Improve Your Communication Skills with the Dell Hymes Speaking Model Framework | Mary Daphne | Skillshare

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Improve Your Communication Skills with the Dell Hymes Speaking Model Framework

teacher avatar Mary Daphne, I empower you to communicate confidently

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction to the Dell Hymes Speaking Model Framework


    • 2.

      Module 1: Scene & Setting


    • 3.

      Module 2: Participants


    • 4.

      Module 3: Ends


    • 5.

      Module 4: Act Sequence


    • 6.

      Module 5: Key


    • 7.

      Module 6: Instruments


    • 8.

      Module 7: Norms


    • 9.

      Module 8: Genre


    • 10.

      Module 9: Putting it All Together


    • 11.

      Module 9: When Scene is Missing


    • 12.

      Module 9: When Participants are Missing


    • 13.

      Module 9: When End is Missing


    • 14.

      Module 9: When Act Sequence is Missing


    • 15.

      Module 9: When Key is Missing


    • 16.

      Module 9: When Instruments are Missing


    • 17.

      Module 9: When Norms are Missing


    • 18.

      Module 9: When Genre is Missing


    • 19.

      Module 10 : Communicating Across Cultures


    • 20.

      Module 11: Communicating in Virtual Spaces ED


    • 21.

      Dell Hymes Speaking Model Final Thoughts


    • 22.

      Dell Hymes Speaking Model Conclusion


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About This Class

There's no magic formula for effective communication, yet the Dell Hymes SPEAKING Model exists.

Speaking up in various social settings is now more apparent than ever with this communication framework.

  1. Do you wonder how to alter your communication based on the social situation?
  2. Are you unsure of how to navigate professional vs. casual settings?
  3. Are you unsure of how to communicate with people from various cultures?
  4. Do you want more power over your communication outcomes?

If you answered a resounding YES! to any of these questions, then our Dell Hymes SPEAKING Model course is for you.

It is chockful of original insights and powerful, actionable strategies to equip you for success.

You'll find this course valuable if you match ANY of the following criteria:

  • You want to communicate in a relaxed and confident way, regardless of the social situation
  • You want better communication outcomes in your personal and professional life
  • You want to communicate more effectively in different languages and with different cultures
  • You want to reduce your social anxiety
  • You want to express yourself more effectively in online interactions

The best part is, I've done all the work for you! Now all you have to do is apply the framework to your social situations.

You'll notice a dramatic difference by implementing this SPEAKING framework in your interactions at work and home. When communicating, your confidence levels will increase, you'll earn more respect from the people you speak with, and you'll get better responses from people you encounter.

This course is for you if you are committed to supercharging your communication skills.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mary Daphne

I empower you to communicate confidently


Mary Daphne is CEO and Co-Founder of Explearning and Advanced English, two platforms for developing personal and professional social skills and English communication.

With an Ed.M in Applied Linguistics, Mary Daphne has over a decade of experience working in cross-cultural corporate communications as well as television and live broadcasting. She loves exploring the intersection of language, culture, and social interaction.

Alongside her corporate engagements, Mary Daphne has spent the last decade designing social skills, public speaking, cross-cultural communications, and business communications courses. Her lessons leverage technology, empirical research, and data-backed teaching methodologies to produce high-value outcomes for her students and clients.

