How to Draw 101 Ep. 2 - Drawing & Sketching in 3D Using Perspective | Tamas Benko | Skillshare

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How to Draw 101 Ep. 2 - Drawing & Sketching in 3D Using Perspective

teacher avatar Tamas Benko, Drawing

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      What's in This Class?


    • 2.

      Before We Begin


    • 3.

      Day 1 - How to See Volumes?


    • 4.

      A Glass of Wine


    • 5.

      A Yoga Pose


    • 6.

      Organic Forms


    • 7.

      Assignment - Day 1


    • 8.

      Day 2 - Perspective Drawing Basics


    • 9.

      3D Isometric & 2D Multiview Projections


    • 10.

      Perspective Projections: 1-Point


    • 11.

      2-Point Perspective


    • 12.

      3-Point & 5-Point Perspectives


    • 13.

      Assignment - Day 2


    • 14.

      Day 3 - Basic 3D Building Blocks - The Cube


    • 15.

      The Cylinder


    • 16.

      The Sphere


    • 17.

      The Cone & the Pyramid


    • 18.

      Assignment - Day 3


    • 19.

      Day 4 - Transformations - P Letter


    • 20.

      Coffee Cup Handle


    • 21.

      Glass-like Forms


    • 22.

      The Donut (Torus)


    • 23.

      The Banana


    • 24.

      Assignment - Day 4


    • 25.

      Day 5 - Sketching in 3D - The Camera


    • 26.

      A Coffee Cup in 3D


    • 27.

      Assignment - Day 5


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About This Class

How to Draw 101 Series - Episode 2

In this beginner drawing class you can learn step by step how to recognize the 3D structures of real-life subjects, and how to draw believable 3D forms with your pencil in order to create the illusion of 3-dimensionality in the viewer.

We will use the basic principles of volumetric drawing and perspective drawing to create depth on the 2-dimensional paper.

Understanding volumes, depth & space is an essential drawing skill that you will use all the time in your artistic carrier.

What previous drawing experience do you need?

Some basic drawing skills would be useful (check out the 1st episode of this series), but not mandatory for this class. I designed the lessons in a way that you can also benefit from it with very little or zero previous drawing experience.

What drawing tools do you need?

You can enroll in this beginner drawing class without any special drawing tool. I'll be using a regular 2B graphite pencil, and cheap office papers. But you can use any drawing tool you like or have (pen, marker, crayon).

What can you expect by completing this class?

You will have the opportunity to understand how complex 3D forms are built from simple building blocks, and recognize the 3D structure of any subject you see. Also, we'll be drawing simple and more complex forms using the rules of perspective drawing (1-point, 2-point, and 3-point perspective). First, we will draw the simplest basic 3D shapes from any angle: the cube, the cylinder, the sphere, the cone, the pyramid, and the torus. Then, we will discover how to make different transformations (like rotation, bending, twisting, stretching) on these basic shapes to get more complex forms. To practice what you've learned we'll be doing plenty of drawing exercises. We'll be sketching & drawing a lot.

By the end of the class, the goal is be able to draw rock solid 3D structures on the paper about your favorite subjects, which is the very first phase of creating any kind of artworks.

Class Content

Day 1 - How to See Volumes?

How to recognize the 3D structure of

  • a blocky subjects - a classic arch

  • rounded forms - a glass of wine

  • a human figure - a yoga pose

  • more complex, organic forms - the lips

  • Day 1 - Assignment: analyze the structure of a windmill, and make a sketch about it

Learn about construction lines.

Day 2 - Perspective Drawing Basics

  • Projection in visual perception

  • Graphical projection types

  • 3D isometric projection

  • 2D multiview projection

  • Perspective projections

  • 1-point perspective

  • 2-point perspective

  • 3-point perspective

  • 5-point perspective

  • Day 2 - Assignment: practicing perspectives

Day 3 - Basic Building Blocks

  • The cube

  • The cylinder

  • The sphere

  • The cone

  • The pyramid

  • Day 3 - Assignment: draw simple 3-D shapes in a 2-point perspective grid

Day 4 - Transformations

  • Draw a P letter in 3D

  • How to draw a coffee cup handle step by step

  • How to draw rounded glass-like forms

  • How to draw a donut shape

  • How to draw a complex 3D form, the banana in different angles

  • Day 4 - Assignment: imagine you're drawing

Day 5 - Let's do some sketching

  • Make a sketch about a camera in 3D

  • Make a sketch about a coffee cup with a spoon in 3D

  • Day 5 - Assignment: 3D sketching about your favorite subject

If you'd like to take your drawing skills to the next level, enroll in this class now!

See you in the first lesson!

Meet Your Teacher

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Tamas Benko



I love to teach new skills to students, so I'd like to see you in my class!
And please don't forget to hit +Follow button to stay up to date with all my future classes.

