Improve Your Calligraphy: Connections and Spacing | Doris Fullgrabe | Skillshare

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Improve Your Calligraphy: Connections and Spacing

teacher avatar Doris Fullgrabe, Lettering & Calligraphy, Freelance

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 43m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Mathematically vs Visually Equal

    • 3. Connecting Lowercase Letters

    • 4. Connecting Uppercase Letters Part 1

    • 5. Connecting Uppercase Letters 2

    • 6. Spacing: Stem to Stem

    • 7. Spacing: Stem to Arch

    • 8. Spacing: Stem to Oval

    • 9. Spacing: Opens to Stem, Oval, & Words

    • 10. Recap & Handout

    • 11. Excercise: Necklaces

    • 12. Exercise: Pangrams

    • 13. Thank You & Wrap Up

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About This Class

If you've enjoyed learning how to write Copperplate calligraphy, but you're not quite sure how to string individual letters together to form beautiful words and sentences... this is the class for you! 

Hi, I'm Doris, and I love sharing insights from my own calligraphy practice.

In this class, we'll talk about

  • mathematical vs. visual evenness of letter spacing
  • connecting lowercase letters to one another
  • connecting uppercase letters to lowercase ones,
  • how to make spacing decisions, and
  • spacing specific letter pairs based on their anatomy

Let's practice together as I talk you through the explanations, and join me in writing out specific exercises for connecting and spacing in real time.

You'll be writing specific letter pairs, a couple of necklaces, and a couple of pangrams, thereby practicing how to connect and space all letters of the alphabet. 

Even if you're brand new to calligraphy, you'll find these simple exercises easy and effective to improve your writing. 

I hope you'll also check out my other classes on Skillshare, come say hi on Instagram @dorisfullgrabe and join the pen tribe at 


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Doris Fullgrabe

Lettering & Calligraphy, Freelance


Writing and doodling with our hands has been shown to improve memory retention, calm monkey-brain, and lower blood pressure. It makes everyday life more beautiful, and it's a craft you can learn. 

I'm Doris, I'm an MBTI® Master Practitioner, just graduated with a Masters in Applied Psychology, and I also love lettering and calligraphy!

Born and raised in Germany, I have lived and worked in Scotland, England, Spain, the Canary Islands, Mexico, Texas, and New York City, before moving to Brooklyn. 