Mary D... See full profile

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1. Introduction to the Dell Hymes Speaking Model Framework: Welcome to this course. Do you ever wonder how to communicate so that people will listen? How do you speak, so that you increase the chances of getting the outcome that you desire. How do you speak so that your communication partner is receptive to what you're saying. We answer all of these questions and more. In this Dell hims speaking model web course. In this course, you'll learn the ins and outs of this amazing communication framework. To improve your communication skills, you'll be able to apply it to different communication settings and two different cultural contexts for both business interactions as well as casual communication. The speaking model, which is a pneumonic, meaning each letter stands for a word, was developed by the sociolinguist del hims to analyze speech events in social interaction, the speaking model is part of an ethnography of speaking. We can utilize this tool to communicate better, understand interpersonal relationships, decode power dynamics in groups and speech communities, and discover important insights on cultural values. The beauty of this model is its versatility. It can be applied in any communication settings so that you can speak as efficiently and effectively as possible. We will be doing a deep dive with each of the eight components that comprise the speaking framework. And to solidify the concepts, I'll be giving you concrete examples of each component, drawing both from business and casual contexts. In a nutshell, the speaking model teaches us how to communicate. By mastering the eight components of the speaking model, we can maximize the effectiveness of our interactions with other human beings. This is a framework for everyone. It helps both the native speakers and non-native speakers alike. While most native speakers might know intuitively how to communicate based on the situation, there are still a number of people who would benefit from knowing this model and applying it to their own social interactions. With that said, you will find this web course valuable if any of the following apply. You want to become sharper, more effective communicators socially and in the workplace. You want to think and speak on your feet. You sometimes feel socially awkward in social situations and conversation. And you want to remedy that you are a non native English speaker who wants to communicate smoother, more fluently and native-like, whether it be for work or for fun. If any of these skills are important to you, you found the right course. What are you waiting for? Jump into the next lesson to get started with your mastery of the Dell hims speaking model. 2. Module 1: Scene & Setting: Module One, S for scene and setting. The first component of the Dell Heim speaking model is about the scene and setting of the speech event. You can think of this as the actual physical location of where you find herself, but scene and setting can also refer to virtual settings. Think about an online video call where you are engaging in a professional activity, such as a business meeting or interview. The setting would be the virtual realm regardless of your physical location. Whether it's physical or virtual, think about the following. In what setting are you communicating? What's the context? Try to engage the five senses for the location the interaction is taking place in. Even if you aren't physically there. How does it smell? At a bakery? It could smell of pastries and butter. At a coffee shop, there might be a strong sense of coffee. Are your taste buds engaged in any way? Are you eating or drinking something? Are you holding a warm beverage? How does the mug feel in your hand? How does eating and drinking affect your ability to communicate? Do a body scan. What emotions are running through you at a cafe with friends, you might be nibbling on a croissant and drinking a warm matcha green tea latte. In this setting, you are at ease, feeling calm and relaxed as you catch up with your friends. But now, let's change the setting. Let's instead say you're having an interview at a cafe. You order a coffee, but you are so nervous that you barely touch it. In this context, you're not really at a cafe. Instead, in your mind, your location is an interview. The fact that the interview is taking place in a cafe is secondary because you are so focused on acing the interview. So as you can see in some ways, scene and setting can even be a state of mind. The things we do in a setting, for instance, eating a pastry at a cafe, anchor us to our location. It reminds us of the environment that we're in. This is important because it helps us understand how to communicate in a way that's appropriate for the context. For example, are you in a business setting, a casual setting, a neutral setting? A business setting could be an office or a boardroom. There, you know, the communication protocol will be more reserved, professional, and polished, perhaps even distant. In a casual setting, you might be in a T salon, your home, or at a friend's house. Those settings would set a more casual tone where you feel more relaxed, friendly, and at ease. Then there is a neutral setting. It could be either business-like or casual, depending on your intention. For instance, we tend to think of a coffee shop as being more casual. However, if you're doing an interview there or have a business lunch, then it immediately sets a more professional tone. So to wrap this section up, remember, scene and setting provide important information for how you will be communicating during that interaction. This is particularly important in virtual settings, where the setting is dictated more by the context or purpose of the online interaction rather than the physical location of your computer. 3. Module 2: Participants: Module two, P for participants. The second component of the Dell hi, I'm speaking model is participants. The participants are the individuals who are engaged in the conversation when you're speaking to someone, you and that other person are the participants. We can also refer to participants as interlocutors, conversation partners, and listeners. In a business meeting, the participants usually tend to be clients, colleagues, potential clients, shareholders, employers, employees, HR professionals, work friends, mentors, people you meet at networking events. People you do business with, venture capitalists, et cetera. In casual settings. Participants can include friends, family, acquaintances, comrades, etc. Generally speaking, they're people you already know well and share a close bond with. Importantly, participants can also refer to potential future communication partners, meaning people with whom you are about to engage in conversation but have not yet. For example, at a networking event, there are many potential communication participants that you might interact with. While potential participants aren't technically participants. Until you interact with them, you can proactively incorporate them into your speaking model to ensure a better conversation when you do eventually interact accordingly, this component of the speaking model requires that you carefully think about the people with whom you are speaking before engaging in conversation or during social interaction, tried to learn as much information about the participants as possible. This will help establish rapport. And rapport is in fact central to the participants component of the speaking model. Rapport is what creates familiarity and enables us to have a good opinion of the person. And they, us, it is what encourages us to keep cultivating that relationship or friendship. Rapport is the sense of fondness that you have for the person and they have for you. Just think of how much more enjoyable it is to have a conversation with someone you like rather than someone you don't like very much. The former can make it challenging to find what to talk about the ladder, facilitate smooth communication that's effortless and flowing. So similar to setting, participants is critical for setting the appropriate tone for a successful conversation. 4. Module 3: Ends: Module three, e Firenze. The third component of the Dell hi, I'm speaking model is ends. What are the ends with regard to a conversation? Ends refers to the goals or objectives of the conversation. Why are you having this conversation in the first place? What do you hope to get out of it? What outcome do you want after having that conversation or exchange of information? What is the main point you'd like to get across? What do you hope to learn from the participant or the speech act that you're engaged in. For example, if you're in a lecture, the end is to learn from the professor who is imparting their knowledge to you. If you're in a business meeting about arrays, the end could be that you convince your boss to give you a raise. If you're giving a sales pitch for a potential client, the end could be securing the client because they loved your sales pitch. Put simply to understand ends. Think about the reason you're having this conversation or engaging someone in an exchange. The reason or purpose of the communication is the outcome you hope to achieve. This is the overarching goal of that specific social interaction. Sometimes ends are stated clearly. For example, at a meeting, someone might hand you a piece of paper with the agenda written in bullet points. This is when the purpose of the meeting or conversation is implicitly stated. In most other cases, it's less obvious and you'll need to decode the ends by paying attention to the other elements of the speaking model framework. Or if you're delivering the message, you need to be crystal clear about what you want to communicate. This is why having a mental outline in your head enabling you to think before you speak is so powerful. It forces you to have a goal in mind, the end, and build your case for that argument. Points by points. In a meeting that you have every week for work, it's rather obvious that the ends are to stay informed about the team's progress on projects, to learn about any issues that week, and to cover any other business that has to do with a team or projects being worked on. Essentially, it's a team wide check-in, but in a meeting that gets called out of the blue with no agenda, circulate it ahead of time. It might not be as clear what the ends are. And that can be problematic because you end up with a disorganized meeting that waste everyone's time. Just think about how many meetings you've attended where you