minor major diminished. So in a melodic minor scale, you would sharpen the six and seventh ascending on, then flat in the sixth and seventh descending. That's because ascending you on that leading note from the seventh to the tonic that Cem eternal movement to create that tension, that suspension on then that release that solidifies the tonic. But when you're descending, you don't need this leading note because you're going down the scale, which is why we revert back to the natural minor scale. So that's the melodic minor scale. It's at least coming of the free. However, it still can be quite useful. So thank you for watching this lecture on. I'll see you in the next one 22. Modes: Okay, so now we've had a look at major scales on minor scales. We're going to have a look at modes. So what Modes basically are are made to scales but played on a different notes. So if I just play see Major now, it's just the white notes see to see appear So we have C D E f g A B c. However, if I play these same notes but a different order, this will create a different color, different flavor to the scale. So if I start in the second at this, Dehere blows the same notes. The same white notes creates a different sound, a different flavor. It's the same notes, but just starting on a different note. And that's what really want. Most are we have seven of them 87 off the notes of the scale. So if you count the notes in the scale 1234567 and then it repeats eight about 21 We have a different mode for each of these. So are really doing is playing this scale, starting on a different note on ending on a different note. That's really what it is. We're just playing the major scale, but with a different route. Notes. We have seven of them for each scale degree. So the 1st 1 will be only in second will be Dorian. The third will be fridge in before. For bill idiom, fifth will be mixed religion. The six will be Ireland. On the seventh will be low cream. These words come from Greek, and modes like this have been used for very, very long time. So we actually already know two of them. We know I only in the 1st 1 on we know a only in the 61 So this 1st 1 this Ionian is a major scale, Just a different way of saying it's on the 61 alien is actually a natural minor scale. So we know these two already because if you remember, a minor scale is the same as a major scale starting on the six note. So, for example, in C major, we will use notes A, B, C, D A s G, but a so we're basically just reordering the major scale and changing the route position. So for a alien, we're just playing the six note on finishing on the six. Note. But it's the same notes as the major scale. Just starting on a different note. That's really what modes are on. We have seven of thumb, depending on which notes we start on, so the first note will be only in the second will be Dorian Fed will be fridge in four full ability, and the fifth we mix it in. The six will be early in on the seventh floor below cream actually have a little pattern to remember this. Just say no. The order of these There are two l's Just remember Lokeren is the last one on. The pattern goes, if Dora plays like May always lost. So if Dora plays like me, all is lost. So that's the little pattern you can use to remember these. If I only in Dora. Dorian plays fridge in like Lydian May mixed lady and all Iranians lost. All is lost. So if Dora plays like me, all is lost. So that's just a little pattern you can use to remember these. These are quite unusual ways to remember. They do come from a tree in Greek, and we've kind of kept these traditional words apart from number one, a only in, which is now called a major scale or major on number six earlier, is now really called minor. So in the next few lectures were going to go through each one of these and there a few different ways We can actually work from out the first way of order explains. Just have a look at the major scale, but start the scale on a different note on the other ways, actually adapting a major or a minor scale into one of these modes. So join me in the next lecture, where we're going to have a look at the Ionian mode. 23. 1 - Ionian: Okay, so let's now talk about a only in mode. So this is more commonly known as a major scale. However, most did come before major minor scales. So more recently we have taken this number one that I only in on number six the alien to create major or minor scales. But it's exactly the same as a major scale. So the order for a only and scales the same as ah may just go. So it's the same tones and semi tones as a major scale. So see Major So C major. We use the pattern tone, tone, semi tone, tone, tone, tone, semi tone toe work out the notes in the major scale. It's exactly the same for the union. So next let's have a look at Dorian. 24. 