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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to calligraphy, connections and spacing. My name is Doris Full grabber. I love sharing what I'm learning during my own calligraphy practice, and I'm based in Brooklyn. In this class, we're going to go over the most common points of interest. Will talk about general guidelines for spacing and connecting calligraphy letters. I'll talk you through and show you how I connect specific letter pairs, and I'll write some real time necklace and pan Graham exercises for you. If you are unfamiliar with some of the words, I'll use like hairline waistline stems Encounters, Please review the characteristics and Component stroke section. In my introduction to copper plate class, your project will be to follow along with the practice and post a photo of a sentence of your choosing. I prepared a set of guide sheets and a couple of handouts for you. They are available for download in your project section. If you have any questions at all, please leave a comment in the community section or DME on instagram. Ready? Let's get started 2. Mathematically vs Visually Equal: copper plate is a visually cursive kind of calligraphy, but the pen is actually lifted many times. The hairlines we make to form entrance and exit strokes in individual letters form the connections. Once we string those letters together to build words, the general calligraphy rule about connecting and spacing is that the space inside a letter is visually equal to the space between letters. In a word, what do I mean by visually equal? Let's start by what it isn't using a typewriter, each letter takes up A certain space called pica, or elite pica types would fit 10 characters to an inch, which compares to a 12 point size times New Roman fund elite types would fit 12 characters to an inch, making it a smaller, 10 point size fund. The's mono spaced, also known as fixed width or non proportional phones. Working away that all letters take up the same horizontal real estate. You contest this on your computer right now. If you choose the courier fund, for example, and write a couple of lines, you'll see that each character and punctuation mark is perfectly space underneath the next one. Now, when you look at certain letters like I or C, you'll notice different amounts of white space around them. That is because the I is straight on both sides, but the sea has a curve on the left and a large opening on the right side. The R has a straight stem on the left and another large opening on the right side. Some letters, therefore based on their anatomy or the way that they're built, look as if they are closer together and some look further apart, although they are all contained in the same. With for calligraphy to look flowing and graceful, the distance between letters has to look visually even instead of being mathematically the same. That means taking into account the shape of the letter, how we build it, and how each curve and open counter and straight stem interacts with the letters that come before and after. Since our I generally registers the ink first, the part of the letter we're looking at to inform our spacing decisions is the stem or the down stroke. As you may remember, from my introduction to copper plate class, the basic shape we're working with is an oval, and it's that shape and size that informs the width of all other letters as well as the space you should leave in between letters. In a word, if you naturally right a little rounder, all your letters and spaces should be a little wider. And if you naturally right more condensed, all letters and spaces will be a little narrower. A lot of it comes down to preference and style, but either way, the basic shape off the copper plate alphabet is an oval, and that dictates your spacing. In her book Mastering Copper Plate Calligraphy, a Step by step guide by Eleanor Winters, she reminds us to pay attention to spacing letters as much as we do to writing them correctly, she says Good spacing is the key to find writing beautiful letter forms, badly spaced, cannot be considered calligraphy. So with that in mind, let's look at some examples now and start practicing 3. Connecting Lowercase Letters: the first connecting rule, if you will, that we're going to look at is going to be about hairlines, where letters that end in a hairline exit stroke connect to the next letter by combining their exit stroke with the next letters hairline entrance stroke without lifting the pen. This rule applies to basically all the letters, because all of them naturally have or can be made to have an entrance or in stroke as well as an exit stroke. And having said that, though, the way I learned copper paid is that oval characters like a oh or E have an in stroke like so. But there are teachers who say that the oval stands on their own, and because it is formed counterclockwise in this counterclockwise motions, I also see people right, the oval just like this. Okay, we're going to do both versions in the class, and then you can test which one works better for you now. Letters with a natural in stroke R F h I J K L P, the French art, the T U and the why, and I'm going to show you some words made out of those letters, so that would start with the F where we have thean stroke. And then we're gonna use the long version that spends all the Ascender Excite Andy center space. And here is the exit stroke that goes into the in stroke for the I and the exit stroke that goes into the in stroke for the tea Ebola. You have the word fit, the next one that needed my pin. We have the entrance stroke or this is gonna be the word hurt. So we have the h, it comes down and then a compound curve exit into the in stroke for the U exit into the instrument for the are exit into the in stroke for the tea. Use a little wide, I hope. Youll forgive me. It's not that easy talking and writing at the same time. Okay, the next word we're going to write is apply. So we'll start with a p again, the end stroke and then the dynamic stem that starts just a bit above the waistline and the exit pickles into the in stroke for the l exit goes into in stroke for the why. Okay, and now the J in the K. Just because those were the ones that I also mentioned. We have J exit goes into end stroke, and then we love the K with a loop and