leave, scratching your head, thinking. Now, what was that all about? Or mid meeting you contemplate, what's the point of this meeting. The ends might be also clear when you send a calendar invite and share the subject of the meeting. Otherwise, if non specified than people might have to derive the ends for themselves, which would be less ideal. There are different ways of learning the purpose behind the communication exchange. You can be explicitly told what the purpose is, either directly through spoken words or indirectly through a calendar invitation or email Slack notification. But you could also implicitly understand the ends. When the ends are implicit during or after engaging in the conversation, you will deduce the outcome of the meeting or communication based on what is being said, how it's being communicated, and by whom the message is being relayed. As we discussed though, this can be sub-optimal given that it could lead to confusion. So as a savvy communicators, you know the importance of defining the ends in communication. When you speak, share a message, hold a meeting, and anytime you want to get your point across, you can be explicit about the ends. If you're not sure how to address the ends in a specific situation, try answering the question. Why are we taking the time to interact here? That will help guide you towards getting to the overall point of the interaction. To further illustrate ends, Let's run through a few more examples in both business and casual settings. In an interview, when you share your elevator pitch and answer, tell me about yourself. The purpose is to get hired. Your goal is to come across as professional, likable and as a good fit for the company. So the ends in this situation is to pass the interview with flying colors and ultimately get offered a job at that company. If your boss calls you into their office unexpectedly and you're not sure what they want. The end of this communication situation is to discover what your boss needs from you based on their tone of voice, body language, and word choice, you can quickly decipher what the end is. Note though, that in this case the end could be different for the other participant. After all, your end is to figure out what your boss needs. Whereas your boss's end could be a specific task like preparing a client pitch or analyze the performance of a recent product launch. So the ends of the participants could be slightly different at the outset. But often, once the participants had a chance to interact, the n's converge on a single purpose or shared understanding. Now, let's look at an example. In a casual setting, you call a friend up out of the blue. For you. The purpose of that call is to invite them to your house warming party. When they picked up. Their purpose was to hear how things were going and to see if you got settled into your new apartment. So in this instance, the purpose of the conversation is different for each participant. Though it's worth noting that the ends do probably converge on catching up with each other. Let's now say that you and your friend meet in-person for no specific reason other than to hang out. In this scenario, you implicitly have shared ends with the purpose of catching up. While you might not have particular news that you want to share with each other during the course of the conversation, you will share information organically as one does with friends. And thus, even though it was not explicitly stated, the purpose could be to cultivate the bond between you and your friend. Another informal example for ends is when a friend or sibling calls you to vent about something that happened at work, the end for them is to get what bothers them off their chest. The end for you is to calm them down and remind them how great life is. In both of these casual cases, the agenda is implicit rather than explicit. And that's okay in a casual setting. After all, the goal in most cases is really just to spend time with one another and enjoy each other's company which don't require a specific agenda. 5. Module 4: Act Sequence: Module for a, for Act sequence. The fourth component of the Dell hi, I'm speaking, model is act sequence. The sequence is the order or flow of the conversation. In clear communication, there is a sequential order to how we convey our thoughts. If our message is out-of-order, then it can cause miscommunication, confusion, or chaos. By contrast, when communication respects the rules of the sequence, it runs smoothly. Have you ever heard of the phrase complement sandwich? This is a structure for providing constructive feedback or criticism, where you could send which a criticism between two compliments. So in this sequence of a compliment sandwich, we would first deliver a complement to the person, followed by the criticism, and then end with another complement so that the exchange can end on a high note, that flow is act sequence. What if we didn't follow the ACK sequence here? Suppose we started right out of the gate with a criticism. We could hurt the recipients feelings and cause them to not properly internalize our feedback. After all, when people become defensive, they become much less receptive to conflicting ideas. It is important to respect the act sequence. But the sequence often isn't as explicit as it is in a compliment sandwich. More often, there is an unwritten rule about the logical and sensical flow to the conversation. People who seem to magically be better communicators typically have a very good feel for this, whereas people who struggle with communication generally have trouble creating a logical act sequence. Interestingly, your state of mind can have a big impact on your ability to form a proper Act sequence. In particular, if you listen to someone who loses their temper, you might find their words stopped making sense. This is because their anger is disrupting their ability to think clearly, produce the correct ordering of thoughts. If you've heard the phrase, to lose your train of thought, that's exactly what is happening here. The train represents the act sequence. On the other hand, if you listen to an expert discuss a topic that they are intimately familiar with and passionate about. You might find they can produce a beautifully crafted explanation of complicated concepts with crystal clarity simply because they have such a deep understanding of what it is they're talking about if we are unaware of the acts sequence in a given scenario. And effective strategy is to follow the lead of the person who is the authority figure or main speaker. This authority figure could be a boss who's leading a meeting, or a hiring manager who's conducting the interview, the professor holding a lecture or a moderator running the panel. If you are the one speaking and you find you are losing control of the act sequence. Don't be afraid to pause and reorient yourself and the people listening to you. You might also periodically check for comprehension to ensure everyone is on the same page. If something is out-of-order, it might not be a big deal provided that the person in charge is able to get things back on track. But if they are unable to, then chaos and confusion can ensue, which often results in miscommunication and in worst-case scenarios, conflict. Let's now have a look at a few examples of Acts sequence in action. In a business meeting, you first start with greeting everyone, then you move on to handing out the agenda or stating the purpose of the meeting. So people know why there's a meeting, then the person who called the meeting will share their remarks or concerns. Afterwards, they open the floor to questions, feedback, or other comments people may have. Once everyone's voice is heard, you can allocate some time to any other business or a. B if a topic needs to be discussed but wasn't on the meeting agenda, there a chance for people to voice those concerns, then end with a final wrap-up. You remind people that the meeting minutes will be emailed and they can follow up with any additional questions or concerns. Finally, you close the meeting up by giving a positive word of encouragement. Do you see how nicely this meeting flows? It's structured, yet it also leaves some room for spontaneity because when you open the floor to the other members, they can speak their mind freely. You don't know what they're going to say, but the majority of the time people will stay on topic. However, with spontaneous speaking, there is always a chance that people will veer away from the topic. If anyone gets off track, the person in charge of the meeting can gently remind people the purpose of this meeting and ask them to hold off on that topic until the any other business portion of the meeting. Since in this scenario we have a clear act sequence to enforce smooth interactions, we ensure a high likelihood of a productive meeting. Of course, there can be some variance within how one holds a meeting, but the key to success is a well-thought-out act sequence that is properly enforced. Now, let's take a look at an example of Acts sequence. In an interview. During an interview, the hiring manager might start off with some small talk. This is designed to warm up the conversation. It sets both parties at ease. It also begins building rapport between the hiring manager and the interviewee. Then the hiring manager will move on to asking questions about the candidate. This is often some form of tell me about yourself. Then they'll proceed to assess the skills that qualify you for the job. When they've run through all of their questions, they'll ask you if you have any questions for them. Of course, it would be wise for you to come prepared with questions and you'd pose them at that time. Finally, there is a moment where you thank them for their time. And after your interview, you send a thank you email and allude to next steps or a follow-up. This is a typical act sequence of an interview. In this case, breaching the act sequence could be disruptive to the interview. For example, you wouldn't typically ask your questions at the beginning of the interview. After all, it is you who is being interviewed. And they have specific territory that they want to cover in a limited amount of time, disregarding that might come across as inconsiderate. Now, let's look at a more casual example. When you haven't seen a friend for several months, you probably would not start by telling them something upsetting or emotional that could come across as too abrupt and unpleasant. Instead, you would probably start by asking how the other person is and proceed to give a recap of the last few months since last seeing each other. Then you might talk about something more recent or some exciting news like a promotion and engagement, a baby on its way, or some other happy news. After all of that, you might finally drift into something sad or frustrating. Now that the conversation is sufficiently fluid and the participants are fully engaged and ready to discuss heavier subjects with casual conversations, the order of the acts sequence might not be as strict or structured as a business meeting or interview. However, there should still be a clear beginning, middle, and end. Most of the best conversations tend to have a distinct ACK sequence to them. Speaking of stories, you can think of successful storytelling as another example of sequence in a story. We've got a very clear picture of the beginning, middle, climax, denouement, and end. If a story is told out of order or the punchline is given away too soon, the story loses its effect on listeners and doesn't properly convey the message or moral of the story. A good story that follows the act sequence rule also incorporates small tangents or comedic asides that provide a brief rest for the listeners and help recenter them on what comes next. A natural storyteller knows when and how to pepper those gems into the story. 