Improve Your SAT Writing Score: A Grammar Boot Camp (Week 2) | Megan McFarland | Skillshare

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Improve Your SAT Writing Score: A Grammar Boot Camp (Week 2)

teacher avatar Megan McFarland, Helping You Get into The Best College!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (42m)
    • 1. Welcome!

    • 2. Apostrophes

    • 3. Commas

    • 4. Dashes

    • 5. Colons

    • 6. SemiColons

    • 7. Pun College Board

    • 8. Next Steps

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About This Class

Are you studying for the SAT? Not sure where to begin? Do you want to improve your score?

Then this class is for you! This course will help you boost your SAT score and get into the college you desire!

This 5 week course includes ALL of the grammar skills you need to ace the SAT Writing section. The second week will introduces you to different punctuation types including

  • Apostrophes
  • Commas
  • Colons
  • Semi-Colons 
  • Dashes 

After introducing you to the punctuation rules, you can practice your skills with previously released exam questions from the College Board!

This course is the best way to get started with the SAT or continue to practice if you've already taken the exam. Take a step to improving your score today!

Meet Your Teacher

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Megan McFarland

Helping You Get into The Best College!


Megan earned her master’s degree in education with an emphasis in math from UC Berkley’s Graduate School of Education. Prior to that, she earned her bachelor’s degree with special distinction in mathematics from UC Santa Barbara. Most recently, Megan has taught at college preparatory schools in Europe and Asia helping prepare students from diverse countries and cultures such as India, Qatar, Malaysia, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates, the UK and the USA apply and gain admission to the most distinguished universities including Harvard and UC Berkley. In her spare time, Megan enjoys learning foreign languages (Spanish, Mandarin, and a bit of Malay) and traveling the globe. Sign your child up of courses or one-on-one support with Megan and have them learn from a well-train... See full profile