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Level: Beginner

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1. What's in This Class?: Welcome to my how to draw 101 series, drawing and sketching in 3D episode. Creating the illusion of three-dimensionality on paper looks cool. Most people think that it's kind of magic that only artists can achieve. The good news is that it's just requires some fundamental drawing skills that anyone can learn. I created this five-day class to help you acquire that knowledge. Hi there, my name is Thomas. I love to teach new skills to students. I'll be your guide on this journey. Well, you can learn how to see real-life subjects differently and be able to draw them in 3D. I'll be showing you how to start seeing the volumes of everyday objects. We are going to go through the rules that you need to follow when you illustrate these 3D forms. This topic is also called prospective join. You will meet the simplest basic building blocks and learn to draw them accurately from any angle. Then we'll be turning these symbols, 3D shapes into more complex objects so you can start drawing subjects from life convincingly. Finally, we'll be doing some sketching, practice, everything what you have learned. This class is for you, if you are a beginner at drawing and you'd like to develop your basic drawing skills, will be proceeding slowly step-by-step from simple to more complex topics. How we break down the concepts into smaller digestible pieces. I don't assume any previous drawing knowledge from your part. If you have some, that's great. But if you don't, that's okay too. If you have a pencil and some office papers, you can start destroying session right away. No previous drawing knowledge or special drawing tools are needed. Main goal is to help you develop the skill of drawing in 3D. To practice what you have learned will be doing plenty of exercises. You will see how powerful destroying scales can be in your hand. The topic is very exciting, so please don't say maybe tomorrow, start to learn these valuable drawing skills today. Spend an hour by day on this class and you will see how far you can get in a week. I hope that I can see you in the first lesson. 2. Before We Begin: I'm glad that you've decided to take this class. Drawing is a great activity. The variety of techniques, styles, and ways you can illustrate something is inexhaustible. But there are some basic or fundamental knowledge that is worth learn at the beginning independently from the area you are interested in. Once you own these scarce, your journey in art will be much more enjoyable. It less frustration. I'm not saying there won't be challenges, but think of these obstacles as good things. Every time you step over a barrier, you will be filling satisfaction and joy. So whatever difficulty you face with, I encourage you never stop trying. Illustrating the three-dimensional world on a paper or canvas convincingly is challenging. The issues that the media you drawn has only two dimensions, width and height. While in reality, objects have a third dimension, the depth. Go. Artists developed certain drawing techniques to create the illusion of 3D on a 2D surface. This topic is called volumetric drawing, and we'll be using the rules of perspective to create believable 3D sketches for the viewer. But as a first step, you need to learn how to see the 3D structure of subject, which is not obvious for a beginner. These things are hidden. The unconscious mind of the viewer can process them and recognize these 3D objects. But if you, as an artist wanted to actually draw them, you need to know what to look for, how to realize these hidden properties of NSObject. So on day 1, we'll be starting off with observation and analysis. That's the very first step of any art creation process. Anyway, we'll be using a kind of an x-ray vision to understand the 3D structure of all kinds of subjects will be recognizing edges that are not obvious or visible to the viewer, as well as so-called cross contour lines or section lines that you rarely see uncompleted artworks. By doing this, we serve more than one purpose. On one hand, it will help you understand the 3D structure of any subject. This will be key to drawing them later. On the other hand, it will help you understand the orientation of surfaces in the 3D space, which will be an extremely useful skill when you start operating with light and shadow on your drawings in order to create the illusion of reality in the viewer. The thing is that very few people can draw convincing 3D shapes by instinct. So I'll be showing you step-by-step how you can learn this kind of 3D thinking. We'll be drawing all kinds of 3D forms from simple to more complex ones. It will be fun. And by the end of this class, if you make all the exercises, you'll be able to draw and sketch in 3D confidently. I hope that sounds interesting. Now let's see how to use the lessons to benefit the most from this class. Each lesson will take about an hour, including the practice activities. I will explain the concept and let you know where you need to draw with me. You may need to pause the video time to time and press Play once you are ready to move on. I suggest you use the Space bar on your keyboard with your free hand to stop and play the video, instead of using the mouse button with your dominant hand, using the space bar will cause less distraction in your mental state, which is ideal for drawing. I designed this course in a way that it doesn't require any previous drawing knowledge. You are an absolute beginner at drawing. No problem at all. The lessons will give you every information you need. And by the end, I hope you will feel yourself hungry to learn some more essential drawing skills. One of the great things in this class is that you can follow along with any drawing tool you like or have. It can be the most basic graphite pencil or pen, a marker, crayon. And you can even use a brush with water color if you prefer that. Would you be using a digital drawing tool like Photoshop with a drawing tablet or Procreate app on the iPad with the Apple pencil. That's fine too. The tool you use doesn't really matter in this class. In fact, in the next few days, you won't be learning to draw. You'll be learning to see things in a way that will help you draw them in 3D. The improvement in your drawing skills will be just a consequence. But you will actually be learning is a unique perspective of reality that artists use to illustrate realized subjects convincingly. I hope that sounds exciting. Get your pencil or whatever tool you like, and let's jump right into it. 3. Day 1 - How to See Volumes?: Let's start this exciting journey in the world of 3D. In today's lesson, you'll be learning to see the 3D volumes of real-life subjects. As I mentioned earlier, the very first step in the art creation process is the observation phase. Artists spent a significant amount of time purely Ration, analyzing what they see. And not only at the beginning, but throughout the whole drawing or painting process. And only in the rest day actually draw or paint. During creation, you can spend 50 percent or even more of your time with observation. And that is perfectly normal. Especially as a beginner, it's important to give yourself time to observe, analyze, and understand what you are about to draw. This observational phase can cover many aspects of visual perception, like size, height, width, and depth. Ratio. Relationships between different elements, light and shadow on surfaces or texture, just to name a few. What we will be focusing on in this class is the structure of subjects we intend to draw. In art, a solid structure is key to create a satisfying artwork. The structure is the foundation. It's the base for everything gas. The edges of shapes have to follow the right direction. Corners have to be on the right spots. Curves need to follow the proper path. Sizes and orientations have to be correct because if they don't, the viewer, we realize issues without any artistic skills. That's why for an artist, it's essential to have the skill to see the structure of a three-dimensional subject and know the rules that need to be followed throughout its illustration. Perspective drawing is the topic that covers these rules. Perspective is something that I cannot get around in any of my beginner drawing glasses. I always dedicated short lesson to that. In this class, we will go into perspective a little bit deeper. Perspective drawing itself may sound kind of technical, and many people think that only mechanical engineers or architects need this knowledge. The truth is that artists also need a certain level of understanding on perspective. But don't worry, we're not going to dive deeply into the technical aspect of this. I draw the line to take a practical approach that you can use with ease on your sketches and drawings. Let's start off by taking some interests in photographs and see what's happening there. For this part of the lesson, I'll be using my iPad Pro with the digital drawing and painting app called Procreate. A side note, if you are interested in using this digital tool, I have a three hour high rated getting started with Procreate class. Anyway, it will be easier to demonstrate with this digital tool what I'd like to share with you regarding observation. This photo shows a classic arch, fascinating building structure from a dramatic viewing angle. For beginners, I always suggest to use grayscale reference photos to practice with colors. Create an additional level of complexity that you want to avoid in the beginning of your journey. Every photo editing software contains a filter or an adjustment option to turn your photo into a black and white with one or two clicks. So it's not a big deal. Step. Let me turn down the opacity of this image to around 50 percent because the details are not important at all in this initial observation of phase. Actually, it's a good practice to forget about all the details, shadows, and textures at this point. So we can keep our focus on the main structure. Now let's find the main construction lines that make this building look the way we see it on this photo. You don't need to draw with me for now. We're just analyzing what we see. It's a good practice to start with identifying the biggest and most obvious symbol, the subject. They will show the orientation of the object as well as the viewing angle or the perspective we are looking at this building. Now the photo doesn't show the entire building, but we can easily identify some outlines. This top edge on the front face. This outer vertical edges. These inner billers. This edge inside. This radical edge behind this horizontal cross. We can easily identify these curves on the front. And in the back. This top edge on the side is not so obvious. But we can make a guess based on this short section of the pillar. I, if I turn off the photo layer, we can have an idea what our subject is about. I drew a very few lines, but still we got the main structure of the building in the specific viewing angle or in other words, orientation. You can also call this as the primary structure of our subject. In the next lesson, we are going to discover what rules these lines follow. Now, I'd just like to focus on realizing this primary structure. If you want to, we can add some cross contour lines or sexualize to further describe the structure. Something like this. Think of these cross contour lines as regard the object a certain height horizontally parallel to the ground plane. By the way, when we draw over a photo like this, it's called tracing. Tracing is about having the photo with the lower the opacity in the background. And draw over some important edges or corners to get the exact orientation and ratio of the subject. It's okay to do that for this demonstrated purpose. But I suggest to all tracing on your actual drawings. For example, some people like to start the portrait drawing process with this kind of tracing to ensure likeness, having each facial feature on the right spot. But the thing is that on one hand, it's kind of cheating. But most importantly, it doesn't really develop your drawing skills. So if you desire to learn to draw, not just having some cheap force reward, I suggest to avoid tracing the photo. As opposed to tracing, what is really useful is to make a sketch right next to your reference photo. Let me put this photo side and make a quick sketch over a year. The easiest way to do that is to keep a one-to-one ratio. So the size of my sketch, we'll match the subject on the photo. But before I do that, let's look into an important concept. How can we place a line in the right orientation on our sketch? One option is to find references and the photo. What do I mean by that? We have to identify the tilt angle of an edge compared to the picture frame or some other edges. For this purpose, there are some key angers that you can use for estimation. You should be familiar with these angles. So let's take a quick overview. The 90 degree angle is when two lines are perpendicular to each other like this. This is an easy situation because they are parallel with the picture frame. But they can be rotated like this. This is still a 90 degree angle. If we cut this angle into half, we will get 45 degree angle. All we can make thirds out of the 90 degree. And we will get 30 and 60. Now we can split the 30 degree angle even further by 15 degree just to get a higher precision. So when you try to identify an angle of a line like this top edge, you can take the key angers and try to find the angle that is closest to what you actually see. You can ask questions like these. Is it around 45? Is it smaller? Uncertainty? Comparing this edge to the side of the picture frame, it looks pretty much a 45 degree angle. For this pillar. I can take this top edge as a reference. This is 90 degree. So this one looks like a 60-degree. Quantifying angers like this will help you draw lines in the right orientation. Now let me make that quick sketch over here. Another option to get the orientation right is to do ghosting motion on the reference photo and repeat it on your sketch. This method requires to have the skill to be able to draw parallel lines with a reference. If you struggle with that, make sure you check the previous episode of my how to draw series about basic drawing skills. And the way I usually mix the two approaches together. Also, I do some cross-checking with other edges to ensure consistency and proper relationships. It's also important to have very light strokes in this first sketching phase. One of the reasons is that you will probably have several trials to get the right angle for each store. The other reason is that you usually don't want these structural aligns to be seen on your final drawing. So it's a good practice to keep structural aligns light. It'll be easier to erase them later. Or if you decide to keep them on your finished drawing, they won't be disturbing. You can go even lighter than this. I keep my strokes border now. So you can better see my sketch on the video. Good. Independently from the complexity of the subject. Most artists start with the simple sketch. Light is no details, no texture, no shadows, just solid base structure. If you'd like to, you can pause the video now and try to make your own sketch with a pencil on a paper. But please don't get discouraged if the result doesn't look satisfying for the first trial. Actually, there are some rules that you are going to learn in the next lessons to make this simple sketch perfect. I'd like you to remember one important thing. There is no point to go any further with any drawing until the base structure looks very solid, meaning that the lines are in the right position, their angles are correct, and the 3D structure looks just right. So you can build upon a solid base. Anyway, we have the base structure for this arch. I'd like you to notice too simple, basic 3D shapes that this subject is Beard from. One is a box shape. Actually, the building itself has a bounding box like this. These edges are invisible hands. They are on the other side of the building, but they are there. So I marked them with dashed lines. Now, I turn off the sketch layer. To see these invisible edges requires that kind of x-ray vision in your head. I mentioned earlier, we are going to develop this skill very soon. By seeing these edges in the background, we'll have you draw more accurate 3D forms. I'd also like to point out that whatever complex shape your subject has, its always a good practice to find the simple