Making Music in FL Studio 20: Intermediate | Dmitri Belichenko | Skillshare

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Making Music in FL Studio 20: Intermediate

teacher avatar Dmitri Belichenko, FL Studio instructor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Class Introduction


    • 2.

      (1-1) Browser Overview & Tips


    • 3.

      (1-2) Channel Rack Tips


    • 4.

      (2-1) MIDI i-o Settings


    • 5.

      (2-2) Recording MIDI


    • 6.

      (2-3) Recording Audio


    • 7.

      (2-4) MIDI OUT to Outboard Gear


    • 8.

      (2-5) Link to Controllers, Automation Recording


    • 9.

      (2-6) Recording Internally


    • 10.

      (2-7) Edison Recording


    • 11.

      (3-1) Easy Chord Progressions


    • 12.

      (3-2) Arp, Adding Variation to MIDI


    • 13.

      (3-3) Drumloop edits


    • 14.

      (3-4) Creating a Bassline


    • 15.

      (3-5) Creating a Layer


    • 16.

      (3-6) Automation LFO


    • 17.

      (3-7) Grouping in Playlist


    • 18.

      (3-8) Simple Noise Riser


    • 19.

      (3-9) Creating Arrangements


    • 20.

      (4-1) Gain staging and volume controls


    • 21.

      (4-2) Compression Overview


    • 22.

      (4-3) Noise Gate


    • 23.

      (4-4) EQ overview


    • 24.

      (4-5) Dynamic EQ, De-essing


    • 25.

      (4-6) Controlling Reverb Dynamically


    • 26.

      (4-7) Adding Setero Width


    • 27.

      (4-8) Parallel Compression


    • 28.

      (4-9) Demo Project Overview


    • 29.

      (4-10) Master Channel


    • 30.

      (4-11) Dynamic Range, Loudness Meter


    • 31.

      (4-12) Master Mono Test


    • 32.

      (4-13) EQ Frequency Slotting


    • 33.

      (4-14) Frequency Spectrum Analyszer


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About This Class

So you discovered the power and convenience of FL Studio and are able to create a song. Ready to dive deeper into the world of music production? Look no further, as this intermediate class is designed to introduce you to new skills and a better understanding of arranging, mixing and finalizing your track. You will even learn how to quickly create a chord progression using a provided chord pack. Ready to level up?!

In this class, you’ll gain valuable workflow and production tips and tricks, as well as a deeper understanding of FL Studio signal flow, recording, arrangement and mixing. You will gain understanding of equalization and compression as well as easy ways to improve the sound quality of your productions. Also, you will learn how to add variation and humanize your midi scores, and easily manage midi in the channel rack.

This class is geared towards intermediate FL studio users, so make sure to check out my Beginner class first.

Jump in and gain a new level of understanding the powerhouse music production software FL Studio 20!

This class is presented in 4 parts which are divided into small bite sized sections:

  1. Intro
    1. Browser Overview & Tips - Adding Samples, VST, Quick Tabs, working with browser contents
    2. Channel Rack Tips - Managing steps and midi, shifting steps, looping
  2. Recording
    1. MIDI i-o Settings - setting up MIDI controllers and MIDI settings
    2. Recording MIDI - recording into channel rack, loop recording and overdub
    3. Recording Audio - recording audio into playlist, loop recording, declick options
    4. MIDI OUT to Outboard Gear - controlling external hardware synths with MIDI
    5. Link to Controllers, Recording Automation - linking controls to parameters, converting automation to clips
    6. Recording Internally - Mixer Inserts recording
    7. Edison Recording - Recording audio into Edison plugin
  3. Arranging
    1. Easy Chord Progressions - creating chord progressions using a scaled chord MIDI pack
    2. Arp, Adding Variation to MIDI - Adding strum, velocity randomisation, timing variation
    3. Drumloop Edits - Slicer edits, drum build-up using piano roll cut/resonance parameters
    4. Creating Bassline - ghost notes from channels to add bassline, transposing channels
    5. Creating a Layer - doubling the bassline using a layer
    6. Automation LFO - setting up LFO automation clip, LFO range , automating LFO speed.
    7. Grouping in Playlist - grouping clips, grouping playlist tracks to minimize
    8. Simple Noise Riser - creating a basic noise riser in Piano Roll using 3xOSC
    9. Creating Arrangements - creating different arrangements, cutting clips, marker selectors
  4. Mixing
    1. Gain Staging and Volume Controls - Signal path overview, headroom, Fuity Balance
    2. Compression Overview - complete settings overview and compression examples.
    3. Noise Gate - setting up noise gate threshold, gain and release to clean up noise.
    4. EQ Overview - EQ settings overview, frequency bands, filters, curve order, Q/width control
    5. Dynamic EQ, De-essing - Dynamically controlling freq bands using Fruity Send, Peak Ctrl and Bandpass
    6. Controlling Reverb Dynamically - controlling reverb using EQ, Fruity Send , Peak Ctrl and Fruity Balance
    7. Adding Stereo Width - adding width using a stereo delay trick as a separate insert
    8. Parallel Compression - setting up a parallel using Fruity Send and a Multiband Compressor
    9. Demo Project Overview - quick review of the mixing techniques used in the demo project.
    10. Master Channel - master effect chain, using Maximus mastering compressor
    11. Dynamic Range, Loudness - Metering the dynamic range, LUFS and True Peak
    12. Master Mono Test - Checking for mono phase correlation and gain
    13. Frequency Slotting - a simple technique to help with mixing and instrument freq placement
    14. Frequency Spectrum Analyzer - Using Parametric EQ analyzer on the 'current' insert