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1. Welcome! : this five week course will walk you through all of the grammar rules that you will need to know to do your best on the S a T writing section. Over the last two years, I've helped students apply to US universities and gain acceptance is into UCL, a UC Berkeley, Harvard, Yale and Princeton. I can't wait to start helping you out as well. Within the course, each video will walk you through one grammar concept. Following that, there will be several exercises for you to practice that concept. The exercises can be found in the notes section of skill share. If you click the pin below, it will open up the notes section, which will have all of the links to various exercises. Additionally, towards the end of each week, we will look at college board released exams. I will be asking to pause the video and try these problems yourself to get the most out of this course. Thank you for taking this course. And congratulations on taking the first step to improving your S a T score. I can't wait to see you succeed. What are you waiting for? Click the next video to get started today. Thank you. Goodbye. 2. Apostrophes: welcome to Section two of your s A T writing class. We're going to start looking at punctuation. So this includes commas, Coghlan's posture for use semi colons. Today we'll be looking at apostrophes, so we use apostrophes for two different reasons. The first is to show possession, so to show that something belongs to someone. So this is Megan's house apostrophe on the Megan's. It shows that I possess or the house belongs to me. The second reason we would use an apostrophe is if we have a contraction. Contraction is, or two words smushed together like isn't or can't or don't these air all of contractions and we have that apostrophe. The SEC will never give you a question where you have don't with no apostrophe and don't with a prostitute that's not tested on the S a t. Really. Just we're making sure that we use it correctly when we're talking about possession. The most commonly way this is tested is the word. It's and it's this incomes up all of the time, so we want to be really clear on when we use each one. It's with an apostrophe, as means it is, and sometimes this can be confusing because typically we think first about possession. We think about it belongs to somebody. But it apostrophe s means it is. It is the contraction of it is where as its with no apostrophe means that it possesses something. The dog had a bone. It is it's bone dark possesses it in this and we do not have an apostrophe. The word it's with an apostrophe at the end does not exist. It is not a riel word. Sometimes his answer trace will pop up on the S A. T. And it just confuses everybody because you're like Wait, I've never seen this before. Maybe I have. I can't remember. This is not really Do not true cheese. It does not exist if a word is already plural and it has an s at the end Like the word students in the sentence, it is the student's classroom. There are multiple students and they possess the classroom. So the apostrophe goes after the s. If we have a name that has an s at the end and we're trying to show that it possesses something like this is Lois's car. We still hit apostrophe s at the end because Lois is not plural. So the only time we put that apostrophe at the end or behind the S is when it is plural. There are multiple of them and they possess the thing we're talking about. Another time this comes up is what the words There, there and there. Be very, very careful with these three words. The S A T likes to bring this topic up frequently There with an apostrophe is they are they are going to the store there with an e r e means a place I went there. Uh, there is your coat there with an E. I r. Means it is in their possession. It is their classroom. What last common mistake is who's and who's who apostrophe s means who ISS and who's like whose dog is. This is S E Whose dog is this? Let's look at some ways, the College board has tested this topic by looking at three college board released questions that use apostrophes. This first question is actually testing to topics both ver tenses and apostrophes. So for this question, we can actually get rid of some answer choices by looking out apostrophes. But we cannot fully answer it with just our knowledge on apostrophes. Let's read the sentence. If it is improperly introduced into the environment, Acid way runoff can pollute waterways, depleting the oxygen content of streams and rivers as a decomposes. Okay, that's a very long sentence. So let's take a look at our answer traces if you like. You can pause this video now and try it yourself, and then we'll continue. If we take just the underlying portion of the sentence, it can pollute waterways. That's really the important part here. We can kind of ignore most of the rest of that sentence. Do we have multiple waterways? Are we saying it belongs to the water ways? What are ways with no apostrophe means we have multiple waterways. It can pollute multiple waterways. That is really what we're saying here. We're not saying that the waterways possess anything, so B and D are definitely incorrect without even looking at the other parts of those answer choices. They haven't apostrophe s. We're not saying they possess anything so already we can narrow it down to a and see that helps us out a lot. We're actually not even gonna finish this question together because the other part of this question is testing on room tenses. If you just want to know if you got this question correct. The correct answer is A, however will talk more about verbs and why it is, can and not could have in a different lesson. But already we can use a posture. He's just to narrow down some answers without doing any extra work. Let's look at another question that uses apostrophes these days. Many students majoring in philosophy have no intention of becoming