6. Module 5: Key: Module five, K for key. The fifth component of the Dell hi, I'm speaking model is key, like the key and music key in the speaking model refers to the tonality of a conversation. What kind of vibes are you getting from the conversation? What vibes or you, yourself imbuing in the conversation? Are they pleasant vibes or not so pleasant vibes? And when we dive a little deeper, key has three distinct components. First, we have the tone of the conversation as a whole, which represents the general overall sentiment of the discussion. Then we have the tone of the individual participants, which might be noticeably different from each other. And finally, we have the spirit of the conversation, which refers to the intended feel of the conversation that the speakers aspire for it to strike. All of this combined together makes the key as social creatures, we pick up on the key rather quickly. Humans are intuitive with social interactions, especially if we open our intent and allow ourselves to tap into this ancient software. Remember, we once lived in tribes with only grunts and body language to communicate. So we needed to be really attuned to the tone and intention of others. Not every instance of communication has a unique key. For example, expressing sympathy and apologizing will have a similar key. Tones of voice, spirit and manner will be similar in both speech acts. That said, apologizing and complementing will have very different keys. What would complementing be similar to? Probably congratulating someone? So if you think of the general nature and vibe of the speech act, you'll know what key to use. Again, we'll be able to do this naturally if we're paying attention. If you are not sure what key is required in that particular speech act, then follow the speakers, lead. If they are joyful, be joyful. If they're subdued, be subdued. If they've turned serious, suddenly, you turn serious with them. Match their tone. Use similar pacing and use similar volume. Pay attention to their nonverbal cues. Mirror their body language, facial expressions and gestures. If you don't know what key is appropriate for the given speech act, you'll find your answers and how the speaker, as well as other participants are behaving or reacting. There is something important to note here. However, there could be an outlier. For example, if there is a meeting and people tend to be mellow and professional, but one person is enraged and has an outburst. Be sensible about whose key you're going to match. Are you going to match the outliers key or the rest of the group? Probably the rest of the group. Of course, every situation merits its own examination and treatment. But if you are uncertain how to behave, look for the leader and subsequently the group. If your goal is to strengthen the existing vibe of the conversation, just try to match the key of the other participants. Or conversely, if your goal is to disrupt the vibe, which is sometimes important, if you find others are being complacent, you can adopt a distinctly different key than the group to catch their attention. Now, let's take a look at a few examples of key inaction. Your boss tells you solemnly that they have some unfortunate news to share. You immediately adopt a more concern tone and slow your pace of speech and quiet your body language. You're picking up on what key to adopt based on the behavior of your boss. Or imagine you're in an interview. The hiring manager speaks with excitement in their voice. Using big animated gestures and appears jovial. You want to match that tone to indicate that you feel their excitement and are on the same page. Or imagine you're in a meeting and it's your first day on the job, you haven't had the opportunity to meet anyone other than your supervisor. You observe how the others are behaving, reacting, speaking, How were they comport themselves? What body language are they using to enhance their verbal communication or they goofy or serious? Are there any outliers in the room? Why is there an outlier? How do the others treat that outlier? Before you know the personalities of each communication participant, there is still a lot of information that you can glean from the situation. Your job is to remain alert, ears and eyes open, be receptive to changes in key and follow up with the key that feels most appropriate at that given moment. And of course, whatever key you choose always remained respectful to all participants, even the outliers. Now, let's look at a casual example. If you noticed you're usually Pepe friend, seems to be speaking slower and in deeper tones than usual. That sets you on alert. You notice they're nonverbal communication also looks off kilter. At this point. You know that there's something wrong. You can tell all of this without them even saying a word to you. This is because you are a tuning yourself to their key, which in this case is nonverbal. This example is testament to the fact in social interaction. So much can be conveyed through tone of voice and nonverbal communication. We must not overlook how much information we can glean from body language and gestures. Now let's look at a completely different example where a friend who's usually rather subdued and quiet is extremely expressive using big gestures, you even notice there's a PEP in their step. They are speaking louder than usual and also using a quicker pace. You know that this red is excited about something. And that's just what you've gathered from the key, the key of the conversation. And their key is also what's going to make you stop and think and decide how you'll proceed with the rest of the conversation. In both business and casual contexts. A good general rule of thumb is to try to match the other person's k0. Through this type of mirroring, we can fortify our connection and rapport with the other participants. 7. Module 6: Instruments: Module six, I instruments. The sixth component of the Dell hi, I'm speaking model is instruments. Instruments refers to our communication style and language forms that we use to communicate. It also includes the registers, meaning the level of formality in the conversation. In linguistics, the register we use is inextricably linked to the setting and location we find ourselves in, as well as to the participants. For example, if we are at Buckingham Palace taking an audience with the queen, we will be using a formal register. It would be very different from being at home, watching movies with our best friends. According to Martin juice, there are five kinds of registers used in social interaction. Frozen and static register, formal register, consultative register, casual register, and intimate register. Let's take a closer look at each the frozen or static register. The frozen or static register refers to language that is not intended to change. Think of the language of holy texts, prayers, constitutions, historical texts, and documents. The wording and verbiage of these texts will remain the same. Throughout time. It will not be altered and it will not be changed. For example, the Bible, the Torah, the Koran, the Bhagavad, Gita, the Constitution of the United States of America, Shakespearian plays and so forth are in the frozen register. You can think of this text being frozen in time and note how these are formal texts. We do not speak this way. We may quote phrases from the Bible site, amendments from the US Constitution, or recite verses from Shakespeare's The Tempest. But when we do, it's intended for rhetorical or dramatic effect. We're making a point. We're not altering the words of the register when we quote these texts. And we're not speaking in Shakespearian pros during social interaction, though. I admit that would be pretty cool if we could the formal register. The formal register is what we use an academic, professional and legal contexts. Because in such settings, communication is done respectfully. It is expected that people will not be interrupted when they speak as a sign of respect. Communication is also meant to be a bit restrained in the formal register. This means that we err on the side of being slightly more subdued, Perhaps even on emotional or stoic. We're moderate with her body language and tone of voice. We try to be more understated with our communication in this register. We tend to avoid the use of contractions and adhere to rules of prescriptive grammar versus descriptive grammar. Examples of this would be a business presentation, a hearing at a courtroom, a lecture at a university, and academic conference, or a conference call with shareholders, the consultative register. The consultative register is used when speaking with an expert. This is someone who has highly specialized knowledge in a particular field or industry and is providing feedback or offering advice. When we interface with experts or consultants, we adopt a respectful tone of voice. Take extra care not to interrupt or overstep. Listen more than we speak, and use courtesy titles such as doctor or professor. This might change slightly. If this is a longtime mentor, close friend, family member, or relative. In which case you might adopt a consultative style, but more of a casual register. In this situation, you might use slang or Argo. There might be overlapping speech and interruptions. But again, that's if the consultant or expert is also a good friend. Well, this is more of a