let's do the traditional one, and the eggs and stroke comes all the way back up in case we want to connect it to the next letter. Another way to check whether your connections are on the right track is to draw an extra line on your guides in the center of the X height space. This is where all connections should branch out of to give that extra visual flow, and you have this in your hand out as well. So when letters connect in the center, it means the curves off the arches are even when we can kind of shows here, right, the curves are even. You have an even triangular space underneath and the hairlines so we can We can show that their we can show that here, this is about the center of the excite. You see where everything branches off. You see this one is a little bit further down. But in general, thes triangular spaces that are formed show the graceful kind of white space and the hairlines. How they connect the next example or the next connection rule, if you want, is connecting from the center, where the exit stroke is in the middle of the excite from what I call a flag and connects into in a curve to the next letter. The letters that end in these little flags are A. B, O, V W, and also the English are. So we're going to look at a couple of those connections now. The first word that we're making is going to be Bo. And here's the flag that is going to go into a curve to connect to the next letter and again the flag into a curve connecting to the next letter. This flag Azaz, I think, I said before, is about 1/3 or up to half off the excite. And if you are connecting it to the next letter, having 1/2 the Exide is really helpful, cause otherwise you may not have enough space to get this curve going to connect them. So let's write the word vow. Same thing V to the O from the flag into the W and not forgetting the flag coming out. My trucks are not the square is today that I hope you know what I mean. The next word going to write is Rob, and we're going to use the English are just too demonstrated. So you come up and here's the flag. Nichols into the O in the flag that goes into the B and then a nice, longer word borrow. Let's start with a B and last but not least, shout out to my Irish friend Eleanor because she asked about it. The 02 that are I'm going to use Thean stroke for the O here so that it doesn't stand by itself. And you have the flag going up to the waistline. And then you will the French are like so or no pun intended. You have the are to the English are e go like that. Okay, the next rule and I'm going to just my paper around so you can see it from the top because of the camera set up that seems to be working. Okay, I'm going to cover the inks on my arm. Doesn't get all dirty. Um, the next connecting rule that you might have already noticed if you paid attention how I was connecting to the all on and how I was connecting to the other letters. So this is going to be connecting to an oval where the exit stroke ends before it hits the waistline because it is followed by an oval character again, which is built counterclockwise. Andi, it will be easiest if I if I demonstrated so the over letters R a, c e, d g o and pew. And so if we even start with the A and the C in the E again, you can. If it's the first letter of the word, you can use the in stroke or feel free to leave it out a almost all the way up. See almost all the way up and e. And then we give the seal of the flag. Because what happens if I put the entrance stroke all the way up to the waistline and then build the oval? We have this little extra stroke. This little extra piece of hairline clogging are a beautiful white space on the left. So where for a t you go all the way up? Because the stem covers the in stroke on the way down to then branch in the middle on the center of the Excite and Oval always has a little space by virtue of its A not to be being rounded. Okay, so let's look at the words. We have a space. Let's write the word dog So the D comes of it almost all the way up and the O and let's have another flag go here almost all the way up. Don't go all the way. Ideally, these ovals would look the same, so that one's a little bigger that once probably the best of the three, and that one was a little too thin. But that's what happens when you do live. That's what happens when you do live examples. The next word I'm going to write is Quad, and, um, again, not everybody starts counterclockwise from the two or three o'clock position. Some people start at the top, so this would be an oval from the top without the first in stroke. As you might notice, just for variation, where the Q kisses the baseline before it comes back up again. And because the next letter is a you, I am going all the way up to the base Latin to the waistline sorry. And now the next letters in a. So I know I have to stop. And the next letter is a D. So I know I have to stop again. And then, since it's the last letter of the de of the word, I can go back all the way up to the waistline, I have one more oval word for you. Deck. That's again. Start without the instruct for the D. You can see that for the see here. I have to go a little further out to give it to give the oval space and not to close it. Because then it might be ambiguous, ambiguous and look like an O. Okay, now the last final connecting rule. For now that I want to share concerns the s and again, I don't remember learning it this way. But this is something that, um, Eleanor also mentions in her book, so you might have learned it that way. And I'm going to show you a couple of variations. Some teachers say that the lower case s does not connect to any letter. Um, Eleanor in her book, says that an entrance stroke might touch a proceeding s but the connection should never be forest. And she also says that over letters never touched the S because again, she and says they are built counterclockwise, and she does not use an in stroke for her oval shape. So what does that look like when we actually write it? That's right. The word. So the way that she would write it is like this, Probably a little closer. So let's right, uh, sad. And I'm going to use an entrance stroke here almost all the way up to the waistline because this is a noble character, and then we have the sit. This is a nice example of the equal distance. When we're going to get to the spacing part of it, you can see that these curves Airil quite equal. And then let's write a couple of words. Worthy s is at the end. So the US might look like this. And if you wanted, you could add an exit stroke here. But you can also right? Loves flag to oval. I wanna. So again, I don't remember learning it in my, um, copper plate class that the S does not connect to any following letter. You may do it that way. Or if you do want to connect the s two following letters, you can use a variation on the style. Do what's best, what works best for you Let me right and just show you how you can come back around, for example. And then here you have the word snail, which I should have written a little slower. And I would have been a little cleaner, I'm sure. Or the word sing again where I'm using variation that loops the s around. 