philosophers. Instead, they plan to apply those skills to other disciplines. Go ahead and pause here again. Try this one on your own first and then continue the video. We have multiple students because we're seeing many students. It's not just one studio. In this case, if we have a or D, we would have Onley one student, and we're saying many students, so it has to be either B or C in this question, again, using a prosperous houses, get rid of to answer traces to complete the rest of the sentence. We are being asked once again about verb tenses, which we will talk about more in a firmer lesson in this case, the correct answer for this question is answered. Choice be students Major ring. Let's look at one more question. Like their terrestrial plants, cousin Kelp removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, turning it into sugar, feel through photosynthesis and releases oxygen back into the air. Our answer choices for this question have very different meanings. So we have there, as in possessive. They are. It's as in possessive. And it is so let's read it through with each answer choice, like they are terrestrial plants, cousins. That definitely does not make sense. Same if I did. It is like it is terrestrial plant cousins. This again doesn't make sense. We're not saying they are, or it is. We're actually talking about possession here, and then the thing that is possessing something is kelp, and I'll talk more about how to find out that the thing we're referring to here is kelp. When we talk about pronounce a little bit more, but kelp. It's helped a singular thing or multiple things. Help is as a whole. One thing, though, instead of their here, we will have its like its terrestrial plant cousins. Kelp removes carbon dioxide This is all of the information you'll need to know about apostrophes. Most often the S A T tests apostrophes within other topics like we've seen in these questions. Continue watching the videos to make sure you know how to do those topics as well. Thank you for joining us today. Please try the exercises on your own and I'll see you in the next video by 3. Commas: Hello. Welcome to today's lesson on commas. Commas are tested very frequently on the S A. T. So you want to make sure that you know how to use them properly, and they are also Austin overused. We're going to go through four reasons why you should use a comma when you're working on the S A. T. If it doesn't fall under one of these four reasons, you should not use a combination. Use nothing or you something else. We'll talk about what else you can use later, before you watch his lesson and the other punctuation lessons that follow. If you have not watched the sentence fragments lesson, please go back because we talked about independent and dependent clauses in that lesson. And you will need to know those definitions in order to understand how we can correctly use the punctuation. Just a quick review. So an independent clause is a piece of a sentence that can stand on its own. It is a complete and full sentence. A dependent clause needs the other part of the Suttons in order to be complete. It could not be a full sentence on its own. Our first reason why we would use a comment is probably the most frequently used and the one that is most familiar to you, which is when we use it in a list. If we have the Suttons, I bought carrots, lettuce and chicken at the store. We need to make sure that our commas are separating that list. I bought carrots, comma lettuce, comma and chicken at the store. The S A T does use what is called the Oxford comma. This is that comma before the and it's still debated whether or not we need this comma, the S A T does use it. However, they will never give you two options one without that comma and one with that comments. You really don't need to worry about it too much. Just make sure that your comment is separating the other parts of the list. Our second reason to use a comma is if we have an introductory clause. Let's look at some examples of this when I graduate comma, I am going to move out of my parent's house. So this part when I graduate is an introductory clause. This could be a relative clause of modifier, the ones that we've already talked about before, as long as it introduces our sentence. Another example. After chasing the mouse in the kitchen, comma the tire cat, Drink some water So we've actually looked at the sentence before. This is a modifier, so it introduces what's happening in our sentence. We also need a common there, even though he sprained his ankle comma, he runs every day. All of these examples of using the comment after an introductory clause, Our third reason to use a comment is when we have non essential information. This is information that we can add it to the middle of the sentence that we might not actually need in order to convey the same meaning of that sentence. Let's look an example. Miss Megan, who is shorter than me, is very good at basketball. I don't need the peace who is shorter than me to understand the overall meaning of the sentence. This is called non essential information. It's not critical to the sentence, kind of like adding just another piece in there. Any time we do this, we want to set this apart with two commas on both sides. When we get that double comma, we should be able to cut out that entire middle phrase, and it should still make sense grammatically. Another example of this is cheetahs. The fastest animal in the world are carnivores. I don't need to know that she knows they're the fastest animal in the world to know that they're carnivores, so it is not essential. It is not critical to the meaning of that sentence. I can read it straight through without that middle part. Our third example is incorrect of how to use this rule, so students who study will get good grades. The reason this is incorrect is because the WHO study part of the sentence is actually essential to the meeting. If I