Introduction to Flipped Classroom Teaching | Lyndon Walker | Skillshare

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Introduction to Flipped Classroom Teaching

teacher avatar Lyndon Walker, Statistician and research guru

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (1h 26m)
    • 1. Introduction & What is Flipped Classroom Teaching

    • 2. Why Flip the Classroom?

    • 3. How to Design Flipped Classroom Lessons

    • 4. Tools & Activities for Pre-Class Learning

    • 5. Tools & Activities for In-Class Teaching

    • 6. Technical Tips for Making Better Teaching Resources

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About This Class

The flipped classroom in a contemporary teaching style where information transmission is focused in to pre-class content such as videos and in-class time focuses on interaction and feedback to your students.

In this class I will describe what flipped classroom teaching is and why it is a valuable skill to learn (including discussing both my own teaching experiences and published research in the area). I will describe and demonstrate a wide range of tools, techniques, and activities for your pre-class and in-class teaching, and finish the session by discussing some important technical aspects for producing high quality learning materials.

Meet Your Teacher

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Lyndon Walker

Statistician and research guru


Hi, I'm Dr Lyndon Walker. I am a former academic with qualifications in statistics, sociology, finance, and education, including a PhD that was jointly awarded in statistics and sociology.

These days I run a consulting agency that specializes in statistics, education, and research professional development workshops and training, as well as creating online courses and YouTube videos.