Meet Your Teacher

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Dmitri Belichenko

FL Studio instructor

Level: Intermediate

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1. Class Introduction: Hi, I'm Dimitry Malchenko and welcome to another FL Studio music production class. This time we're expanding on what you've learned in my intro class. We will talk about the building blocks of making a track, including quick ways of working with samples, instruments, and media scores, as well as adding your own sample packs and third party plugins. We will talk about recording from setting up your sound card and controllers to different ways of recording audio, midi and automation. I will show you how to work with audio in the playlist, as well as quick ways of creating different arrangements. And lastly, I will show you how to mix and master your track from game staging and balance, compression and a cube. How to control the low end and add width TO track. I will explain mastering and simple terms that are easy to understand. So you can dive into music production armed with this crucial understanding. 2. (1-1) Browser Overview & Tips: Welcome and thank you so much for joining me and another class. I'm really excited to show you all the different ways of working with FL Studio 20. So let's get started. The first thing I wanted to talk about is adding your own samples to the browser. And you do this by clicking this drop-down arrow here in the browser and clicking on Configure extra folders. From there, you can simply browse to the folder with your samples. And as soon as you click OK, you can already see that the samples folder has been added in the browser. But there's an even easier way to add folders to the browser by simply dragging and dropping them in. Another thing I wanted to show you is how to add your own plug-ins to FL Studio. And you do this by clicking in the options and going into manage plugins. Fl Studio will scan your system for older installed plugins. And if you can't find the plug-in in your list, just make sure that all of these folders, all of these search folders are the ones where you installed your plugins. And from there we can search for plugins in this Find window here, I will search for serum. And then you can favorite it by clicking the star beside the plug-in. And when you close this window, you'll be able to find this plug-in now in your channel ramp. Another thing you'll notice in the browser is that there's these three tabs here at the top, and these are simply the shortcuts to these existing folders here. And so if you want to create your own shortcut, click on this drop-down here. Click on the next available snap, snap forests free for us. You browse to the folder that you'd like to add as a quick tab. Then you'll click show only open folders. And then we'll rename it to splice packs. In this case, give it a color. And then very important that you need to choose an icon for it in order for it to show up as a tab. So I'm just going to add a simple folder icon here. Hit enter, and then we go a splice, samples is added to the browser. We have a quick access folder here. When working in FL Studio, the first thing that you'll probably do is start browsing for some samples and start adding them to your channel rap. So as you already know, you can simply drag and drop this into the sampler. And now we have our kick drum here. But actually there is a lot of much quicker and more convenient ways of doing this. So let's fill this kick with four steps. And when you're working on your project, you can quickly replace samples just by simply clicking on your mouse wheel. You can also do this by holding Shift and hitting the up and down arrow on your keyboard. And as you hear, it's quickly replaces the sample in the sampler. It's just a really convenient way of browsing samples and kind of auditioning them with our track. So we can have our truck running and have our samples replaced. Two here along with the rest of our music, whether it fits or not. And another thing that you can add from the browser's not only samples, but also midi files. So FL Studio comes with these scores here. In the previous class, I showed you how to add stamps into the piano roll. So all of these stamps are actually available here in the browser. So you can browse and add these advanced chords are simple chords right into your channel rack. So firstly, let's add an instrument. I'll need the kick. Let's get started with adding some of these chords into the piano roll. And you do it exactly the same way as you did with the sample. So you can middle click or click on your mouse wheel. Just replace the chords. You see how easy it was to quickly audition different chords. And through the browser, there's plenty of midi packs available online. And I will include this simple midi pack here with some of the most common chords in the key of C major and C minor. So even if you don't know much about music, I'm gonna show you how to quickly arrange these into chord progression. 3. (1-2) Channel Rack Tips: But before we do this, I just wanted to show you a few simple ways of navigating through the channel rock and how to manage your scores on new samples. So for example, here we have our kick. And by the way, I, I did a quick fill with these four steps. And if I want to add another drum here, I'm gonna fill each eight steps. One thing you'll notice is that when you quick fill steps, it starts on the first step. So sometimes does not very helpful because you want to actually this snare to start on the second step. So the way to shift it over is you simply hold control and shift. And you shifted over to the right. And here we go. We have our snare on this fifth step instead of first step. And another thing I wanted to show you how to quickly copy and paste things between different patterns using the channel wrap, I select the channel that I want to copy this, the steps from hold Control acts go into a new pattern. Hit Control V. And here we go. I can even hit Control V on a different channel. It doesn't need to be the exact same channel. So you can copy and paste patterns between different channels, right? It's the same thing goes for the piano roll. So I can hit control C. To copy, I'll go into pattern number three, another empty pattern. Hit control v and r cord is now in pattern threes piano. So just a quick and easy way of managing your arrangements in the channel rack. Okay, another thing I wanted to show you in the channel rock is looping something that I'll quickly create a 4-bar progression here. And I'm just going to put in a few kick and snare steps. Were you here? Is that the first part, the first bar of our progression, the kick and snare were playing just fine. And then for second, third, fourth bar, there was no kick and snare anymore. So when you're arranging things in the channel rock, it's a really useful thing to engage this loop step channels. So you can quickly arrange different drum patterns along with your malady and not have to worry about filling in all of these additional steps. Because as you can see, they're automatically filled in. And if I change one day change here in the grayed-out section as well. So let's say on the last bar, I wanted to add a variation in the cake here. So as you can see, what happens is that all of these steps get removed. And then now only this very last step gets, remains in our step sequencer. And obviously this is not very helpful when you're trying to make a little variant here on the last step. So in order to deal with that, we will use the Burn selected channels. As soon as I click that all of these kicks, they turn from this grayed out sort of looping version of the step into an actual solid step that's in our step sequencer. And as you can hear, I can add variations and that does not affect these steps here. The same can be done for the snare. And so you can actually burn all looping channels. When I click this all over the channels that we use to loop and the channel rack are now filled in. And now we're free to add them however you like. Let's add another dram in here. Let's go into the high hats. A short hi-hat, open a new channel. So I want to fill in every two steps. Turn this down a little bit. And from here we can even go into advanced looping and choose how many steps each channel will loop. So I can go into Lubert three, for example. So it's a little bit more advanced. Obviously, if you get confused as to what's looping and what's not, simply disengage this and just go into loop all step channels. And these windows disappear and you're back into a simple way of looping the pattern. So this was a quick overview on how to work within the browser and the channel rock. And in the next part we're gonna talk about how to record audio, as well as how to set up our mini controllers and record notes and automation. So stick around. I'll see you soon. 4. (2-1) MIDI i-o Settings: Welcome back. So let's talk about recording and FL Studio. The first thing I wanted to talk about is how to set up your midi controller and be able to record notes on automation. And then we're going to talk about setting up your sound card and setting up inputs in the mixer so we are able to record audio into FL Studio. So let's start with setting up our midi controller. And once your controllers connected and plugged in, the first thing you want to check is that it's enabled in the mid-90s settings. So we go into midi settings are complete controllers connected and we'll just gonna click Enable. And as you can see, the power, the green power light comes on and were able to use our controller. This controller type drop-down is where you would choose the controller if you have a specific controller from this list, like I do in FL Studio fire. Another setting that's worth mentioning is this port number here. So if you leave this at the initial value, that pitch and mod wheel controls will be automatically assigned in your instruments. If I change this to any other port, if I play, my pitch control is not automatically assigned anymore. So just leaving this at the initial values probit, good place to start. So since we have this window open, let's also talk about how to set up midi out. So FL Studio can also send midi out to your outboard gear. And to set this up, we look in this output window here. And let's set up our monologue to receive midi on port 0. So now, once I set this up to 0, this port turns green as well. And now we're able to send midi from FL Studio 2R monologue on port 0. And I will show you how to set that up in the channel rock in a few minutes. 5. (2-2) Recording MIDI: Now that we have our controller setup, we can start recording midi into a piano roll some, I'm just gonna choose a grand piano here. And the first thing we'll talk about is how to record midi right into the pattern in your channel rack. So I'm just going to insert a drum sent as well. Let's go with FBC. So FBC is just a drum sampler and it has a whole bunch of drums laid out on the keyboards. So we have our kicks, snares, iPads, Tom's, et cetera. And then it's just an easy way to create a drum loop. So I'm just going to turn the template down to about 90 and we're going to start recording some drum patterns into the channel rap. I'm also going to set our paddle lengths to 64 beats. So I'm going to scroll all the way up to 64. We're gonna extend this so we see what we're working with. And then we can start recording by hitting this record button. And then this window pops up. Can you what you would like to record? So we're going to record notes and automation. At the same time. You don't really need this window. Once you're familiar with the recording settings, feel free to click this. Don't ask this in the future and close the window. This will stop popping up. To setup. What we actually are going to record is you simply right-click on the record button. And here you can choose notes. So right now I have my notes selected. When you click it, you see that this sticker is black, which means that we're going to be recording notes into our pattern right now. And then we hit our countdown before recording. So you can also set this up to one or two bars. Let's leave this at one bar. And then as soon as I hit play the countdown, which start for one bar, and after one bar we're going to start recording. I'm just going to also enable the metronome so I can hear the timing. And also I'm going to select the quantize to quarter beat. This means that as soon as I'm done recording, FL Studio will automatically quantize my recording to be in time with the grid. Okay, and I'm ready to start recording. And we can also set this up so we can loop the recording and we don't have to stop every time we want to record a different instrument or add to our instruments so we can engage this loop recording button here. And then next time we record is just going to keep looping and we can keep adding to our pattern. Select your instrument, let's choose the piano. And from here we can keep adding instruments. So let's add a base to this. And I want to redo the second half, let's say of this recording. There we go. And then let's say I want to add hi-hat two, this drum recording here. And so what happened is the recording was replaced with just a recording of the high hat. If we want to overdub more layers into the same channel, we need to engage this overdub function here. So let's undo that recording. I'm going to click overdub on. And let's try again. I'm going to add a snare as well. And same with the piano. We can add a little melody on top. So you can see how quickly and easily we can come up with beads in the channel rock. We can split it into patterns and then start arranging or songs. So we can go into here split by channel. And then now we have three patterns in our playlist that we can start arranging our song. So now that we have the playlist open, let's talk about how to record into the playlist. So it's the same idea. You just hit record. Make sure your songs selector here instead of the patterns. So we were in the pattern before. Now we're gonna switch to the song. Switch to a new pattern. Select your instrument, let's choose the piano and then select the length of the recording that you like. 6. (2-3) Recording Audio: Now let's talk about recording audio. So to record audio, you may have to make sure that audio is selected as part of the recording here. And we're gonna click Audio now. Our audio and notes are selected. In order to record audio, you must bring it in on our mixer. So let's choose on insert one, R input one. So I know that my synthesisers plugged into input one on my mixer. And I'm going to hit a note on my synthesizer. I can hear that it's coming into FL Studio. I'm going to turn these off and I'm going to simply record audio into the playlist. So first we will have to check our input level. It's pretty loud, so I'm gonna turn it down just a little bit now. Okay, and let's start recording. Now. One thing that you'll notice is the recording started at the beginning and we chopped off the first note. So now we don't have the recording of the first note. So whatever command is actually starting the recording on the second set of bars here. And giving yourself a little bit of a pre-roll, like one bar. So we'll have a count down, then we'll prerecord for one bar and then we're actually going to kick into our recording. Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao. And here we go. Here's our according with the first node in there. And we can shift it overdone and time it to our grid. Mau Mau Mau Mau, Mau, Mau, Mau, Mau, Mau. And we can also do loop record with audio as well. So if you engage the loop record button here, let's give ourselves pre-roll again. We're going to mute this clip. Hit record. Cao Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao Cao, Cao, Cao Cao, Cao, Cao Cao. And as you can see, we recorded multiple versions. And these patterns get automatically muted and then became keep record in the next one and the next one. And then you can just chop and replace the takes that we don't like and, and keep adding R takes from here. So it's just a really easy and quick way to get your recording together. Good recording and start sort of Frankenstein it together. Let's unmute all of these guys. Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao, Cao. And then so what you might have noticed that you heard a click went from one recording to the next. And when you're working with audio in the playlist, it is important to choose this, the clicking mode to switch it to some sort of a crossfade versions. So anything that says no bleeding means no crossfade. So anything with the crossfade, we can even use a longer crossfade. So it's just something to help you make smooth at. It's in your playlist. Ok. 7. (2-4) MIDI OUT to Outboard Gear: I also mentioned how we set up the midi out. So let's talk about this here. We can add a midi out channel to our channel rack. And then if you remember, we said our monologue on port 0. We're still important 0, we are on channel one. I know that my monologue is setup on channel one. And let's go into a new pattern. And from here, I can actually start using it exactly like I would use a news team. So I'm actually sending midi out of FL Studio to my many log controlling exactly the same as I would use any virtual instrument and my piano roll and the monologue is outputting audio on channel one here. And so from there we can simply set this pattern in the playlist. Hit record. Let's get rid of all of these so we're not confused as to what we're recording. I said this pattern up in the playlist. Have recorded, make sure we're recording audio. Switch to the song and give ourselves a little bit of a pre-roll so we catch that first note. As I record, I can even manipulate the filter cutoff on my sin. And now we have a whole bunch of takes with different filters, filter cutoffs from our monologue in the playlist. And midi out is just sort of a basic way to control our monologue. You can go much more in-depth on it. And here, for example, I created a patch or preset for my monologue. And this way you can change, you can change the presets created in nature. And then you can of course, automates different parameters. 8. (2-5) Link to Controllers, Automation Recording: So let's talk about linking things to controller since we have this open now, let's say I want to connect this filter to an external controller on my complete control, I want to link it to say this first controller here. All you have to do is right click on it, click link to controller, and then move the control on your midi controller. And then you see immediately this is now linked to my first control on complete control here. So now we can record automation with this controller right into our playlist. So let's do that. And to do that, you right-click on the record button, make sure automation is ticked off this time. Let's record automation into this pattern here. As you can see, our automation is recorded here right into the pattern. And to get to it, you go into current project. Go to the patterns were on pattern five. In parent five, we have our filter cutoff automation recorded here. And this is kind of an awkward way to edit your automation. I much prefer to add it in as an automation clip and the playlist click on this drop-down here, will go into edit and then turn this into an automation clip. And I'll ask you the threshold as to how precise the control do you want over each breakpoint? I'm gonna set this threshold all the way up so that I have the least amount of break points in my automation clip. I'll click Accept. And then as we can see, our automation went from this to this. And now we have our animation clip. And then we can easily add it this. And of course we can link multiple controls too, control automation. And if you want to link multiple controls, so we have our filter cutoff linked here. Let's say I want to link the resonance to this next control here. And I want to link the drive to this next control here. I simply click on multi linked to Controllers. First, I moved the resonance. And you saw that there was a little popup saying control number one resonance. And then next I'm going to move the drive. We move the drive. Next step is you need to choose which controls you want to assign this to. So I'm going to assign resonance to this one, and I'm going to assign drive to the next one. And now we have multiple controls assigns so that resonances on this knob and the drivers on the next nap. So if you have more than one controller that you want to assign, simply click multilingual controllers, select all the controls, moved them around, all the ones that you want to control. Remember the order of them. And then in that same order, you want to move the knobs on your actual MediaController. So they get assigned in that order. 9. (2-6) Recording Internally: And the last few things I wanted to mention regarding recording is that it doesn't have to be only external audio that you're recording into playlist. It can be internal audio as well. So we determined this by these record engaged buttons here. So if we go back to the original few patterns that we created in the beginning of this video. I'll just place them in the playlist. And if I select this area to record, I'm just going to assign them to the free mixer track. So I'm just gonna push Control L on my keyboard, assign them to mixer track number 12. And I'll record engage these trucks. When I press record, make sure my audio selected here. We can record these patterns right into the playlist here. So you can record internally in FL Studio as well. And one last thing to mention is recording into Edison. So if you remember seeing this pop up and the first option here was record audio into Edison. By the way, if you disable this pop-up, an easy way to bring it up as holding Alt and left clicking on the record button. And you can still get this pop up back. 10. (2-7) Edison Recording: So recording into Allison, as soon as you click this, it placed there recorder on our master channel here, and it recorded audio into it. So you can do this manually. You don't need to go through this button here. You just place it as you would any other effect. You just go into a plugin picker and select Edison here. And then you can record right into it. So you don't need to record, you don't need to push the Record button here. All you have to do is record in Edison itself and then press Play. And as you can see it recorded audio right into Edison. Okay, this about covers everything I wanted to show you about recording in FL Studio. We also talked about linking controllers to parameters and sending and receiving midi. And in the next part we're gonna talk about how to arrange our track. Quick ways of putting together chord progressions Using a MEDPAC. And also I'm going to show you how to make multiple arrangements. So thank you for watching and I'll see you in the next part. 11. (3-1) Easy Chord Progressions: Okay, so in this part I'm going to show you a quick way of putting together a chord progression in the playlist. And then we're going to arrange our track. And then I'm going to show you a few more things along the way, like adding some variation in the, in the piano roll. And also, I'm going to show you how to create different arrangements. So let's get started with putting together our chord progression. So here're already have a piano loaded. And so I'm just going to start adding these chords to our patterns. Let's open our multi-pack here. And then I have these chords all numbered from one to seven. So in the scale of C minor, there are seven keys, and on each of the queues you can create a chord. So I created a bundle of these from one to seven, and I gave you two choices for each degree of the scale. You can choose C minor or C minus 7, and that would still be the first degree of the scale. And then the next degree would be D diminished or D minor seven flat five. Don't worry too much about the names of these. All you have to worry about is these numbers one to seven. And we want to choose one of each of these numbers to have all of the choices for our chords in the scale. So I'm going to start adding these two are patterns. And I'm going to start with the C minor chord. I'm just going to middle click on it and send it to our first pattern. And then I'm going to click Control. Afford to open a new pattern. I'll send the second chord controller for sand, the third 447. So I just chose the simple ones. You can chose the seventh chords if you'd like. And from here we have all of them now here laid out in our pattern selector and the playlist. And you can easily preview them by holding Alt and then right-clicking on the pattern. And from there we can start arranging our chord progression. So you can experiment and see what sounds good. Yeah, I like that. So I'm just going to go 1, 3, and then 56. Click on the first one, hold Shift, click on the last one. I'm going to drag all of these patterns out into our playlist. And from there, so we said 13. And then we're gonna go 56, 5 and 6 for the last fund, 57. And then, by the way, you can easily transpose these to any other key. It doesn't have to be C minor. So if we're in C minor now, we can transpose all of these to a different key, let's say D minor, by simply going up from C to D, it's exactly two semitones. We're going to be in the key of D minor. Now. I'm going to stay in the key of C minor, but just knows, but you can easily transpose this to any key you'd like. And once we have our chord progression put together and you happy with that, right-click on the truck and then go merged pattern clips. And now we merge this pattern clips. He had placed it on Pattern 2. I'm just going to move this down and I hold, hold Shift and scroll down with my mouse wheel to move this down. And we can even get rid of all of these chords because we don't need them here anymore. So there's our chord progression. And you might know this already that you generally, chord progressions sound nicer when the keys are played a little bit closer together. So we're going to invert these top notes here. And the easy way to do this is just to select these top notes, hold Control and hit the down arrow on your keyboard. And now we've moved these down an octave and they're just much closer to our initial cord. And from there, let's say I want to create another copy of this, and I want to create an arpeggiated version of this pattern. Since I'm on pattern one, I have this piano roll open already. I'm just going to hold Control and Shift and hit C. And you see it created another pattern, Pattern 2 will already selected in it. And so what we can do from here is we can simply create an arpeggiated version of it. Why don't we listened to this together with our initial chord progression. 12. (3-2) Arp, Adding Variation to MIDI: And you can play with the range. There's all these different settings you can experiment with. I'm happy with the way this sounds. And so our chord progression, it does sound a little stiff and robotics, so we're going to add some variations to this. So let's add strummed our first pattern just to add a little bit more variants in there. And then so another thing we can do is randomize the volume as well. So let's do the same thing here. Let's randomize the volume as well. But we're also going to randomize the timing a little bit because right now we're on the grid. And so we want to add a little bit of variation to this. So you can do this by using the Quantize tool. And I select some of these groups. So for example, late snare. And what this does is just adds a little bit of late notes here and there, and we can adjust these further. And if you want to add it even more variation, but it just gives you a good starting point of a variant of the notes. Already sounds a little better and so you can adjust the volume of all of them. I hit Control a on my keyboard to select all of these notes. And then what I do is I hold Alt and then I scroll up and down with my mouse wheel and I can adjust the volume for all of these notes. Make them a little bit softer. 13. (3-3) Drumloop edits: And from there we can keep building our tracks so I can add some drums. Just going to go with a quick drum loop. Charles, go with this. I'm going to start a new pattern. Openness in the slicer. I'm going to create some variation with this as well. We can merge this into a pattern as well. So I'm going to use this for the beginning of the track. I'll create a pattern with drums building up here. So the way I'm gonna do this, I'm going to create a shorter time stretch in this particular pattern. And then when our track kicks in here, in the next part, I'm going to have my full drums playing. So I'm going to clone this. And in this clone version, I'm going to paste this into the clone version and I'm going to change this to our full strength. So, so what I'm gonna do is I'm quickly going to create a rise in the filter. Parameter one is filter cutoff and perimeter 2 is resonance. So on parameter one, I want these drums filtered in the beginning and then filter opening here. And then I want the resonance to be high, because with the higher resonance, you can hear the filter more. As opposed to this. Not as much. So we're just going to do higher resonance at the beginning. And with these, I'm just going to create a role. And when this drops on, when this drops, I want to just play the piano chords and maybe I'm going to add a baseline. 14. (3-4) Creating a Bassline: So let's add a simple baseline, but the basic synthesizer here, open this in a new channel, and then I'm gonna go and create our baselines. So in the piano roll, you can post the notes from the previous channel. And you can enable this through the helpers and then ghost channels. And then you can start putting together your baseline based on the notes in a chord progression. Let's choose a different basis. And so what we can do is we can also transpose this. So it plays at a lower octave. And I do this by going into one of these two tabs here. And then at the bottom you see this piano. And so I'm going to right-click on C6 to play the slower. So if the whole piano roll shifts over to the left and we're playing at lower keys. So just a quick way to transpose your samples and your instruments. So I'm going to transpose this exactly by one octave. We used to be, we were on C5 here. I'm going to transpose this down one octave. Okay, that's not bad. I'm just going to use these. I'm just going to put this down lower. Yeah, I like that. We're going to make this not go up. What? We're going to turn this filter down a little bit. 15. (3-5) Creating a Layer: And then another thing that we can do is we can create a layer for this base and then detune it slightly to make it even bigger sounding. So I'm going to create a clone of this base old C. And I'm going to add a layer. We can just push L1 when you click on the selector. And then I'm gonna, I'm gonna move this up, holding Alt, move it up. So these are below the layer. That's just how I like to organize it. And then I'm going to set these to be the children of the layer. So now when I press a key or when I place this in the piano roll, just going to cut this out of here, paste that into our layer. Now it's playing both of these synthesisers at once. And so now what we can do is on one of them, we can detune it slightly. And then what we can do now is we can control the filter cutoff for both of these in, inside of the layer here. Hi. 16. (3-6) Automation LFO: So I'm going to create an automation Club. And actually why don't we set this up to be an LFO. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to double-click on this automation clip and then click on this LFO Tool here. Adjust the minimum and maximum points of the allophone. So that just adjusts. This, just simply adjust how far we're moving with the telephone. And you know, I like this speed automation here. So why don't we create another Automation Club. So let's break this out into its own pattern. Going to move this down. Choose an empty pattern. Paste our baseline in there. 17. (3-7) Grouping in Playlist: And then once you have these together, you see when I move the baseline though, these layers of automation that I created, they don't stay together. So in order to link them all and keep them altogether and have it all nicely organized. Select this pattern and it's automation clips. And then I'm going to click Shift to G. And now these are grouped together. And I can, when I copy them, they, they copied together. And I can even hide these layers so they don't always appear open here, just cluttering up or playlist. I simply grab this truck six here in between and I drag it all the way up. Same with the truck seven. I'm going to drag it all the way up. And now these are grouped together under truck five. You can also do this by right-clicking and going group with above track, but it's just much easier to simply drag up and have these grouped together. So I'm just going to trim these a little bit before the drop. Even a little more. Let's create a little more variation in our drum pattern as well. Okay. 18. (3-8) Simple Noise Riser: So let's create a riser when we're building up here. So I'm just going to create a new pattern. And then I'm going to add a 33 O C plug-in. And I'm going to turn all of these oscillators down. I'm just going to leave one oscillator, this top one working, and I'm going to click on this noise generator. Then. Now we are just generating noise. And so I'm going to place this here. And so what we wanna do is we want to create a filter cutoff where the filters closed in the beginning. And then the filter opens slowly. So I'm going to create this glide node and you choose these different parameters on the selected nodes. So if I select this note, I can change it. It's filter. If I select this note, I'm working on It's filters. So you can see it says we're working on node cutoff frequencies. So again, we're starting with low cutoff. And then for the glide Now we're going to set this to high cutoff or no cutoff, leave it right in the middle. And then we can also adjust the resonance. So I'm going to adjust the resonance on our actual note. I'm going to put it quite high. It just makes the resonant frequency a little bit more prominent. And then I'm going to turn the initial node down a little bit and then a glide node is going to go up and volumes. So the original note is going to be a little quieter because we want our riser to start low and then get louder and volume. So I'm going to start low. And then the glide node is the one that will end up at the full value by the end of this node. So let's test it out. Oops, I accidentally made these too long, so I'm just going to shorten them a little bit. There we go. And you know, why don't we make sort of a crash sound when we get when we drop in here. So I'm just gonna do the opposite of what we did. The cutoff frequency on the note is going to be high. And then on the glide note, I'll set it too low. And same with the resonance. Let's just turn this down a little bit altogether. So we're just going to, I'm just going to create a little bit of a gap here before the draw. And what do we make this, this one a little bit longer. So I'm just going to create a clone of this. I'm just going to create a copy of this control shift C. And then I'm going to make it longer. And then we're going to finish the track with our put just the piano. So there we go. There's our truck. We created a quick little track. 19. (3-9) Creating Arrangements: So from here, let's say we want to create a different arrangement of this track. So one way to go about it is to create a copy. So we can go save a new version and then view rendered. And then we have a different arrangement, but also we can create a different arrangement, right in the playlist. And we do this by clicking on this arrangement drop-down here. And then we're going to click Clone. We're going to call this short version. And now we have to the original arrangement and then the short version. And then if we had our markers here in, it'll be much easier for us to rearrange our tracks so we can just create markers at each, at each change of the track. And then let's add one more here. And so let's say our short version is not going to have the intro l just have the drop in the end. And so we can just double-click on this marker, select this region, and move it around. But you'll notice that at the bottom because we had these overhanging, now they're kinda move along with the region. So if you want to move this section out or away, or this section, let's say, you see that this kind of stuck with it. So we need to chop it off. And a way to do this is to select our knife tool, hold Shift. And then we're going to chop all the way up just to make sure that we're chopping all of these down in the middle here. And then we can also create an even shorter like a cut down version. So I'm going to create more cuts here. And by the way, a quick way to, to choose different tools is you right-click and then you scroll your mouse wheel. And then you can quickly select between all of these different tools here. So we're gonna go back to the knife. We're going to create more cuts, which I already did I think. And then we're just going to go back to the pencil tool, select all of these guys in the middle here. I'm going to cut this down even more. So the ending is going to be in a different spot or shifted over. And then we said that we're going to get rid of the intro altogether. So now I can double-click, as you can see. As you can see, this has been chopped in half now, so it's now part of our selection. We can just get rid of it. And then we're going to move. And then we can just move all of these up now to the beginning. We don't have anymore. We start with the drop and then the ending is here. So now we have created two different versions. Now we can go back to our original arrangement. Then we have our short version here. So in this part, I showed you how to quickly put together a chord progression using a multi-pack. I also put together a quick track and then we set up different arrangements of that truck. And then in the next part we're going to take a closer look at mixing and FL Studio. 20. (4-1) Gain staging and volume controls: Okay, so we arrived at the final part of our class. And in this part we're gonna talk about mixing. Going to take a closer look at how to set up Gain Staging in the mixer and all the different volume controls that you have along the way. And also I am going to talk a little bit about compression and EQ and how to set up your masters. So let's get started. And so let's quickly review our signal path and FL Studio. So if you remember from the basic tutorial, our signal starts at the channel here, and it passes through the first set of volume controls, which is right beside the channel. And as you can see when I move this, the one at the top of the channel here, when I click on the channel and open, it is also moving. So these are linked together. But then there's one additional volume control in these miscellaneous settings here, when you switch to the miscellaneous tab, you will find another volume control that's independent of these. So you can use this for automation, for example, or just an additional volume boost or cut at some stage that if you need it. And from there the signal will pass through the effects rack and then down to the insert fader and through the routing cables here at the bottom. And then we have one more volume control at descend level, and then the final Master Fader volume control. And so it's important to understand all of these volume controls at each stage. Because when we're working with our signal and FL Studio and we're sending it through the Master, and we're sending it through the insert and individual plugins on the Insert. And then arriving at the master. At every stage we have some control over the gain or the volume of our signal. And this is essentially the understanding behind Gain Staging is knowing where you can adjust the volume when you are arriving at different stages of processing in our signal path. And so adjusting these volume controls will be before anything heads are insert plug-ins. And then from there we adjust this fader, it adjust how much of the signal were feeding into the master. And we also have this additional volume control here, as I mentioned earlier. And when you have lots of inserts with lots of signal passing through them, with all of your instruments summing up at the master, it becomes quite easy to actually overload, are mastering plugins or individual inserts as well. And that's why there's an additional game controller you can insert into the effect track and it's called a fruity balance. And so if I insert this fruity balance as the first plugin on my master. Now I actually have the ability to control how much signal and passing through the mastering plugins. And even if my signal from all the inserts in the mixer is coming in a little bit too hot into the master. I have the ability to turn all of them down with just one game plug-in and be able to control how much signal I'm sending into the fact. So even if I completely overload our insert one and I send way too much signal to insert one. As you can see right now, I'm clipping the insert, I'm clipping my master. Everything is just getting distorted. But if I turn the balanced plugin on the master down, now you can see that we're actually receiving a clean signal at the master. And the reason being is because we're overloading our meters, we're not actually distorting the signal in the signal path. So mixers in the modern Dawes are have a lot of headroom and have a 32-bit float, which means that it's a really large word length and we can fit a lot of information. So overloading our mixer trucks and it's actually not damaging the signal at the, at the insert stage. And the clipping that we here is actually the clipping at the sound card level at our digital to analog converters that can only handle 0 db. So using the fruity balanced plugin, you can actually fix a lot of clipping issues. If you have too much signal coming in into the master from all of these inserts. But then the concern becomes sending too much signal into our plug-ins. So if I leave this at this extreme setting, at this extreme loudness level into insert one. And I'm going to place a limiter in here or a compressor. When we said, when I press play, you see worse, were already sending a lot of signal into our limiter. And so even without setting any of these settings at the compressor, we already don't know even where the level is and starting to set this threshold, I'm not sure where it's actually setting any of these settings up because all of these settings become completely non-functional. And so fixing this, I'm just going to turn this signal down at the channel level and sending a reasonable amount of signal. Now I can start setting my compressor up and actually getting it to work the way I need it to work. And so this is the concern when you're working with signal is that when you send it into our plug-ins, we want it to be entering our plugins at a reasonable level. That way, we're setting the controls and we're not overloading the plug-in and sort of use an update entire dynamic range of the plug-in itself. So a lot of these effects and plugins and compressors are set to work at this sort of nominal level. And it's just basically anywhere below 0 db. So we don't want to send stuff that's already way too hot into our plug-ins. 21. (4-2) Compression Overview: And so now since we have this compressor open, let's start talking about our compression. So I'm just going to make this larger so we can see a little bit better in a visual here. And when I'm sending the signal into my compressor right now, it's passing through unimpeded because we're not setting any of these settings yet. You can see because the threshold is not sad, all of these settings are grayed out. So as soon as I move the threshold, they become active. Which means the threshold is what decides when our compressor goes to work. And you can think of a compressor as being in two states. A standby state where it's not doing any work. And then active state when it's doing active gain reduction. And the most common use of the compressor is a downward compression, which means that we're turning down all the peaks in our signal and bringing them down. And then in turn, we can turn the makeup gain up and that will bring some of the quiet signals back up. So I'm going to go over this in more detail. But if you think of a compressor as being just a volume control plugin, that automatically turns our signal down when we tell it to. And it only goes to work when the threshold level is set below a certain loudness that's passing through our compressor. Then you'll be able to tell when the compressor is working and when you're actually using the compressor properly. So when I set this threshold level to be below our peaks here, then this is going to tell the compressor that anything that passes over this threshold, over this blue line, anything above it, is going to get compressed. And so right now we're still not getting any compression is because the next thing that we need to tell our compressor is how much we want this gain reduction to be applied by. And this is determined by this ratio control here. And if I turn this to the right, and I said the gain reduction at two to one. As you can see, we're already reducing this signal by about half. And anything that passes over the threshold will be turned down by exactly half since the setting is 22 one. And this fruity limiter compressor, when it's loaded in the default state, the sustain is also turned up a little bit, and this is what's causing these peaks to poke through. And so I'm going to turn the sustain down as well. And as you can see, even our peaks get turned down by about half. So if I turn this ratio to four to one, you see that only about a quarter of our signal passes over the threshold. And obviously, if I turn this to 20 to one. This is basically almost a limiter, and only about a 20th of the signal is passing over the threshold. And you can think of it as kind of a fine tune control for the ratio where the knee decides how fast