just read, students will get good grades. That has a completely different meaning than saying Students who study will get good grades . So I do not want to set that part off with two commas I actually cannot use. Common is in this sentence. Just students who study will get good grades, no punctuation in the middle. There are fourth reason to use a comma is to set apart a transition or interrupting phrase . Our transition words, like therefore, however, for example, if these air in the beginning of the sentence, they should have a comma either right after them or right after the complete introductory phrase like we saw in the even though. Example before, when it is in the middle of a sentence like in the example will look at in a second. We need a common before and after the transition worked. She loves pizza. She is, however, lack toes intolerant. That, however, is an interrupting phrase. It's a transition word, meaning to comment before and after the. However, in the sentence. When her boyfriend wanted her to ride the tallest water slide, it was to her relief closed. We actually have two reasons in here it to use a comma, the first when her boyfriend wanted her to ride the tallest water slide. That is our introductory phrase. We need a comma after that phrase it was, to her relief. To her, relief is a interrupting phrase. It interrupts the flow of that sentence. We need to set it off or send it apart with two commas. These are the four main reasons you will be asked to use a comma. There are two other things, though, that I want to talk about in this video that will really help you use a common correctly every single time. The s a T most often test this topic. When you create a comus place, you do not want a common slice. Akama slice is what in common is in between two independent clauses. This happens incredibly frequently in the sentence. Manila has the worst traffic in the world. The city has a huge population. If I put a comma in between world in the I am creating what's called a comus place. Both parts of the sentence are independent clauses. They can both sit on their own. I could put a period in between those two clauses and it would be perfectly fine. The S A T often gives you the choice of pitting and comma inning sentence like this, which creates his comments place. We cannot ever connect to fully independent clauses with a comma. This is almost always a wrong answer. That they will give you is putting in common like this. Do not use a get rid of it right away. Something that actually really helps students is writing when you are reading these sentences Writing over the top as you read it. This is an I see. It is an independent class. This is a D. C. A defendant class. That means I can put a comma. This is an icy. This isn't I. C. I can't put a comment in between of them. This is really helpful for when you're actually taking her tests as a common practice to make sure you're thinking through Is this an independent? Last is visited headed class. The last thing I want to go through is just what Fanboys is and how to use commas with the Fanboys words. So Fanboys stands for four, and nor but Or yet so. These are words you can used to combine two independent clauses or an independent and dependent clause. Any time you use these words and they connect to independent clauses, you should use a comma before them. I love dogs. That's an independent class. I am allergic to them is also an independent clause. So if I have the sentence, I love dogs. But I am allergic to them. Since both of these are independent. I needed a comma before it. But however, in the sentence I bought rolls for dinner, dinner is not an independent clause, so I don't mean a comma before four. But any time we see one of these Fanboys words and it's connecting to independent clauses, we need a comma between them, as you do the exercises that follow this less. And you should be able to point to the exact role from the Four Rules from talked about. If you can't say this is exactly why there is a comma, then you should not have a common there. Good luck with these exercises. They're challenging. But they're really, really gonna help you with your s city and also with you writing as you're writing your essays, See if you're breaking these common rules, most likely you are, unless you're perfect common user. So try your best on them on. I will see you next time. Thank you so much. Have a lovely day 4. Dashes: Welcome to our next video on punctuation Today we're gonna be talking about how to use a dash. Probably one of the most under used punctuation there is out there. If you haven't already watched the video on commas, please go back thes punctuation videos. Actually, they're really important to watch in order, because I'm not gonna go over. When I talked about last time again in this video, I'm going to use some of the information I talked about there to explain how to use dashes moving on. Let's use dashes correctly. Most students I work with are scared of dashes. They've never seen them before. They don't know how to use them correctly. They're not really often used. But the rules are actually pretty simple on how we're gonna use our dashes. We only got two of our first roll is actually the same as one of the reasons we use a comma , which is to set apart non essential information. Typically, we use it for emphasis in the S a. T. The questions will use the double comma to set apart non essential information in a double dash interchangeably, you can use either one so they won't give you a question. Where? Answer Choice A Has a comma Comment to set apart something non essential. An answer Trees be has a dash dash because those are the same in the eyes of the S a t. Let's look at some examples of some correct dashes. We looked at this sentence last time. Miss Megan, who was shorter than me, is very good at basketball. Before, when we looked at the sentence of first time, we had a comma