unique social situation. It's important to be aware of how it might change the interaction, albeit. A slightly examples of the consultative register can be seen when TV news anchors deliver the news or news like program, a meeting with a realtor, helping you find your dream house, a conversation with a service providers such as a mechanic and engineer, a plumber, et cetera. And it's also the register you would use when speaking to your physician during a check-up or a lawyer advising you on a business decision. The casual register. In the casual register, we are more relaxed. We might use slang, contractions, and vernacular. We would also probably use descriptive grammar rather than prescriptive grammar, meaning we use a grammar that it's technically not perfectly correct, yet it is understandable and it is what most people use. Think of descriptive grammar as the grammar and the grammar mistakes that native English speakers make. It's the grammar of the people, as opposed to the grammar of the grammar book rules, or institution of the language under the casual register, it would be socially acceptable to use expletives or abrasive language in some settings. For example, we could use the casual register at a sports game and outdoor barbecue. Asleep over with friends, a catch-up chat with your best friend in a cafe, a birthday party, et cetera. We would use this register when speaking with friends and other people in casual group settings, which can also be public venues like parks and restaurants. The intimate register. The intimate register is what we use in private with our closest friend or a spouse or significant other. Our parents, our siblings, our children, and our confidence. Intimate language is private and only reserved for your inner circle of trust. It refers to what could be an inside joke that only you and your friend are privy to. It could also be shared memories that you have with your best friend from special times in your lives, like college or the formative years of your twenties. It could be funny moments you express with your closest childhood friend as you reminisce about growing up in your hometown. It might also include the conversations you have with your partner in the privacy of your home. Usually, this intimate register takes place between two people. It's interpersonal communication, and it's cozy, warm, special, and intimate. Interestingly, we often use a blend of all registers in both formal and informal contexts. Let's first take a look at a few business contexts. In meetings with a new boss, you'd probably be using the consultative register in a sales pitch. You'd use a formal register in a phone conversation with a business associate. You might use the casual register as you can see, the proximity to the person, meaning how well we know that individual can determine whether we use a formal, consultative, or casual register for our social interactions. Now, in a group setting, say in a team meeting, even if you are on very close terms with a fellow supervisor because they happen to also be a co-founder in your company. When addressing them in a group setting where other employees are present, you would be using a formal or consultative register y. Well, that's predominantly due to the presence of the other people who use the formal register while interacting with this person. And it's also a product of being in a professional or business setting. Now, in a group setting, say in a team meeting, even if you're on very close terms with a fellow supervisor because they happen to also be a co-founder in your company. When addressing them in a group setting where other employees are present, you would be using a formal or consultative register. Why? Well, that's predominantly due to the presence of the other people who use the formal register while interacting with this person. And it's also a product of being in a professional or business setting. In casual settings, you will typically use fewer of the stiffer registers. For example, you would use slang when texting your best friend, when chatting with your college roommate on the phone, you might hear them use explicit language. You're at a family barbecue and everyone's relaxed and using descriptive grammar, making grammatical errors and not thinking twice about it. And that's fine. In those situations. We have less to prove. We're not as worried about being judged. Here's a quick note on grammar that I'd like to raise awareness about. We differentiate between prescriptive grammar and descriptive grammar. You can think of prescriptive grammar as the grammar rules that govern the language. These are the grammar rules that are learned in school, in literature and taught to non native English speakers in their English classes. Descriptive grammar is the kind of grammar that actually gets used by people. Descriptive grammar is the way language is actually spoken, mistakes and all. It's the grammar that is used by native English speakers. This is why, even though a native English speaker might say something that is grammatically incorrect or different from what you learned in a textbook, according to descriptive grammar rules, it is correct. 8. Module 7: Norms: Module seven, N for norms. The seventh component of the Dell hims speaking model is norms. Norms in the speaking model or the social norms or rules that govern the communication events. These include the appropriate ways to behave, conduct yourself, and speak in a specific type of social situation. In the field of conversation analysis, this is called preference. Preferred responses are those that are expected. For example, if someone says, How are you, the preferred response could be, fine, thanks and you, or not bad, thanks for asking something along those lines would be socially acceptable. However, were you to reply? I've never felt more excited and all my life or I don't feel like sharing that information with you. You'd get some strange looks. Why? Because those responses are out of the ordinary. They are not the expected responses. They are incongruent and thus they are not preferred responses. So if preference isn't met, it will only raise eyebrows, and thus, they are not preferred responses. So if preference isn't met, it will not only raised eyebrows, but also some red flags. People will notice that this person's behavior is out of the norm. You're flouting convention and confusing people. Now, there's nothing necessarily wrong with doing something out of the ordinary, ignoring the social norms that govern conversation and humans social interaction. But just don't be surprised when people get turned off by that abnormal behavior. With that in mind, generally speaking, if your goal is to get a stranger to like you or make a good first impression. The safest bet is to start by sticking to preferred responses. After that, you can always gauge the situation and deviate from the preferred behavior. If you think your audience will be receptive to something new or unexpected. Now let's take a look at a few examples of norms in practice. An example of obeying social norms in the business world would be when your boss greets you. You greet them back and look them in the eye. Say for instance, you didn't make eye contact and just proceeded to scroll a social media app on your phone that would be considered a breach of social contract. And they would perceive that behavior as rude and disrespectful in American culture, we look into the eyes of the people that we're speaking to, whether we addressed them or they us. When you evade eye contact, the other participants might consider this to be a sign of untrustworthiness. Moreover, if more socially unacceptable behavior follows suit, then you can expect a call into their office to discuss this in an informal setting. Let's say you're hanging out with your best friend at a cafe and you put your feet up on the table, your friend might feel perturbed by this and even feel embarrassed for you as you're in a public place. They might also be embarrassed to be seen with you as you do something so discourteous. Putting your feet on a table in a public setting is an example of defiant behavior where you're disregarding the social norms. What about when we're obeying the social norms? Your friend tells you that they have something upsetting to tell you, their tone of voice lowers, their eyes, water, their head droops. They're pacing is very slow and everything about them turns serious. As a concerned and caring friend, you match their tone and adopt a more serious communicative behavior. This is mirroring and it is important to show alignment and empathy. You listen intently, passing no judgment, but hearing them out, this would be the socially acceptable reaction. 9. Module 8: Genre: Module eight, g, genre. The eighth and final component of the speaking model is genre. Genre is the type of speech act being performed, as well as the style it's being performed in. It can also be the kind of communication event taking place at any given time. Just like we read books from various genres, we also communicate in different genres. When you file a complaint, there's a specific way you want to communicate that when you apologize, you do so in a certain way. When you're making a commitment to someone you love, there's a way you do that too. When you're keeping a promise. There's a specific way to do that. Every speech act will have its own way of communicating a message. While there might be some overlap in terms of speech acts, and there's genres. We know intuitively what speech acts require. What genre? For example, storytelling can have different genres depending on what type of story it is. If it's a happy story, it's from a happy genre. If it's a scary story, it'll have an eerie genre. We can draw from the five major genres of literature. Fiction, non-fiction, drama, poetry, and folktale. Fiction would be situations that are fun and lighthearted. They could include telling your friend about a dream you had. It could be a joke. It could be your own hopes and desires. Nonfiction would be sharing facts, data, statistics in a meeting, for example, you'd probably be drawing from the non-fiction genre. Drama would be, anytime you re-enact something, tell a story in a dramatic way, or showcase any other kind of theatrical genre of poetry would translate to something that is expressed in a succinct, pithy way. The words expressed though few, pack a punch and a lot of business settings you might notice more succinctness with people getting to the point faster than in casual relaxed conversation. And certain speech acts call for this more succinct expression, but