bounding box. If the bounding box has the proper orientation, it will be much easier to draw further details correctly placed in a specific perspective or viewing angle. That's the reason why it's important to learn to draw a simple box shape like this from any angle. It seems very basic, but I'm sure it will be challenging if you're an absolute beginner, but no worries, you are going to learn this way soon. Now we can break down our subject further into sub-elements. We can notice block shape over here, here, and here. Now what about this arch? This is another simple 3D shape. We can look at it as a half cylinder. This is a cylinder. I cut it in half like this. And this is what we basically see over here. I draw some cross contour lines to better feel the volume of this form. Good. We have beard, the base structure of this building from two types of basic 3D shapes, the cube and the cylinder. Another interesting point I'd like to make here is that the curved surface like this can be originated from a simple plane. Let's say that we have a sheet of paper. Again, I draw some cross contour lines to freely its volume and orientation in the 3D space. Now let's start banded like this. Band some more. You see, this is just one example how you can build up more complex objects on very simple romance. We will be looking into this in detail lesson. What I'd like you to remember is that whatever complex subject you see, there is always a way to break it down to very simple basic elements. To recognize the simple building blocks need some practice. But remember, it's always possible. Once you have the skill of seeing the 3D volumes of your subjects and being able to draw the building blocks accurately. It will be fun to draw the structure of anything from any viewing angle, even from your imagination, not just copying a reference photo. So hold on. You'll be able to draw these things very soon. 4. A Glass of Wine: Now let's see discomforting still-life composition. Let's break it down to simple elements. We have a cylindrical shape over here, here, here, and here. Now there is another simple shape we find everywhere in real life. Sphere. We have a hemisphere over here and here as well. Finally, here we have a pretty compressed cone shape of a cone is another simple 3D shape. Normally looks like this. This is the very same shape just with a low height. I'm drawing the edge of the table. I'm adding some shadows here and there. I turn off the photo layer and we have a pretty expressive sketch of our composition. Notice again that its period from very simple elements, some straight lines and elliptical curves. There is nothing complex or difficult here, right? The secret of why the sketch looks pretty solid is that the simple amines are placed. They have the right orientation and they have the right relationships. In other words, they are consistent with each other. We are going to discover the whys behind these placements in tomorrow's lesson. 5. A Yoga Pose: Now let's see this lady standing in a yoga pose. As usual. We go with the lower the opacity because we are not interested in the details. Let me draw quickly the simplest 3D forums I can see in this figure. The arms and the legs can be obviously represented by cylinders. The head can be a sphere or an X shape of the torso can be a bokeh shape. I'm adding the missing body parts. I turn off the photo layer. And this is how the 3D structure of this figure looks on its own. Once you master the skill of drawing the simple 3D shapes in perspective in any angle, you'll be able to change the pose of this figure or create your own unique by the posture. And it will look just right. 6. Organic Forms: Sometimes it's challenging to find the simple 3D shapes on your subject, especially on organic forms. For example, the structure of this math seems pretty complex. At first glance, you probably couldn't attach any simple shapes to that. But if you think about it, we can start from two cylinders positioned like this. We just need to make some transformation, like bending and some distortion. Not saying it's easy. But believe me, you will learn this stuff as we are going to break it stands one Nation down into simple steps. And day 4 will be doing all sorts of transformations from basic 3D shapes. After that, it will be much easier to find the simple building blocks for complex organic forms. Do you may have a question here. Why do we draw all these cross contour and cross sectional lines that we almost never see on a real art works. Well, on one hand, if you observe some drawings from great masters closely, you will see some of these construction lines actually leaving some of them visible, can make your artwork more interesting. We're, on the other hand, as a beginner, I found it extremely useful to mark the structural construction and cross contour lines. It had me a lot to get a sense of three-dimensionality of all kinds of forms. Later when you gain confidence and already have the squred Justin, imagine these lines in your head. You draw them less and less. But for now, we will draw as many as we can. Remember. The goal of this class is to develop the skill of your 3D thinking and get the sense of 3D volumes. By having these gears, combining with other important drawing skills, will ultimately help you create finished, fancy, and polished artworks later. All right, I wouldn't like to overwhelm you with too much theory on the first day. So let's sum up the most important items of today's lesson. We took some interesting photographs and discovered the 3D structure of different subjects. We dealt with blocky, rounded and organic forms. We realized that every complex object can be broken down to simple building blocks. We identified the cube, the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone as and 3D shapes. You have learned how to identify the simple shapes on your subject and how to make a sketch about its main structure. You already know that the solid structure is key to create any kind of artwork. Hopefully by now you start to feel the volume or for objects you see. In this lesson, we have focused on how to copy a structure based on the reference photo. Soon, we are going to discover what rules to follow to draw these things properly, even from your imagination. Let's make use of all these things and make an exciting exercise. 7. Assignment - Day 1: Please take an office paper and pencil or whatever drawing tool you prefer, and follow my instructions step-by-step. We are going to make a sketch about this windmill. You can find a simple but engaging reference photo as a PDF file in resources. Feel free to download it and print it out. I'll be drawing slowly so you can follow along easily, but feel free to pause the video at any point. Take your time to copy what I'm doing. Don't get discouraged if something doesn't look right for the first time. Remember, we are practicing, That's okay to make mistakes. Actually, realizing a mistake is a good thing because you will know what issue you need to address later. How to address the issue is another question, but it's always good to have the recognition. I'd like to note that you don't need to use your eraser. Just use line strokes first. Then once you like what you see, you can draw over with some darker tones. You ready? Now what's the first step? That's right, we observe. You don't need to draw in me just yet. I'll tell you when it's time. It's a good practice to realize the horizon line first. Its location will make an impact on everything. We will explore this in detail in the next lesson. I mark the horizon line we dread. Let's look for simple shapes on the subject. I turned down the opacity bit. Notice that the main form of the building is a cylinder. I'm drawing some cross contour lines. At the top we have a cone. And the third main shape is the bounding box of the pose, which is basically a square shape placed in perspective. I turn off the photo layer and we can see the base structure. Let's try to copy this. I've turned the structural layer off and set the opacity of our reference photo back to 100%. I create a new layer and set an HB pencil type of brush. Now is the time for you to follow along. You can use any graphite pencil you have. You can even use a pen or a marker, whatever you like. Let's draw the horizon line first. We start off with the biggest shape on the subject. So I draw this cylinder. Notice that it's vertical contour lines are not exactly radicals. They converse slightly upwards. Also notice that the curves at the top and the bottom are not the same. The bottom curve is almost horizontal, straight line. It bends very slightly this way. The top curve bands in the opposite direction. And a little bit more than the bottom one. It's because it's farther away from the horizon line. A quick tip. Try to add certain momentum to your strokes. They will look more dynamic and the overall look of your sketch will be better. Making a curve like this is too slow. It won't look natural. You want to add some speed like this. Don't worry, if your strokes run through this radical edge. If your stroke has a momentum, you can stop right there. And You don't have to. I draw these cross contour lines. Notice that they banned less and less as they get closer to the horizon line. I also draw some vertical cross contour lines. The density is higher on the side and lower on the front. This density change relates to a principle called foreshortening, that I'll explain later. Let's draw the cone at the top. And finally the poles. This one requires some practice. I know that the center is somewhere here. Let's use the estimation for the angles I talked about earlier. I draw vertical and the horizontal guideline over the photo. The 45 degree angle is somewhere here. The poll looks like in a 60 degree angle. Let's place it. The other one makes an angle roughly like this. Finally, the bounding box has a shape like this. Good. Now, as you can see, we have a pretty solid base structure that we can be alone. This is the point where we can start adding details to our sketch step-by-step. I'm creating a new layer for the second phase. I'm adding the door, windows, emphasizing some contours, adding some shadows. This window seems of position that's fixed, that I'm adding details. This side is in shadow. Let's not forget the poles. We have a pretty nice sketch about dysrhythmias, which can serve as a solid base for adding further details. If you want to erase some of the construction lines. But as I'm drawing on a digital drawing tool, I can simply turn of the construction layer. And my sketch will look like this. It's not bad, isn't it? All right. I hope you enjoy day one. And you also managed to draw a nice-looking windmill. This was just a warm-up session. So I hope that I can see you in the next lesson tomorrow where we are going to explore the rules of perspective. Then you'll be ready to not just copy a subject like this, but to draw something from your imagination in 3D. See you there. 8. Day 2 - Perspective Drawing Basics: Welcome back. I'm proud of you that you are taking the next step in this class. In this lesson, you are going to learn about perspective. That every artist should have a solid understanding on. Many people tried to avoid this topic because they think it's too technical. But I promise you you're not going to the heavy stuff. We will just go through the basics and I will take a practical approach, providing knowledge that you can use instantly. Once you understand and start following some rules, your sketches will start to look much better. By using perspective in your drawings. You'll be able to create more realistic, more dynamic, and more interesting compositions. So please bear with me. It's worth the effort. I tried to explain it as plain and simple as I can. However, there might be some parts that were sound a bit complex for the first time. But don't stress yourself. Pause the video, think about it for a sec, rewind, and listen to the difficult part again. If it's still unclear, no worries. Make a note with a timestamp and move on. After finishing the class, you can revisit the parts you are having issues with. In most cases, the puzzles we'll eventually connect to each other if they don't, feel free to ask in the discussion section right below the video player. When we illustrate the three-dimensional world on a flat 2D surface, we use projection. I'm going to show you in a minute what I mean by that. Let's say we have a cube located here on the ground plane. As usual, I mark the invisible edges of the cube with dashed lines. We have a horizon line somewhere in the distance. And we have a viewer standing over here. That's called the viewer's position in the 3D scene. The point of view, or the point of vision. And let's call the direction the viewer is looking into, the line of sight. It's pointing towards the cube. In this case. A side note. You don't necessarily need to remember all these terms. But if you do, it will help you a lot when you explore this topic further. Anyway, let's analyze what's happening here. How and why does the viewer see Ds cubed? And what does the viewer actually see? This point, we need to look into the physics of visual perception. But don't worry, I'm not going to talk about any math formula. We're just going to look into the process of seeing in general. If you take it as simple as possible, there will be three main components of visual perception. First, there has to be light. Let's use the sun as the light source. Second, there has to be an object which reflects the light. And third, that has to be a viewer who can receive the reflected light. This reflected light creates the image of the object on the inner surface of the viewers Bible. Of course, this information then travels to the viewer's brain for further processing. But that part is not important in this regard. Good. So reflected light is key. But how can this knowledge be useful? Enjoying. Let's go a little bit deeper. You can think of a light ray is a path where light particles, called photons travel. So, and photons travel from the sun. Some of them will hit the surface of our object. Now I don't like to open the debate if light has particle or a wave nature or both at the same time. Let's just keep the analogy that photons hit the surface of the cube. Some of these photons will be absorbed by the surface, and others will be reflected in different directions. The absorption and reflection of light on a surface will result brighter and darker areas on the object. I have a class on light and shadow, where you can learn many interesting aspects of this topic. But now we just need to know that the sides of the cube make different angle with the light source. So they will have different tones or brightness. The stone differences where surfaces with different orientation meat will result visible edges to the viewer. So the viewer will perceive the stone differences and form the image of the object using his or her eyes. Now, you could say, Okay, that's great. But still, how can this be useful in drawing? Hold on. Here comes the concept called projection into the picture and the trick that artists found out centuries ago. Let me illustrate reflected light rays that point towards the viewer's eyes. I'm choosing some key points on the subject. It's corners. Now, let's put the picture plane, or in other words, a projection plane between the object and the viewer. This is basically a two-dimensional flat surface perpendicular to the line of sight. Notice that light rays coming from the object pointing towards the viewer's eyes are crossing this picture plane. If you take these intersection points and connect them with each other consistently, we will get the shape of the cube on the picture plane. This process is called graphical projection. When you draw on a paper, you basically draw what's on this picture plane. Artists and engineers develop different set of rules throughout the years for this purpose. Perspective drawing is about applying these rules. If you understand and follow these rules, you will be able to draw convincing 3D shapes on your paper. The base structure, we have a solid, which is the foundation for every good drawing. I hope that makes sense. 9. 