we're gonna go from a one to one, which is this 12 o'clock setting to, let's say four to one? Is it going to be an abrupt change? We're going to go right from one to one to four to one, which is decided by this hard nice setting. If I set this to be all the way to the right, it's going to be a quick change from 1 to 1, 2, 4, 2, 1. If I set this to be a soft knee, it's going to be a more of a gradual transition. So it's just like an another fine tune control for this ratio setting. You can think of them as working together. And this particular compressor, you can actually set a negative ratio and a negative knee, which we'll start to work as an expander. But that's something just for your knowledge. It's some compressors can actually do expansion and we can do upward compression where we turn this knee down and return the ratio to a negative setting, and then we can apply upward compression. But anyways, you are most likely to start using this in a positive setting, which is just our regular downward compression where we're just turning the peaks down. So as we're setting this up and we have our ratio set, our threshold set, and Arnie setup, and we're turning this signal down by these values here. Now, the next important control that we need to discuss is the attack and release. And you can think of these controls as deciding as telling our compressor went to go from a standby mode into an active mode after the compressor has received the signal that passed over the threshold. So if anything passes over the threshold, we can tell the compressor to just wait before it goes to work. And that way, we can let some of the original signal through the compressor. If I turn this attack setting up. As you can see when I turn this up, now we're getting these spikes, these peaks, the transients from our kick passing through the compressor unimpeded and then we're compressing the tail end of our kick. And that's because the attack is set to give us a little bit of a delay before the compressor goes to work, after the signal has passed the threshold. And the same goes for the release. So the release decides when the compressor stops working after it stopped receiving the signal passing over the threshold. So if I set this to be a really short release, we're actually starting to get some distortion because the compressor is confused by these wave cycles and it thinks that each wave cycle in our kick is its own peak. And so it's starting to compress the signal and turn it down in this sort of jittery type of fashion. And this distortion is common on, especially on low end kind of effects like base and kicks. Because the wave cycle and the base is quite a long and so it's confuses the compressor and it starts to cause distortion. And just in general, setting the release to be too short. Tends to make the compressor just sound a little unnatural. And so we need to smooth this out and we need to get this release to be a little bit smoother so that we're not distorting our signal. But also we don't want the release to be sad too long. So for example, if I have these kicks a little bit tightly, more tightly spaced here. And if I said the release for too long, you can see the first kick in our signal gets our attack is set properly, so we're getting this transient through the waiver, set it up in the attack setting, but the next kick is not getting the same treatment. So it's getting the compressed, still the compressed signal, so the peak is compressed. And if I turn all of these graphs off and just leave the output signal, the compression signal out. And I'm even going to over-exaggerate the ratio a little bit more and the threshold a little bit more just to give you more of a visual representation. And let's, let's try this again. You can see it's even more apparent how much the first spike, the first kick is getting our attack set properly and then consequent kicks are still being compressed and we're killing the transient of the next sample. And so if I turn this back on, if I turn these graphs back on, you'll be able to tell by this gain reduction graph here at the top, this white graph that when I turn the release down, now we're catching every single transient in every, every kick instance because the release is turned down enough that it lets the compressor go back into standby mode before it starts to get, before it activates at the next threshold passing. But you notice that because I turned the release down in this instance, now we're getting more of this distortion. That's not, that's not something that we want in our signal. And so this particular compressor has this additional control, which is a sustained control. And it's telling the compressor once the signal pass the threshold and we're adjusting our attack, we can hold this value at the TAC level for a little bit longer, sober, not confusing the compressor at. And we're adding basically as smoothing to our release. So that way we're not getting this distorted, jittery signal at our tail end here. And as you can see, if I turn this sustain up, we're smoothing out our release and we're smoothing, smoothing out our compression envelope. And that way. We can still set up fairly short release and have a smooth signal without distortion. And in some compressors, this sustained setting may be called a hold setting. Some compressors don't even have that setting, but it's just something that this compressor has. I figured I'd let you know what it does. And then another important control that we need to go over is the makeup gain. So once our, once our signal is compressed, we're actually doing gain reduction. So returning the signal down. So I'm just going to set this attack to be much shorter server, we have an apparent difference in the volume between the original and the compressed signal. And if I AB this between the uncompressed and the compressed signal, I click on this button here at the bottom right. As you can here are compressed signal is actually much quieter than the original. So what we need to do is we need to turn this makeup gain up enough to have our signal at the same perceived loudness that we had our uncompressed signal. So I'm going to go back and forth between the AB and I'm just going to turn the gain control up just so I can tell. Just so I can level out our compressed signal to be in line with the original. And so and so that's another important control to actually get our loudness out of the compressed signal set properly. And because I have the attack and the sustained turned down in this particular case, we don't actually hear much of the compression or the shaping of the sound you hear some of this may be sustained kick part, this tail and being compressed a little more. But it's actually not that drastic of a difference. But obviously if I start to control these attack and sustain and release controls, I'm actually shaping the sound and I'm shaping the volume envelope of our sample. So if I turn this attack as you heard before, and now I'll be getting much more spike, much more punch into my kick. And now if I AB this now obviously I would have to turn the gain down. These settings are going to be different for every signal that passes through it. But the idea behind using compression, especially downward compression, is that we're getting the spikes of our signal, the very loud parts of our signal turned down a little bit, which in turn brings the sustained parts or the tail end of our signal up because we're returning this gain control up to bring the whole sound to be louder. So we are reducing the dynamic range, which is the loudest and the quietest. Part of our signal. And we're making our signal a little bit more controlled and more leveled. So it's easier to mix in if I loaded, say, a vocal into this compressor, all of these settings would have to change. So let's just, for example, load one of the vocals from a demo song in FL Studio. That way you can try this in your own session. I'm just going to lock this Dreams vocal here. And if I double-click on this, the first thing you'll notice actually is that this vocal is not normalized. So normalizing means that we're using the entire dynamic range of the sample. And so clicking this normalized button, turns are loudest signal to be at about 0 dB, which levels that out. And so then we are sending a proper loudness level to our compressor. And so I'm going to send this two are the same compressor on, insert one, D again Jack and gently whisper. And so for the vocal compression, all these settings are not useful because setting a slow attack on this particular vocal makes beginning of each phrase spike up in loudness, and that's not what we want. We want a leveled kind of sound. When I look at this vocal, the goal will be to level out all of these loud parts and make them a little bit quieter. And in turn, bring some of these quiet parts up a little bit so that we have a more controlled level in our vocal. And so let's do just that. So I'm just going to reset this all to default settings. And I do this by clicking on my mouse wheel and all of these controls. And actually I'm going to leave the sustain level down because I don't want any spikes in the beginning of our signal at the beginning of each phrase. Again, Jack and me, and our gain also turned down. And so let's start setting our threshold. Do again jack underneath and gently whisper. And so I said the threshold to catch all these lousy parts. And then from there we're going to start turning them down. Again jack underneath and gently whisper and release system. So you can already tell by this white graph that we are compressing our signal. The purple represents the input signal. And you can see the difference how much of this peak sort of loud signal that we've turned down. If I'm going to turn these graphs off, it's even easier to see that D again, Jack and Jenny. And then let's start setting are released. Again Jack. Gently whisper and release system. It's how overran. So now we've leveled out the loudness of our vocal and now we need to sub again back up to have it about the same loudness where we had the original. Again Jack and gently whisper and release CISAC. It's how overran above the head and see in dreams are shared between the anime. So that's about where I would set this. But obviously you can adjust this to taste and use your ears and user preference. Again, Jack and Jill. 22. (4-3) Noise Gate: And so let's also discuss this noise gate setting here. So this particular compressor also has a noise gate and as you can hear, there is a lot of headphone bleed and this vocal. And that's something that we need to clean up and we need to cut out a signal and you can go and manually cut this out. But obviously, it's much easier to have this automatically reduced. So let's utilize this noise gate to cut this noisy part of the vocal. And you said the gate threshold, what this faint yellow line here, you set the threshold just above, the noise would appear. And then you set the gain down because we want to turn this noise all the way down. And I mean, you have control of by how much you want this noise turned down. I want the most aggressive settings. I'm going to turn this all the way to 0. And then the release decides when the gate goes to work. So when the gate closes. And so I said this release to be a little bit longer because I don't want to cut off any of the endings of the each phrase. So you'll be able to tell when I play, play this back g again Jack. Like, especially in this underneath, it's cut off a little bit too short in my opinion. And I can even over-exaggerated. I'll set it to a very short release d again, Jack. And like you see, it just drops down really sharp and really abrupt. And so we said this release to be a little bit longer so that the gate closes more gradually. D again Jack. And it's more of a gradual transition. So let's just do a render of this focal just to see the difference. And so let's consolidate this truck. And as we compare the original which is at the bottom here, and the compressed signal, as you can see, we leveled out all of these loud parts and we turn them down and then we got rid of the noise so that there is no more noise here as to compare it to the original signal. And so this is just one way to compress and clean up your vocal. 23. (4-4) EQ overview: And now that we discussed the compression a little bit, let's talk a little bit about equalization. And EQ is just another gain control plug-in, but it's controlled at each frequency bands. So now we are talking about the frequency range of our sound. And as you know, humans here at 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz. So in that range of frequencies, we're able to control and manipulate each volume of individual frequency bands using an equalizer. And let's load up a fruity parametric EQ too. The first thing that you'll notice is that we have these seven frequency bands here. And these are just filters that let us manipulate the frequency content of signals. So if I start playing our vocal through this EQ, De again Jack and gently whisper. And now you can see that there's all these frequency bands that are lighting up and telling us where the signal is sitting in the frequency range. And we can, and we can use the acute to enhance and clean up our sounds. And for example, in this one, as we listen to the sea again, Jack and gently whisper. And I noticed that there is a little bit of a plosive wind noise. And that happens when you when you pronounce plosive sounds into the microphone, sometimes you can hit the diaphragm would spike of air and creates this low rumble in our recording this spring. And you can see this on the left here, gently whisper and there is a spike, a jump in this low frequency range. And so Let's talk about how we could fix this. So originally, so by default, these frequency bands are sad. This one is set too low shelf and it works in this shelf type of manner. So even if I had some of these turned down, this will turn them down in the shelf kind of controlled manner. Same at this high frequency. We have another shelf and it works the same way only at the opposite end of the spectrum. And I'm just going to reset these. And these are just sad to be bell THE, our peak controls. So they're working this bell curve type of manner. And we can control the width of this frequency band by controlling this q control or width control. And we can set this to be a very narrow band. So we can control a very narrow range of frequencies, turn them up or down. Or we can control this and a much wider range, gently whisper and sober controlling a much wider range of frequencies and we can turn them up or down. So when we're using a queue, were cutting and boosting. So cutting means turning down below this mid point. And then boosting would be pushing up and above the midpoint. Gently whisper. So let's go back to fixing this plosive sound here. So you can change. These frequency bands to use different filters. And if you right-click on it and go into this type drop down, you can see that there's all these different filters that we can choose from. And we're going to choose a high-pass filter, which means that the frequencies that are higher than this band are going to be passed through the queue. So we're going to let them pass through. And then the frequencies that are below the band will be cut down. So if I choose the high-pass are bands which switches to this downward curve here. Which means that we're