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1. Introduction & What is Flipped Classroom Teaching: Hi, I'm Dr. Linden walk and the managing director of Versailles consulting. We provide professional development workshops and training in the areas of statistics, research and education. Today I'm gonna be presenting an introduction to flip classroom teaching. Well that my background is in higher education. This is going to have tips, tricks, tools, and ideas for people who are teaching at any level of education. So whether you are in higher education school or some other professional training, hopefully you will be able to take some very valuable information from this course. So a little bit about me before we get going. I've been in higher education for about 20 years. In terms of my own training, I've got qualifications and Statistics, Finance, sociology, and education. And I've taught across all of these, although very much focused more on statistics and finance. I have national teaching awards and I've also been recognized by several institutions that I've taught at with awards such as lecture of the year. In addition to my teaching, I have also been an education researcher, researching not only my own teaching practice, but that of my colleagues and also the broader education system. So what is this course all about? Well, it is an introduction course, so we are starting out with the very basics. So what is flipped classroom learning? And why might we want to use this approach to teaching? I'll look at research in the area, as well as discussing my own experience of flipping the classroom. I'll also provide some rebuttal to some of the common criticisms that come up when we are discussing this kind of teaching. I'll talk about how you might go about structuring a flipped-classroom lesson plan. And then I will look at tools for both the pre and outside of classroom and inside of classroom activities that you might choose to do. I'll round out our session with a series of technical tips, which are particularly important for this style of teaching because you tend to be producing resources and things for your students. And we want to make sure that we're getting the basics of those correct so that students will have materials that are not only engaging, but they want to use. So let's start out by looking at what is flipped. The classroom. The flipped classroom. If we have a search for it online with find quite a few different variations of definitions. There's not one single strict one. But in terms of the principles, the idea is that we're trying to shift any kind of transmission of information where it's very one-sided from in the classroom too, out of the classroom. Things where you don't have interaction with your student or between students who try and have that as a pre-class activity so that you can make the most of the classroom with things like interaction activities we can give direct feedback. Have students working together, doing active learning. So here in the diagram we have an example. So the more traditional style, particularly in higher education, is to have someone at the front of the class talking at the student, and then the application doesn't come sometimes until later, possibly outside of the class, maybe in a tutorial or in a future class. But there's a bit of a disconnect there. And quite often that application has done where there's not the opportunity for that direct feedback and interaction with the instructor. By contrast, we, in the lower panels, we have a video and I would highlight the videos are certainly not the only way of going about this. But in this example, we have a video with that transmission of information. And then the application of information where the instructor is able to give that feedback and then to interact and engage with the student is happening in the classroom instead. Video is one way of doing this. We will certainly look at a range of different approaches. So it is not just strictly, here's a video and then we'll do some activities in class. There's lots of creative ways we can go about doing this style of teaching. So I hope you will join me for the rest of the videos in this course. 2. Why Flip the Classroom?: So before we get into how to flip the classroom, thought it was really important that we look at why we might want to flip the classroom. So for me it really comes down to maximizing the value of my face-to-face time. If we're thinking about remote or distance education, then we could replace face-to-face with synchronous. So if we're engaging with our students, perhaps by a video platform like Zoom, then I would count that as face-to-face so that synchronous time where my students are working, I am observing, engaging, and interacting with them. This provides the best opportunity for engagement and interaction. I can observe them as they are working. They may be asking for feedback, but there may be things that they're doing that just my observation. I can provide feedback in a proactive fashion as well. And students when they are confused, we'll also be able to ask questions as they are working on something rather than having to save them up. Also provides me some flexibility with a particular cohort of students if they are struggling with a particular problem. Rather than their traditional lecture style where you're coming in with a particular plan and an agenda of what you are going to talk about your students. If they collectively have either indicated by telling you or through perhaps a quiz or some sort of activity, what areas they are struggling with, then you can maximize the value of those sessions by working on those particular things. So my experience, I implemented flipped classroom teaching in a survey research methods subject that I was teaching. I had inherited the subject. It had lot of problems that had very poor resources. And just in general, was not a particularly good course. I implemented flipped classroom teaching across the entire subjects. So not just one lesson, but the entire thing. The first thing that we notice here is that the fail rate went from nearly a quarter down to 12 per cent. So there were still some students who are failing. We managed to almost have that. At the same time, the students who are getting distinctions and high distinctions wind up dramatically. If we compared the quality of work that the students in the flipped cohorts were producing relative to the earlier cohorts, it was really was night and day. So whilst there was all these new resources for them, what I think contributed was also this new style. So this interaction and engagement, me being able to talk directly to the students, I made it a very, very flexible approach, which I'll talk about a little bit more later. In terms of students being able to really indicate the areas that they wanted to spend the most time in the classroom. I also did a research survey, and again across several cohorts. What I tended to see what this research survey was, roughly three-quarters saying that they preferred the style of teaching. So given the choice, they wanted a flipped classroom. So those are some different Likert scale items. And the agrees and strongly agrees tended to be about three-quarters, just under a quarter when neutral. So they felt, and this was backed up by the qualitative comments that I can kinda do what I liked and they didn't care one way or the other. And generally there would be about 1%. So this would be a handful of students were talking one or two for every 100 students who actively did not like it. And what was really interesting where they provided qualitative comments is that they contrasted flipped-classroom to what they called regular. So to them, what they were seeing was different from the expectations. So they had a particular expectation of what they were going to get in the classroom, and that was not what they were receiving. Little bit further on the qualitative comments. I've got a couple of comments here. These were taken out of the research surveys. And we can see that the students are commenting on how they can absorb some theory. They learned some things beforehand, and then I get the question answered in class and how beneficial that was. The second bullet point there, the student, after being motivated to come to lectures with lecture recordings and things being available online. Really you need to make, give good reasons for students to be coming to your class. And interaction is just that. I've got a picture of one of my cats there. It's a little corner. And the reason I've put them in there is because when I first started with the flipped teaching, I've created some resources and amongst them, there was some videos. And I wasn't sure whether the students had engaged. I could look on the LMS. I could say some stats. But what I really found was the most biggest impression that I got from student engagement was in one of my very early videos. A little corner there, jumped in and became a participant in the video. And the rest of the video, I thought had been pretty good insight rather than redoing it or editing them out. I kept him in. And that week when we came to have out in class sessions, all of the students were asking about my cat. And then through the semester I continued to get questions about the cat. And so that really showed me that students had, were looking at the video. We're engaging with the material and it helped me connect. So I'm not suggesting that you intentionally heavier pet photo bomb your videos. But it's just an example of where you can have different ways that you connect with the students. And then this particular way, I found out they were engaging. They had something. And then it became a little bit of a game of hiding little pictures and things in the LMS. And they'd shown that though they were pretty interested in, in cats and my cat. So I would try and incorporate it into my materials. Moving from my experience into the published race edge. So there's a reasonable amount of published research. And I decided to just quote you one paper here. But this paper is a meta-analysis, so it's fairly recent. And it's emitter analysis that looks at quite a large number of studies about flipped classroom teaching. It's also open access. So even if you don't have access to journal databases, you should be able to just Google this up and it is open access. So it had some interesting findings. So it's said that there was a small positive effect on learning outcomes, but