2 - Dorian: Okay, so next is Dorian, which is the second mode. It's the second mode because we actually play the major scale on the second notes and that has now become the route notes. So in C major, the easiest way to think of the Dorian scale is to pick the second note, which is the second out here. D on this will become d Dorian. So it's the same notes to see Major just shifting the route night. So down here we're starting day and then we finish on day. Another way to actually think of these most is to adapt the major or the minor scale. So right here I have a d major tonight and to turn this team major into a d Dorian, there's a little pattern that we need to remember and that is flat and the third on flat in the seventh. So if we're flat in this f sharp two NF, which is the third on if we count up 4567 you flat in this see shop to a C. This will create a D Dorian scale, so you could probably here already it sounds a little bit different to a major scale and also different to a minor scale. On another way of thinking of the D Dorian scale is to actually adapted the minor scale. So here I've written out a D minor scale. We can adapt the d minor scale into a D Dorian scale by just sharpening the six eso the six is this b flat sharp in this to be on, this becomes a D Dorian scale. You can see on the keys up here. It's just the white notes. So that is adoring scale. And that's how you can create d Dorian. This works with any of the scales. They're not just see, Major. So here we have g major. We can turn this into G door in a couple of different ways. One way is become naturally flat in the Fed, flat in the seventh off this major scale to create a G Dorian scale or the other way. It's what she'll think of it as the second note of the scale. So g Dorian who think of this of the second note? Yeah, So this note here this j this is the second off this one hand f. So the notes in F major r F g a b flat C D E f So if you look at this scale here, all we're doing is playing the notes of F major, but starting on a g so that will be a g a B flat C d E f g. So we could change this B to a B flat on this f sharp to an f and this is Ji adoree. Um So what we did there is played in F Major starting on energy or we can just flat in the third. So we changed this b to a B flat. So when they say flattened or sharp and I'm just talking about one semi tone Onda, we can actually flat in the seventh as well, because this was an f sharp. Flatten it to N f. And this is now g Dorian. So it works in any scale. And that's what a Dorian Motus. So that's how you can work out. Did Dorian on next? Let's have a look at fridge in 25. 3 - Phrygian: fridge in. This is the third mode, so foresee Major would be playing the third notes. So the same notes of C major but just rooting around this fair note. So just be these white notes. But starting on a so have a f g a B c D e a. And there are a few different ways we can actually work out this fridge in mode. So the easiest is to just start the major scale. On the third, however, we can turn a major scale into a fridge in scale. So let's just, you see Major, for example, So let's just change the C major into a sea free gym. So we know that this is the third note. One way we could do it. It's just countdown free notes from C C B A. No, it wouldn't be a major because a major has a C shop actually be a flat major S o. B. The notes of a flat major starting on the sea. If you don't know the notes of a flat major, you can actually use this other pattern toe workout. What? See? Fridge in Could bay. So, for a major scale, what we do is B flat in the second, the 3rd 6 and seventh. So the second he'll be a day flatness to D flat in this case, see shop on this digital audio workstation. It does say it's C Sharp is actually a D flat because the key signature a flat uses flats instead of shops, and then we flat in the third this aid to a flat and then the 6123456 this eight on a flat , the seventh this B to a B flat. So that's how we can change a major scale into a fridge in mode. The other way is to actually change the minor scale. So to change a minor scale into a fridge in mode or we need to do is flat in the second. So sometimes it's easier to change a minor scale into a mode rather than a major scale. But that's the pattern for both, Um so to change a major scale into a fridge in scale, you have to flatten the second, the third, the six, and the seventh on to change a minor scale into frigia mode or fridge in scale, you have to flatten the second. So sometimes it could be easier Thinking off a minor on all of these modes are actually just changed by one note. Apart from the Lydian Scale, which is changed by two on the locker and scale, which is also changed by two, the rest of them were just changing. Even a major or a minor scale by one note or the other way is to just think of the scale but free notes down. Let's just choose a fridge in, for example, so a fridge in will have the same notes as F major. But starting on a if you notice they're there wasn't B flat, so it's very similar to a minor. However, we just flat in the second. That's all we need to think about for a fridge in flat in the second. So next we're gonna have a look at Lydian 26. 4 - Lydian: Okay, Next is Lydian. This is the 4th 1 So we're taking the fourth notes of the scale. And using that as the new root note seven c major, the fourth will be 1234 This f on. We're just playing this note from F two f and C major. So we really just shifting the root note. So only in is one door in is to frigid is free. And now Lydian is for another way to think of Lady, um is to just shop on the fourth so you'll notice in F Major, does this b flat open f lydian? It was an f natural. That's because we just sharpen the four for Liddy. Um, so if you're changing a major scale into a Lydian with sharpening this B flat into a bay and to change a minor scale into a Lydian or we need to do is sharpen the third shop in the fourth shop in the six and shop in the seventh. And now, if we play this back, the Lydian mode is quite upright. Nice major sounding mode. That's because it's very similar to the major scale. OK, and next, we're gonna have a look at the mixer Lydia mode. 27. 