cutting the lows and letting the high frequencies pass through the acute gently whisper. And so I can turn this plosive down by cutting all the way up, gently whisper. But what happens is that we're cutting into our important frequency information here and the actual vocals. So now even though I cut off the plosive and I fixed that part of the vocal. Now hindering the next part, which is an important low end information in our portfolio. And so to adjust for this, we want this curve to be a little bit more steep and not so gradual so I can adjust the queue, but also the queue will start boosting at the cutoff frequency. Gently whisper. So that's another not desirable thing. We don't want to boost at the cutoff frequency, which is set by this really narrow Q. What we want to do is we want to have a steep cutoff, and we can change that in this order dropped down. We can choose the cutoff curve for this particular frequency band. And I'm going to choose the steep eight. And as you see, it turned this high-pass filter into a very steep filter, gently whisper. And now have the ability to cut out gently whisper without damaging any of the low-frequency information and are vocal gently whisper. So as we compare, gently whisper, gently whisper, and gently whisper. And so now you understand that we can switch between different curves and different types of filters. And we can also change the order, whether it'll be steep or gentle curve on this filter. So, so from there, I would probably just listen to the vocal and see where there is a lot of activity in the frequency range. And I could cut a little bit of that just to level out the vocal and make it a little more clear, sounding gently whisper the Hadean C. So this recording is pretty balanced already to my ears and I can see this in the frequency bands here, the system. There's not too much going on, but for my taste, I would probably turn down a little bit here. And the 300. To 400 Hertz range these CISAC, the hidden C. So one of the techniques is you can boost a little bit to hear the resonance of each frequency band. It's the hidden scene. And as I turn this down, I can already hear that it's clearing out all these low and frequencies. There's boomy kind of frequencies. You can also think of them as mud or muddy frequencies and the low end, they create a lot of confusion in the frequency range. As you adding more instruments and more Inserts to the mixer. This low range is going to be harder and harder to hear the more, the more frequencies that are in this range. So a lot of times you might want to choose to cut down as much as possible without killing the vocal range completely, but we want to just clean it up. So I'm not going to turn this all the way down. The Hadean See, dreams are shared between the animate these. Again Jack and nice and gently whisper. So now we cleaned up the low end a little bit. And if you're doing these gentle adjustments, would the wide frequency range, it's going to sound more natural, more musical if you're doing a very controlled sort of spike, kind of control. Qazi, CISAC and the Hadean C. It's gonna give you a much tighter control over the frequencies. But also, it's something to consider is because we're not singing and just one note. We're not just sitting in a scene out. He fluctuates between all different notes here. Just cutting this one frequency is not going to be helpful because when he shifts into a different note, this low and cut that we created here is going to need to be adjusted and it's not helpful. So I much prefer to use a wider range of control. These CISAC and it's overran. The Hadean seen. Dreams are shared between the antinomies. And of course we can AB this, he says Sam. It's how the Hadean scene. And you do this to your personal taste. I'm kind of just describing the tools and how to use them. But of course, practice this on a wide range of signals and decide where you would like to cut in, boost, and train your ear and have some reference tracks as well, just to see where you can comparatively listened to a reference and see if you can see if you can get your cue to sound similar to that. And you can even get, place a reference track in this session here and pass it through the q just to see the frequency content of that particular reference truck. But in general, just use your ears, trust your ears. If something sounds too boomy or too muddy, week cut in the lower end. And you see at the top here it's telling you low mid space, mid, high mids, presence, trouble. And so you can you can find online EQ charts that are giving you suggestions as to where to cut and boost to enhance certain sounds. But in general, you want to rely on your ears. And as the more you practice it, the more you start recognizing different frequencies, and the more you'll be able to get comfortable with controlling your sound. 24. (4-5) Dynamic EQ, De-essing: Release system. It's how the red. So as you notice when we sing, when he sings this release, the sound, there's a lot of activity here, is sad. In this frequency range, in a six to 7 thousand hertz frequency range, released says Sam. Released says Sam. So I can turn this down and to clean this up a little bit. But also if I turned it down too much, it kind of kills the presence in our vocal and it kind of makes it a little more, a little too muffled release system. But I would like to still control the siblings. And and there is dynamically queues on the market that you can actively control this frequency when it gets too loud. And so I can show you a trick on how to set up a dynamic EQ in FL Studio, which is just a few steps and you'll be able to dynamically control this frequency range when it gets too loud. And it's seems like an advanced technique at first, but we're just going to utilize a few tools that I want you to understand how to use and they're going to become very useful in your mixing and your music production. And if you master how to use these tools, you'll be able to really control and shape your sounds as you mixing down your tracks. So these tools are a foodie sand, a band-pass filter on the EQ peak controller. And also being able to link this to different parameters in a Ethel studio. So as you remember, I explained how to link midi controllers, which is our external controllers and FL Studio. But you can also link parameters to internal controllers and FL Studio. And first we need to set up these internal controllers so that we can link to them. And so I'm going to show you how to set up a PI controller. So if you just pay attention and follow along and feel free to rewind and try this several times. Like I said, it seemed like an advanced technique, but once you go through it step-by-step, It's actually quite a simple technique and you can then utilize it and you're mixing. So, so the way we're going to set this up is we're going to use a foodie Send to send this pre-fader. And we use the Send to pluck the signal out of our effects rack at any point in effect track and we can send it to a different insert in the mixer. And so I'm just going to do just that. I'm going to rename this first answered to vocal original. And we know that this is the original signal that we're sending from the channel whack into insert one. And then from there we're going to create, start creating, splitting the signal out and start creating copies of that signal. And so I'm going to set up a fruity sand. I'm gonna insert it right before the parametric EQ. So I move this EQ down by hovering over it with my mouse. And I'm just using the scroll wheel. So I'm just going to move this down one because I just need one slot before the EQ and I'm going to insert our fruity sand into this spot. And now let's rename this next. Insert right next to it to r ds control. So now when we click on our sand that we inserted right before the EQ on insert one. When we click on it now we're only able to send to the master. And the reason being is because we only have this routing cable now routed to the master. And so we want to set up another route into insert two and we want to set it up as a site chain. So I'm going to right-click and I'm going to side chain to this track. And we're sending a side chain to insert two. And now on the sand, we can then send the signal to RDS control. Insert that we set up earlier. And when I press Play release system, you can hear that we're sending this signal, a copy of the signal before the EQ into insert to end because the EQ is set into this HQ setting, it's causing us some phasing issues. So if you turn this off, releases sad. Now we fix the phasing because now there's no plug-in delay on this EQ. And so if you're going to start sending copies, you just have to make sure that your inserts are phase aligned. Turning off some additional processing on this EQ. So it allows us to send this signal phase aligned into insert to release CISAC. And now even if I mute the original vocal releases, Sam, we're still sending it into insert. And that's the advantage of sending using Ascend. So if I send this using, if I send this just using regular route to this track and this is a regular sand. I'm gonna mute this. Diaz control release says, when I turn this down, you can see that our sand is also turned down so it doesn't give us an independent control. To get independent control, we need to set up this fruity sand the way I showed you earlier, and I'm going to show you how to set up this $0.40 several times. So don't stress it even if you are kind of confused right now. Just follow along and then I'm gonna send you, I'm going to show you how to set it up several times so that by the end of this class you'll be able to send pre-fader without, with confidence. So let's cancel this. I'm going to just listen to the ds, insert that we set up earlier and I'm going to mute the original vocal releases sand. And in this ds insert, I'm going to set up another parametric EQ. I'm going to turn the HQ off again. I just want a really fast processing on this plugin. And now we're going to set up a band-pass filter on one of these frequency bands. So what a band-pass filter does, it only lasts a certain range of frequencies, pass through the EQ and cuts the rest. So. That way we can send a really narrow range of frequencies into our peak controller. And so what I'm interested in is only letting the sibling frequencies to pass through the ICU. So I'm going to find them. And I'm going to control the order of it to be quite steep because we want a narrow range. And also I'm going to turn the Q down, like I showed you before. It's just to control a really narrow range of frequencies and let him pass through the EQ. So we just want to catch these super Sibyl and frequencies. So this is our EQ control and we can see which EQ we're looking at by looking at the top here. So the CQ is in the DS control insert. And this is our original EQ on the vocal original insert. And on this Diaz insert that I've set up, I'm going to place a fruity peak controller. And this is our internal controller. And so we can link things to this internal controller once we start sending some signal into it. So we're just sending some of these similar frequencies in. So now our controllers setup, it's as easy as that you just inserted into a channel. And now anything that's sent into this controller, we're able to link different parameters that will follow this along with this volume curve that this peak controller is reading. And I'm even going to click this button here. That way we're not hearing any of these sibling frequencies. We're literally just setting this up as a control unit. I'm not interested in hearing them. I'm just using this as a controller to start reducing this dynamically in our original vocal EQ and so on, this original vocal EQ. Now I'm going to link this frequency band number six. And if we renamed the controller to make it a little bit easier to find in our list. We can, let's quickly rename this. And now when I right-click on this frequency band, I'm able to link this to the controller exactly. So the process is very similar to linking it to external controllers use simply click on Link to controller. And now in this controller, internal controller window here in this drop-down, we're gonna choose dS control peak. So we're just interested in these peaks. And so and the way I want to link it is I want to link it in the inverted fashion where anything that comes into the controller, I wanted the opposite action on the actual parameter. So if I set this to be inverted control, it's gonna do the opposite. So whenever signal passes through that peak controller, the parameter that we're Lincoln this too is going to do the opposite and turn down instead of turning up. So, so now we set up with this peak controller. And when I press play and I unmute the original local whisper, you see that this spiked up and now it's controlling our vocal, but it's actually quite up there. And this is not the setting that I want the initial setting to be at. I want it to be somewhere in the middle. So we control this with this base control on the peak controller. And I'm going to turn this down to be somewhere in the middle, or you can adjust it to taste if you want to boost a little bit of the high frequencies, you can do that as well. But I'm just going to set this right in the middle at 50%. That way it's right down the center, gently whisper and releases sad. And so now you already can hear how we're dynamically controlling the high sibling frequencies in this vocal without completely destroying the rest of them. Because it turns back up when these sibling frequencies are not present in our vocal anymore. So let's hear before and after. I'm just going to mute this frequency band, gently whisper and release says Sam, gently whisper. So you can hear how much the CBA noises are turned down in our signal and we can control by how much will this volume controlling the peak control. Gently whisper, gently whisper and releases sat. And we want we don't want to turn this up too aggressively because it's going to add a Lisp to our singers. So we want to, do, we want to apply quite a gentle adjustment here, releases Sam. And what this decay control, we can control some of the jumpiness with this controller. So right now as I play it, it's quite gently whisper. And I can control this with the Decay setting here. So if I turn this to the left, gently whisper and release CISAC. It, it's smoothed out a little bit our control, but at the same time we're still getting some of this noise that I'm not really interested in. All I want is the Sibyl and sounds to come through. And so what we can do is we can insert a gate, yet another chance to use a gate control. And we can insert this right before the peak controller and right after the queue. Gently whisper, and I'm going to set the threshold just above this noisy kinda part, gently whisper and release system. And so as you can see, our controller is not shaken anymore. It's only activated whenever this sibling frequency is passing over the threshold limit of this noise gate, gently whisper and release CISAC. And it's so now we have a dynamic d'Azur on this vocal EQ. And if you listen to before and after, you can tell how much we've controlled the sibling frequencies and still kept a lot of high frequency information and are vocal without having to completely turn it down. Releases, Sam, released. So it's just a clever trick to set up your dynamic EQ with using a PI controller and