4. Connecting Uppercase Letters Part 1: Let's move on to connecting upper case to lower case letters. Copper plate is not well suited to write in all capital letters, and they would not touch anyway. So Ridge is going to look at how to connect and space up her to lower case letters. First of all, not all capitals connect to the following orkest letter with their exit stroke only a G h i J K L M Pew, are you X, y and Z connect naturally. And if that was a little quick not to worry, we're going to look at each of them now. I'm going to use city names in this example. The handout is going to show you the military alphabet, but you can also use your favorite foods or your favorite Children names or, you know, words of your choosing. So let's start with the A. If you remember, it is formed by an entrance stroke that it's slightly steeper than usual because you want it to intersect the 55 degrees landline and then the word that I'm going to write, let me try again because that was a awkward police to stop Is Mr Dad railroads? Okay, Geneva for RG almost to the baseline, Man up from the D sender space. And remember, the E is an oval so we don't go all the way up to the waistline and flag to an awful and then h four Hamburg straight into the next one, almost all the way up. - Okay , I will say that I'm rushing it a bit. So my squares are not a square as they should be. And the next letter is J. And I chose the tone Yea fun, which is in northern Germany, five miles from where I'm from, where I was born and they happened to have a very tasty lager. It comes in both alcoholic and non alcoholic varieties. It's also very pretty town I recommend you visit from now. Okay, Going to write Kingston thing in here? We have straight into the next in stroke into the album. Let's connect his and I picked up some fibers. The next letter that the next capital that connects naturally is the L and the L, Q and Z. You actually want to make sure that you don't space it too much because it has such a nice flow. So there would be the temptation to go out a little further. But then the spacing What? You look off because the space between the capital and the lower case, while it's always going to be a little lighter Well, Mr um should still somewhat resemble the space between the letters. This is not great, but let's continue on the next letter of the M and I'm going to I'm going to write it in one stroke, I think, although you can also write it in, um, you know, deconstructed. So again the in stroke is gonna be slightly steeper than usual because we want this dynamic stream and that space to dissect the slant line, not follow the slant line. Because then it would look as if it's falling over Kato just like the l. Making sure we're not all the way over and again here. This is an okay spacing example. You see how everything is quite parallel. We'll get to that in a little more detail later. The next city is going to be in Riga right in there. Let's go to you, Trish, - starting with the eggs. Careful not to apply pressure to the first down stroke. See, for the 2nd 1 and then we have York variation on the K there and those of its big and then for Z suck. I think us in make Olindo. So for the Z, we want the diagonal active, dynamic stroke with the why this part in the middle and then flags. And again, make sure you don't drag the nor end out too much because it needs to connect to the next letter. So these air city names that connect the capital that are automatically with the exit stroke into the next letter. 5. Connecting Uppercase Letters 2: now for the capitals that don't naturally connect with the hairline to the following nor case let her they are B c d e. If I an O p s t v and w and I'm going to write again city names in the traditional way and then I'm going to give you a couple of capital alternatives if you really, really want to connect to the next lower case letter and just to give you a little bit of variation. So starting with the B we have stem, you keep them quite simple and then the bowl and it ends there. And so the next letter is formed, as you would form it this oval, remember, either with an in stroke or without quite up to you, the sea also Carl's in on itself de the e very similar, also curling back in on itself. We should probably slow down a little because great fast the f remember the stem starts a little bit below the ascender space. So the roof has some space and then you want across it, careful not to drag. The ink came a little condensed, and then the I I tried a country because the city names I know I quite long from the ass under space Careful as you drag the think across this 10 No, no, No way Have gone so convinced right now Let me shake out my hand I get a different flowing Okay, The next letter would be n in the end, as you remember does follow this land with the parallel strokes. - Oh , - e move the cyber them the s he again like the f starting slightly under the ass under space roof some space. And I'm not really commenting because I believe these are quite straightforward if you know how to write the capital. And then we've talked about the lower case connections in the previous video. So this is practice of the capital seconds. It's capital of Liechtenstein and it's too nice w for the variations. If you did want to connect, if you did want to connect thes capitals, I've tried a couple out that I think might work, but not quite all of them. So for the b variation, if we build it as we would usually but then come around here kind of like we've done