5 - Mixolydian NEW: Okay, and now let's have a look at mixolydian. If we're in C major with plague, the fifth note, G, C major, but rooting around the G. Notice here it sounds a bit different with this seventh note. That's because we've actually flattened this seventh in G major. We have this F sharp. So it flattened this F sharp to an F. We get a different kind of sound. Mixed ligand is really what the blues is built around as well. So you do get that bluesy sound and using the Mixolydian mode, the easiest way to think of the Mixolydian mode is to just flatten the seventh. If we're in a minor scale as well, we can change this to a mixed linear mode, but it's a lot easier to think of the major scale if you want to turn it into a minor scale. However, for this example, I'm just going to write out G minor. Okay, so I've just written there a G minor. For this example sake, let's change a minor scale into a Mixolydian mode. What we need to do is sharpen the third and sharpen the six. This is G minor, which is the relative minor to B flat major. So it has two flats into sharpen the third, which is a B-flat to a b. And the six we count up for five-sixths, this E-flat to an a. The three different ways of working at Mixolydian. The first way is to just relate this as the fifth of the major scale. So if it's g Mixolydian, we just came back 512345. It's the notes of C-Major, but routing. Ryan J, if you think of a major scale. So here we'd have G-Major, which should have an F-sharp. All we do is flatten the Sabbath. So we change this up to an F. Or if we think of a minor scale, Well, we need to do is sharpen the third and sharpen the SEX. That's mixed Lydian. It's really useful for creating blues music. Blues music really is built around this Mixolydian mode. Okay, Next is Ireland, which is also the minor scale. But let's have a look at it again. 28. 6 - Aeolian: okay, so early in this is the same as the natural minor scale, or it's the six note degree off the major scale. So if we just think of the natural minor scale, the aliens really just kind of the old fashioned motile way of saying a natural minor scale . However, if we have a major scale, for example, here I've written out c major scale. We can change this to a minor scale or on a only and scale by flattening the third flats in the sixth and flashed in the seventh. So he wanted to change. See Major to C minor or to see earlier mode were flat in the third. So it changes e to any flats were flat in the six, which would be this A to a flats. And then the seven, which does B to B flat on this will create a C I only in scale, also known as a C minor scale. Thats the only in. It's just another way really of saying a natural minor scale. Next, we're gonna have a look at low Korean 29. 7 - Locrian: Okay, now we're going to have a look at locally in which is the 7th 1 So it's the seventh note of a major scale. This will now become the root note to create a locally um so if we're in C major the seventh note 1234567 is this bay so it straight away. We're starting with the semi tunnel movements, so the located scale isn't really the nicest of scales. It's a little unusual. It's not really going to be used that often. However, the easiest way to work it out is to just think off the seventh no degree or we just go up one semi tone to find the major scale that it's from. So be Lokeren. We got one cemetery. It will give us see, so it's notes of C major starting on this. Be so. For example, F sharp Lokeren will be the notes off G Major, but starting on f sharp because we got one semi tone says kind of strange. It really wants to resolve up one cemetery at the end. It doesn't sound like it should finish there. It really wants to just go to the G In this case, it really wants to get one semi tone. However, it's still a mode that can be used if you want to add different flavors or killers to your music. Okay, so on the screen here we have the notes off. Be major. We can change this to be locally, um, by actually flattening the second, flattening the third, flattening the fifth flat in the six and flattening the seventh. This is quite a difficult way of doing it. We need to change five notes. So for this instance, because it's be locally and it's the same notes of C. Major, we basically need to change these shops into naturals. So we change these black notes into white notes. So we need to do is change this c sharp to say So it flatten their second flat in the third , then flattened the fifth flats in the six and then flat in the seventh and then flat in the seventh so flat in the 2nd 3rd 56 7 So, yeah, local only. Do you have to change quite a few notes from the major to the local and mode, however, is easier to change. The minor into the local room. So the notes off B minor This has a C shop, and it also has in that shop because it's the relative minor off D major, so it has to shops. So to change a minor scale into a Lokeren or we need to do is flatten the second on a flatter in the fifth. This will create a Lokeren scale. Like I said, it does naturally want to go to the next note and naturally wants to go semi tone above. At the end. It doesn't feel like it resolves, but that is a locally in scale. It is quite unusual one, and it's not really that commonly used. However, it can be interesting toe. Add some color or some new flavors to your music. So these are the most. These ey're the seven those only and Dorian Fridge in Lydian Mixed Lydian Olean on locally . Um, remember that Pastner said, If Dora plays like me, all is lost. So I only indoor in Fridge in Lydian Mixed Lydian Alien on low prion. So these are the seven Moz on. Just remember the different patterns I went through for each one and hopefully this will add a bit more color flavor to a music, give you even more possibilities than just using the major scale on the minor scale. So thank you for watching, and I'll see you in the next lecture. 