band-pass filter. And we're gonna go through these steps again when I show you how to control your reverb. So we can do a similar kind of trick with a reverb control as well and for the balance. So I'm going to show you how to do. 25. (4-6) Controlling Reverb Dynamically: So let's add a reverb turbo code and let's set up another sand for this. I'm just going to close these accuse down. And let's insert a sand right after the acute as time. Send our side chain to insert three. You're going to rename this insert three to vocal reverb. And now in this sand we're able to send this to vocal reverb. Gently whisper. So we're sending a copy of the signal here. And on this vocal reverb insert, we're going to place a reverb plug-in. And now on this river plugin, we're going to turn the dry signal all the way down because we have our copy of the original dry signal. We're only interested in the wet or the reverb sound. And now because we set it up using a fruity sand, even if I mute the original vocal, we can only, we can listen to just the reverb. And so if you set this up to be a longer reverb, turned us down a little bit. And a lot of times when you add a reverb to your vocal, what happens is reverb kinda just washes over the vocal and it creates this nice ambiance in space. But a lot of times it also destroys any legibility and actually makes the vocal less clear. So it adds a lot of muddy frequencies, a lot of sort of confusing frequencies, and makes her vocal much harder to here. So we can control the reverb by using an EQ, and we can EQ somewhat low end out to clean up the reverb itself and make our vocal sound a little bit cleaner. So if I add an EQ to this, D and G. So just, just by cutting some low end frequencies were already cleaning up our river quite a bit. And let's just listen to before and after. So it's already not quite as boomy, not quite as allowed over reverb. It's a little bit colder sounding. And that's just one way to clean it up. And so we also have this setting. I'm just going to reset this to default. And we also have a similar setting right on the reverb itself. I can turn this low cut up and gently wish that wherever cutting some low end right on the river plug in itself. But a lot of times what happens is it makes the reverb sound quite cold. And if the intention is to add this room and ambience, we actually want the low end in the reverb. And so if we want to keep this reverb low end in a reverb, but still have the vocal sound quite clear that there is a trick that we can use to turn down the reverb dynamically whenever, whenever the dry vocal happens in our mix. And so we set this up using a PI controller and a fruity balance. So I already described her as a PI controller and we're going to go over it again. So that way you get a chance to practice it one more time. And so let's set up our peak controller in this original vocal channel. And I'm going to just insert it after all of these plug-ins here. Again. And this time I'm not going to mute it. I'm just going to let the signal pass through it, but we're still reading our volume fluctuations from the vocal. So nothing is happening yet. Nothing is being turned down is because we're going to insert a fruity balance. And this is just our volume control. And I showed you how to, and I talked about this earlier, but we are going to use this in a dynamic way so that this volume control on the reverb is going to turn down dynamically whenever the vocal is happening. So right now, right now it's just a volume control on our reverb channel, on our reverb insert. Let's rename this peak controller to our reverb control. And in the fruity balanced plug-in. Now I want to link this volume control to our PID controller for the, for the reverb and then be fined this vocal rough control here that I set up. And then we do it exactly the same way we do it in the inverted fashion. And you can see that this is dynamically being turned down already. But like in a queue setting, we need to set this base because the default for the fruity balance is 0 dB, which means that it's not turning up or down our signal. So we want to send this to, back to 0 dB as opposed to being at a 100%. So now we control this base setting and set this back to 0 dB, or about 20%. Now this form control is going to start turning down from 0 instead D again Jack. And genuinely wish. And now you can hear the, how the reverb is dynamically ducking out of the way when the original dry vocal is in our signal. So, so we can adjust the decay a little bit to smooth this, to smooth this control down a bit. And we adjusted decay to the left to make it smoother. The again Jack. And generally wish. So now we have this control, controlling the, controlling the wet signal of our reverb and dynamically ducking out of the way. And we can even control the intensity of this effect if we click on this gear icon here, now we have the mixed level is the same as the mixed level here, is just a little bit easier to get to. And so now we can get this mixed level. We can control how much of this effect we want to apply to our wet signal. D Again, just to make it sound a little bit more transparent. So if I turn this off and we listen to the way we had before without the dynamic control of the reverb to the vocal is kind of getting washed out by the reverb. And then if I turn this back on again, and this cleaned up our vocal quite a bit. And we have much more legible, much more clear vocal signal. And then we still have this reverb and we still have this ambiance around it. But it's not getting as much in the way whenever our vocal is actually present. You can use this on anything from synthesizer to guitar. It's just a neat trick to make your vocals, to make your sound a little bit more legible in the maximal cleaner. While still adding all this ambiance to your sound. 26. (4-7) Adding Setero Width: Okay, and another thing that I wanted to mention is adding width to our signal. So right now as it stands, our vocal is a mono signal. You can see this by this icon here at the bottom right. And if I mute, and let's move the reverb here. And as you remember from the basic tutorial, I mentioned this stereo width control. And this control only really works on stereo signals. So if I, so even if I turn this all the way to the left and I seemingly add separation to my signal. D again, Jack. Jenny. It absolutely adds no difference. There's absolutely no difference in our signal because it only works on stereo signals. So to create a stereo effect and to actually add width to our vocal, We can use a really short stereo delay. And I prefer this method over some other artificial stereo width methods because it doesn't add as much facing issues into our signal. So when we add a stereo to our signal, when we collapse the signal back into mono, what happens is there's all these conflicting frequencies that happened between the left and right channel. And when our, when they're smushed back into the mono signal, they start to compete and cancel each other out. So I'm just going to show it to you as an example. There's a fruity stereo enhancer plugin that we can use to demonstrate this. So if I load this fruity stereo enhancer and if I say go to a preset on it for strings, Sure. D Again, you can hear that it's added width to our signal. It did actually make it wider. But if I do a mono test on this, so if I collapse our signal down to mono on the master channel, again, it added quite a bit of facing issues here. And it creates a lot of problems with the gain and volume actually in signal. And if I disable this, d again Jack, this is our original vocal. And if I enable this enhancer, and again, we're listening in mono because I collapsed the master down to mono. Di, di, again, jab, jab. You hear how much this stereo effect added so much facing problems and it actually made our vocal much quieter to. So what happens is if you are mixing with this stereo enhancer and you collapse your mix and all your instruments down to mono. What happens if you play, play it back on a mono speaker or on a cell phone or anything that would collapse your signal down to just a single center channel. It will cause a lot of issues. So when we use this delay trick, it actually doesn't cause as many issues with are facing and we can even clean it up even more to eliminate this further. So, so I'm just going to turn this back into stereo. I'm going to remove this stereo enhancer from our channel here, from our insert. And let's set up yet another sand from our original insert to insert four. So I'm going to set up the side chain to insert four. I'm going to rename this our vocal width. And I'm going to send it to our vocal that now. So now we have the sand from here into our vocal insert. And so on this and on this web, the ends insert, I'm going to place a fruity delay. And let's hear this. D. So right now it's just a mono delay and it's just a repeating signal. And what I'm interested in is in a very short feedback, which means that I am only interested in one copy of this delay. I don't want a bunch of additional copies. So right now, we're getting a lot of repetition in the delay. And I'm just interested in one copy. I'm gonna turn this all the way down. So our feedback is only one, D, D, D. So we're only getting one copy of our delay. And so I'm going to turn the dry completely down because we have a separate control for the dry. And now we're going to spread this delay in the stereo field. So we're gonna make a wide copy of our signal and we use this stereo offset non makes sure that the delay model is set to stereo or ping-pong. Stereos, probably useful just for adding width. And now I'm going to create a stereo offset between the left and the right speaker. And as you can hear, it's already a wide bouncing sort of delay effect in our speakers, but we don't want a delay effect. We want a stereo width effect. Which means that I am just going to turn this time control to be really short. So if I turn this down to be too short, it will sound like a phasor or a flanger. Again, Jack. And what I want to do is I want to make it just short enough that it goes from this flanger effect into this stereo delay effect. And if we click the keep pitch, it's not going to fluctuate as we adjust this. It's not going to fluctuate the pitch of our vocal as we adjust the time Control. D again Jack, and gently wish. So now you can hear how much width to be added with this delay tricks. So if I turn this down, d again Jack. And I'm going to slowly bring this up and gently wish releases so you can hear how much wider are vocal sounds already. And if the collapse, and if we do a mono test and collapse this down to mono, di again Jack and gently restore. We can hear that it's not actually causing much of phasing issue. And we can even clean this up even further. So we have this filter on the feedback that we can set too high pass to clean up the low end. So I'm just going to mute the original vocal and I will just listen to the width effect here. I'm going to cut some of the laws out of this delay because the width of the signal is actually heard more and the high frequencies and the low frequencies, we tried to keep a closer to the center to keep more power. And in the low end and the high frequencies, we can spread wider. And that way it gives us a more of an impression of a wider channel. So let's listen to this together now. D again Jack and gently whisper. And without D again Jack. And with d again Jack. Let's do a monetized again. Let's collapse the master back to mono di again Jack and gently whisper. And it's not causing any other facing issues at our master and the mono channel. And so these are just a few tricks, a few techniques that you can use in your mix. 27. (4-8) Parallel Compression: And there is one last technique that I wanted to mention here. And, and it's a parallel compression. And I'm just going to use a drum loop to demonstrate this. And it gives us yet another chance of setting up our pre-fader send. So let's, let's add a loop into our channel rack. Gonna open it into new slicer channel, send it to the next available mixer track Control L. So this is just going to be our dry signal. Let's set up a sand. We're gonna side chain to this next track, next, insert right next to it. I'm going to rename this to our parallel compression. And let's send it from our send to our parallel insert. So right now we're just sending exact copy into insert six on this mixer here. And on this insert I'm going to set up a compressor and let's try out this multiband compressor this time. And the difference between just a regular compressor and a multiband compressor is that we have control over the compression split into these three frequency bands, low, mid, and high. And again, we're hearing some phasing issues happening when we send a copy into this multiband compressor. So it's important to switch this multiband compressor into a linear mode, which is this FIRs heading here. Now all of these frequency bands are going to be phase aligned and phase aligned with our original signal. So let's just listen to the parallel and I'm going to heavily compress the signal. And so with this multiband compressor, this game control actually sets how much compression we are going to apply. So it's kind of like a threshold and gain in one. So we're going to set this to, to start compressing our signal quite a bit. And then on the individual bands, I'm gonna set this threshold ratio ne controls. And we already discussed all of these controls when I talked about delimiter compressor. And so you already know how to use these. And so we're going to set the threshold on each of these to catch a lot of signal. And then the ratio to compress it by a large amount. And then we're going to set the gain up to turn the signal back up. I'm actually going to turn the attack down some squashing all the transients as well. So it's just really super heavily compressed drum loop right now. And as to compare it to the original. And now what we can do is we can bring, we can control how much of the original and the compressed signal we have in the mix. And the original is quite transient. It has a lot of these peaks in our signal, as you can tell from just looking at the wave form of it. So if you use a combination of both the original signal and the heavily compressed signal, it gives us the advantage of best of both worlds where we still have a lot of these transient sort of punchy sounds coming through in the mix. But we also have this Rumi sounding drum loop with a lot of sustained sounds and kind of the body of the actual drums adding into our mix. So having the ability to control between the compressed and uncompressed signal gives us a lot of freedom as compared to just having a single compressed signal. So you can hear how much of even the room ambiance of where these drums were recorded. It just really comes out and bringing this up just slightly under your original sound and make the compression sound a little bit more transparent and not so apparent in the mix. 28. (4-9) Demo Project Overview: So now that I showed you how to control the width, how to, how to control the reverb, and how to control different frequencies in your signal. I also showed you how to use parallel compression, how to set that up in the mixer. Now, I'm going to load up a demo projects that I prepared for you. And you can see all of these techniques used in this demo project. And you can practice them and sort of go through this demo project and see what I did there along the way. So in this demo project, I used all of these techniques that I described to you earlier. And you can just go through and see how I set this up here. And also set up these submix channels here so that you can hear so that you have even more control over these different groups. And so we have a Drums master, the local maximum master. And then I also set up a stereo bus, which is just another copy of all of these channels. As you can see, the vocal master goes into the stereo bus, the drum master goes into the stereo bus. And then all of our other trucks like bass, strings and sent also go into this stereo bus here. And the reason I added this additional bus is because you can add even more space to your track by creating this stereos channel before the master. And you can apply this delay trick that I showed you. You can add reverb to it. You can heavily compress it so it has some parallel compression going on as well. And you can bring it up in the mix to add even more clarity and even more width to your track. And one more thing that you will notice when you look through these is that on some of these, there is an additional 40 balance here at the very end. And this one is turned quite a bit down, for example. And the reason I inserted these is because if the faders very low at the bottom, the control is quite rough. As you can see, when I move the control, it jumps between tenth, between 1020 dB value very quickly. So if you want to make more of the fine control, just reduce the gain of this whole, entire channel and turn the fader up. That way you have more of a fine control. 