a negligible effect on student satisfaction. And I found this pretty interesting. It's not quite what I found with my own teaching, but the thing with my statistician hat on that I would really highlight to you is that these are averages. So there are gonna be some studies and some cohorts where there was a positive effect. There's gonna be some words neutral somewhere, it's negative. When we look at the averages, averaging all these out, that's where we end up with the positive, just outweighing the negatives to see that small positive effect. But I would contend that. And if you dive into some of these papers that they looked at for the meta-analysis. You'll see that with some, it was maybe smaller groups, so say one class or two classes. Others, it was perhaps a whole cohort, so perhaps all of the business subjects. But the big difference there is that when it was those bigger cohorts, they were getting forced into flipped classroom teaching. There was less engagement from the academics and from the teachers because they are being made to do it. In this paper, they comment that there is considerable effort. I would certainly agree with that. They note that the, there was a very clear effect from adding quizzes. So they were pretty general with what that meant. But certainly with my teaching experience, quizzes both in the classroom to monitor understanding as well as something is irregular activity, whether it's formative. So just for feedback or someone who may be worth a percent or two, I've found both be very, very valuable for teaching statistics and finance. The last point that they made in their paper was don't use flipped classroom as an excuse for cutting hours. And unfortunately, cutting a vows is something that I have seen come with this, but it's generally been from administration. So it hasn't actually been someone that has both opted for flipped teaching and cut their own hours. Okay, so here are some criticisms, and I'm maybe being a bit cheeky by saying down the bottom there that these tend to come from dinosaurs. But certainly in higher education. The people at one institution that I worked at the complaint loudest about flipped classroom teaching with the same people that complained loudest when they chalkboard got taken away. And in fact actually had a protest to try and get chalk back in the classroom. So three comments, three criticisms that come up. One, It's a lot of work to students don't like it. And three, it doesn't work. So it is a lot of work, or it can be a lot of work when you are booting resources, you wanna do it smartly. You don't want to reinvent the wheel if there's already a really great resource for a particular topic, make use of that. You need to make sure that there is your own personal stamp on your classes. But in general, if there's things out there that I good, You should be compiling, those are gonna be best for your students. You should also think with long-term view. And this is easy for some people than others depending on the structure at your institution, how sure you can be that you are going to be teaching this subject again regularly. But if you're thinking about the long term, then their piece of investment upfront can actually pay off with lot of value over time. Students don't like it. So my experience is the only time I've had feedback with students not liking it is where they've been encouraged to not like it. So they have had staff who have said this is terrible, we have to do it. And also they have had particular expectations. So earlier I talked about how I had that 1% of students that thought this wasn't regular. They had expectations about what was once a class should look like. And this was different. And so the way to combat that is just to be very clear to create culture change and to demonstrate to students this is what we're doing. This is why we're doing it. And that's why I wanted to spend some time on the section talking about why is because you should be able to sell it to your students as well. Here is why we're doing this particular thing. There is some really good value to you. Okay, finally, it doesn't work. Well. I certainly disagree. And so I would just say make sure you're doing it properly. If you are providing good resources to your students, you've explained why we're teaching in this particular way. Then students will engage, students, will, they are generally there because they want to learn. They will engage and then they will actually benefit from it. As soon as they stop benefiting from it, then it's got to work really, really well. 3. How to Design Flipped Classroom Lessons: In this section we are going to look at how to structure your flipped teaching. So I'm going to talk mostly in fairly general terms. Because depending on what discipline you teach, there's gonna be a lot of nuance and different kinds of activities and things that are most suitable for you. So with that in mind, we're going to start by thinking about the different learning design considerations. So in terms of their overall learning design, what should I be thinking about? Then going to talk about ways we might structure our pre-class activities. I'm going to run through some different activities and ideas, things you could be doing both pre-class and in-class. Mike, particular point to talk about day one of class, because I think that is by far the most important for getting student buy-in for flipped teaching. And then I'll talk a little bit about the in-class structure and describe what I was doing for my particular flipped classroom sessions. So when we're thinking about learning design, my first suggestion is really needs to commit to a time period for a few are only going to flip a single class. What you'll find is that you're not going to create a culture around it. The very least, it should be a series of classes. Certainly that is a much bigger time investment. But if you don't do this, it's gonna be really hard. Get students in the habit of doing pre-class work. So if it's a, at the very least some chunk of weeks, if not a whole semester or a whole course, depending on the structure of what it is that you're teaching. But you do need to bite off a reasonable chunk. I would recommend doing it earlier in the course as well. So that way you are building expectation from the start. If you had that more traditional style for say, your first six weeks and then you tried to change into a flipped style, then it's gonna be very hard to change the habits of students. Whereas if you start from day one, it's going to be much, much easier. So we also really need to think about institutional constraints. So for me in higher education, I had to think about how many hours I was gonna get per week and how the institution was going to structure those. So I didn't get any say in how many hours and in fact, I didn't really get much say in the split of those hours as well. There may be other things around how many students you have or what type of classrooms urine. If you're in some sort of tiered theater, it's gonna be hard to get students to move around or work in groups. You are using Cloud tools and things like that. So we need to think about what are my constraints. I, however, I'm designing this, I need to be out of work around those. So if I have a two-hour lecture and then a one-hour tutorial. In the case of higher education, how am I going to work with that five-minutes school and I see my students three times a week for one hour. What's the best approach for me to be working with a flipped classroom there. Perhaps I know that one of those classes is just after lunch and they came and full of energy. But there's another one that is just before the end of school and they are very tired. So maybe the types of activities, the things that I do with them are gonna be different in the case for school teachers, this is probably something that you already think about quite a lot anyway. Then you need to consider your content and your activities. So I'm gonna give some suggestions to you for things you could be doing both in and outside of the classroom. But really, this is where you can have a lot of fun. So this is where really letting your imagination run wild. What can I do to engage my students to get them learning this kind of material? Seeking out information, doing activities, listening to things, watching things, reading things. What's the best for my particular discipline. And that's going to vary. Discipline to discipline cohort a cohort. So you need to think about what works best. Also that split of the independent learning versus the learning with you. So which things are really important for students to be doing with me there, with them? And which things can I put as pre-class and they can be doing outside of class? Need to think about your workload. This is really important. And so maybe if you are flipping your classroom for the first time, most you 0.1, I did say do it for a long time period. You also need to make sure that you're doing it for a long time period in a way that's manageable. So if you are going to make videos, you might commit and say, Okay, I'm going to be providing my students with two 10-minute videos and reading in one activity per week. And I'm just making up some numbers there. It's going to depend very much on your subject and your content. But thinking about something that, you know, you can do without having to chase a deadline every week. Ideally, if you can do things in a batch fashion. That's gonna be really helpful. So things like videos. If you have access to a videographer or a studio at your institution. I know that many higher ed and even schools are really starting to build some really nice audio visual capabilities for doing recordings. Being out of batch those up. How many of those can I knock out in one session? I still wanna do a good job of it, but I want to make sure that I am doing it in a way that maybe I can batch them up. I'm going to spend one afternoon and that's gotten me covered for at least a couple of weeks, maybe longer depending on how efficient Diane, things like videos will always take longer the first time you do them. And there is an element of saying, well, is this good enough? Ideally, you want it to be perfect, but sometimes you need to put perfectionist tendencies aside and say, Is this good enough? Is it presentable? Does it show the information that I want? Maybe next time round, when I do these, I can get a little bit more skill as a Scorsese. But for now, is