30. Section 2 Introduction: hello and welcome to this section where we're going to analyze music. So in this section, I'm going to analyze to off my tracks that I'm currently working on. I show you all different elements of the track, and I'll show exactly how and why I wrote the songs the way that I did with music theory. So let's get ready for this section. 31. Song Analysis 1 - Capsize: Okay, Now we're going to have a look at a song that I'm currently working up Onda against, analyzed this track and show you how why it sounds the way it does through music free. So this can be quite a distance song. It does use a lot of suspended courts, and the song is actually called capsize. I wanted to create quite a dark, mysterious song because the word capsizes where boat goes in its side or upside down. It can be a I'm sure a very distressful situation so wanted to create some distressful and certain music based on this title as well. I'm going to play a part of the song and then we're going to analyze the courts, the melody and also the baseline. - Okay , so let's just talk about this first section exactly what's going on. So we start the song with this kind of sound design pod. What this is actually playing is thes two notes here, which is a B and a C sharp. Some introducing this first court because this first cord is actually be minor suss to. So it's a B minor chord. Instead of playing the third today, we're playing this second instead, the third is really where the structure of the called comes from. In the tried like this, I'm playing the second instead to make it sound less certain on. We're introducing this at the starts of just these two notes through this pad signed and after this we're introducing this arpeggio. So what the arpeggio does is it plays the notes off the court separately in this case, is starting from the highest note and then going down to the lowest note. So starting with the sea shop and then playing an F sharp and then playing obey. So this is starting off with this, see shop here and then playing enough shop, then playing obey. So it's playing the notes off this B minus us two called but of a different inversion. It's a much larger cord to grow a bit more space. So is playing in the order from the highest and lowest on Ben. You noticed this actually resolves to the day. Instead of playing the sea shop, it resolves to dio way so it does resolve, and then it actually changes to another court. But let's just hear these 1st 2 courts so we have this 1st 1 which is essentially this B minor us to playing a c sharp instead of E. And the 2nd 1 results this B minus. So let's just hear this. What starts off attention with this B minus sister on then actually resolves to a B minor. So it has the third. And then we have another chord introduced here to this. Is that a f sharp and see shop? So this is actually a major chord playing a six instead of fifth. Because in a major, the triad is a C shop and a this time of playing this f sharp in Stephanie, it could also be seen as a f sharp minor. However, when we do introduce the bass note, it is playing an eighth. So this is a a six. So we're playing there 67 Fif. And then if we go along, we actually see a stranger cord. We drop the C sharp to a C. So we're playing gay. Much more unusual court. So we changes from and a major six two in a minor six. So it's quite a dramatic change. We are borrowing notes from another key. I really wanted this semi total movement had distressed attention. So the cold progression for this song is a B minus us two. Then the B minor thing a six, the A minus six. Let's just write this down So you have a B minor just to then you have a B minor. Then you have an a six and then we have a minor six. That's really the premise of the song. This is really what's built around. Just these four chords will be creating tension on the release on. Then we're creating even more attention from going to the minor. So it's just about creating tension and release. I really wanted something quite distressful one of right these cause I want something that sounded quite uncomfortable. I think I achieved this with these stem eternal movements, from the aid to the A minor and also the confusion of not having the third to start with. And then we add the third. Then we have this nice major six chord, and then we have this kind of distressful movement sem eternal movement off the third. That's really what this song is built around. Let's just have a look at other sections of the song and then we have the baseline that enters, which is basically just playing the route notes. So we have there be and then we go up to the second. So the be on it plays the seconds and then we have the big on when it stops this B minor way. Do introduce this denotes so the base that's basically going to start with. So we plan to be on then the seconds and then the bay and then the minor third here. Okay, And then we go down to this a play the third again. So we have a going to the major food and then we have the a going to the minor third base. Now it's really just solidifying these cause by playing the bass note and then adding the third, actually the first called it plays the second because there isn't 1/3. So the base is playing these gods. Let's see what else is going on. And then we actually have a rift that enters. So this actually plays a couple of notes, A deem it has caused a little bit more interesting. This ref adds a little bit