more often than not, it comes down to stylistic preference on behalf of the speaker. It's important to note that genre has to do both with the type of speech act, as well as the stylistic choices the speaker makes. A story is its own speech act. A meeting is its own speech act, apologizing it's its own speech act. But based on the other factors in the speaking model, these speech acts are stylistically different and as such, they will be performed differently. Let's look at a few examples of genre in formal contexts. A meeting with your boss is a speech act. However, the type of meeting matters. For example, a meeting with your boss when you're getting a big promotion is performed in a happy, delighted, excited way. Contrast that with a meeting with your boss. If you're getting fired, that meeting will be much more serious. Solon and upsetting. They are the same speech act meeting with the bus, but these are two very different genres. Not all meetings are created equal in social interaction. Or let's use the example of a medical consultation. If the doctor is sharing your blood work and you've got healthy blood with no medical conditions. Everything is peachy. Time to celebrate good health. The doctor will share this with you in an upbeat, positive, and relaxed way. They'll even smile and commend you on your excellent work of looking after your health and fitness. But now let's look at the flip side. The doctor has found a strange bump and needs to take a biopsy. The way they tell you this is going to be tenths terse and a bit distant perhaps. Of course it comes down to the doctors communication style and personality. And not all doctors speak the same way. But you can see how even though we've got the same speech act on our hands of medical consultation, it's very different when the doctors delivering good news compared to a situation when the prognosis is uncertain. Now, let's look at some examples in casual contexts, consider storytelling the way a cautionary tale is told is conveyed with gravity and sobriety, whereas a funny story is performed with levity and cheer. For example, when a grandmother wants, emphasize the importance of being aware of your surroundings and shares a frightening story. To illustrate this life lesson, Jill, tell it in a serious tone. By contrast, when a best friend wants to share the most hysterical experience she's ever had, she'll share it in a joyful, funny, theatrical, over-the-top way. The style is determined by not only the speech act, but the specific kind of speech act being performed in another informal example, let's consider apologizing. When someone is apologizing to a friend for forgetting to call them after work. That's very different from apologizing to them for losing their dog while on a walk in the park. In the first topology, it'll be quicker to say and quicker to forgive. In this second topology, it'll be a lot harder to say and there will be serious consequences. It might even cost them their friendship. Apologizing can look different depending on the circumstances. Finally, let's also not forget that everyone has their own personal flair and their personality will shine through regardless of the genre. 10. Module 9: Putting it All Together: Module nine, putting it all together, Dell hi, I'm speaking model is a wonderful tool to use during social interaction. It can help us understand how to interact appropriately. It gives us a framework for how to communicate given this situation and people involved. And it can also help us analyze language and conversation. Every successful conversation has all of these components. The other hand, if a component of the speaking model is missing or out of place, that could cause a communication breakdown or create a misunderstanding. With that in mind, let's have a look at what communication issues arise when a component of this speaking model is not properly incorporated. 11. Module 9: When Scene is Missing: When scene is missing, if scene is missing, then it would be difficult to discern how to communicate for the rest of the conversation. Of course, it would be unlikely to not know the environment someone finds themselves in. But for the sake of this thought experiment, imagine someone blindfolds you and takes you to an unknown location. When they remove the blindfold, you're now in a completely white room. You can barely tell up from down. Very disorienting. What is the scene or setting? How would you communicate in such a place? There's no telling if it's a business setting, a film studio, a school, and avant-garde cafe, etc. Remember that the scene and setting establish the tone of the conversation. They are our first signal into what kind of conversation or speech act will be performing when we're at university. There's a specific way we expect to communicate when we're at home with family. There's a specific way or going to communicate when we're in an office will communicate in a specific way. And when we're in a museum viewing art, we're communicating in yet another way. But if we're missing out on the cue of what our scene and setting our than it makes it challenging to strike the right tone we need for the rest of the social interaction. Circling back to our example, now, in the white room you hear a click and a virtual image of the New York Public Library flashes before you. First you see an image of it from the outside. When standing outside the library, the whale be communicating with, say your friend will be loud because you're competing with the sounds of New York City traffic. And your gestures will be animated because you're excited to spend the day at this world renowned library, back to the white room. And the click noise appears again, this time, projecting an image of the rose Reading Room, grand and luxurious with gilded curlicues and cornucopia is and flute playing angels and cherubs, flying and celestial murals of soft pastel pink clouds and cerulean blue sky suffice to say it's rather beautiful, breathtaking even now you're inside the library. So in this scene and setting, now, you're not talking as much because you're in a library and we all know that libraries are quiet places when you do speak in hushed whispers so as to be respectful to the other library goers. Your gestures are more reserved, you're more quiet and calm. Then you were outside of the library. Quite the contrast. So as you can see, we need the input from our environment to help us set the tone for what our communication will be like. Without this information, it'll take us longer to figure out how to behave and act in a socially acceptable manner. 12. Module 9: When Participants are Missing: When participants are missing, when participants are missing, you will struggle to tailor your message to your audience. There are two salient examples of this that have a real-world application. The first is in a public speaking event where you might not know who your audience is. You might know that they're attending the conference that you're presenting at. But beyond that, you really don't know the demographics, their interests, why they're attending for fun, was it forced upon them? And so there are a lot of question marks you need to know who you're addressing to make a greater impact with your audience. If you don't know who your audience is, you won't be able to tailor your message to them. It will be more generic and less impactful. To remedy this, what you can do is gather as much information about the audience as possible ahead of the presentation. Where would you collect such information? Go to the organizer of the event if it's a school run event, go to the coordinators and find out the general age of the students, whether this event is open to the public, What's the reason they're attending this event and so on. In other words, is this a career fair? Is it an English teachers colloquium? Is it a knitting conference, et cetera? Let's say you're giving a presentation on fitness, the content will change slightly to tailor it to your audience, you will need to make changes to your presentation for each of those audiences. For example, in the career fair, you might discuss job opportunities in the fitness industry. What credentials you would need for such a job, you can tie in your personal training experience, having gotten a degree as a registered dietitian, etc. You can think about the roles of fit flu answers and fitness professionals and their impact on the fitness industry. But if you're talking to a group of English teachers, then you might discuss fitness in terms of the most efficient exercises to do as a busy teacher. Or maybe you provide a fitness program and plan for people who work from the hours of eight to 04:00 PM and need to find time to squeeze in a workout. And lastly, if you're talking to a group of knitters, you might discuss fitness apparel and talk about the best fabrics for athletic clothing. Or you could give a presentation on athletic apparel and knitwear. So you see how based on the audience, we have very different types of presentations, even though you're there to speak about the topic of fitness, there are so many different perspectives you can take. There are different avenues you could go down based on who will be participating in order for the presentation and overall message to have impact, it needs to be relevant. This is why it is so important to take your audience into consideration. If you know your audience, you can tailor the conversation to best meet their needs. The audience needs to feel invested in the presentation in order to retain important information that they'll apply to their own life. Let's look at another example of problems that arise when participants are missing from the equation. Ready for it? Youtube, when you're starting out on YouTube and you're making videos about whatever the topic of your channel is. You don't know who your audiences think about, how extremely challenging that is. You're making videos for an audience that you know absolutely nothing about. You don't know their interests, what problems they need to solve in their life, what pain points they have an any other demographic information, even when you're a bigger channel, unless you have clear analytics from YouTube or you have the same people commenting on each of your videos. You might say, still have no clue about who you're making these videos for to remedy this, there are two things that you can do. If you're just starting out, then you can make videos for yourself. Meaning, imagine that the audience is a group of people who liked the same things you like, who are similar to you in terms of demographics, speak the same language as you, et cetera. And over time, your videos will attract people who are like you. Another way you can remedy this issue of not knowing your participants is to imagine your audience, create an entire description of who they are, their interests, there are pain points, their demographics, and any other salient information. Use this information to then tailor your message to this audience, albeit imaginary, over time, you'll manifest the audience you have been creating these types of videos for all along. But again, you see how much thought needs to be put into this when we simply don't have enough information about participants. 