with the s, that might work similar for the sea if we were to do it slightly differently and come across couple of times, that might work. It's a little bit contrived, but it might work. The d We would have to go rather different by going over like so, which, you know, may still be considered copper plate. This oval is not as graceful as it could be. Um, but yeah, I leave that up to you. The e quite similar to the sea night. Also pretzel it over again. The f actually has. Ah, um, acute solution, if especially if you like, flourishes because you can use that cross stroke to lead into the next letter. I have not found a good alternative for the I because as soon as you mess with the lower end of the stem, it becomes ambiguous and it might turn into an L. If you know any way to connect a capital I to the next letter, I'd be curious to see it. Um, the end would also require a kind of departure. But if we use a larger version of the lower case, that would give us a hairline to connect. The O might work. If we pull this second Luke out and then connected to the next letter. But you want to be careful not to go too deep, or there might be ambiguity within a the P. You can change the stem a little bit by looping it around like so that would not work for the B. Obviously, because you have the second bowl for the B. But for the P, it might work the s also slightly ambiguous and a bit of a departure. If you started from up here, it might work but again and might look like an L. So with a question mark for the T, I have not found a good alternative for the same reason is the I? Because if you mess with the lower end of the stem, it becomes ambiguous and might look like another letter, so I wouldn't touch that the V and the W also kind of iffy. But maybe if you were to go, maybe if you were to go the same or a similar vouch as an O, you might nuke around. But I'm not sure how recognizable that IHS if you made the v sorry, that are even W because they're quite similar if you made it rounder and then came around like this, that might work if the words are quite distinctive and these are the letters that don't naturally connect unless you could find an alternative for all these capitals in general, As you can see, I made sure that the entrance stroke for the next letter did not touch the stem because we don't want it to look forced. 6. Spacing: Stem to Stem: Now that we've looked at how to connect all the letters, let's dive into how to space them. The basic calligraphy rule that you probably know by heart by now is that the space inside the letter has to be visually equal to the space between letters. In a word, we've covered the difference between mathematically and visually equal in a previous video , and now we're going to take it one step further and dig into the anatomy of each letter. In typography. When you create a new fund, you refine how it looks on paper by current ing certain letter pairs. It's similar in calligraphy, where the letters are also made up of straight stems, curves and open counters. Let's start by spacing letters where there's two stems interacting again. It's the stems or down strokes that we look at to gauge the distance, which should be the width of a Noval. I'm going to connect the letter I, which is all stem to other letters that have stems on their left hand side, and sometimes you might find it helpful to warm up just by making a few oval shapes to get you into a rhythm and activate your muscle memory. So if you want to get out your pencils and just draw some circles and some ovals now you'll have a width for reference that you want to use. You can see with a little practice, and the slower I go, the more deliberate the oval becomes. So I like that one. Um, try and replicated that one's a bit sin. This one's better. This one's better. So if you're naturally right rounder, then that's okay. If this is your oval, this is your oval. Just make sure that you space all the letters and little wider as well. Same if you right, naturally more narrow than all the spaces between your letters are going to be more condensed. A swell. I think I'm going to aim for, like, a middle Which of maybe these these two Okay, No, I'm going to start to connect the I to the letters that you see up here. All of them, as you see, have the straight down stroke on the left hand side. So we're connecting a stem to another stem, and the shape between the letters should be the same size as this shape. Inside the letter you see how this one is slightly off because the distance between the letter is wider than for with inside that be so let's see if we can get it better the next time. I'm a little happier with that. Although there's a lot of ink that came down on the lower hurt there, I don't know, picked up a fiber. These things happen. Must do that. H again getting closer. And now combining two eyes look like you until you add what I believe is called the Tittle laptop. Same further I into J. We're gonna look like a why remember, copper plate is made up of components drugs. Then you add the finishing touches. So I think these spaces here are actually quite ok. And I'm also happy with the branching off in the center of the Excite with these two because we have the nice triangles and white space underneath where the hairlines connect. I was surrounded. These distances are okay again. Also the middle branching off on P Hi Bergen. I'm using Rhodia paper. Usually it's quite smooth, but apparently this patch or this page, wonderful temperamental had smoothed onto the tea. And as you're moving to make the next stroke, because with every stroke you make, you define the white space around it, so keep your eye on where the pen goals, but also keep your eye on where the previous stroke is. You've probably been practicing that for up a case. EMS and upper Case W's where you have to make sure that the stems are parallel so the same trick can work here when we have the I and then you. It could have continued in the same way and have a wave pattern. Man, the move down here for the W. These are all under turn, arches combined and then half size for the flag. This instruct could have been a little shallower. Otherwise, I'm happy with that. It's a smidge to close, but the W is okay and then last but not least, the why. Okay, I'm liking this distances as well, and I think you get the