more color, so that's first of all, it starts with so it starts of a day, then plays their second the sea shop. But this know that adds a bit of this g. So adding a semi tone onto this first court, so even more suspense by having this G because this is kind of clash with the f sharp. I quite like the sound on going along the ref. We don't actually play the G the second time. We're only playing the Jew on this first kind of unusual court that doesn't have the third having even more tension on. Then, when we play the B minor, the rift is just playing the fifth end. Not that six. That's tension again. Then when it goes over to this, a six the ref goes plays the route the 3rd 6 on the seventh as well to add cemetery on movements add even more attention. Before, we kind of had a nice, pretty major six. We're actually having it with a minor seventh. I don't this no as well, which creates a kind of a seven. So we're creating a dominant seventh here with six as well, so you could call it a A seven slash 13. So let's actually changes cause No, because we've actually adapted them. So this is actually a seven slash 13. So we're making these calls a bit more complex. Okay, so the 1st 1 is kind of a B minus us two. Add six. Nice. So we kind of making this a little bit more complex. So when this riff enters, it adds a bit more color in actually tension to the song like out in the semi tonal Movements. Let's have a look at the fourth Court where the riff place it has a a a C and then a shop. This is still playing on a minor six. So if added small tension and mawr color and extended these chords with this ref. So sometimes when you're playing the core progression, you can adapt and change the core progression when you play a riff or a melody line on top of it. So let's just have a listen to that again and have a listen to the movement rare, adding the third. And then we're going down for a major to minor four chords free and four. Also, when the riff enters, just listen and hear. If you can hear the differences in the cause if it changes or adapts the sound, okay, and then we have a few other things as well. We actually have a harmony for this riff here with this parts. And then we have a few of the sections here. This rhythmical block sound enters. So let's first of all, have a look at the harmony. So we actually have ah harmony for this block sandwiches playing notes in the court as well . So if you look at the first chord, we have this Be minor suss add six. So it's a so it has the notes are be a C shop, a f sharp energy. So you know to say it's playing notes that fit in the courts. So we have ah, sharp. Then we have a the bait on. Then on the second called Where it resolves to this B minor. The ref is also playing notes that fit a f sharp and to be and then when we go to this next called the A 7 30 it's also playing that's that fit. So we have a F shot and then we have a seizure, which is the third So we have the six and the third and then going along the last called the A minus six. So has enough shop, which is the six on. It has to see just the feds. So I did this by having a look at the notes in the court and creating a harmony from that. Okay. And then in this track, we have this block sound and this is actually just playing that's on the court as well. So it has this rhythmical sound to it which is actually created in the synthesizer. But the notes of the chord are just a shop on a C shop. So it's just playing. Ah, see, Shop, which is the second the So stay for the fair scored on the F sharp, which is the fifth Theun going along that changes to this day eso for the B minor. It has the third on the fifth. Okay, going along to the A 7 13 court, I'm playing the sea shop, which is the fed. And then there s shop again, which is the six or the 13th of this. God on them for the B minor is playing the C e O, which is the third and then six again. So this rhythmical part this rhythmical, synthesized this plot sound. It's just playing notes of the court as well. This is really what is built around this chord progression and then creating some melodies and rhythmical ideas all based around this core progression. And then the song continues. But it's really built around these four chords. Obviously, there's a lot more arrangement on. There's more parts in the song, however, the song is really just built around these four chords, and I do believe it adds a bit of tension on suspense when listening to this track. So thank you for watching this lecture all about analyzing this track that I'm currently working on. I hope you found it useful and I'll see you in the next lecture. 32. Song Analysis 2 - Floating: Okay, Now let's analyze another track. So this is another song that I'm currently working Girl. Andi really has two main sections. Has this kind of a section which is the one in green on the B section, which is in blue then has this breakdown, which is a new version of the A section that goes back to the B section. So let's just have a listen to this song, and then we're going to go through and analyze this track and then I'll show you exactly how and why I created this music way , - okay ? And then the song continues with a breakdown, which is the same cause as the A section this green section on. Then we have another chorus, which is this blue section. So we actually start off the song. We have the bass part from the chorus. So this is how I could hint to listener. But this will come later. Rounds of this is gonna be the chorus. So this song is actually called floating. I wanted something that was quite airy, mysterious, but quite