29. (4-10) Master Channel: And so now finally, let's talk about our master channel. And on the master channel. In this particular project, I have a parametric EQ. I have an EQ just cutting off any of the super low frequencies before it starts, before it hits are Maximus, which is our Mastering compressor. And then we have a fruity limiter which just catches any of the peaks. And then I have some metering plug-ins just to see where I'm sitting in the mix and what my dynamic ranges. Let's talk a little bit about this signal chain on the master. So the maximise compressor is a multiband compressor and it just has a lot of control over your sound. And all of these controls are very similar to what we already discussed in the compressor itself, except in Maximus, we said, instead of setting the threshold, we're actually adjusting how much signal we are sending into the compressor. And then the gain is controlled with this post knob here with dispose control on each frequency. So we have low, mid, and high. And we use it to glue everything together and to make everything sound a little bit more fuller and a little bit more cohesive. So if I set this to default values that it loaded with, you see how much bigger the truck sounds when I enable this compressor. So I'm just gonna set this to the default values. And then I'm gonna go over as to how I actually said Maximus up. So each frequency, it has its own compressor on it. And then we have this master, which is another additional compressor. And because the base is one of the hardest things to control in our mix, a lot of times I choose to compress the base quite heavily and then turn it down a little bit. So let's just do that. And this tension control, adjust how much input we're putting VR driving into the compressor. And so if we set this to be a positive curve, for compressing it, for scientists to be a negative curve. It actually works as an expander. So this essentially is like a knee and input and output ratio control. And so I will also drive even more low end into my compressor by using this pre control. And it's basically like a threshold control. And then once I've really heavily compressed this base, I'm going to turn it down a little bit. So let's compare before and after. And we're gonna do the same for the mid-frequencies. Submerges, catching all these transients and we're compressing them and bringing them down a little bit. And also we can adjust this attack to be a little bit slower that way. We still have plenty drums. And then let's do a little bit in the high frequencies as well, but just the knee. So this is before. So you can already hear how much we've sort of brought the sound up and made it a little more cohesive. And we don't want to apply to extreme settings here. A little bit goes a long way. And then we have this final compressor on the master. And even that's a little bit too much, I would say. So these three, these three frequency bands, these three separate compressors that we have are also controlled them. So you can also control the mix between how much you're sending of this into the master. You can adjust this by this LVMH mics here. So this is essentially like a parallel compression sat up here. So you can control between and the original signal and the compressor. The reason you use this is because the original signal has a lot of transients. And what we've done with these, each frequency band is we went along and we adjusted these peaks to be down and a little bit more controlled. Sometimes you want to bring these transients back a little bit into your mix. And so you would use this mixed control to bring some of that original sound back. Again, let's AB. So again, applying a little bit of gentle compression at each stage and then on the Master just a little bit is going to bring our track together and bring all of this mixer channels together into a sort of cohesive sound. And then another thing that we can do is we can control the width of each frequency band. So on the low end, we might want to mix this down to the center. So it's, so it has more power. And when we mix our base down to a single channel is not disturbing the mid and high frequencies that are separated in the left and right channel. And then the med, we can widen a little bit if we choose to. Several the highs. And we'd like to do is I like to adjust it to an extreme setting and then bring it back a little bit just to see the difference. And because we have the stereo bus setup and we have all this width that we added in with the delay trick that I showed you. Now when we control this, with control on this maximise, we're able to actually adjust quite a bit of width, an add, or reduce the width on this high frequency band. So now that we've set up our maximise, now we need to make sure that we're don't have anymore overs. And that's why I set up this Fourier limit are here. And all I'm using this limiter for is to catch these few little overs that we have. Because I set the ceiling up to b minus one d B. And anything that gets close to this minus one will just get reduced back down. And that way we don't have any, anything that jumps over minus1 TB. 30. (4-11) Dynamic Range, Loudness Meter: And this brings me into the next thing that I would like to bring up. And it's our loudness. And you can download this Yulen loudness meter and it's free and it helps you watch the dynamic range of your track. So a lot of streaming services will actually try and reduce the loudness of your track if it's hits above a certain mark. And so if our track has very small dynamic range, which is basically the difference between the loudest and the quietest sound in our music. If that difference is very small and the dynamic range is very short. What these, a lot of these streaming services do, they will actually start turning your shrunk down to appear to be as loud as the rest of their content. So you want to be able to control that as much as possible. And, and this loudness meter lets you do just that. So as an example, we know that Spotify has an algorithm that's set up to control the trucks to be about minus 14 and minus1 d b, true peak. And true peak means that our masters signal is not going to go over this minus1 DB setting. And so that's exactly why I set up this limiter to be at minus1 is because I don't want this peak to peak anybody anywhere above that, this setting. And as we watch this meter, and we listened to our track, this meter analyzes all the quiet parts of our music. And as we listened to our track, it calculates all these different fluctuations in our volume from the really quiet sounds, really loud sounds. And it creates this long-term number, which is measured in loops or loudness units full-scale. And this number starts to matter more and more in modern music production, especially if you're trying to make music for media like a TV or radio, this number matters a lot. As you add in compression to your music, you need to be watching this meter and watching the peak meter and being able to fit within that framework so that your music is not overly, not over compressed. So it depends on the genre of course. But if in general, if you keep your tracks at around minus 14, loose end, around minus one dB, true peak max. This will fit in a lot of different productions, so your music is much more usable. So I also have this waves. Meter measures the same thing. The only thing is that you need to listen to this whole track and then in its entirety to be able to measure accurately the lowest, the quietest, and the loudest parts of your truck. 31. (4-12) Master Mono Test: There's one last check that I wanted to mention, and it's the mono test. And I do this by using this Stereo Separation control. And I'm going to turn this all the way to the right. That way our track is going to be just playing and Manana. And we just wanna make sure that none of the instruments that we had in stereo are disappearing or going out of phase. And there is no strangeness going on. And this is, this is exactly why I setup this piano centered channel here. So originally I only had a stereo channel for the piano. So if you listen to this piano and stereo, but when I switch the channel, but when I switch this master to mono, we basically have this piano disappear. And so in order to fix this, I created ascend. And I turned this piano. And I placed a limiter on this piano. I compress the sound a little bit. And I've turned this copy of this piano right down to the middle. And that way together, it helped me bring some of this piano back into the center. Because this piano was just a wide sampled to begin with, adding a center image to this piano, added a lot of, a lot more clarity to the sound. 32. (4-13) EQ Frequency Slotting: When you're executing your track, one of the techniques that are used the most in my queuing is frequency slotting. So the way this works is that you're carving out frequencies to help instruments fit together. And I'm going to show this to you as an example here in the piano and the string section. So I'm just going to solo the piano and strings. So if I open the piano plug-in, if I open the EQ on the piano. And I also am going to open a queue on the strings. So if you reset this to default, as you can hear, that the strings take the front seat here and they have a lot of activity here and this two k range. And then the piano is mostly sitting here in this lower register and has barely any high frequencies, any presence in the high range. If we go back to my, my EQ curve settings, you hear how much more presence to piano has when I boosted this presence frequency, this range 2K to 4K, is, brings a lot of clarity to our sound balloted presence to our piano. And then I turned 300 hertz down a little bit because I wanted to remove the mud. So if I solo just the piano by itself, you hear all this muffle is sort of turned down a little bit. And then I brought a lot of clarity buck into the piano. And then if you listened to the strings by themselves, there's a lot of this 2K activity which is competing with our piano quite a bit because the piano has barely any activity here. So that's why I decided to boosted here. And so let's compare it to an acute version. So I've reduced this really super resonant frequency that the strings had. I turned it right down, which gave space for some of these higher frequencies to come through a little bit more. And as well as these sort of mid low frequencies as well. And now these instruments are sitting much nicer together. Now the strings, I've taken a little bit of a back seat and the piano came through forward a little bit more as compared to the original. So when you're querying your truck and you're listening for different instruments and seeing what, where they sit in the frequency space. It's a good idea to sort of create room for each of them to have their own kind of puzzle piece and their own frequency slot. And this technique, like I mentioned before, it's called frequency slotting for the reason that you creating this sort of spot for each instrument to sit in the frequency range. 33. (4-14) Frequency Spectrum Analyszer: And another thing that I wanted to show you that on this freak, on this current channel here, I've set up a parametric EQ and it's not doing any queuing actually, it's just, I'm just using it as a frequency analyzer. So I turned the mixed level all the way down. I'm just using this frequency graph to see the frequency content of my mix. And it's just a way to see that the frequency range of your mix and be able to switch between different channels because this is sad on current. So if we're listening to the master, this frequency analyzer will analyze the master frequencies. If I switch over to the drums, only listening to the drums, if I switch this over to the base. Now I'm only analyzing frequencies on the base. Insert. I can listen to just the piano and see where it sits in the frequency range. So it's just a really useful tool to place this on and on a current insert and be able to see the frequency space of my truck. And a nicely balanced track will have a range of frequencies from really from low frequencies to high frequencies. We have a variety of instruments here hitting all of these frequency ranges. And this is actually adjusted to our hearing. So in reality, the graph actually looks like this. If I change this pivot slope to 0 dB is see, this is how much low end is actually in our mix. But because human hearing is not as good at adhering low frequencies, this analyzer actually is able to pivot this at 44 db slope, which means that it's adjusted for the way we perceive frequencies and it helps us shape the sound in a way that we actually hear it. So a balanced frequency response curve should look somewhere, should look fairly balanced between low, highs and meds, and should look kind of somewhere jumping around the middle line in all those frequencies. So as you work on your music, feel free to set this up as a parametric EQ. Turn the mix down, and then I actually turned the heatmap position to bottom, which means it's just hopping below that frequency line. And also, I turned the time smoothing to the slowest time smoothing that way. If there is any spikes, they have time to appear in my frequency range. And that way I can hear if I need to adjust for anything in my mix. So this was the final part of our class and we covered a lot of ground in this class. I really hope all this information is going to help improve the sound of your tracks. Feel free to leave any comments or questions in the discussion board and please don't forget to share your projects. And also please let me know what you would like to learn in the next class. Again, thank you so much for joining me. I'm Dimitri. And this was Skill Share FL Studio 20th music production class.