idea. So when stems are interacting, keep an eye on your down stroke and the white space around it, and warm up with ovals to get into a rhythm to make sure everything is a similar size 7. Spacing: Stem to Arch: Let's look at the second category of spacing now, where the space is going to be a little wider between the stem and the next down stroke, because the space between the two letters is intersected by a curved, hairline connecting stroke. So letters that begin with the rounded entrance like that, or an overturned arch, as I call it, are the M n, the English R V X and Zed or zee. And I've seen some people write the why in that way as well. And if you want to warm up to prepare and get the muscle memory going for that kind of distance, you can do some reverse compound curves. So from your warm up, you know that the compound curve comes up from the waistline arches, and then you press down before lightening up again. So you have the connection oven, overturn ARJ and under Tauron Arch that makes the compound curve. And then the curved hairline connection that we're talking about in the spacing is basically the reverse where you start at the waistline and come down. I would like so, and you can see with the oval that we're using. This space is going to be slightly wider to allow for a graceful hairline connection. Let me just make sure we're focused. Okay? So to connect those letters and to space thumb, let's start again with the I. And then inside the M is going to be the size often oval. And there you have the the normal if you will compound curve so here slightly wider than here. And these two are similar again. Now the i n. I don't like that and a compound curve slightly rider. Then the next one, I heard the distance between Hirsche Dele the curve would intersect it in the middle. I have the left space a little smaller than the right space there, but that's what we're going to look for an hour for the next one. So for the V on a spit, pay extra special attention. And that distance is the same are sorry that the hairline connecting curve intersects the space equally and now the X. I remember the first down stroke is light in the second is C shape. And then dizzy and I have seen some people write the why with this archer as well. Uh oh, I have not learned it that way because it's a little ambiguous. But there you go. On this connection, this hairline. I did not have enough space down there because we're still want to triangles, right? So to compare those two side by side. So here we have three stems, and here we have stem cover stim. 8. Spacing: Stem to Oval: in the next category, we're going to connect a stem to an oval. And if you're spacing a stem toe Unova letter, remember that we have a little more white space on the left hand side. So to make the parallel visually, even we might have to narrow the distance just a little bit. So scooch that oval over just a little bit and you have the oval letters here again, I'm going to use the I to connect, but you can also use a T or any other measure that has a stem on the right hand side. So this literally is the width of an oval because it is an oval letter, and this is the which often oval scooch down just a tad to account for this extra white space that we have here and here. Let's continue with C and the D that he was a bit big, and you do want to swoop out a little bit to make sure that's not ambiguous with an old. You want to make sure that this counter space remains open. No, Oh o G, uh, did not connect very nicely. Let's try that again still, and I keep picking up fibers. Okay. I like this over a little better, though. Que you notice how this is a little rounder. So I came out a little wider here as well. But visually, I believe these. This space is equal to this space. Just like this space is equal to the space. And that's what we're practicing here. 9. Spacing: Opens to Stem, Oval, & Words: the other two categories I'd like to show you are basically the other way around. We're going to go from an open space on the right hand side, too, a stem and to another open space or curve. So the letters that have a little more space on the right hand side or ce que l r and X and we're going to connect them to and I now and actually we can worry it up a little bit and then we're connected them also to another oval. And in both cases, we might want to consider tightening the space a little bit again for for visual reasons. So if we have the sea that we have to come out far enough to make sure the oval isn't and blocked, this space is a little narrower than an oval to compensate e to the t. Not like the way that came out. That definitely looks even even though this basis a little while is not quite two ovals and then K an exit stroke was a little too close. Hello. See how those are all quite even are on the X. I don't know what? That didn't go All the way down, so it looks a little weird. Let's try that again, connecting these letters to an oval starting with C. These are two ovals together, and they both have white space on their right hand side and their left hand side, so they're going to be scorched a little closer together. The distance between these two letters is not another whole oval, maybe half of one. Same with the E N D. K in the hold fiber again, when completely pear shaped. See if I can get rid of that, do that again marginally better, and you see this technically, is the right hand side of the L. And it's about half on oval space. Between those two letters to compensate for the White Space R and D and thanks a now last but not least, spacing words. We want to make sure that the space between words is about an oval as well. So imaginary oval and next word starts. So in other words, we don't want them to close where this would be the imaginary oval, and this would be a little too close. And then, if we have another over here, we don't want it to wide, either because as your eye travels across the line, it needs to recognize two words that belonged to the same sentence, and this one is too wide and too narrow, and this one looks just right. 