this enough? Then? The last point is just the difference between score on hiring. I am trying to talk about both. I'm definitely very aware that the timescale for a school teacher, you may have those students for an entire year. So it may be that you are just having to buy it off particular topics or chunks that work well for flipped teaching. Whereas with higher education we might have semesters or trimesters. Things are a bit more compact. Sometimes that can make them a little bit more frantic because you need to be marking and getting things turned around in quite short space of time. But you do need to think about, this is how long I have the students, this is how many of them there are. This is what's within my limits. Okay, So let's think about our pre-class structure. So it's really important that we set the class culture from the outset. And it's part of this. We want to ensure that there is a clear value to the students. Anytime I get the students to watch a video, do a reading, anything that they are doing outside of the classroom. I want to link it and demonstrate this is how this will help you in the future. Future them is gonna be the one that comes to the class. Future them is also gonna be the one that does the assessment. And so being able to link and demonstrate, Here's these things that I'm getting you to do. I'm not just doing it to make work for you. I'm doing it so that we can then be more effective learners firstly in the classroom and then secondly later on and assessments and also future topics as well. You do need to be realistic. So I have seen colleagues who got very enthused about flipped classroom teaching and proceeded to produce hours and hours and hours of video content. I had one and he was checking his head and he said, I make these long videos and they're beautiful. I put all this effort into it and the students don't watch them. And I had to say two or more that last video that you posted with two hours long. And would you sit down and watch it to our movie? You probably would. Would you watch a two-hour video on this, particularly, this particular thing was a fairly boring part of statistics. Well, I mean, I really liked statistics. I probably wouldn't sit down and watch this for two hours. I also know that it doesn't really take two hours if I want to communicate it as concisely as I can. So being concise is going to be really valuable because we do need to be realistic. If you make the workload too big, the students aren't gonna do it. And then also, and this is particularly for the higher-ed students. As assessments come along, those are going to take priority. So you need to make sure that whatever work you are expecting students to do before classes, they can manage that with their other classes, with their assessments. So we do need to be realistic. It doesn't mean dumb it down and make it almost nothing. But just don't get too carried away. We do want there to be some consequences for not doing the pre-class activity. But we don't want this to be an inability to progress. And this is a really fine balancing act. With my own teaching. I would have videos, sometimes I would have an interactive activity or a quiz or something else as well. And was really important that you did watch those videos to know, doing know enough to be able to come into the class and perform the different things that I was going to ask you. But at the start of the class, I would also do an accelerated summary. I would give students enough that if they hadn't covered the pre-class materials, they. Wouldn't be able to still participate in the class. It would be much harder for them. They would be really incentivize that next time they did make sure they got their material covered, but I would make sure that there was still enough for them to be capable of doing the in-class activities. This will all fall apart. If the students don't do pre-class work, and then they can do the in-class work. Conversely, though, if you make it unnecessary, then you just not adding the value of the style of teaching. So there is a balancing act to be had. You need to be consistent. So you need to be consistent as you can in terms of the quantity. And also the delivery. Friend of mine recently was doing some flipped teaching. And every week he was in a panic trying to get materials, trying to get a video up. Students have class on Monday and on Friday, they still didn't have their pre-class materials was very frustrating for the students and just made for a bad learning experience. He also would sometimes be more carried away with topics and videos. For instance, we get much, much longer. Some things are more detailed than others. So sometimes you might have say, a 15 minute video instead of say an eight minute video. But if you went from a 10-minute video one week to an hour video the next week. This is going to really mess with the students. It's going to make it hard for them to plan doing their pre-class work. And it's also starting to get into the realm of being just not realistic and a little bit unproductive as well. So we need to think about things being concise to the point, efficient communication of that information when we're doing transmission. Communication in any kind of teaching is always very important. We need to make sure that there's clear communication, both about why we're doing, what we're doing, when and how and want as well. So if there is pre-class things to be done, what are they? What do you need to do? When DO need to have done them? Why? Why is it important Theo doing this? So highlighting this really nice and clearly for our students. If we're using videos, make sure we keep them short. I think I've already said it a couple of times and I'll probably say it a couple more times. Biggest, biggest trap that I see people fall into is particularly in higher ed. Their academics, they lie talking. Presumably they seemed like the sound of their own voice. And they talk and talk and talk and they make these long videos. And that's just not a good way to transmit information. So keeping things concise to the point is going to make things much better. So what can we do both in terms of pre-class and class? So for the pre-class, the most common thing we would see as videos. The video is taking the place of the teacher or the lecturer at the front of the class talking through things. And this is generally really helpful. It's making that space in the classroom to be able to do those interactivities. Some institutions, they have been forcing staff to have videos and then reducing hours. So it's not ideal. But again, videos is gonna be a important component. In future sections. I walk talk about some of the tools for producing videos. I will also go through some technical tips that are really important for making good videos. The videos are likely going to be one of the things that you have. Might have readings. So could be books or journal articles or chapters or just things. And this is things that even a more traditional style of teaching. You would have had students in some disciplines more than others, where you needed to do some readings, self-assessment, quizzes. As I mentioned before, the research showed this was really, really valuable, helping students test the knowledge, get feedback, widgets and games. So I'm going to show some examples of those later. When I say widgets, these can be apps or things that can be plugged into your LMS. They can be little interactive activities or visualizations or things that students can engage with digitally. There might be other activities. It could be something as old school as an activity sheet. It could be something that is a bit more sophisticated and digital, but you could get students doing some activities before class. This doesn't need to strictly be a watch stuff before interact in class. It could be that some of what the student's doing outside of class is the start of activities. They then continue and or get feedback on when they're in class. You may have students doing research or data collection and finding out information about topics. I really liked the idea of collaborative notes. So this is something that you could have students doing either in class or before class, where they are perhaps working in a Google Doc, producing notes together, podcasts. Another great way for some disciplines where the video aspect is not quite as important, is just listening to someone talk about particular ideas, theory, concepts, history, things like that. When we get to the end of this list, you might think that maybe I was scrambling for ideas by saying interpretive dance. But that's actually not the case. And whilst you might think that doesn't apply to your discipline, if you jump on YouTube and you search for teaching statistics with interpretive dance, you can see statistics being taught by some dancers, ballerinas. And really quite neat. And I have that there really are, just as an example of using your imagination, what some fun, interesting ways of communicating your particular subject, the thing that you're teaching in a way that it's going to engage your students. I've talked about this fair amount already, but I wanted to really highlight it with a separate slide. So day one of class, this is where we set expectations. Being really explicit, I'm gonna be teaching in the style. Here is why I'm doing it. Here's how it's going to work. And then creating some sets of expectations. The way that I like to do this is I actually have the students come up with some of the expectations themselves. So I will actually get them to say, here is what we expect. And I will get them to create expectations of me and of themselves. And if they create the expectations of themselves, they are more likely to stick to them funnily enough. I also have found that when students are creating expectations about things, whether it's classroom behavior or study habits, things they will do and so on. They are stricter than I am. They will come up with rules and expectations and requirements that are actually often beyond the scope of what I would have said. They will stick to them because they collectively have agreed on them themselves. The other thing that I try really hard to do in this can be harder when you are teaching a more regimented subjects. So maybe you're a school teacher, you have to, to exactly a particular curriculum. With higher education is maybe a little more scope. And that's to create a sense of agency. So I will ask students for input