and a comma. This time we have a dash and dash. We can use them the same way. Cheetahs, the fastest animal in the world are carnivores. Same thing we can use a dash dash. Our role here, though, is we cannot combine the two. We cannot have a comma. Anne dash like in listens Cheetahs comma The fastest animal in the world Dash are carnivals If we have a comma for the first part must have in common For the second part, there are often incorrect answers that have a mix, a common and a dash those air so easy to get rid of right away. Now that you know this rule, our second reason to use a dash is to restate an idea or to add an additional detail in the sentence. The house was full of bins friends Dash, Ross, Cody and Michael. In this sentence, I'm adding an additional detail. I'm telling you the friends names so I can add that dash there. I love the uniqueness of each country I've visited Dash. Each one had a one of a kind culture. So in this sentence, I'm actually basically restating the idea from the first part. It's unique. It has a one of a kind culture. I can use a dash in this way when I use a dash. In this way, the first part of the sentence must be an independent clause. I could have stopped my sentence before the dash, but I decided to add an additional detail or to restate what I've already said. Looking back at the examples we just looked at, let's make sure this is true. The house was full of Ben's friends. I could in that sentence right there. It is complete. It is an independent clause. Any time we're checking, if we can use a dash in this way, we have to make sure that first part is an independent clause. That's it. Those There are two rules to set apart on essential information and to add an additional detail or restating idea towards the end of a sentence. Those there are two reasons to use a dash. Please don't be afraid of them. They're really not that bad. I promise you there are no exercises for dashes within this lesson. However, when we look at the college for questions at the very end of the section, that will will be plenty of examples for you to look through. Thank you so much for watching this video. I am so proud of you for making it this far. Please continue to watch a video so you can improve your s a T score. Thank you. And have a great day by 5. Colons: Hello Today we will be continuing with our punctuation. We will be looking at the colon today, so colons are often misused very, very frequently misuse. So please make sure you can use it correctly. If you have not watched the other two punctuation videos on commas and dashes, please go back because I will be referencing some things from those videos. We have only one reason why you have primarily used a colon on the S a T, and it's actually the same reason as we would use our dash from our previous lesson so we can use a colon to add an additional detail or restate an idea. Let's look at our examples from the past lesson, but now the Hama colon instead of eight dash The house was full of Ben's friends. Colon, Ross, Cody and Michael in this sentence were adding an additional detail. We're telling you the name of bins friends so we can use a colon or a dash here in our in second sentence, Manila has the worst traffic in the world. The city has a huge population, were restating an idea or adding an additional detail were basically telling the reader why the traffic is so bad, the incorrect way to use a colon. But I see students use all of the time is when you do not have that independent clause in front of the Collins there, just like when we use the dash. In this form, we have to have a complete sentence that can stand on its own as the first part of the sentence. An incorrect example would be the sentence. The scariest animals are colon, spiders, snakes and bears. So people often say that you can use a colon to signify that a list is about to come. This is only true when the first part of the sentence is complete. It is independent to correct this sentence. We actually don't need any punctuation here. The scariest animals are spiders, snakes and bears. That's it. That's the only way we would use a colon is to add an additional in detail or restate and idea. Not so bad. I hope for this lesson as well. There are no unique exercises, However, We will practice this when we look at those college work questions at the end of the section. Thank you. I hope you feel a little more comfortable using some dashes in some cola's. They're really not as bad as people think. I swear. Give them a chance. Okay, Have a great day. And I will see you in the next video. Thank you. Goodbye. 6. SemiColons: Welcome back. Today we will be looking at semi colons. Semi colons are one of the easiest punctuation is to you because they are exactly like a period. For the most part, a semi colon connects to independent clauses to complete sentences. You can fit in my colon in there. If you could put in a period, you could bet a semi colon instead. As long as the two sentences are connected, Ideas can't be talking about two separate complete things. But the S A T will never give you a question where one answer choice is a period. And the second answer choice is aged in my colon. They are considered fairly equal, interchangeable on the S A T. So if you read a question and you think I could better period there but that's not an answer choice. You're gonna pick this in my colon. So, Michael, and should be to complete sentences. Let's look at some examples. Baseball is my favorite sport. However, I am not very good at it. These two could be complete sentences on their own, but they are connected ideas. So I could also pick a said Michael in there. I also need that comment after, However, because I got that transition word. Our second example. Manila has the worst traffic in the world. The city has a huge population. We looked at this example before with a colon in between it because it is a restatement of the previous