10. Recap & Handout: now that was a lot of information. So let's review the highlights using the handouts before we go into more exercises. You connect copper plate letters by combining the hairline exit and entrance strokes, usually from the baseline heaven I on where the connections branch out or connect. Ideally, it's along the center of the excite. In the case of letters with flags, the connecting curves are going to be in the middle of the excite. And if the next letter is an oval, the hairline does not go all the way up to the waistline before you build the next letter. The S kind of stands alone a bit, but it can be made to connect if you use a variation. In other words, you always want to anticipate what the next letter is going to be, so you know how to end the preceding one and where to place your pen to continue. Some capitals connect directly to the next letter using their exit stroke, but not all of them. If they don't connect, make sure the following in stroke does not touch the capital or a connection might look forced, and it'll mess with your flow. You space copper place letters. Depending on the size of your basic oval shape, the space inside that oval should be visually equal to the space between letters. In a word, you have to make some adjustments based on the anatomy of a letter, when there are two straight lines interacting or a straight line with an arch letter, straight line with the curve, an open space with a straight line or an open space with a curve. Remember, it's the down strokes or stems that guide our I to judge the distance between letters because that's where the Incas and we want to make sure to extend out after the See the E and the X to allow for that open counter space. You also want to leave the width of a Noval between two words to help the readers. I move across the page in the next video. I'll show you how I practice connecting and spacing necklaces and pan grams. I'll do them in real time, and I won't talk you through them again. So feel free to put on some music or, you know, listen to your favorite show. I will, however, review the parts that worked and the parts that didn't after I'm done. So shake out your hands, get a glass of water and I'll see you in the next video. 11. Excercise: Necklaces: There are two exercises to practice connecting lower case letters. One is called necklace, where you combine the same letter with all the other letters of the alphabet. The other is a pan graham, where you write a sentence that contains all letters of the alphabet. I'm going to write to necklaces for you, the E and the T because they're the most commonly used letters in the English alphabet. But of course you are free to make a necklace with all 26 letters. The Pan Grams. I'm going to demonstrate our drived folks. Sniff grabs Quick Waltz, and the five boxing wizards jump quickly For your project, you can choose to write any of these pan grams or another one or indeed, your favorite phrase or a necklace. And remember to have fun with it. And I look forward to seeing your results. So now to start us off the necklace, - Okay , now the first line looks a little wider than the second line. Spacing here is quite similar, and then I think this section is quite similar. The not very happy with a K E here that's too close in the Ellis a little too wide, not sure what happened with the M of the end here They don't look very graceful that always nothing gets night. Some paper fibres there the Q laid down a lot more ink, then the T, for example. But the rest of it this the section again. I think the spacing is pretty even. And then here we get a little bit off with the size that that's what the practices for. OK, so now we've done the e let's do of a T and I'm gonna turn on around and you get the idea. I hope you're following along. If you have any questions, let me know. Here goes the T necklace. - Okay , This one, I think, is a little more easily visible when the spacing is off or when it is even Onda again. Here you can see that I was a little bit too generous with the the exit of the sea. But I'm quite happy with the A t B t and then with this section here in this section here, next section here is a little closer together than the first line, but still it's quite parallel. And, um, the X needs a little dog over here. This is not as even as I would have liked it, but again, we're practicing, and I'm coming off of writing for about three hours now, recording this course. Oh, yeah. My hand is getting a little tired. Let me get a new page and will continue with the pen grams. 12. Exercise: Pangrams: and we're back with the Pan Grams. The 1st 1 of going to write is Dr Fox. Names Grabs Quick Waltz. - Yeah , okay, so here we have a couple of issues again. J obviously has a lot more ink than Thea. Other stems and down strokes. That be loop is a little sooner than I would want it, but I think in terms of spacing, we have the oval space in between the words and we've used all the letters. Remember, to added weight to your see up there and the next pan Graham is the five boxing Wizards. Okay, here. I think I'm a little happier with the letter forms and especially here. The five boxing was It's I like the way that came out. So with the X as I was as I was writing the excess, I was writing the connection to the Zia's. I was writing the connection to the end. I was reminded again of the connection exercises that we've done earlier and the rules that we've reviewed so connecting hairlines where the exit stroke turns into the entrant entrance stroke, for example, between the FBI and then connecting in the center from flags like the V or the old or indeed, the B and then connecting to ovals, remembering that the hairline does not go up all the way to the waist to avoid extra little years on the left side of the over. Okay. These are your exercises. Hand grams and necklaces. I hope you're going to write yours now and then I'll see you in the project section. 13. Thank You & Wrap Up: and that's it already for our calligraphy connections and spacing class. I hope you enjoyed watching me right for you and followed along. I look forward to seeing your projects. And as with my other classes, I will do my best to comment on every post and provide feedback if you want it. Do let me know if you have any questions at all or if you would like to see me connect another specific letter payer, I'm always happy to share what I know. If you'd like to keep in touch, I'm at Doris full. Grab it on Instagram and I also blawg and send a newsletter out of Just pick up a pin dot com. So thank you and see you again soon.