on topics, content, and activities. And as I previously mentioned, the expectations as well. So I've said as appropriate. So it's going to vary depending on where you are, what you're teaching. But whatever input the students can provide is going to mean more buy-in, more skin in the game for them. So I would have a lot of my classes when I was teaching my survey research with the students, I would have material prepared, but they would actually get a large site and nominating what we would cover for those in-class sessions. And it was a subject that I knew very well. And I could make up activities very well on the spot. So sometimes I would say, Well, we would like we would like something focused on Likert scale. So we would like something focused on this particular kind of analysis. And it was a challenge, but for me, having taught it for a number of years was also pretty fun on the fly, producing activities, including the students, engaging the students in that fashion. And it just worked really, really well. Okay, So in class, we've got this pre-class material and activities. We should always be thinking the pre-class and in-class together because one should be linking really closely to the other. So we want to think about what kind of assessment and activities we want it to be authentic. We want to use different tools. So with the survey research, that was really nice because we would look at different types of surveys software. We would use it to do surveys of the students in the class. I would then use it again as a way to test understanding. So maybe they were asking, they were learning how to write particular types of questions for surveys. And then I would have a survey testing them on that. We would then look at the answers. In the back end of the survey software says simultaneously they were learning the survey software and the surveys skills. And the survey software was doing double duty because it was also being it was the tool, but it was also the topic. Your particular area, it could be other different things. Certainly say if you were in something like computer programming, that could be another one where the lesson then the tool start to merge together. You get extra value, the students get to learn extra. You're really doing the most you can to maximize that value. So I've talked quite a lot of already about my survey research methods course here. It's just a few more details. So the way that it was structured is that it was set up as one-hour, what the institution treated as a lecture. So it was a big room with all of the students. And then smaller tutorial groups broken out into two hours. And this is the reverse of what you would normally see. And it took a little bit of persuasion to be able to get it this way around. It could be that when you are teaching, you might have to do a two with everyone in one hour with the small groups. But what I would do in that one hour class, we would have a short recap to make sure that everyone at least had basics to be able to get started. I would ask if there is anything in particular students wanted to cover. So it could be a concept they didn't understand. It could be a particular kind of activity. I would always come in prepared and I had a pretty good idea of the things that they were going to struggle with. So I knew the things that I would like to cover, but I would let them engage and do a reasonable reasonable contribution as well. So we will do three or four small activities. They would be a little bit more guidance. They would be interactive. The students would be perhaps answering questions. Sometimes I would make it fully recursive. So I might have it that they say wrote some survey questions. And then the next stage, I would collect those. I would maybe take some of the errors that I saw on them, create some of my own that had those errors, maybe on screen or on the whiteboard. And the next activity would be identifying areas. And so the students could look, they would see areas that perhaps they had made without actually having to shame or identify some particular student's answers. So it was taking the things that were wrong but not the exact answers. And then we would iterate on, okay, let's look at these. Let's identify as well as row. And then the next step would be to then rewrite, do some corrections. And then maybe a fourth step would be rights and instructions on how to write this particular type of survey question. That might be the three to four small activities. Then in the 12 class, I would try and have fewer activities that they were really big, substantial ones. So rather than trying to write a survey question, maybe it was a whole section of a survey or by the end of that course, was a whole survey. So really one or two really big activities, often in groups and then having the students feedback and share towards the end of it. So that was how I managed that particular subject. And as I've said before, there's different ways that you can be going about this. That's not necessarily going to be exactly what suits you, but hopefully it's giving you ideas. So from here, the next few sessions we are going to look at some of the tools that are going to be really helpful for you to be able to produce pre-class materials and to be able to do in class activities. 4. Tools & Activities for Pre-Class Learning: In this section we are going to look at some different tools that are going to be useful for pre-class activities and producing pre-class resources. I'm going to start by looking at some different audio and video tools. We can then look at H5P, which is an amazing resource for producing for different kinds of widgets and interactive things that you can put in your LMS. Going to look at some examples of interactive tools which might also be called widget or apps. And going to round out by looking at a couple of games. So starting off, we're going to look at audio and video. So if we're just producing audio, There's some great free tools on the PC, you've got one-quarter or udacity. On a Mac, you've got GarageBand. Even your phone is actually going to be quite reasonable at producing audio. In a later section, I'm going to talk about some of the technical tips in order to produce best possible quality audio and video. And so that's gonna be really important for you to check out before you start using these tools. Some of the other ways that we might capture video. One is called Camtasia. It's the software that I'm using right now. It is licensed software costs a little bit of money. It could be the kind of thing that perhaps you'd get your school or institution to get a license or even a site license for. It's very easy and user-friendly to be able to capture screen recordings. So it can capture the screen PowerPoint or whatever software you're using. Can also take a source from a camera or a webcam and be able to put that together. A free version that you may or may not be familiar with is OBS. So OBS is what a lot of streamers we use. You can use it for live streaming, but you can also use it for recording video as well. And again, it can take different sources so it can record the screen. I can also record cameras as well as audio. A lot of the video software such as Zoom, can actually be used to produce video. In Zoom, you can record a call. So what you would do is just set up call where you're not calling anyone. It's just a meeting with you. And once you've got the meeting with you by yourself, you hit record. You can record a way and you have a video. It's not going to look as professional as one that's produced from a proper video software. But it's still going to do the job. It's still going to have you record it together with your video. You'll be able to share screen into what. And that could be a nice, easy option for getting started. If you want to have just a talking head video, you don't need any kind of slides are recording from the computer, then most modern smartphones will actually do a pretty decent job. You may be able to use your camera if you have that kind of gear. But just your phone is generally going to do a pretty reasonable job. Latest versions of PowerPoint will also let you record straight out of PowerPoint. So you can see there the menu. When you go into PowerPoint, you just choose the record ribbon and you've got the options there to record. Really important that you keep your recordings short, try and stay there the point as possible. It's important to be aware of quality and in particular, audio quality. If you are clipping, which means the sound is distorting because you are too loud, or it's too quiet, or it's otherwise distorted or messy, that's where people will turn off. They will not be interested in listening or watching where the audio is bad. So in section six, I will talk a little bit more about some technical tips to try and avoid those kinds of problems. The next tool that we're looking at is H5P. So H5P is really, really need. It has a whole lot of different interactive elements. And these are things that you'll just be able to plug into LMS. There's not really any coding involved. You will produce things in H5P. It will just give you a little snippets and things that you copy over into your LMS. And it can do all sorts of things. So let's take a look at some of the things that we could do with H5P in our LMS. So this is the H5P examples page. And we can see here they mentioned WordPress, Moodle, canvas, Blackboard, all of the main LMSs and even just a lot of websites will accept these H5P plugins. So if we scroll down, we can see there are all sorts of different resources. Everything from credit addiction, drag and drop, find the hotspot, fill in the blanks. So every single one of these is just a pretty interesting thing that you can use. And if we click on one of them, so for instance, let's click on the timeline that will show us an example of it being used. Here we have. History of strawberries. And we can scroll along, we can see all the various things at various points in time. Up here we can scroll. And all of this is something that this is just a template one. We could produce our own one using H5P. We would just need to drag in images, set our dates on the timeline. And then you can see we've got just a little Embed button there. So we would just be taking the embed. Obviously the real ones not going to have this warning. This is just because it's the demo, some more advanced options. And we can just have that sitting inside our LMS. If we go back, maybe we