3D Isometric & 2D Multiview Projections: There are all kinds of projection types, and each one creates a slight different image on the picture plane. As an artist, you don't need to know all of them. Actually, you will probably use only one or two types. But I'd like to show you some projections that can help you develop your 3D visualization skills. And to put perspective drawing into context. This part may sound a bit technical, but bear with me. It won't be that difficult and it will really help you understand the concept perspective drawing. There are two main groups of projections, parallel and perspective. Let's see two typical parallel projection types. First, let's go back to secondary school. I'm sure you learned some basic geometry there. And you know that space, as we see it, has three visible dimensions. We can illustrate these three-dimensions by three axis mode by x, y, and z. Now let me draw a simple house into the 3D space. This is the base. These are the sidewalls. And this is the roof. I draw some windows on the front and the door on the side. I'm adding a little bit of shading just to make the different orientations clear. Good. Now we can translate these three-dimensions as follows. We can call this x dimension the width of the house, this y-dimension, the depth of the house. And finally, the z dimension, the height of the house. Now surprise every three-dimensional object. Or if it's a complex curved object, its bounding box has a width, depth, and the height where you, I illustrated this house using a typical type of projection called isometric projection. You can see these type of rejection in some computer games like the popular Monument Valley. The rule here is that the three dimensions, X, Y, and Z, make an equal angle with each other. Hence the circle or the whole view makes 360 degrees. X is in this projection type, make a 120 degree angle with each other. So we basically divided the circle into three equal parts. Let me use some color coding so you will understand the next projection type better. In 3D graphics software, the x-axis is usually marked with the red. The y coordinate is marked with green. And desert dimension is marked with blue. As usual, dashed lines mean invisible lines to the viewer as they are covered by the house itself. Draw anything correctly in this type of projection, if you use a grid as a guide, the z dimension consists of simply vertical lines. The other two-dimensions make a 30 degree angle with the horizontal. I can increase the guideline density, but I need to make sure that x, y, and z guidelines intersect each other in one single point. Now, I can easily follow these guidelines and draw a stair, for example. It will look just right in this type of protection. So this is called isometric projection. It's not like reality, but the human brain can easily interpret this image as a 3D picture. Its rules are pretty simple. There are three directions. Making 120 degree angle with each other, and all edges pointing to a certain directions are parallel with each other. Now, there is another important tool that you will understand better once we looked into other projection types, but I need to mention it here. If we draw a cube using isometric projection with a one unit long edge, independently from what direction an edge follows, it will be exactly one unit long. So it will be one unit on the x, the y, and the z direction as well. I emphasize this because it won't be true for other more realistic projections. I hope you are still with me. Trust me, the time we spent on this will pay off because all this information will help you develop your 3D visualization skills. Now let's get back to our little house and see how we can draw it using another projection time. There is a two-dimensional representation called the mountain view projection, used mainly in architecture, mechanical engineering, and product design. Let's say that the viewer standing over here at the front of the building. What we're this viewer see in multi-view projection, we draw all three dimensions just in a different way. X's will be perpendicular to each other. And we will have three flat or 2D views. The front view, the side view, and a top view. Our viewer will see the side of the building. Let's call it the front. It will look like this. This is the x dimension for the width. And this is the set dimension or the height. Let me fill in this flat plane we dread on both illustrations. So this plane in this view corresponds to this plane in this other view. A side note, this originating point doesn't correspond to this point. These are two separate independent coordinate systems. If you really wanted to place it in this other view, it would be located over here because it's in the corner of the house. But we are not interested in that. Okay. Let's put the viewer into this position, looking at the house from the side. Now the viewer is going to see the side view of the house, which I am drawing over here. I'm drawing some projection guidelines to ensure proportion. Displaying corresponds to this plane in this view. So I fill it with green on both illustrations. The missing third view is the top view which will look like this. Now believe it or not, for a professionally trained eyes, these three flat 2D views perfectly described the object. He or she can visualize this house in its entirety and draw the 3D representation with no issue. What? I draw a chimney as well to help you understand these three views. Now if you see this kind of representation for the first time, you may need some time to think about it and get used to it, but that's okay. Don't stress yourself. Feel free to move on even if it's not perfectly clear. All right, so this one on the right is the view projection operates with 2D flat surfaces. 10. Perspective Projections: 1-Point: Now let's see the other main projection group called perspective projections. These ones are often used in art. The best way to understand them is to draw a simple blocky object, the cube. Let's see how it looks in different types of perspectives. In or curvilinear perspective. We are going to look at these types in detail soon. I'd just like you to notice that each perspective creates a slightly different look. Good. Let's start off with the simplest type of perspective projection, the one-point perspective. Remember, we have three-dimensions in the 3D space, x, y, and z. As you already know, we can think of them as width, height, and depth. Whatever type of perspective the US, it's a good practice to mark the horizon line. So let's do that. In drawing. The horizon line is a horizontal line in the distance. In reality, this is where the earth meets the sky in the field of view. Now I'm placing the cube over here. I'll explain in a minute what we see and what rules disclude follows. Remember, dashed lines mark invisible edges. By the way, this is called transparent construction drawing. And you also show the hidden edges of your subject. Now let's see what's happening here. This is the front plane of the cube. It's facing towards the viewer, one in this case towards us. Imagine this pencil in this position as the line of sight. Remember, the line of sight is a straight line originated at the viewer's position pointing towards the subject. We can make several statements about this front plane. First, in one-point perspective, it is parallel with the picture plane. So opposite edges will be parallel with each other and they will form a perfect square. Second, this form plane is also perpendicular to the ground plane. So if we looked at it from the side, it would look like this. This is the ground and this is the cube from the side. This front plane makes a 90 degree angle with the ground plane. Let me also draw the viewer's position and the line of sight. Now the horizontal edges on this front plane follow the x-axis. We can call this direction the first dimension of the cube, or its width. This dimension also corresponds to the horizon line. Lines that follow this x direction are always horizontal lines in one-point perspective. In other words, they are parallel with the horizontal edge of the picture plane, in this case with the edge of the paper. This is the first rule of one-point perspective. Edges that are parallel with the ground plane, perpendicular to the line of sight are always horizontal lines. I mark them with red, just like the x-axis. As the backplane is in the same orientation. These lines also fall into this category. So all the edges marked with dread are parallel with each other. Good. Let's see rule number 2 of one-point perspective. Edges that follow the z-axis. This vertical. Or in other words, edges that are perpendicular to the ground plane are vertical lines and parallel with each other. I marked them with blue. You can use the left or right side of your paper as a reference. This is the second dimension of the cube. Its height at a cube has a third dimension is depth. These edges represent that. They follow the y-axis in the 3D scene. So I mark these edges red-green. We can notice the day converge to a single point in the distance. This point is called the vanishing point, which is located on the horizon line. These so-called vanishing lines have me to place these edges consistently. Now looking at this cube, you may realize an important difference compared to isometric projection, where all edges of the cube one unit long on the drawing. In one-point perspective, only this front plane has one unit long edges. These edges that are following the depth of the cube are obviously shorter than one unit. So something strange is happening here. It drives us to an extremely important principle called foreshortening. It's a core concept of perspective drawing. It is one of the most important tools in the hand of the artist that helps to create the illusion of depth on a drawing or painting. There are two important things to remember here. First, in perspective projections, edges that recede in space short-term. So these edges won't be one unit long anymore. All of them will be shorter. I could draw them as one unit long. It's not against any rule. But this image would not represent the cube anymore. It's more like a brick shape. Now. The second important thing to remember is that objects get compressed as they move further away from the viewer. So this backplane that has the exact same size in reality than this front plane, looks smaller because it's farther away from us. It gets compressed by distance. Okay. I have to know that getting an understanding on foreshortening is one thing. It's the easy part. Using Newtonian drawings. That's a different story. It may sound pretty straightforward looking at this cube, but it can be quite challenging on more complex subjects. For example, tried to draw a hand outstretched towards the viewer, or try to draw a human face in three-quarter view in a way that the facial features look just right in perspective. You will see how difficult it is to apply the foreshortening principle in practice. But that's okay. That's the reason we proceed step-by-step from very simple subjects to more complex ones. I hope that makes sense. Now let me draw this cube in other location on the scene. But still in the same perspective system. We can place the cube over here. Remember, vertical edges are parallel with each other as well as horizontal edges. And the edges on the y-dimension converge to the vanishing point. Now let's place the cube or the horizon line. If the subject is located over there, it means that it's at the same level as the viewer. So we want seeds top or bottom side. The horizon line is also called the eye level in perspective. If the object is above the horizon, it means that it's above our eye level. So we are looking at it from below, we see its bottom plane. Good. A typical real-life application of one-point perspective is when artists draw straight capes. Let me make a simple so-called urban sketching quickly. I start with the horizon line. Vanishing point is typically in the center. I'm drawing some vanishing guidelines. Some buildings on the right. Remember, vertical and horizontal edges are easy. They are parallel with each other. No matter how far they are from the viewer. We only need to make sure that the edges on the third dimension follow our vanishing guidelines. That's why the one-point perspective is the easiest one from all. By the way, this convergence ensures that the buildings farther away from us will be smaller, just like in reality. Notice that the horizontal edges of the windows also follow the guidelines. The street in the middle, some trees on the left. And some people are standing here, and I can even place an airplane over here. I just need to follow the rules that we discussed. So we have a simple sketch using the rules of one-point perspective. You can check these rules on street photographs. Look for pictures where the vanishing point is nearly in the center of the image, both horizontally and vertically. Observe the edges of the buildings. They should follow the rules we discussed. Some lens distortion may take place close to the picture frame, but that's normal. That's how photography works. All right, now let's move on one step further. 11. 2-Point Perspective: We can improve the illusion of reality by adding a second vanishing point to our drawing. Let's look at this 2 perspective representation. Shading is not the subject of this class. But to make things clearer, let me shade the sides of the cube simply. Let's say the light is coming from this direction. So this side will be in shadow. This side will get the more slide. So I leave it white. And this side will be somewhere between the two. Let's see what has changed compared to 1 perspective. This tube in 1. Notice that the cube was rotated around this radical axis in about 45 degrees. So it isn't facing us directly anymore. Hi Mark this front edge we dread on both cubes. So you can better imagine the rotation. If this is the case, we will need a second vanishing point to make the new cube look right? You can think of it like this. This was the front face of the cube in one-point perspective, with the vanishing point located here. As the cube was rotated like this, the original vanishing point has moved to the left. You can see how these edges converge to this new vanishing 0.1. Now if we look at these other edges, they will converge to a second vanishing point. We have two vanishing points. So this perspective is called two-point perspective. By the way, both vanishing points are on the horizon line. Now the vertical edges of the cube behave the same way as in one-point perspective. They are simple parallel lines. In two-point perspective, edges that are perpendicular to the ground plane are parallel with each other on the drawing. Now what about the important principle, foreshortening in two-point perspective? Let's say that discloses to radical edge is one unit long. We can realize that foreshortening takes place on all other edges. Horizontal edges of the cube converge to one of the vanishing points. Or in other words, receding in space. They all short-term. So they are all shorter than one unit. We can observe the other important rule of foreshortening on the vertical edges. Edges that are farther away from us than this one get compressed. So they will also be shorter than one unit. Now let me place the cube at another location so you can get the idea how to construct it in two-point perspective. I always start with the closest radical edge. We already have the vanishing points. So I draw vanishing guidelines in both directions. And you practice these views free, free to use a ruler to get these construction lines straight. But if they are not perfect like minds, that's not an issue either. Now the next step is to mark the other two vertical edges on the sides. But here comes the question, how do we know where to place them? Shall I put them here? Here, or here? Which one is right? Well, of course, there is an exact geometry behind this, but it's way too complex to describe it in an art lesson. What you can do is to make an estimation based on a simple rule. On the side where the vanishing point is closer to the object. The effect of foreshortening will be more extensive. Receding edges we shorter and more than on this side. In other words, we will see the side less than this side. Something like this. Now as I have these corners, I can draw vanishing guidelines, the corresponding vanishing points. And their intersections, we'll mark the corner in the back. So I can draw these missing top edges. This original cube looks more or less symmetrical because the two vanishing points are roughly in equal distance. In other words, the cube is somewhere on the center line regarding the vanishing points. Why we see these cubes shifted to the right more from this side. It's important to note that this Q has the same orientation than this