light at the same time. On let's first of all, have a look at the base part. So we have four notes that start we have this effort goes up to a G, then we have an e flat that goes up to enough. So is going up to the second. And then we have a C, which goes to A and e flat. Then we have a B flat that has this passing notes off, see, and then the flats. So it's the base pop. And then after this, we go to just the first chord, which is this f repeated so f and then has the note of a G, which is really just a passing notes. It just repeats this full of the verse. And the key of this song is actually if you notice here isn't af isn't f major or f minor because we've got this g here. It's f major. It's not quite f major. We also have an e flat on the key were actually in Is f mixer Liddy. Um, so we have a B flat on the flats, but the root note is the F Andi, If you remember the modes mixer Lydian is the 5th 1 along. So in the key off B flat, we have a B flat on the new flats on the fifth. No, along isn't f so. It's actually the notes of B flat major rooting around F. So it's an f mix all idiom. The reason I wanted to have this in after mixed Lydia, and it's just to make it sound a little bit different from a major or a minor scale going along. We have this bass part that just repeats the first called Over and Over Again. For the first, there's just this f that goes up to Jay. So for the bass part, we just repeat the F, and we also have a G passing note. Let's have a look at this core. The enters here's pluck sound so you can see here we have a G B flat on the sea, so this is actually used as an arpeggio later, so it will play one after another. That's just solar doesn't have a listen to this. Are Pejeta okay? And then, if we at the base part, it's not the easiest to hear because is on a synthesizer. However, this isn't a regular cord. If we go to the piano and we have the F from the base and then the notes. Here we have a G A B flat on. Also see, so this cold is being played over and over again. Through this isn't enough, Major isn't enough. Minus different corduroy way Haven't got the third using this fourth instead of the first. That's a sussed cord. We're also playing the second, so this court is actually a EFS us 49 Let's just right in here. So this is the F nine Suss. Four is the way to write it. So based it means it's naff. And it's playing a nine in this case, a G on its playing a sauce for So it's playing the beef lap instead of this. A. So this just add a bit of attention. It really wants to resolve and go Teoh. Yes, however, none of the cords actually resolve into the chorus because it's just one called going over and over again to add a bit of tension toe Adebimpe suspense. And then we have this of Accord part that enters Let's just so this you. So this is actually playing the notes F g B flat. So we have this US four here again, also in targets adding other notes as well just that in this day to the court. So if you play this chord now, we have the F. We have the J. You have the B flats on, we have a day. So I did this six as well. So this court has kind of changed to an after nine 13 sauce. Four kind of a complex chords, Really. It's ah, enough in the base. And then we have this nine, the G and then we have to be flat because it's a Sasquatch. Then we also have this day, which is the sex says kind of Ah, a G minor in the right hand with the F. This is just a attention because this isn't a really clear court. This doesn't really resolve. It sounds a bit strange. And reason I've got this is so when the chorus centers, you know it's the course, you know, it's built up and then also going along. We have had this e flat here, the second called Ads B flat. The 1st 1 has this six, and the next one has this thing. There's no that isn't actually in their F major scale. So now, adding the minor. Seven. So this one, how will be in F seven Suss for Maybe you could even call at nine. So, yeah, these cars are getting quite complex. I won't get too caught up on the exact names. I just want to explain what's going on. So we have this f we're playing their sous forme. Step the third, and then we're adding the nine head this jay, and then I'm playing the A minor seventh and then we're going up to the F. Going back down to this one kind of doesn't really resolve. It kind of has less tension here. It goes up to the F. So it just goes really to the original court. So this is now the fared chord in the centers in the fourth chords. This one again. So, really, the first half off the verse is this called here, which is this F nine cells four. And then when this new sequence enters, we kind of bring in these new notes here, kind of making evil more complex. If this seems like another language to you, don't worry. Just realize we're just extending the court or just changing a few notes in the court, OK, and now let's have a look at the melody. So that's the melody for the verse over this called the F nine cells for So we have an F which obviously is the root. We go down to this e flat here, So this really isn't actually an f nisus for so now we know that this melodies actually changed it to this f seven because we're introducing this e flat again. So this song can be a little complex at times. Doesn't sound like it. But when you go for when you analyze the notes, you realize actually playing in the mix of Lydia mode and we've actually got some kind of different cords going on to add some extensions and then we have the F and then we go to the flat again, which is the minor seventh. And then we go to the sea, which is the fifth good