idea. However, these two sentences air also complete sentences. They're independent clauses so I can connect them using that semicolon. That's it. That's all you need to know for semicolons. Fastest video ever. I have a challenge for you, which is to go into your essay that you have written before. And look at all the punctuation you're using and think about. Could I use a different piece of punctuation here? Can I use a dash instead of whatever you got in there right now? Could I put a semicolon here? Am I using way too many comments? Because usually people are no exercises for this video. We will look at all of our punctuation so far in our next video where we pull some college board questions. Thank you. Have a great day by 7. Pun College Board: Welcome back. I'm so excited to start looking at some punctuation as a t questions. Yeah, we can do this. So I highly recommend when you are doing these practice questions. If you haven't already printed off the copy of the punctuation work, she it is great to use next to you as your check because you can look straight at the rules . You can see. You know, am I using a common for this reason this reason this reason? No, none of them. I don't need a car, mother. So it's a great resource to use. Please print it off and start thinking about how you'll go through the rules without the list on the actual exam. As you go through this video, please remember to stop and try out each question as you go before I explain the answer traces. This is really gonna help you to know what you need to improve on what you need. Some more practice on if you're getting them right and she'll do where Well, on the exam. Let's get started. Question one. On one hand, I couldn't wait to view painter Georges swats 10 foot wide a Sunday afternoon on the island of look gratia got a in its full size. I apologize because I know that I said both of those names Drug. But that's okay. I don't need to pronounce them correctly to make sure you get it right on the S a t. Let's decide. Here. Do I mean these comments? What's going on here? One thing you can do to help you in this question is to underline what is different in each answer. Choice. Sometimes it's hard to tell with punctuation, cause it's so small. Let's look at each answer Trace No change has a comma after a painter and a calmer after the name B has just the comma after painter See has just a comma after the name Andy has no commas in this question where you don't have a list. We don't have any transition words we need to figure out. Is this name non essential information. It is the painter's name. It is actually crucial for the sentence. I couldn't wait to view his exact painting, so I don't need any comments. I don't want to set it apart. It is essential to the meaning. It is not something that I should be able to just cut out. And actually, if I read it without the name, I couldn't cut it out. I couldn't wait to view painter 10 foot wide a Sunday afternoon. It should not be surrounded by commas because that indicates that it is non essential. Information are correct. Answer here is deep. No Commons. We don't want to set it apart. It is not an introductory phrase. It is essential information. I cannot read the sentence three without it. All of those reasons tell me it's answer choice. D. Let's look at our second question. It took me by surprise. Then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of its tiniest the thorn miniature rooms we should be asking ourselves. I see a semi colon. Is it independent clauses? The first part is an independent clause. The Thorin miniature rooms. Not a full sentence. It is a dependent clause. I cannot use a semicolon here that gets rid of industries A and B. If I am using a common here, it has to be you for one of those four reasons. It is not a list. It is not a transition. It is not non essential information is none of these things. We cannot use a common here. We should have a colon because we're adding an additional detail. We're adding the name of the exhibit The Thorn Miniature Rooms. But Jason Box and associate professor of geology at Ohio State believes that another factory added to the early thought. The darks. No problem if I have answer choice. A. But Jason Box is treating that peace as an introductory clause that peace is not an introductory closet. Just I introduce anything if I have the Kama just at the inn for answer choice be. But Jason Box, an associate professor of geology at Ohio State Common, believes that that again is treating that piece as sort of an introduction to the sentence , which isn't what we want to stay here. We really actually are saying that this peace in the middle is not essential. I can read this sentence without it's not critical to the meaning. But Jason Box believes that another factor added to the early thought. I could cut that piece out and still keep the meaning of that sentence, which means I want that double comma, so we are going to choose answer tree See which is the double comma Answer trees. De also has a double comma, but it it doesn't cut out all of the non essential information. It only cuts out part of it. Looking at that same sentence, we also wanted to decide Do I need the semicolon? Afterthought. So semicolon we use when it is to complete independent classes or the dark snow problem is not an independent class. It is a D. C. I highly recommend writing it above this as you do the test, we cannot have a semicolon there that gets rid of industries A and B because and it waas the dark snow problem is also not a complete sentence. It starts with the word and if we want to use a colon, we're adding an additional detail, which is what we're doing here. We're adding the name of the problem. Colon, the darks. No problem. That's fine. See? Works really well. De also could work, but we don't need the word being. And if you watch the video about the five best ways to improve your city writing score, I