one. It's just moved to the right. So we see it's slightly differently. Now let's see what happens if we don't choose the right split ratio for our radical edges? As usual, I start with the closest vertical edge. I draw the vanishing lines. This time. I don't bother withdrawing these ones on the left all the way to the vanishing point. We only need this section anyway. Let me put the leftmost edge over here, similar to this one. And I put the right one over here. I complete the cube. But wait a minute. It doesn't seem like a cube anymore. I hope you see that too. It's more like a brick shape, right? And the object is perfectly fine in this perspective. Its orientation is identical to this cube because we use the same vanishing points, but it's a different 3D object. Now let's try to rotate this cube round. It's radical axis backwards. You already know that this kind of rotation is connected somehow to the location of the vanishing points. The front-facing cubes vanishing point was here in one-point perspective. Then we rotated the cube. And the vanishing point has moved to this side. Now we rotate the cue backwards. So let's pull it back vanishing 0.1 in this direction. Let's place it somewhere here. Now what we also need to do is to move the second vanishing point to the right. This will ensure that we keep the same perspective view. As usual. I placed the front edge, draw the construction lines, choose a split like this, and complete the cube. It's rotated now. And even it's on the right side of the picture plane. We see it's right-side more than this one because it's been rotated in this direction. Now I know at this point, this may sound a bit complex and you may not be perfectly clear on how to choose the right split ratio for the vertical edges. But as you practice, you will realize what's right and what's not. If the object looks like a cube, then you have probably made the right choice. If it doesn't try to change it. This trial and error process works just fine with many things in art. So one option is to learn the very complex geometry behind this. The other is to experiment with the various changes and use your common sense to get the loop just tried. I tried to stay on the golden mean. I share many rules with you, but not to the point that makes you exhausted. But I'd like you to remember an important rule from this lesson. Objects with the same orientation share the same vanishing points. Via an object having a different orientation uses different vanishing points. I'd also like to mention that the placement of the vanishing points doesn't have to be symmetrical. Sometimes front of the vanishing points is out of the picture frame. It's a little bit more difficult to work with that, but that's not against any rule. Good. Finally, let me place another cube around here, near to the horizon line to point out an interesting fact. Notice that we can see only two sides of this cube because the bottom edges are under the horizon line and the top ones are above that. But what is more interesting about this cube is its size and what it tests the viewer. If you look at it, heat roughly has the same size as this first one. Now what does the stair to the viewer? There are two options. One is that both cubes are in the same distance from the viewer. And the second one is floating. In this case, the second group has the same size. In reality, I, the first one. Option two, is that this cube is way bigger than this one, and it's located in the far distance plays on the ground plane. Now we could decipher the doubt in the viewer by adding some details, some texture to the cube, or play some other elements around it to make it obvious which option is valid. For example, I can draw people around it, which makes it clear immediately that the cube is probably in the distance and it's huge. Similarly, I can place the person next to this cube and the viewer gets the idea about its size. If I put this cube next to the other one in the distance, it would look like this. I can barely draw it. It's so small. Perspective drawing is a very interesting topic and you can use it in so many ways in your artworks. Two-point perspective is a simplified version of how human eyes see things. It's not the perfect representation of reality, but it's pretty close to it. All right, now let's see how we can improve the illusion of reality even further. 12. 3-Point & 5-Point Perspectives: You might find out that in three-point perspective, we will have a third vanishing point. And actually it will be for the radical edges of the cube. Let's see how it looks. This time, I'm placing the horizon line in the upper half of the picture frame. So we will have space for the third vanishing point, vanishing 0.12. The beginning of the process is the same as for the two-point perspective. Horizontal edges behave the same way. Now the difference is that in this case, vertical edges converge to a third vanishing point. This third vanishing point is usually farther away from the object than the other two vanishing points. Often it's out of the picture frame. But now I put it over here. This time I use a ruler to get these loan construction lines, right? So the vertical edges of the cube converge to this third vanishing point. Now, I can draw these top side edges. And here we have a cube in three-point perspective. This type of perspective is the closest to the human perception, so it can create the best illusion of reality. And the third vanishing point is below the horizon line. The viewer looks down at the subject. This view is also called the bird's eye view, or area of u. Pictures taken from airplanes high above the city full of skyscrapers showed this perspective the best. Another typical example for three-point perspective is a Street View with the viewer standing on the ground level looking upwards towards the top of high buildings. In this case, the third vanishing point is above the horizon line. Three-point perspective is the one that is used most by artists. So this is the type of perspective you want master. Actually, this is what we are going to discover in more detail and practice a lot in the following lessons. Good. Five-point perspective is not used often. But I like to mention you have probably seen these on photographs. It's also called the curvilinear or fisheye perspective. In this perspective, we have five different vanishing points and vanishing lines bend this way. Photographs like this are taken with fish islands. All right, let's sum up what you have learned in today's lesson. Artists use projections to mimic real-life 3D subject in their artworks. You have learned about the most important projection types. The isometric projection, the multi-view projection, and all kinds of perspective projections. We have discovered the most important rules of thumb, 0.2. And three-point perspective. Perspective drawing is an essential tool in the hand of the artist for creating the illusion of three-dimensional world on the paper. By now, you know the basics. So it's time to do some exercises. 13. Assignment - Day 2: I hope you have your paper and pencil ready. Let's draw some simple blocky objects in 1.2 and three-point perspectives just to get used to perspective drawing and to apply the knowledge you have just learned in today's lesson, we'll be using the cube and the brick shape because they are simple enough to draw and it's easy for our brain to translate them as 3D objects. Also, it will be easy to recognize mistakes if the edges are not pointing to the right direction. Don't worry about straight lines and such. We don't need a ruler either. Accuracy is not important here. Maybe just making quick sketches. Good. Now try to copy what I drew. I'll be drawing slowly, but feel free to pause the video in case you fall behind. Now let's practice. This time. I won't talk too much. You know the rules. So I just give you reminders. First, let's practice one-point perspective. Let's draw the horizon line first and mark the vanishing point. Verticals and parallel with each other. As well as horizontal, horizontals. Preceding edges converge. I keep the vanishing line slide. Let's also draw the invisible edges with dashed lines. You can redraw the edges once they arrive. Let's make some other blocks. Start with the font-face. Punishing guidelines. Preceding edges and the back. Make sure these edges in the back of the front face. Now let's draw some objects in two-point perspective. Start with the front edge. This time regarding the construction lines, Let's just draw the sections that we need. The costing technique, I make sure they point towards the vanishing points with each other. You can also add some shading if you want to. Hi, Let's draw an object in the air. Good. Let's shift the vanishing points. Once I targeted. Make a quick decided stroke. Let's place one on the horizon line. Vanishing points. Let's also draw the invisible edges. Very good. Now let's draw in three-point perspective. This time, let's not draw the horizon line and vanishing points. Let's just try to imagine those instead. As you can see, we don't have to be perfectly accurate to get the family acceptable 3D object. We can make the viewing angle or more traumatic by bringing the third vanishing point closer to the object. Let's look at this object from below. So the horizon line and the two vanishing points are below. And the third vanishing point is some variable. And I draw an object like this. I usually imagine its orientation in my head through two or three key edges. And the rest will give itself just by following the rules of perspective. You can draw a shape like this. Red edge is valid converge. This illustration is pretty close to isometric projection. Edges make a 120 degree angles to each other, but we have a slide convergence in all three dimensions here. Now what about this one? If this one is supposed to be an irregular 3D shape like a column cut in half in a tilted angle, then we can say that it's okay. Modifier intention was to draw a regular block shape. It doesn't look right. What's the issue with that? Let's check if we follow the rules. Vertical edges converge this way. That's okay. These edges converge to another vanishing point. That's okay too. However, these edges converge into a wrong direction. That's causing the mass tap look. So if we don't follow the rules, the result won't be right. Let's fix this. Something like this. Oops, I messed up. Let's draw the vanishing lines first. All right. I know this was a long session, but I hope you enjoy day to drawing cubes may seem kind of basic, but learning these things will ensure that you will have a rock solid foundation for drawing and sketching in 3D. In tomorrow's lesson, we can step further and discover perspective drawing in more detail. We are going to take the simple building blocks one-by-one and learn to draw them in any angle. See you tomorrow. 14. Day 3 - Basic 3D Building Blocks - The Cube: Congratulations to you for being so persistent. Take the next step in this class. Today, we'll be drawing a lot. On day one, I've showed you that complex objects can be broken down to simple 3D shapes or forms. After day two, you have a solid understanding on perspective drawing basics that we are going to use heavily in today's lesson. Now it's time to learn to draw the simple building blocks one-by-one in all kinds of viewing angles. Please take your pencil and some papers and try to draw with me. I'll be sketching slowly, but feel free to pause the video at any point. I cannot stress that enough, it's important to actually draw these things and not just listen to the principles. On one hand, you will remember the rules of perspective more easily. And on the other hand, making these exercises will train your muscles and your brain to form these things on the paper. You will probably make mistakes. But that's the only way you can learn these skills. So don't let your mistakes discourage you. Try to learn from them instead. Although if you manage to dive in this activity, my hope is that at the end of each drawing session, you will feel relaxed and refreshed at the same time. I wish you achieved that. Have the mantle state. Good. You're ready. Let's start off with the cube. In yesterday's lesson, we have used a cube to learn the basic rules of perspective. So you already have some experience with that. Being able to draw the cube from any angle, you saw an essential skill that you cannot practice enough. You will use the 3D shape or it's resized form all the time. The cube or the brick shape will also serve as the bounding box for more complex objects. Drawing the bounding box for your subject will happy place it in the 3D base in the right orientation. In today's lesson, we are going to look into rotation in 3D space in more detail. First, we are going to draw a cube with three different rotation angles in three different views. Top view, front view, and perspective. This will help you develop your 3D visualization skills. In the first scenario, the cube, we'll be in this position. Remember, this is the top view, so we basically just see a square shape. Let's say that the rotation angle in this position is 0. To have the visualization process, I will use color-coding. If you don't have colored pencils, that's okay. But if you do, I encourage you to use them. Using colors helps you memorize things. Anyway, let's mark this top plane with blue. Now let's rotate this cube around its center axis by, let's say, 20 degrees in this direction. So this will be the second position of our cube. Finally, let's increase the rotation angle to about 45 degrees. Good. Now let's draw the first position in all views. Actually it's front view. We look the same in this specific position. It will be a square shape. But I marked this front plane with grain. We don't see the top line in this front view. So I mark it with a thin blue line. When a cube is facing us directly, the one-point perspective is what we want to use. You already know how to do this. So let's draw this cube quickly. Top plane is blue, from plane is green. And we don't see the side plane. But I markets edges, we dread. Okay. Let's make another representation by radical edges also converge. The top plane will be the same. And these verticals will converge to a vanishing point located somewhere outside our picture frame. This perspective is an interesting mixture of farm 0.3 perspectives. These edges do not converge because they are parallel with the picture plane. So we have only two vanishing points in this case. But as soon as we rotate the cube, these edges will also converge. You will see that in a minute. Now let's draw the second position in front view. I use projection lines for the corners to get the exact same rotation angle. Now we can see this other side plane. So I fill it with dread. And this is arguing side. I'm projecting down this vertical edges to ensure the same rotation and go for the perspective view. I draw a 2 perspective version where radical edges are parallel with each other. Remember, edges with the same orientation converge to a single vanishing point. I imagine the vanishing point and draw these edges. Similarly on the other side with another vanishing point. And let's fill in the side planes with the corresponding colors. This is supposed to be a cube, but it's more like a brick shape. The reason is that I haven't chosen the right angle for these vanishing lines. They should be oriented more like this. But let me leave it that way. I'm trying to fix it in the three-point perspective. Again, the top plane would be identical, but now I have to fix that. So it will look like this. The vertical edges will converge to a third vanishing point somewhere in the distance. Okay? This looks more like a cube. I hope that you could draw this third position alone, but let's do it together. And projecting the corners. This time, I just use my pencil to shade the side planes. Let's make the 2 perspective. Remember, at colleges that are perpendicular to the ground plane are parallel with each other in this perspective, other edges will converge. Now what about the three-point perspective? That's why we can use the same shape for the top plane and draw the rest using the rules of 3 perspective. You may have a question here. How do we choose the extent of convergence for any of the edges? In other words, how do we choose the locations of the vanishing points? For example, how far should the CRT vanishing point B from the object? Well, if you know a little bit about photography, then you know that there are all kinds of lands for a