to the juice, the knife and then good to F against. We're not playing the third anyway, were not given the listener the third, which is what they really want. They wanted to resolve into the third note of the Triad, and we're not giving them that instead, what we're doing is we're given them this e flat, which turns it into the mix Lydia mode. So that's really the verse that's quite complex. And then we go to the chorus where we have a new chord progression. So the chorus we have if you over cause let's just have a look at this now so you have the F. Then you get an E flat and then we go to a C and then we go Toby Flats. Let's just write that in the chorus. We have enough. Then we have any flat. Then we have a say. Then we have a B flats, so in the chorus we have F E flat, C and B flat. Now let's find out. The rest of the notes are going on in this. So let's just have a look at the block here. So in the first could get half see and then an a flat. We finally resolve that song. The chorus it resolves. We're not playing this us, for we do resolve. The third is the first chord is a F minor, which is why the chorus sounds so nice because it find a resolves. So the second cord. We have a F c and the B flat to this over the route. No, e flat. So this kind of gives us a a flat six because we're adding there, See? Which is the six note off the flat major scale and then going along, we have this F B flat on DSI, so f b flat and C and then we have a seat in the base way. We have a sauce. Four chord again. Says to see seven because it has this B flat, which is a minor seventh. So you have C 764 so kind of still unusual. We have a bit of tension here on Will it resolve with the last chord, which is a B flat. So we have a B flat in the bass, then we have any flat. Then we have a G. And then we also have a B flat as well. So here. So this doesn't resolve Eva way. Have a sauce for again, says four. Add six. Yes, a little bit unusual to have a B flat. Suss four had six. So that means we're playing the B flap sauce for means we're not playing. The third were playing the fourth, which is ni flat. They were playing the six, which is this J. It's not really add six because we're not playing the F, so it could be a B flat six sous for it really depends on how you want to write it. But I wouldn't get too caught up on writing these. It's more about understanding what's actually going on, but then it does resolve about this F minor. Then we go to this E flat six and then the c seven source for on then the Beef Latsis for with a six. So that's really the cause, and the chorus is quite complex as well. It sounds like quite an easy light song, but when you analyze it, there is quite a lot going on because I didn't want this to sound kind of mysterious. And on an easy I felt like I wanted to sound like I was floating in the end. You're not sure if you're gonna fall at any point C enjoying the floating. It's so much fun. But same time you quite an easy So that was the vision I had met was right in these courts . Then we have this arpeggio here just playing C B flat on enough so kind of adding some notes this f minor here as well. But I think this b flat kind of changing this to 11 for adding in 11 because we're adding this be flats. Then we have the flats in the sea way have this us four again with the F on, then the B flat. We have this US forward, the flats there kind of changing the F as well. You could say Ah f minor added 11. If you really want to go dig deep on just right out properly, however, I wouldn't worry too much about this. Is back training good here and actually knowing what's going on rather than writing at the cause exactly how they should be okay? And then that's kind of it for the chorus. And then we have, apart from this lead section above. So let's just hear this with the lead section. First part that so the 1st 2 chords. So the 1st 1 that had the f of F and then we have the because he flat again so it could change the scored again if it really wanted to. So it could be in the F minus seven because we're playing the seventh night here. And then, uh, we go to this flap. So we're playing it f over this e flat. So it could be a flat six ad nine if we wanted to really make it complex. You're playing a F over this flat, and they were playing this B flat as well, which is the fifth of your flat and then up to the sea, which is the six. And then we play the sea here. So we have this source for F when we have the seventh, which the seventh and up to the sea and then for the B flat were playing a G, which in B flat is the six. So we've got the ad six here and then we go down to the the fifth. So these the cause, it can be pretty complex. Don't worry too much if you don't know how to write this out. Exactly. It's just more about understanding what notes of there and why this sounds a little bit different. So hopefully now you listen to this song. It might sound different to when you first heard it. Because you can hear the tension. You can hear the buildup from the verse and then when the chorus kicks in and you get that release from that minor, we finally got the third in the court. So let's just have a listen to this track again. And hopefully it might sound a little bit different to, you know, Uh huh way . - Okay , so that's really the cords Harmony, melody Off this track, of course, there are a lot more things as well, like arrangement sound design on rhythms. But that's the harmony records and the melody off this track. I hope you found this analysis useful and thank you for watching this lecture on. I'll talk to you soon.