13. Module 9: When End is Missing: When ends are missing. The simplest way to understand the concept of n's missing is when someone talks just for the sake of talking, meaning they have no purpose in saying what they're saying. There's no goal for their communication. They have no outcomes for this social interaction. In other words, they're prattling on about something non consequential, maybe the rambling. They could even be talking in circles around themselves to an audience that is zoned out when ends are missing, it's problematic because you're going to lose your audience. You'll also run the risk of alienating yourself because people will be afraid to get into a conversation with you, thinking they'll never be able to get out of it. In fact, they may not even know how to jump in because it's not clear what you're getting at. Think of it this way. A conversation without ends is the opposite of getting to the point. So if you want people to take you seriously, it is crucial that you incorporate ends into your interactions. Especially formal interactions, have an agenda, even if it's just a few bullet points outlining the content or issues you'd like to address. If the conversation drifts away from the topic, take the reins and steer it back to the center. The key is to show you respect the other participants time, show up, prepared, and get to the point. The participants will know instantly that you are someone to be taken seriously. 14. Module 9: When Act Sequence is Missing: When Act sequence is missing. When acts sequences missing, communication is disjointed and disorganized. You may have a clear purpose, but if it's not conveyed in a logical and coherent manner, the participants won't be able to follow your train of thought in professional settings. A lack of Acts sequence is highly problematic because it signals inefficiency and unprofessionalism in casual contexts, a lack of ACK sequence can lead to confusion and even frustration among the participants. So we need to honor the ACK sequence of the speech act in professional settings, be sure to have a plan. As with ends. In meetings, you want a clear agenda that ensures you are making the best use of everyone's time in email correspondence. Be sure to provide sufficient contexts and detail when you assign tasks or provide feedback in casual settings, take the time to ease into your conversation. It would be socially unacceptable to start shouting at your friend as soon as you meet them in a cafe, if you have a problem that you would like to discuss with them. There are steps that you need to take before anything else. You need to first greet them. Once you've warmed up the conversation a bit, then you can gradually work your way into the contentious point that you'd like to discuss. 15. Module 9: When Key is Missing: When he is missing, if key is missing, there's no feeling, no emotion or gravi tasks behind your words. Your message is lackluster and uninteresting. Even if the words themselves are interesting. If the way you're communicating is emotionless and static, people will zone out and not hear your message. Think of a time when you interacted with someone extremely intelligent, sharing, enlightening information. But because they delivered this message in a monotone voice, you were dozing off not hearing this amazing message. That's the danger when tonality and animation are missing from our communication. Likewise, you wouldn't deliver a joke in a somber tone with a sullen face like you would when delivering bad news to someone. I mean, you could but don't expect any laughs when it comes to communication, we need to think about more than just the words. We also have to factor in and give weight to tones of voice and non-verbal gestures, we must match the tone, manner, and spirit of our tonality and body language, the context of our speech and our audience's needs. When your key syncs up with every other part of the speaking model, it can greatly enhance the power of your words. Whereas if key is non-existent or inappropriate for the message, expect confusion, frustration, or even anger from the participants. 16. Module 9: When Instruments are Missing: When instrumentalities are missing, if instrumentalities are missing, then the stylistic register of our communication will not match the context. It could result in a confusing or even insulting instance of social interaction. For example, you wouldn't want to use the casual register when presenting before a judge. Likewise, when instrumentalities are missing, it will be challenging to decide what forms and styles of speech to use. For example, business e-mails require a certain level of formality and succinctness. Casual emails can be more verbose and in formal, business, in-person interactions will be more formal, but also have room for small talk and rapport building. So you're not just talking about business, but also catching up on each other's lives while maintaining a bit of distance, as well as decorum. If we do not have a specific mode of communication, it can be extremely challenging to gauge what register to use, how to behave, and what style to implement in our communication. If a business executive is speaking in a very casual way at a high-stakes board meeting that might send a signal to the shareholders that the executive doesn't take their job seriously. Given the dynamic nature of these interactions, it is important to use the correct instrumentalities at the appropriate points during your interactions. 17. Module 9: When Norms are Missing: When norms are missing, when norms are missing, then we will not know how to properly behave in a given social situation. This is particularly challenging when we're studying or living abroad if we're still learning the language and we're new to the code lecture. But even in the context of your native language, among other L1 speakers like you, if norms are missing, then it is still very difficult to ascertain how to communicate, act, and behave in the context. Imagine you and your friends are both native speakers from the same language and from the same culture, but you are from different speech communities. If you want to effectively engage with your friend from a different speech community, you will need to know the social rules governing the social interaction. What language, phrases, styles, and behaviors are appropriate for communication. If you do not know the expected norms, you might face derision in extreme situations, if social norms are absent or simply disregarded, it might be considered a significant insult. For this reason, it is critical to be aware of and abide by norms whenever possible. If you aren't sure about norms in a specific situation, your best bet is to mirror the behavior of the people around you who you would consider peers. 18. Module 9: When Genre is Missing: When genre is missing. When genres missing, you don't know the protocol for the type of speech act. It would be as though the speech act itself is not determined or known. For example, you might walk into a room where people are having a heated debate and you're about to share news that aged. You didn't read the room. In this case, more specifically, you didn't know what speech act you walked into the office from your perspective, genres missing as such because people in the room were too busy debating. They didn't congratulate you on your recent engagement. Instead, had you read the room, you know, to hold off on the good news until the heated debate had subsided. By biting your time and timing your communication more appropriately, you would have elicited a very different response from the crowd. So when genres missing, it can break communication in times where we lack context. We should pause to assess our situation. Do not become a participant until you know, what would be appropriate to say and what wouldn't be appropriate to say. Ultimately, reading the room gives us clues and insights into something like genre, so that we know how to behave and subsequently we know how to communicate. 19. Module 10 : Communicating Across Cultures: Module ten, non-native speakers and cross-cultural, intercultural communication. In cross-cultural and intercultural settings. The Dell hi, I'm speaking model shines. This framework provides insights into language and culture known as language culture, which might otherwise be overlooked. In order to effectively communicate in another language and culture, we must be privy to the social norms and rules that govern across social contexts. And what communication nuances to be attuned to. This is not something that most language teachers are aware of. So it's rarely taught in language classrooms. It's not until you go abroad that you actually learn about the culture and how people actually communicate in the language. Have you had that experience? You might know all the grammar rules and the exceptions to those grammar rules. But when speaking to a native speaker, you lose your words. You have no idea how to engage in something as simple as Smalltalk. Why is that? Because some part of the Dell hi, I'm speaking model is missing from this situation. Awareness of the speaking model helps us navigate across and between cultures, which improves our communicative competence in a specific language. The best way to learn these particularities and peculiarities of each language or culture is to spend time in those places and interact with native speakers of the language. This is not something you learn from language textbooks. It requires you to do self-study, read authentic materials and the language, listen to music, watch TV, movies and films, sitcoms and series, and consume media from that language and culture. And during this self-guided practice, take notes. Try on the language is I like to say and start to internalize it. Once you internalize it, begin to use it out in the real-world. As you start to use it in the real-world, you'll begin to get feedback. Your language use