camera. Each one creates a certain image with a certain geometry. And you place your vanishing points on your drawing at certain locations. It's like you would choose a specific lands for your camera. For example, I can take the third vanishing point closer cube. And I will get a view like this. It's clearly different from the previous one because I relocated the third vanishing point. This is more dramatic look of the very same cube. Humanized have a certain geometry. A digital camera, it's 35 to 50 millimeters, lands, creates a similar image. Our brain considers these images as normal. If you deviate from this, you can create interest on your drawings because it will be unusual for the viewer. So as an artist, you have a tool in your hand by relocating vanishing points and get a different look about your subject. Just like a photographer changes his or her lands on the camera. Now, I have to mention that vanishing points have a certain relationship with each other. They cannot be placed just random. There is a complex geometry behind this, but it's way beyond the scope of this class. And as an artist, you don't really need to know that. What's important to remember is that if you choose bad vanishing point locations, your object, we'll look pretty distorted. So you will realize that something is just not right. On the other hand, there are some typical vanishing points setups which can work pretty rare for all your drawings. So you don't need to worry about it too much. Good. Now let's get back to rotation. So we have rotated our cube around its radical center axis. We already know that a rotation like this relocated vanishing 0.12, but they have remained on the horizon line. Let me copy this cube over here quickly, showing the horizon line as well. Now what if we'd like to rotate the cube around the line of sight? Remember, the line of sight is aligned, that is starting from the viewer's eyes pointing towards the subject. So we'd like to rotate the cube this way. Let's say around this corner that is closest to us. It's very simple. We need to rotate these reference points and the QV will also be rotated. The actual horizon line will still be located over here. But I rotate vanishing points in the 3D space this way. And if I follow these new reference point, Q will be rotated this way. Actually, these two vanishing points can be anywhere in space. They are attached to the horizon line in just one specific orientation. The rule is the following. Vanishing points for the edges that are parallel with the ground plane will be on the horizon line. Other than that, they will leave the horizon line. For example, these edges are not parallel with the ground plane anymore, so they are vanishing points. We're not be located on the horizon line. I hope that makes sense. When you want to draw a cube in any random position, Here's what I suggest. Start off by placing the corner and drawing the edge that is closest to the viewer. And choose your vanishing points depending on the orientation you want to illustrate. And remember, edges that recede in space will converge and for short-term. So these edges converge to vanishing 0.1. These edges converge to a vanishing 0.2, and these edges converge to a vanishing 0.3. You can also think of it like this. Three-dimensions with height and depth. Each has its own vanishing point. Very good. So you can draw a cube in 3D in any angle. Remember, if the cube utero doesn't feel right, you need to check the edges one-by-one if they follow the rules that we have discussed. I don't necessarily have to draw cube. You can draw any box-like shape by changing the proportion of the edges. Let's draw a brick shape which is built from rectangles on all sides. So all three dimensions of this form, the width, the height, and its depth are different in length. If you master drawing these books shapes in any angle, you will make a huge step forward in developing your drawing skills. 15. The Cylinder: Now let's see another important basic building block, the cylinder. This simple 3D shape is just as important as the cube. So let's discover the base shape of the cylinder is a circle. We can see this if we look at the cylinder from the top. So the top view of a cylinder looks like this. It's simply a circle. As soon as we change the viewing angle, the circle will not look a circle anymore. It will become an ellipse. A circle in top view and ellipses in other viewing angles. The first challenge of drawing a cylinder in perspective is to draw these ellipses properly on the top and bottom side. Because they are shapes, width and height ratios matter. In case of the ellipse, we use two axes to market size and orientation. I'm going to mark the major axis retread. This is the longer one. And the minor axis with green. The circle is a special case of an ellipse, where the length of the major and the minor axis are equal. As you change the viewing angle, the minor axis shorten. This also falls into the principal called foreshortening. As we discussed earlier. Things are getting trickier as we rotate the cylinder in the 3D space. So we need to dig into the construction of these ellipses in more detail. But the good news is that you can use the knowledge that you have already learned with the cube. I'll show you in a minute what I mean by that. Let's start off by drawing the horizon line and defining two vanishing points. So we are going to use 2 perspective to illustrate the cylinder. I'd like to place our first cylinder over here. Now let's find out how we can draw a proper base circle, which will be actually an ellipse because we are in perspective. Let's go back to this top view and draw a square shape bounding box for the base circle. Also notice that we have for tangential points, I mark them with red. Let's say that we don't know yet how to draw a circle in perspective, but we definitely know how to draw a square, right? We have drawn many cubes, and the cube is basically beard from squares. So we have also drawn lots of squares in perspective. Let's draw a square them and you'll see it will give us a hint for drawing the ellipse. I'm drawing some vanishing guidelines. I'm trying to keep an equal distance between them. So the shape will look like a square over here. Now we have this bounding shape. That is correct from perspective, point of view. Now let's place these key points are marked with red. I'm drawing these diagonals to get the center point. Through the center point, I'm drawing additional vanishing lines. And we got the four tangential points for the circle. I hope that by now you can look at this shape as a square in 3D, not just as a two-dimensional data each shape. Now let's try to draw an ellipse inside this bounding shape in a way that we touch these tangent show points. Something like this. This is just an estimate, but it's good enough for a sketch. All right, we have the base. Now let's build a cylinder further. As we are in two-point perspective, we know that lines that are radicals, or in other words, perpendicular with the ground plane, are parallel with each other. So the side contours, we run like this. Now what about the top plane? It's the beginner's mistake to draw it identical to the base shape like this. In isometric projection, it would be correct, but now, as we are in 2 perspective, it would not. Depending on the perspective you use and the height of the cylinder, top and the bottom ellipse can be quite different. We can see this if we follow the same construction method that we did with the base, let's extend our base square upwards. We are in two-point perspective, so I can draw these vertical edges as parallel lines with no convergence. Let's call this height and draw the vanishing lines for the block shape. So we get the bounding box for the cylinder. We can immediately notice that this top plane is quite different from the bottom one. So as the ellipse that we will fit inside the top plane. Sometimes this difference is quite significant, sometimes it's barely noticeable. It depends on how far the ellipses are from the horizon line or from the vertical center line of the 3D space. Also, the orientation of the cylinder matters. Anyway, let's construct the top ellipse the same way. I locate the center point. I'm drawing these additional vanishing lines. I mark these tangential points and I make an estimate for the top ellipse, something like this. So here we have our first cylinder in two-point perspective. In order to better fulfill its volume, I'm drawing some cross contour lines. Notice that I increase the density, has these vertical cross contour lines get farther away from us. Very good. What I'd like you to remember is an important rule. Every circle drawn in perspective will be an ellipse shape. In other words, circle rotated in the 3D space may look like an ellipse to the viewer. This is important because the circle is a frequent 2D shape. And as an artist, you need to be able to draw it correctly in perspective in any angle. The cylinder is an excellent 3D form to practice this skill. I'd also like to clarify something for those of you who are not sure why we go into details like this. Of course, once you have enough practice, you won't draw a cylinder or any other base shapes with this level of meticulousness, it will be just two or three SEC trying a few lines and curves. But to make those few lines right on the paper, you need to get an understanding on some basic rules. The scared that you can break down the process into these very basic steps will help you solve situations where you feel uncertainty. You will have a tool in your hand to solve them. I hope that makes sense. Now let's draw some cylinders in different orientations and placements. What if the cylinder is on the horizon line or in other words, on the eye level, I'm creating the bounding box first. I'm drawing the ellipsis. Notice that they are pretty similar in size because they are roughly in equal distance from the horizon line. I draw the side contour lines. As usual, I use dashed lines for making the invisible edges. Also notice that we see neither the cylinder space and top circle. The visible edge of the bottom ellipse curves this way. And at the top, it curves the opposite direction. And this is the surface of the cylinder Desk visible. Now let's draw another cylinder in a horizontal position, receding in space. Again, I'm drawing a box shape first. And here is our cylinder laying on the ground plane. The ellipses are quite similar in this orientation, but they are not identical. This one behind is smaller because it's further away from us. I'd also like to point out an important property here. Let me draw the major axis of the specific ellipse. It's tilted. I also draw the minor axis, which is always perpendicular to the major axis. No matter in what position you draw the ellipse. So the ellipse is not like this with the horizontal major axis. It's more like rotated. And the direction of this rotation depends on the orientation of the circle in the 3D space. For example, imagine a car in this position. Its wheels will look like this. Tricky for a beginner at first. Which direction should I teared the major axis? But it's all logical. If you have any doubt. First, imagine the bounding square according to the rules of perspective. Make half divisions like this. These are the tangential points. And that will leave you only one good choice for the ellipse. Because drawing that this way just won't work. I cannot draw an ellipse in this direction. I hope that's clear. Good. Once you understand the logic and have some practice behind you, you won't need to draw all these construction lines. You can make a good estimate by simply drawing the contours and the ellipses. Something like this. This one is rotated in the 3D space. By using convergence on these contour lines, we create the illusion of a receding form. You can experiment with drawing random cylinders and check if they are right. Here are some simple rules to remember. On the standing cylinder, the ellipse shape is narrower. If it's closer to the horizon line. Side contour lines converge if they recede in space. Or if you draw in 3 perspective. Vertical edges will also converge. The base shape that is farther away from us is smaller. If we look at the situation inside view, we can see that it's the ground plane. Here is the cylinder and the viewer. Now if I mark distance between the viewer's eyes and the top and the base of the cylinder. We can see that this distance is longer than this one. So even if the difference is small, this base circle is farther away from the viewer's eyes. So it will look smaller in perspective. Once you are clear on these rules, drawing the cylinder will be just a few lines. Font-face, the side contours, and the visible curve of the back face. If anytime you have concerns about the roundness of your curves in a specific orientation, always step back to the construction of the bounding box. It will help you fix any issues with your ellipsis. Very good. 16. The Sphere: The next important basic shape is a sphere. Now this is interesting because from whatever angle you look at a sphere, It's outline will be a simple circle. Here we have the horizon line. This is our 3D space. Now wherever I draw a sphere, no matter in what perspective I draw it, It's outline will be a circle. Circle seems to be a simple 2D shape, but actually drawing it is a pretty challenging task for a beginner. So if you it that, and you'd like to improve, you might want to check out my basic drawing skills class. But don't stress yourself if you have difficulties drawing the circle now, you can improve that skill after this class. On drawings and sketches, artists illustrate the sphere using shadows. Actually possible. Next stop after this class is my shadow drawing episode. But now we are learning a lot structures in 3D. So the question is how we can illustrate the spheres orientation without shadows. Now you could say, Wait a minute, what's the meaning of orientation in case of a sphere, it looks the same from any angle, doesn't it? Well, that's true. But the sphere is usually not just a standalone 3D form. It's a base shape used for more complex realized subjects. Think of a human head, for example, with all the facial features. If we want to draw it correctly in the 3D space, we need to mark the orientation somehow. We can use some key cross contour lines for this purpose. Usually redraw the vertical and horizontal center lines. They cut the sphere in half, vertically and horizontally. Once we have these guidelines, it will be much easier to place any detail on the surface of the sphere that will look just right in perspective. Now notice when we cut the sphere into half, the shape of the slides will be a circle. And as you already know, Circle in perspective will be an ellipse shape. This is how one skier, like being able to draw the circle in perspective, is getting candy in other tasks. I hope you get it by now. That's the reason we learn these basic scarce. They are used to build up more complex things. Basic skills mean in this case that you cannot live without them. Essentially, drawing skills are the ones you will use all the time. Anyway, Let's see how you can cut the sphere this way, or in other words, how you can illustrate its orientation. Please don't follow along now, just listen. Because the way I cut the spheres is important. It's better to listen to the explanation first, then copy. If the sphere is facing right towards us, these cross contour lines will be straight lines. We see this face from the front. And we can look at the head from different angles. This one will look like this. I mark the cross contours that are in the back surface of the sphere with dashed lines. And I can draw as many heads as I want. I notice that each ellipse has its own orientation. I draw the main axis for each thread. So you can see the difference. They are tiered angles are different. You can also notice that the vertical and the horizontal ellipses are perpendicular to each other. No matter in what orientation the sphere is. You can use these key points to check this. They should split the circle into four equal size is these ones are in special orientation. So we see these radical ellipses, straight lines. Also notice that the width of each ellipse is different. I mark them with blue. These are the minor axes of these ellipses. So to illustrate the orientation of a sphere, clearly, we need to place these cross contour lines. You can think of the horizontal one as the equator of the earth and the other one as vertical