check out a, another one. Another one we might have is perhaps image hotspots. So here we've got our image and rather than just trying to stick labels on it, particularly if we have quite a lot to say. It can give us labels. One other neat one down the end here, interactive video. So with the interactive video, it will take your video and it can just place things like quiz questions over the top of it. I'm not going to play it now, but you can jump on the site, have a play, and you will see how useful and powerful some of these different little widgets. Or if you really want to make a more interesting and interactive LMS site, H5P is going to give you all sorts of amazing things and works at all sorts of levels as well. So we can see things like find the words. If we were dealing with younger school students through to having, say, image sequencing or interactive video for slightly more advanced students. So it really great set of tools. There are lots of great interactive resources and visualizations, visualization tools available in all sorts of different domains. So I've just got two examples here that we are going to look at. The first one is a correlation. Visualize that for statistics. The second one is an anatomy tool where we can look at an anatomy in an interactive fashion. So if we're teaching statistics or biology, these are gonna be great. But there's going to be all sorts of different things in many, many different domains. These are just a couple of examples that I wanted to show you. This first example is a correlation visualizer. So it has been produced and shared here for free on the web. If I want to embed this into my LMS, I can use an iframe. There's always a risk that when I put someone else's website as part of my materials, that maybe they change it or they abandon it. And so I will have a gap there. But at the same time, this is just a really valuable teaching tool. And it means that I don't need to reinvent the wheel of going and producing my own. So what I would like to use this for, and I might give my students some specific instructions, is we've got this plot here, and it's showing correlations are currently at a correlation of 0 A's. I want students to see what happens when I change the sample size. So suppose instead of 50 people, we made it 500. And we can see HE still the same positive, strong positive correlation. But there's a lot more kind of jumbled from having that many more people. The other thing that I want them to do is to be able to drag the slider and compare what a correlation of say 0.3, roughly 0. Say negative 0.55. Maybe negative. Something might negative 0.9, maybe negative one. We can say the perfect straight line. So this is a really great interactive tool. I can give just very basic instructions to a student. And rather than just telling them this is what a scatter plot will look like for a particular correlation. I can get them to do it. I could have an activity where they go and they have to maybe sketch a couple of these of their own, or even just take some screenshots or snip out these graphs and make their own notes showing examples of graphs with these different correlations and maybe a couple of different sample sizes. So that's in my domain of statistics. Then we've got this other one here that I came across, bio digital. They have both health and education products. Here they've got this example where We can explore the anatomy here we've got a section of chest. We can click on it. We can see the name and click on other bits. We can see this, we can rotate it, we can zoom. We can zoom in. Really amazing. This is stuff that a few years ago, the best you could get as maybe a few textbook pitches. And now you've got this 3D rotate, zoom, Interactive click. Just really amazing stuff. And so we can see here they've got male and female anatomy, so they have a basic version for free. And so if we were teaching biology, maybe we don't have the budget. We don't want to spend the money on the professional grade. But what a great tool if we can get the free one, we can have students rotate and identify bits. We can give them activities to do. So in your domain, I'm sure there will be resources, some will be paid, but it's really quite amazing. Some of the great things that educators out there are sharing. And so you will hopefully be able to find some great materials and resources of your own. Another great thing that I find is going to places like Twitter and just asking what are other people using, getting references that way as well. Finally, we have games. So there's a couple of examples here. The top one is actually a game that I had a grant and got developed called stats cats. Cats, cats. You would work through statistics questions in order to earn money to buy your little cats. All the important cat accessories like Top Hats and jet packs and monocles and things like that. Unfortunately, it did not receive support after I left the institution where it was created. Might be something that I bring back in the future though. You shouldn't look at it and say, well, I don't know anything about coding. I can make a game. I really, what I'm trying to show you is that there's just lots of games that are out there. So Stats Katz was during its time was just a free game. Anyone could access it. I made it from my students, but I made it free public access. Anyone could come in and use it. And at some stage I might bring it back again. If you teach business, you are more than likely to be familiar with Mike's bikes. So Mike's Bikes is a paid game, but it is one that many institutions will have. And again, just a good example of something where we're teaching students. But rather than just getting the, watch a video, maybe we get them to play some of this game it made with Mike's bikes. We get them to do a particular thing in the game. We might bundle that together with say, a video. But then we'll have a discussion in class about what it was that they were doing in the game. Why it's important, how it relates to the business topic that they're learning about and so on. So those are some of the ideas and in fact some of them, whilst I've labeled this as pre-class, could also be in-class activities. So maybe with the games, the students are playing the games in class. But with you providing feedback and the interactive element being you being there to be able to talk about the game, the strategy, the learnings, things like that. 5. Tools & Activities for In-Class Teaching: In this section, we are going to look at a couple of ideas and tools for in-class activities. So I've kind of divided them up into polling apps, Google Docs and old school, but there's plenty of more things. Hopefully this will trigger some ideas though. In terms of in-classroom polling. I've thought of that, that fairly broadly. So we've got some dedicated tools here. So Poll Everywhere in Socrative add to that I've used a lot in the classroom. They're excellent. Kahoot is a little bit newer. Slido is one that I've not used, but I did a bit of a Google search just to see what else was out there. And it was one that popped up fairly highly. There's survey software like Survey Monkey and Qualtrics, which are things your institution may have licenses for. So they are easy for you to access. Google Docs down here as well. But that is really primarily for surveying and polling has such. But you can certainly use either a Google form or even a Google Sheet, and I'll show you an example of that shortly. But let's have a look at some of these polling tools first. So we'll have to look at the websites for these four different polling softwares that I've mentioned. I Here's the first one. So Poll Everywhere. And I'm just on the main page. I haven't logged in to this one just yet. But basically it will let you embed these little multi-choice surveys. You can embed them inside your PowerPoint. It's really straightforward for students on their phone or laptop to be able to submit an answer. For instance, the one they've got here which chapters would like to cover? Students can nominate which chapter you can have results come up to the screen if you would like. I would put the caveat on there that I would not have free text goes straight up to the screen. Probably for almost any level of student. They will always be someone that wants to play the Joker and put something that's maybe the very least silly, if not rude or offensive up onto the screen. But certainly results. Multiple choice tests are good. With all of these, there is the option of being able to moderate and choose what gets straightened up onto the screen as well. I found that quite often I will just have my laptop open off to the side. I can see the students free text responses and then I can discuss what I've seen without them seeing them. Since Poll Everywhere. The one that I've used a lot of is Socrative. Socrative, very, very straightforward. So we can set up a quiz in advance. If I go into quiz, we can create a new quiz. You can see I've got a couple of examples sitting in there. I can sit up questions. They can be multi-choice or they can be free text. They can be several questions. And students would just get a link. They will get the quiz questions as they answer them. The answers will come through to me. If we want, we can have a quick question as well. So just on the fly, I might ask a question. I can hit. Let's say it's multi-choice. And here it's setting up, I can change it so there's more or less of them. But they are just generic, a, B, C, D, E. And so up on the whiteboard I've said what these are. So I can do these on the fly. I find that on the fly. I'm probably most interested in doing a short answer. And we can set different things so students can submit and then they can submit again. We can make them put their names in. This one. Obviously, you need the slightly better license for them to only be added to it. Once we put a question there, we'll click stat. Students will have just a link and they will have the question came up in the device. If we go back to the start, the other one, that's kinda fun. Space race. So space race, we set up some questions and as you answer them correctly, your rocket ship flies closer and closer to the destination. So you can set this up as a race between students. So similar to that, Kahoot is another one that has a range of both quiz and kind of game apps. I, at a previous institution had an account. I don't have an account set up for me individually at the moment. But it has a