correct, is your cultural etiquette on point. You'll receive feedback mostly in a covert way, meaning people will implicitly comment on your communication and cultural awareness. But for the pro language culture learners out there, you can actively seek out feedback from native speaker friends and colleagues, and ask for their explicit feedback on your language. Use expressions, grammar, social etiquette, and even non-verbal communication. Was this the appropriate gesture in this context? Was that the formal response in this professional setting? Was this too formal in such a casual context? Was this the rate expression? Was that the appropriate gesture in this speech act of greetings. You get the idea. You can dial it up or down as much as you are willing to. Understanding how you use the language in the given cultural contexts is what will separate you from a mediocre communicator and help you stand out as an exceptional communicator with cross-cultural awareness. This is important for not only casual interactions with friends, but also in the business world, cross-cultural skills set you apart from your peers and helps you contribute to a global society as a global citizen. How wonderful is that? In addition to all that, implementing the Dell hi, I'm speaking model enables us to be more open and understanding of cultures different from our own native unknown cultures. Even if we might not know the native language of the person that we're communicating with. We know that there are social norms that govern the social interaction. We have the awareness to know that we communicate differently in different situation Given our native language or culture. Because of this, we are receptive to sensitivities and aware of potential barriers to communication. We have the foresight to ask them what is the correct protocol for greeting and your culture? Or did I use the correct formal honorific in this situation with the speaking model in cross-cultural settings, We are all learners and that is the beauty of it. No one knows how every single culture, subculture, and speech communities interact with each other. We couldn't possibly know all of the nuances of the eight components. We have a framework to guide us. This framework equips us with the tools that we can implement in settings where we might not know the protocol, just that a specific protocol exists, then it may or may not be different from our own. We can speak up in any social situation, be it with native or non native speakers of the language. And by leveraging the speaking model, we can tackle any communication event, any cultural obstacle or speech act, and become more engaged and effective communicators. 20. Module 11: Communicating in Virtual Spaces ED: Module 11, online interactions. In our tech enabled world where digital natives are now the majority of the world's population. Suffice to say that technology is here to stay with that. So too, are online interactions. As much of the world experiences remote working and virtual office spaces, interactions take place online as much, if not more, than they do in in-person settings these days. And that's only going to continue this. We need to know how to apply the speaking model to our online interactions just as we would to our in-person face-to-face communication. While there is a tremendous amount of overlap between in-person and online social interactions. Using the speaking model affords us the opportunity to delve into the nuances. Let's take the example of a scene we're familiar with working from home. You have a business meeting with your teammates and you're discussing a project that you're working on. The trickiest part of online interactions when it comes to this speaking model is the first component. Scene and setting. While your physical location is your home, you're not going to interact with your colleagues as though you're in your house hanging out. On the contrary, you're going to engage with your colleagues as though you're at the office. Thus, the ends and participants help you treat the scene and setting as work because you're talking to co-workers About work. So in this case, while your physical setting is home, when we delve deeper, we see that your virtual location is your virtual office. And if it helps to remind yourself that you're in your home office, do that. This is why if we're frequently working from home, we should optimize our workspace so that we are more easily able to access the zone of being at work. When we're able to access this zone, we know exactly what the eighth speaking model components are. Creating physical parameters can be powerful for igniting the speaking model intuitively, without even having to consciously think about it. In fact, we can actually activate the speaking model by establishing the correct mental perimeters, even if you are working remotely from a beach side Cafe in Bali, because you've created certain mental cues. You are now in business mode, even though there might be people around you in your physical space who are on vacation, the people you're interacting with online and over e-mail are at work. So you'll be interacting with your colleagues as someone who is working rather than as someone who was on vacation. While physical location for scene and setting is very powerful to help us gauge the way the other speaking model components will enable us to communicate. We must also be cognizant of our virtual location. Is our virtual location in our virtual office? Or are we online but out of the virtual office for guarding the other potentially confusing components of virtual interaction. Who are your participants? When you're working from home and engaged in online interaction, your participants are not the people who are also at home with you. The participants would be the people who have shown up to the online meeting. So in this case, your colleagues are the participants at the time of the meeting or online interaction when you're working from my cafe, the participants are not those in your physical space, but the people who are online with you at the time for the speech act, meeting, interview, check-in call, et cetera. As you can see in the situation of virtual interactions. Scene, setting and participants are the two components that might pose a bit of a conundrum. Just remember that when you're in a virtual setting, your physical space no longer has the same weight as it would when interacting in person with someone who is sharing your physical space. In this way, we must remember to treat our physical space as separate from our virtual space, especially when the virtual space is hosting a formal interaction or business encounter. And even though at the time you might still physically find yourself in a casual setting like at home, a hotel room or a beach side Cafe, remember to implement the physical parameters and mental cues. If you're having trouble differentiating between your physical and virtual space at the time of the online social interaction or business meeting, our mind is powerful, so make sure it's on board with scene setting and participants. These two components will determine the other six components of the speaking model and thus make or break the communication. It's in our power to properly implement the framework to allow us to excel in any online interaction regardless of our physical location. 21. Dell Hymes Speaking Model Final Thoughts: Module 12, final thoughts. Well done. You've reached the end of this course. We've done a deep dive into the Dell hi, I'm speaking model. It's a powerful tool for understanding how to approach any social situation and how to communicate in any social interaction, however important or trivial, think about the message, its purpose, the style of communication, who you are speaking to, and where you are. Remember that physical location and virtual location are different in the context of online business interactions or online interviews. The virtual reality will take precedence over your physical location, scene. And participants are the two main components that help us determine how the other six speaking framework components will be treated in any conversation and across cultures. We can leverage the power of this framework to better communicate as L2 speakers of the language when we find ourselves in a different language culture. But also to better understand and L2 Speaker who finds themselves in your native culture. In fact, now that you've completed this course, you can be there speaking model guide into communicating correctly in your language culture. Familiarity with each component of the speaking model will enable you to tailor your message to your audience and communicate more effectively. And if you stumble upon certain social situations where you don't know what's going on, Don't panic. Instead, read the room, glean as much information as you can before becoming a participant. If you need to stay as an observer until you've gathered enough information. So be it when the speaking model is top of mind, you're constantly analyzing not only yourself in the communication contexts, but others as well. And while you may think this is exhausting, on the contrary, it's engaging and exciting. It's a dynamic dance that you do when you're engaged in social interaction. And with this level of engagement, you're more likely to have better communication outcomes, like deeper rapport, building, Closing important deals, landing valuable clients, and having heart-to-heart conversations with loved ones. And you're likely to have fewer negative communication outcomes that result in confusion, frustration, and misunderstandings. With the speaking model. You have more power than you think over the outcomes you desire. Let this model be your go-to communication guide to unlock the full potential of clear, concise, and targeted social interaction. 22. Dell Hymes Speaking Model Conclusion: Module 13, closing. Wow, you made it all the way to the end. Go you, I am so happy you set aside the time to take this course. If you are happy with it, we would really appreciate hearing what you liked about it in your review. If you have any feedback, please don't hesitate to reach out to us. These courses are living documents and we're always looking for ways to make them even better. If you want to learn more about our work at explaining and advanced English, check us out at and advanced Finally, if you have any suggestions for other new courses, let us know about that too. We structure all of our content around the needs of our students. Thank you again for your time and best of luck in all of your endeavors.