center line. In practice, this can be very quick. You draw circle and draw only the visible parts of the cross contours. So basically, you just need to draw three quick curves like this. It's not that difficult right? Now. I encourage you to try to copy these spheres and draw some others if you'd like to. What's important is that these ellipses are perpendicular to each other. Drawing ellipses like this is not helpful. They are not perpendicular to each other. Although this one doesn't cut the sphere into half, it's shifted to the right. After some practice, you will feel what's wrong and what's right. Good. 17. The Cone & the Pyramid: I'd like to show you another simple shape, the cone. It's kind of an easy one. Once you can imagine a circle in the 3D space. Let me draw a 2 perspective grid quickly. I don't worry too much about precision. I'm just drawing a graph grid. Spacing is decreasing closer to the horizon line. This way, these diets on the ground plane will be close to squares. Now if we look at the corn from the top, we can see that it's base shape is a circle. So what we need to do is to place the circle into this perspective grid. As you already know, Circle in perspective becomes an ellipse. So we can draw ellipses in different locations like this. Now I mark the center points for this base circles by making diagonals for the bounding squares. I draw the vertical center axis for each cone. And finally, I draw the contour lines on the sides. So we have these cones in the 3D space. Just as for the cylinder, we can recognize that base ellipses are getting narrower as they are placed farther away from us. The viewer, for this one in the distance located on the horizon line, the base ellipse will look so narrow that it will be simply a straight line. In real life, you can use the colon as a building block for the pine tree for example. Something like this. Finally, let's see the pyramid in perspective. The pyramid in top view looks like this. Now let's place it in the perspective grid. But before we do that, let me fix the vanishing lines over here. This is the base for our pyramid. I mark the center point. Draw its vertical center axis. Let's make it this high. And I simply connect the top with the base corners. This edge is in the background, so it's invisible. We can draw some cross contour lines if we want to. Horizontal lines should converge to the vanishing point. Of course, we have a permit. It's pretty easy, right? All right. Now let's sum up what you have learned in today's lesson. We have extended your object rotation skills. So by now, you can draw a block shape from any angle. You have learned to draw the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone, and the pyramid in the 3D space. Whenever you see a subject that you'd like to draw, try to break it down to the simple shapes and it will be much easier to deal with it. 18. Assignment - Day 3: Now let's practice what you have learned in today's lesson. Let's use this perspective grid to draw all kinds of simple shapes and some altered versions of them. So you will practice not only the ones that I showed you, but some further 3D shapes that you can easily derived from the ones we have already discovered. You can draw your own two-point perspective grid or you can download the one. I upload it to resources. Let's start off with simple base shapes. Draw a cube. We are in two-point perspective, so radicals are parallel with each other. We don't necessarily stay on the existing ones. They are just guidelines. What's important is that orientations the sides of the cube. This time, the light source is on the left side, will be the darkest. Now let's draw a shape over here. I can add additional guidelines as needed. Let's draw a cylinder. Laying on the ground plane. I'm drawing its bounding box. Before I cut it horizontally, like this. Doesn't have to be. Now let's draw a sphere. Let's draw a sphere at the top of the circle. Let's draw another one. I have a square shape. Now let's draw facing each other the database. The cube as a bounding box. Hi, cut it in half horizontally. I draw the permits. We got a diamond shape. Now let's draw a shape. Shape is a triangle. You can also think of the shape has a rooftop. The hexagon has the base shape for the subject. On the other side. Cubes. Top part can be built from half circles, which of course are partial ellipses in perspective. This will be the curve in the back. Let's split this top portion into equal parts. We need to follow the vanishing line with the contour line over here. So I fix this curve. We have a structure in two-point perspective. Very good. Now be creative and find out more 3D forms that you can be as from the basic elements. Look around, search for simple household objects. Try to recognize the simple building blocks in them, and try to make their structures in a perspective grid like this. You don't have to draw the object in detail. I just like you to create its simple structure on the paper. If you find an object difficult to describe this way, don't worry. It's just mean that it's probably beyond the current level of your knowledge. That's okay. True objects that you can deal with it. Have fun with drawing and see you tomorrow in the next lesson. 19. Day 4 - Transformations - P Letter: Well done. You really want to learn the skills. Hopefully by now, you are starting to feel the 3D volume of basic forms. And last but not least, you are capable to draw them in any angle. In today's lesson, we are going to make all kinds of transformations on basic elements. You already know how to rotate an object. In this lesson, we will extend your two sets significantly with bending, twisting, and stretching. So you will have the skills to start sketching more complex real-life subjects. First, let's refresh some of the projection types you have just learned. Drawing a column shape. In isometric view, it looks like this. Remember, this projection is often used in computer games. The three-dimensions make 120 degree angles with each other. In two-point perspective, receding edges converge and verticals are parallel with each other. In three-point perspective, edges converge in all three dimensions towards their own vanishing point. Now let's construct a V letter in 3D using this simple block element. I'm drawing the main guidelines for the 2D shape. It will look like this. And let's add some depth to the object vertically. It's a matter of agreement which term we use for a certain dimension. We could also call it height. But because this is the letter, I call this dimension the height, this dimension the width, and this dimension the depth. And the way you can draw this P letter in 2 perspective, drawing parallel lines. Or you can add the slide convergence to these edges to make it as a three-point perspective image, a better representation of reality. I locate these bottom edges by adding further vanishing lines. I deal with only visible edges. This will make the sketch quicker. Finally, let's add some shading to the object. Let's say that this is the shadow side. So sides facing this direction will be the darkest. The sides will be a midtone. And the top plane, which is the surface, will be the lightest. If you want to. You can erase some of the construction lines. We have a P letter in 3D. 20. Coffee Cup Handle: Let's say that we have a coffee cup. The task would be to add the handle to it over here. This may seem challenging for you at this point. But I'm going to show you in a minute that you have all the tool set to build up this portion on the sketch. Let's break the process down into simple steps so we can deal with it. We are going to use transformation, starting with the simplest strip shape. You can also think of it as a very thin blockchain. Feel free to draw with me, pausing the video occasionally, or watch the whole process and make your own trial at the end. Now, the subdivisions to better see what's happening here. Five cross contour lines. Let's put this shape into perspective. By rotating it along this vertical axis. It will look like this. Good. Let's bend the shape slightly like this. Hopefully, you're starting to see where we are heading to. Let's bend the shape even more. I'm adding the simplified shading to better illustrate the object. It starts to look like a handle, right? Let's rotate this object in the 3D space. I also changed the curve slightly in order to get closer to its final shape. This is the point where I should rotate my paper to find a comfortable position for my hand. So the curve could be more fluent. Feel free to do so. Now we just need to do some further rotation and the handle will be in position. Let's make it on its final location, the gap. To support the right placement, we can add some guidelines on both the side of the cup and for the handle itself. It's important to make the handle in the right angle some drawing two horizontal cross contour lines on the cup at this level where the handle joins. This is the sport. We want to place the handler. In order to find the right direction. I draw this ellipse and add these guideline that goes through the center of the ellipse. Or we can say the center of the cup and intersect the center of our spot. The second cross section line is not really necessary. What's important is that the line starting from the center of the cup pointing towards the middle of the handle join, remount the proper direction. Now we can blocking the handle with straight lines. Let's add another break over here. Something like this. I'm drawing the main curve on the sides. This is how we can reach the final shape step-by-step. I also draw a central line. Remember, as we are in perspective, it won't be located right in the middle on the surface, at least in this viewing angle. Finally, let's add the section lines too. But I'm applying some roundness on the surface. On a real sketch or drawing. Of course, we don't draw these cross contour lines. Instead, we show the roundness of the surface by using shadows. But first, you need to able to imagine the orientation of the subdivisions for creating the right shadow pattern. So these structural drawing is an intermediate step for creating core shadows on surfaces. Anyway, this is how you can take a simple building block, make some transformations, and get fairly complex 3D object like this coffee cup handle. It looks pretty believable, right? Again, once you have enough practice, a handle like this, we take just a few SEC by drawing a few curves. But to get there, you really need to practice this kind of construction, which takes some time. If you haven't done so, please pause the video now and try to draw these steps on your own. Your handle might not be perfect. Mine is indeed either making this exercise can greatly develop your visualization and drawing skills. 21. Glass-like Forms: Now let's see how we can draw simple and quite complex life forms. We are taking the cylinder as the base shape. By simply taking the lower ellipse narrower, we can draw a simple paper glass. How we can take this class and extend it with the holder and the cup. Holder is another cylinder and narrow one. And reconstruct the base form a cone which is very low in height. I'm adding some roundness to diverge. Let's also add some curve to the top portion to get the champagne glass like objective. I'm trying to make it symmetrical on both sides. I'm also adding some cross contour lines to better see the structure. Good. Now let's construct a wine glass. This time, I put the horizon line over here. The handle and the base will be similar to the previous sketch. And let's form the top using the sphere as the base shape. I stretch the curve on the top. And remember this part of the glass is above the horizon line. So the top edge, we are curved this way. The viewer sees that from below. In this view. It's the opposite. Then this bottom curve. Let's add the divine level. Maybe less rounded because it's closer to the horizon line. We can add some texture. Cast shadow. And we have a sketch about the glass of wine. 22. The Donut (Torus): Another typical 3D object is the tours, or you can call it the doughnut shape. You can think of the doughnut as a circle, positioned vertically and rotate it around the vertical axis, located outside, but close to the circle. Has the circle turns into this direction. It gets narrower and narrower. Notice that eventually I'm drawing circles in perspective. So we get ellipses from the center axis. On this other side, it gets wider and wider. Finally, we get the circle again. We basically just mirrored this left side on the right. In the back. The same transformation takes place regarding the circle. We just need to take the size of the LPC smaller as they are behind, farther away from the viewer. These rotated surplus we have formed the doughnut shape. I emphasize some of the important contour lines. At this point, I should rotate my paper to draw a nice contour line over here. But as it is fixed for the recording, forgive me disclaim curve on the right. In this hand position, this is the best I can get now. Anyway. I'm also adding some shading in order to fill the form better. Now let's draw the tours from another viewing angle. You can also construct this object from ellipses like this. I'm drawing cross contour lines, which of course will be ellipses. But notice that I don't place them evenly. Because of foreshortening, the distance between these ellipses has to be shorter in the back. So I need to play with density accordingly. As we get older, the highest point of the form, everything turns into the opposite. Density increases in the back. It's all about what angered a given surface makes the viewer on the portion that is almost perpendicular to us, we see lower density. So cross contour lines seems farther away from each other. As the surface turns away from us, density increases. The vertical cross contour lines will look like this. A 100 surface that makes exactly 90 degree angle with the viewer will be just straight lines. On the side. There should be a portion of a circle. And we can play with the roundness between them. If you can place these cross contour lines in a way that it feels right. You already understand the volume of a round surface like this. For some of you, these simple forms. May feel a bit boring to draw for me doesn't, because I find the kind of butane this. But really this is the level where you need to start to understand 3D volumes and be able to draw them. Now let's see the doughnut in top view. In this view, each radio, a cross contour line look like a straight line. And there is an equal distance between them. At least it should be. The circular cross contour lines should show the density increase inside and outside as the surface bands. As usual, I'm adding some simplified shading to the form. It seems that I have difficulties to draw a nicer. That is probably because I didn't make my volume obsession. For that matter. It's a good opportunity to tell you that even if you already have the skill to draw these simple shapes, you need to make your muscle memory to remember with a few minutes warm-up session. If you play on any musical instrument or do some sports, you know this. Anyway, this was the doughnut shape or the tours, which is an excellent exercise to start to discover around surfaces. 