talked about using the word being and how much the S a t hates it. So we're gonna get rid of an straight D. It is answer choice. See, over time I have gotten to know several of my co working colleagues, another website developer, a graphic designer, a freelance writer in several mobile app coders. The first thing I want to ask myself this question is, Is each part an independent clause? That first part I'm gonna right on top. I see it is independent. The second part is a list of things. It is not independent. It is D. C. Therefore, I cannot have a cynical and I could sort of answer trace be also, I need some type of punctuation there because it would be a run on sentence. Without it, it needs something and specifically it needs a colon because just like one of our colon examples, it is adding an additional detail. These are the colleagues that I have met. This is what they do. Answer Choice. A know change plan on Insulin's a practice and which products are designed to have a limited period of usefulness has been a cornerstone of manufacturing strategy for the past 80 years. In this sentence, I'm hoping you're starting to see that you could read this all the way through without that middle part planned obsolescence has been a cornerstone of manufacturing. That middle part is just defining what planned obsolescence is. So it is not essential. So I can use either a comma, comma or a dash dash to set it apart from the rest of the sentence. Be super careful because this is one where they gave you in Citrus. Be where you have a comment, the beginning and a dash at the end. We have to pair them up together. So if I have planned obsolescence, comma, I need usefulness. Comma answer Trees A is are correct. Answer here. Indeed, when we think about animals depicted in well known works of art, the image of dogs playing poker popularized in a series of paintings by American artists Ian Coolidge may be the first and only one that comes to mind. I have bells going off when I see a dash earlier in the sentence. If I already have a dash there, you bet that psycho what is also going to be a dash. It is not a central information. I can read it without that middle part the image of dogs playing poker, maybe the first and only one that comes to mind, not a central information, have to have comma comma dash dash Answer Straight B gives us that second dash. The spaces are usually stocked with standard office equipment such as photocopiers, printers and fax machines. This is one of the most common ways I see a colon misused is after the words such as Remember when we talked about Collins? That first part has to be an independent clause. In this case, it's not. We can not use a colon here gets rid of Choice, B and C. We are left with either having in common before and after, such as or just before, such as does not act as a transition or an interrupting phrase. It does not need to be set apart from the rest of the sentence, so we only need the comma before it. Equipment common, such as photocopies we wouldn't take a pause after such as if I were reading it aloud, either. I don't need that second common. Therefore, the answer is a because consumers reap the nutritional benefits of Greek yogurt and support those who make and sell it. Therefore, farmers and businesses should continue finding safe and effective methods for producing the food. If I have therefore using our common rules, it must have a comma before and after. If it is in the middle of a sentence, we can get rid of answer choice. A. Let's see of both parts aren't independent clauses because consumers read the nutritional benefits of Greek yogurt and support those who make and sell it. That part isn't a complete sentence. It's not independent. It starts with because and then it doesn't give the other cause of the because Because consumers reap the benefits, farmers and businesses should continue finding safe methods. So this cause and effect we need both parts if we have the word, because in our sentence we're using and Colon, we have to have an independent clause before that colon. That's not what's happening here. Both of them are dependent clauses. I don't need a comma before. So, looking at our Fanboys rule, we only need a common before our fan voice words. If both parts are complete sentences, these are not complete sentences that gets rid of answer choice, see, so we're left with answer trace be. That's the only one that makes sense with the punctuation were using. But also if we actually read it all the way through, we already said because so we don't need, therefore and we don't need. So in the exercises portion of this lesson, I have given you a few more questions you can go through to help improve your punctuation usage for the S A T. I hope by now you feel a little bit more confident using the correct punctuation for the exam. Thank you so much and keep practising. Keep it ups and I promise you will see improvement. Thank you. Good bye. 8. Next Steps: congratulations on completing the S A T punctuation course, hoping by now that you have a solid understanding of the punctuation used and tested on the S a T, and that you have conquered those semi colons. And those dash is the most under used punctuation there is, as you continue to study for the S a T. Please look at my resource is guide, which has all of the books that I think are the most useful for studying for the S a. T. In my last three years of prepping students for this exam, they're the ones that are most closely aligned to the test. Good luck on your exam. I wish you the best. Please check out my other courses on. You know me, I'm crazily building a few war. As you finish up this course, please rate the chorus whether you liked it or not. I'm always trying to make improvements to this course. So your feedback is crucial and important to me and helpful for other students who are thinking about taking this course. Thank you so much. Have a great day