whole lot of neat little quiz thing, so much like that space race. You can have quizzes and timed quizzes. You can have competitive ones. You might set it up and said so maybe it's more collaborative. It's just got a whole lot of neat little options. So all of these are kind of polling, but not just polling. There's some game. Game or competition or scoring element to it as well. The last one I haven't used, but I wanted to do a quick Google search. And because those other three are things that I've used a lot, sometimes you can just not know about other new things that are coming out. This one came up fairly high in my Google search. And again, just pretty, it's pretty straightforward. Free text, multi-choice. Students can give feedback as well if you would like. I mean, really any polling you could set up a feedback question. This one is a little bit more dedicated. So you can have anonymous Q&A, you can have the live polls and surveys. And just another another option. I think it's got a free plan and then a paid plan depending on how many students with a lot of these though, sometimes the limits and I forget what it is. I mean, with this one, our limits up to 100 participants. So for many classes, that's going to be fine. Five poles per event. I think if you're doing more than that, you may be standing at a little bit carried away. You will actually get some pretty good use out of that free basic plan. So that's Slido. Just another option I'm sure you could google also find out, does your institution have licenses for any of these other ones? They might be ones that your institution supports that came get you doing in-class surveying. Now that most students have either a laptop or, and, or a smartphone with them, it's much, much easier than a few years ago where it was all based around things like clickers. So my second set of tools that I think are really great for interactive in-class activities. The Google Docs or Google, Google Docs, google Sheets and Google Slides. So these are nice because they are Cloud-based. You can have multiple students working on the same document or sheets at once. And you can also have it so that students can easily share and look at one another's. This really helps with that. Building are learning in public, where you are producing things. You can see what you're doing. You can also see what others are doing. It's also a very nice way for both you end other students to give your feedback and then peer feedback as well. So a couple of examples. One that I quite like is the writing of collaborative notes or having collaborative documents where a few people are working together in a Google doc. One that I've used quite a lot, particularly over the past couple of years with via Zoom. We've had remote students, has been using Google Sheets. So when I was teaching finance, I would have students doing things like valuations and analysis in the Google Sheets. They would be able to work on their own, but they could also just kind of jump over and have a sneaky look at each other's. I could jump from one to the next while I could see what all of them were doing as well. And it was just really nice way for students to be able to collaborate and problem-solve together. The final one, Google Slides. You can have students using these both for presentations, but also as a way of generating things like posters and infographics and just little pieces of shared information. So let's take a quick look at the Google Sheets. Just an example that I was working with in one of my classes. So here's a very simple example in Google sheets from a finance class that I was teaching. And so this was being taught online over the COVID times. And what I had was the spreadsheets set up. And we have these different components of an investment decision. We had two different companies that we were looking at. And then we had the students make decisions. So the students had some time to read through a case study to look at the information here. This column D, which has the ideal solutions, is I had covered up to start with. The students had to put in some initials for the ones that they thought were best for each of these items, did they think that the top gun or Red Baron was the best choice? And we can see here that for some was fairly unanimous. For some those a little bit of split decision. Summit was more split than others. And for some they didn't put any initials at all. So I had highlighted at the start that you would need to defend your decision would be quite clear if someone didn't put their initials anywhere in here. But I was quite happy if they weren't sure to be able to, even to not put something in, or alternatively if there was no difference. So say for this one here, the conversion rate the same. While we don't need to choose one or the other because they equal. It was really nice for me, highlighting where students had different ideas about which option was better. As an activity, I could ask students from one side or the other why they chose what they chose. And they became the discussion points. Where we had unanimous. There is obviously the case of a little bit of kind of game theory going on. Where a student might sit back, wait for others to put an initials and then they add this on the end. And we can see there's a few here where WP seemed to come in a bit later than everyone else. But having said that down here, WP didn't opt for one of the other people were so wasn't completely the case. But there's a lot of information we can take both in terms of student understanding, students thinking about a particular problem, and also students being able to see what other students are selecting. And so whilst we could worry that they just going to copy one another at the same time. It can also generate discussion. So another way that I've done this is instead of with individuals as having groups and each group would vote. And much, much clearer than if we would just say in the classroom. And it was just hands up, hands down type voting because you are actually putting your name here on-screen for us to see. This one works really well. The students really, really liked it, got really engaged. Throughout these videos. I've talked a lot about technology, but certainly for our in-class face-to-face activities, There's some things that are either just easier or more fun or more convenient if we do it. Old school, things that involve posters and post-its and whiteboards. I taught in one particular place, the entire institution was built around flipped teaching. Every classroom had whiteboards on wheels. Everything was modular and can move around so students could work by themselves or in groups. They could have their own whiteboards they could work on, they could share everything was was movable. Some of the walls were smart walls, but then others were just, just whiteboards. And that gave a lot of scope for different kinds of fun activities. And sometimes that's all you need. Each group has a few whiteboard markers. They have a particular task, something that they need to solve and then Share. And then you get them going, you walk through and see what they're up to and give them feedback and ask them questions. And that's going to work just as well as any of those technology solutions. The last one I have here, stand up, sit down quizzing. So something that I've noticed is that often people will ask questions and they'll say hands up. And it's very easy for someone to just not engage with. Put your hand up or not put your hand up. Where is something that involves actually standing up and then sitting down? Not only does it get the students moving, get a bit of blood flowing, but you can't opt out of it as easily. So if I want students to say, say it's just a true false, and I want them to commit to their true or false. I might get them all to stand up and then sit down if they think it's false. So they have really clearly marked out what their answer is. They're not just not raising their hand for true and not raising their hand for false. So sometimes it's just really simple stuff like that. They can get just a bit more movement, bit more engagement in your classroom. So from here we're going to move into our final video. We're going to look at some technical tips for producing nice resources. 6. Technical Tips for Making Better Teaching Resources: So in this final section, we are going to just look at some technical tips around building a good course in terms of audio and video, accessibility and your learning management system. So if we start off with audio, audio is going to be very important. Even more important than the quality of a video when we're looking at a video. And obviously if it is a podcast or an audio, only it's going to be vital. So you might notice that I have a show on microphone in front of me. They've cost a wee bit of money. You don't need to spend this much, but you do need a reasonable quality microphone. So all of the big brands, like Shaw and Road and audio technically all have an entry-level USB microphone. The price is very aware of it, but any of those is going to be an excellent choice. The cheapest brand and microphone that I would contemplate. There is one called the brand is blue and they have a snowball and they have a Yeti. Snowball is probably the absolute cheapest microphone with the quality is still okay. You are sacrificing a little bit as you drop in price. But the Blue microphones are just a fraction cheaper than those other ones. But still pretty good. Anything less than that, anything that you're getting from the dollar store is just going to sound like a potato and a tin can. And it's just not good. And it's not going to make resources that people want to listen to. So we want to get reasonable quality mic. It could be that your institution has some that they can share with you if they don't have a recording studio. Or you may be able to get a grant or some funding to get one. It's certainly a really good investment. The second tip is record somewhere quiet. This can be harder if you're living in a busy city, but as quiet as possible. The next is where we place our microphone. So when we set up a microphone, the further the microphone is from your mouth, the more it's going to lose that sound from your voice. However, if you put your mouth right up to the microphone, It's going to start to blur. And the store, I've got a picture here. I've got the reference down the bottom on Mike technique. And so that's roughly where you want to place the mic as relative to your mouth as best as you can. It may mean that you need a mic stand. If you're working on a desk, maybe you have either a little tripod or even just like some books or something. But being able to set the microphone a good distance is going to make a big difference. The other thing you need to check is what's called the MIC levels. So this is the level of sound input that's coming into your microphone and then into your computer. And different software will do this slightly differently, but will normally see a little green bar of some sort somewhere in the software. As the input gets louder, the green bar will get bigger. If it starts to get close to what we would think of as a danger area, it will go yellow. And when it hits red, then it's problematic. So red is what we end up with what's called clipping. And clipping is where we hear distortion in L audio because the sound was too loud. So the way that we do this is in most software, there will be a little slider where we can adjust the mike level and we wanted as high as possible without ever going into the red. Normally, I would work on the basis that if I said something really loud and enthusiastically, I might just touch the yellow. And I would try to keep Greene, Other than that little bit of a balancing act, we don't want the audio to be too soft, but we want it to, we definitely don't want it to, to distort. If you get more enthused with your audio, then you can start to learn about audio processing. So things like GarageBand on Audacity that I mentioned in an earlier video. They have what's called a compressor. A compressor will balance out the loud bits and the soft bits. So you will sound more consistent. And there's other tips and tricks for making your audio sound nice. But key ones are reasonable quality microphone, microphone fairly close to your mouth but not in it. And getting those Myc levels right. Okay. Next one is our video. So for most things, your phone or your webcam is going to be perfectly adequate. It's not gonna be amazing, but it's going to produce just quite a reasonable video. I'm shooting today on a Canon 5D, which is the entry-level mirrorless Canon camera. It produces a pretty nice image. I'm got a green screen behind me. I made that out so that I appear imbedded in the slides. And so this is probably the next step up. If you already have a nice camera, you might be able to use that perhaps with a lens kind of something like a 15 or an 18 or the one I've got in front of me as a 22 millimeter. To be able to do that. But if you don't want to get carried away with all of that, your phone or your webcam, for most people is gonna be perfectly reasonable. You should think about your recording environment. This includes the background and the choice of clothing. And these might seem obvious. But at one stage I was working for a university. I was helping them to develop online subjects. And we had lectures, go away and record videos. One recorded himself in his bedroom in what appeared to be boxer shorts on and unmade bed with what could best be described as exotic art in the background. And so all of his videos, we just had to say, please do these over. This is not at all appropriate. I don't think you're gonna do that, but certainly think carefully about where you are recording. I had another one that recorded a video. Inspiration struck, and he recorded it in a busy restaurant in Shanghai. And he was on holiday there. He just was at a conference. And it just inspiration struck, recorded the video, and again, it was dark and it was loud. It was not at all appropriate. You wouldn't necessarily have access to a recording studio. But just think about where can I, can I have a nice neutral background and be able to record in a way that is going to look professional. There's no distractions, nothing inappropriate, and so on. In terms of resolutions are getting into quite a technical detail. I would normally go with 1920 by 1080, also known as ten ADP. Although there are monitors now that will do for k, This uses a lot of bandwidth. Tonicity is kind of what your typical YouTube video we'll run it. It's going to be good balance of not being too big, but being clear enough. And so when we're doing things like having a cursor on the screen, It's important that we are clear enough that students can follow the cursor and see what's going on on screen. This is the resolution that I would normally recommend for people. When we're doing a recording, we want to make sure that the resolution map matches up. So if I am recording on a particular resolution and then I'm editing, I need to make sure that if I want my InVideo to be 1080, my initial recording is also 1080. Sometimes you can have funny things where maybe the monitor is an unusual shape. So what can happen? And commonly some laptops have slightly unusual resolutions are by default. So someone might record on a laptop and it might be a slightly different dimensions. And then when we go to edit and create our 1920 by 1080 video, what happens is that there's a little bit of stretching or morphing to fit into that new resolution. And things can just look at a little bit blurry and funny where I say check the recording resolution we want to match up and make sure what we record and what we export and matching. The format is normally not a big deal as an MP4 is probably the most common. But really we just need to check whatever format we are going to be able to play, either in the LMS, if we're putting the video straight into the LMS or into YouTube or Vimeo, any format that's accepted there is going to be fine. Distribution. Youtube and Vimeo, a great local hosting for smaller videos as great as well. This is where checking with whoever it looks after your LMS is going to be a good idea. They will be able to give you some indication on which of these. So YouTube is generally great, but it is going to throw ads in there. And so some places will have a account, so a school account or a university account for Vimeo. And they will put the videos there. Others will just put the videos straight into the LMS instead. I've talked about audio, we've talked about video. Accessibility is really important. There's gonna be requirements for your institution depending on what country you're in and what state you are in, there may be legal requirements as well in terms of the accessibility for your students. But just a few things to think about. And for people who are more used to teaching just in the classroom when they first move to a digital format. So whether it's remote teaching or flipped, and we've got this pre-class material. So whenever we have any kind of video or audio, having subtitles or transcripts is really helpful. Some software will generate this for you automatically, although sometimes you do need to go through and do a bit of a spellcheck. I find that, for instance, skillshare will always miss out my name. I always need to go through and fix that one. Anytime I have images, maybe I have images embedded in the LMS. It's good to have alternate text explaining what that image is. Anytime I produce a PDF file. Making sure that the PDF file is machine readable and not just a scan. So if you ask someone that sits, readings are reading that can be machine read and carried out to people. It's going to be more, it's going to be valuable and useful to someone that maybe instead of reading, maybe they have vision challenges. And so they will be able to use the screen reader on them if it's a scan, they will not. Also really important any third-party materials that we're using thinking about if there's any accessibility issues with those. Okay, So the last thing we're looking at is our LMS or Learning Management System. Often we don't have a lot of control over this. This will be whatever the institution has set and then the IT department may sit restrictions around it. But we should think about it as part of the learning experience. I always think about what does the student user experience? Is it easy for them to navigate? Do I need to provide them with a map or maybe a video that's showing them how to work their way through the LMS. Some are just not very well-designed. It's not your fault. It's just that's how it looks like. They might not know that you need to click on some funny link and then go a couple of links deep to be able to get to particular bits of material. Always check the student view. So with every LMS that I've ever used, I've found that sometimes I will be looking at something as an instructor. And what the students see is actually very different. So always check the Student View. Make sure you check any hyperlinks in any links to external material. Because over time these can change. And so just as part of a good learning experience, all of these working linking to the right things. Normally a student will let you know when LinkedIn working, but sometimes if some of them might just not bother. Really important not to use your LMSs or filing cabinets. So just principles of teaching in general, don't just work a whole lot of PowerPoints and PDFs there. That's not a great experience for the learner. Actually use maybe a little bit of HTML, a little bit of formatting and make it a nice experience for them. Last thing to be aware of and check is compatibility issues. So if you always work on a Mac or you always work on a PC, having either you or someone else check that it works on the other system because sometimes there can be differences. Also checking on a couple of different browsers. So it might be that you recommend particular browsers. You might say, look, please use Firefox or please use Chrome. But it's good to be aware of if particular browsers do create issues. If I'm using Safari or I'm using brave, or maybe I'm using something a little bit more unusual. Am I going to run into issues? Is there someone still using some old Internet Explorer or are they using edge? And it does something a bit funny. So just being aware of those issues is going to really help with problem-solving if you have students run into those troubles. So that is it for this class on flipped teaching. I hope that you've found some valuable ideas in terms of both the teaching process and also the tools that you might choose to use while you're teaching. I produce materials regularly on YouTube for both statistics research and education. I would love to see you over there. And I will be endeavouring to have more of the style of Skillshare course up in the future.