23. The Banana: Now let's see how we can construct a pretty complex and interesting 3D form, the banana. This will be an extremely useful exercise. The banana is just great for making studies. It has an exciting form. In longitudinal direction. It has edges. We draw lameness at the same time, plus the whole shape makes a curve. So let's learn how to draw a banana from any angle. As a first step, you should be able to handle the cylinder quite confidently. I'm sure you can do it by now, but let's refreshing. Let's start off with the side deal. The cylinder inside view looks like a rectangle. Let's rotate this cylinder around this axis and change the viewing angle slightly. Let's rotate it further and some more. Now let's make some transformation on the cylinder. I'm taking it narrower at both ends. Let's keep the original diameter, but add the curve to the cylinder like this. Now let's mix these last two transformations together. It will look something like this. By adding a curve to the surface like this. It will become across song. To get the banana shape, we just need to add some edges to this form and make its sides more like flat. Well, not exactly flat, but less rounded and the surface of a cylinder, there are clearly visible edges on the banana that break its surface. Anyway, the cross-section of a banana looks like this. I mark the edges with blue dots. These four dominant. This one at the bottom is less. I also mark the orientation of the surfaces for better understanding. So let's take the previous form as a start and add these edges. By drawing these cross contour lines, we immediately get the illusion of a banana. We just need to place them in the right angles. Let's practice this interesting form in several different views. First, let's draw it from the side in a standing position. I start with lighter strokes. And as I'm getting confident with the form, I will make them darker. It seems that it was too soon to make this contour darker. When you first discover a subject, I suggest you to find a good reference photo. Or even better. Take it in your hand if it's possible. Rotated and observe it from different angles. Let's rotate the banana around its central axis. I'm starting off with its main gesture line. In my head. I've already imagine the banana on this paper. I tried to reform to that with my pencil. If you have at hand, put it on your table in a viewing angle like this. It will help you a lot to understand how the edge is banned and how much you see from a given surface. I don't like the backend. I think I need to take shorter. So I shifted slightly to the right. Let's draw the section lines. And here is the less dominant edge on the bottom surface. I'd like to note that on an artistic drawing, you don't make these kind of hard contour lines everywhere on the subject, on making it this way because we are learning the structure. Now watch how the forerunner of the banana has changed. This was its original width inside you. And because of foreshortening, the form has gotten narrower. And if we connect start and the end with this green line, we can see that it's angle on the paper has changed. This is because the banana has been rotated around the blue center axis in the 3D space. So the backend seem slower in this perspective. Now let's rotate the banana even more. Is getting even shorter. The subject in this viewing angle is extremely challenging. Your brain stores the symbol or the shape of the banana inside you, all in the position where you normally see it on the table, the one above. So it wants to control your strokes based on those symbols. But in this viewing angle, everything is different. You need to draw something else. This can cause some kind of battle in your head and in the control of your pencil. This is a normal experience. You need to fight this battle. As you practice more and more, it's getting easier to draw what you actually see on a reference or what you imagined. Just keep in mind what's happening through foreshortening and tried to stick to that. Anyway, in this viewing angle, we see more of the bottom surface side and very little of the top. Good. Just for the sake of fun, I'm adding some colors to the banana. Banana from different angles. You can deal with that. You can be proud of yourself. You are making real progress with your 3D drawing skills. In case you are not satisfied with your sketches. Don't get discouraged. Try to identify what's wrong with that. Ask questions like this. Which dimension is not correct? Its width, its height. Where should it be smaller? Which curve is not in the right angle? Also, the direction of cross contour lines is important. Make small changes on your drawing to see if it looks better. All right, Now let's sum up what you have learned in today's lesson. You have learned how to use a simple block shape to build up a more complex form, a p letter in 3D. We have also discovered how you can take a simple Ammon and using different transformations like rotation and banding, how you can create the coffee cup handle. In this exercise, you also learned how to join two different forms. Then we took the cylinder as a base shape and drew different kind of glass-like shapes. By now, you know how to draw a doughnut. Finally, you have learned to draw a quite complex 3D shape, the banana in different angles. I hope it was fun. Remember this? Whenever you see a subject that you'd like to draw, tried to break it down to simple 3D shapes. Even if it looks totally different. As these questions, which basic shape can describe my subject pest? Which one could be closest to that using one or two transformations. If you find it, it will be much easier to deal with your subject even if it's a complex one. 24. Assignment - Day 4: All right, today we have drawn enough. So this time your assignment will be different. It'll be some brain activity, kind of an internal work. You can do this assignment right before you go to sleep today. Look around you and choose three subjects you find interesting. Try to visualize higher would be at a map from simple building blocks. If you don't have any idea, for example, because your subject is an organic form full of indescribable curves and contour lines. Tried to build it up from block shapes. So choose a bounding box for each main well-defined part of your subject. Visualize these bounding boxes. What are their orientations? Where are they facing? Imagine the edges of each bounding box. How do they converge? How long are the receding edges? As these questions? And try to imagine the answers. Imagine that you have a pencil in your hand and you are drawing these shapes on a paper. If you fall asleep before you completed your sketch in your mind, That's great. Good night, then your brain will work on the task. Even if you are sleeping in the morning, you can continue and complete the assignment. Have fun with that. See you tomorrow in the final lesson. 25. Day 5 - Sketching in 3D - The Camera: Welcome back. I hope you are doing where you are just great that you are taking the steps consistently in this class. By now, you have all the skills to start drawing more complex structures. So in today's lesson, I'd like to show you some exciting sketching exercises focusing primarily on 3D volumes. Feel free to follow along you to be fun and also an important feedback for yourself that you are capable to draw these things convincingly. You will be satisfied with your sketches. If you are not stuck trying identified issues based on what you have learned. And try again. I bet your next copy will look much better. Now let's get to it. We are going to make a sketch about a camera in three-point perspective. Let's see how to build the structure step-by-step. Free, free to follow along and pause the video as needed. I start off by creating the front plane of the main body part. It's a good practice to start any subject with its biggest shape. The orientation of the strong phase, we will define the perspective. Well. In other words, the angle the viewer is looking at this object. Or Chow, I draw these edges. I give a certain momentum to my strokes that will ensure they will be straight, fluent and dynamic. But I don't apply too much pressure on the paper. These are just construction lines for now. I'd like to create a dramatic angle. So I'm choosing edge directions accordingly. The camera will be facing this direction. So this top edge mix around a 45 degree angle with the horizontal. This back edge is almost vertical, but it's tilting slightly this direction. And if you look at the convergence of these two edges, it's quite noticeable. The vanishing point is located off the paper, but it's pretty close. These horizontal edges converge less traumatic. And they're vanishing point is definitely outside of the picture plane. But that's okay. That will ensure the look I planned. Good. Now if I look at this shape as a 2D shape, it will look quite irregular and kind of strange. But if we look at it as the front face of the cameras main body part in the 3D space. And I hope you have the visualizations clear by now to look at it that way it's shaped, we start to make sense by adding depth to the camera body will definitely support the 3D look. This third vanishing point will be again, located somewhere outside of our drawing area. Ones will be quite short edges. We could even go with parallel lines. But I like to support the traumatic angle by using noticeable convergence. And these edges too. Now we can draw the edges of the back plate. We need to make sure that each one follows the corresponding vanishing point that we don't really see because it's outside the picture plane. But we tried to imagine that based on the already existing edges. In the meantime, I'm bringing attention to the relationships of these edges. This corner is the closest to the viewer. So as this edge in this third dimension, so this edge should be the longest. Then this comes next in length. And this one. And finally, this should be the shortest. This is just the cross checking. If we draw the vanishing lines, right? The length of these edges should we just fine? Good. Now let's place the lens on this front plane. It should be placed evenly, so we need to find the crossing center lines of this font face. There is a tree to split a distance in half in perspective by simply cutting this edge into half, won't give you the right location. This, again, comes from the foreshortening principle. The back half of the camera has to be shorter than this front side. So the vertical center line should be beyond halfway. Exactly where. Here comes the trick. Let's draw diagonals like this. The intersection point, the exact center point of displaying. Now, we can draw vanishing lines through the center point in both directions. We can see the foreshortening principle in practice here. This half of the camera looks definitely smaller than this front part. This side has been compressed, hence, it's farther away from the viewer. And shortening and compression are the result of foreshortening. It's a key concept construct, believable, 3D objects on the paper. Good. Now let's move on to the lens, which is basically a cylinder shape, right? Let's find out where to place it using this center point. As you already know, shape of the cylinder is a circle. Circle in perspective looks always an ellipse shape. We could just put the ellipse somewhere here. But as a beginner, the best way to get higher precision is defined as bounding box. So let's do that. I'm switching to blue pencil to separate the construction lines for the lands. Let's decide on its size. Let's put the top over here. And the bottom somewhere here. I'm taking this distance and copying it over here. The reason why I can do that is that in this view, these two points are roughly in the same distance from us. So this will be a good estimate. I'm following the imaginary vanishing points to construct these edges of the bounding square. To get the other radical edge. I draw this diagonal through the center point. This missing edge obviously follows a vanishing line. And we got the bounding square for the Landsat lips. We have the ban on tangential points. So it's much easier to draw the ellipse, the spaceship for the cylinder. Here we have the major and minor axes. It should be perpendicular to each other and cut the ellipse to four symmetrical parts. I'd like to note that when you draw the base shape for the cylinder, you should be able to switch your brain back and forth in 2D and 3D mode. And you want to make sure that this ellipse is a perfect 2D shape, then you need to see it as a 2D shape on the paper. But when you want to look at it as the base shape for the cylinder, you need to see it as a rotated circle in this 3D space. I hope that makes sense. Now as a next step, that's x through the spaceship to get the cylinder. The orientation of these contour lines should follow the vanishing lines of the death. Of course. Now remember this font ellipse should be a slightly narrower one because we see it in a slightly different angle than this one. The orientation is the same. It just has a short-term minor axis. Now let's switch our brain into 3D mode and check if the cylinder looks right. In the meantime, I take this invisible edge lighter. Now let's look at the entire subject. Does it look right? If it does, we have completed the first phase of our sketch. We have a solid base structure. It's a good practice to not going any further. We do a drawing until you have this. We can make some contour lines border, and start adding details to the subject. For example, I'm adding some curves to decide what is the time using the ellipse shapes again. So the edge will look like this. Now I can draw the contour lines on both sides. Let's add some details to the land as well. Let's say that we have around the edge over here. I chose some cross contour lines to make it more obvious. And we have the glass inside. I'm using some random shading here and there. It's best to find a reference image and observe the shadow pattern there. I'm creating the shadow pattern layer by layer. Watch how I hold the pencil. Ensures that I can use the side of my pen system. Shadows play a huge part in drawing. So don't forget to check out the next episode in my how to draw 101 series. We can also add some design. I made these edges stronger. Some more shadows here. Some Based on to the front plane. Sketch. 26. A Coffee Cup in 3D: Now let's build the structure of a coffee cup with its plate. The coffee cup seems as simple household objects. Still, it can be a pretty difficult task if you want to make it right. So it's an excellent exercise to practice what you have learned about 3D objects, data structures, and perspective. I suggest to follow along step-by-step, pausing the video from time to time. Don't get discouraged if your coffee cup doesn't look perfect. Look at the issues you make as opportunities for further and improvement. Realizing your mistakes is a good thing. Learn from them and you will get better with each drawing. Now let's start off by putting the base structure together. I'm starting with the bounding square of the plate. For the subject like this. The one-point perspective will work just fine. So I draw a center line. The vanishing point will be located on this one. I'm not really interested in its exact location. I just tried to use symmetry on both sides in the bounding square. By using diagonals. I mark the center point for the plate. This will help us to place the cup accurately. I'm looking in the cup. Let's make it with this size. We can use this horizontal line as the major axis for the top ellipse. Watch the time a query, light and bold strokes. Nothing is final at this stage, we are looking for the right shapes. In the meantime, I draw the LPS is for the bottom of the cup and for the plate. When you do this, ask this question, are these ellipses in good relationship with each other if they are not fixed down. Remember the rules of perspective. An ellipse closer to the horizon line should be thinner, meaning it's minor axis is shorter. I think we could go a slightly bigger with the size of the plate. So I'm going slightly off of our bounding square. Now let's create the radical curve of the cup on both sides. It should be each other's mirror image. The cap itself is a symmetrical form. So our sketch should reflect this. I also refine the contours here and there. It's a good practice to mark the center line in case of a symmetrical subject. So I emphasize it. Let's show some cross contour lines or sexual horizontal lines. And vertical section. I'm trying to follow the roundness of the surface. Also watch how density increases on the sides. Let's make the same on the other side too. Good. It looks quite symmetrical. Let's add some randomness on the top edge. Disappears as we get close to the center line. Let's not forget Dina surface. That's not bad. Now let's draw these cross contour lines for the plate. This will be a bit tricky because I'd like to give the surface something like this. I also add some roundness to the outer edge. These radio a cross contour lines are supposed to meet in the center point of the base, which is not identical to the center point of the ellipse. Hence, we are in perspective. Remember the principle of foreshortening. Halfway located slightly off from the center point of the ellipse. I cannot rotate my paper because it's fixed on the table, but feel free to rotate yours to get better curves for your LLCs. It's not that bad. You already know how to construct one. Let's put it over here. I'm adding some guidelines. Hi, booking the shape roughly. This will be the center line for the curve. Now let's create the curve. Let's extend it on both sides. Before I forget, let's mark the edge of the table in the background. Let's not mix this with the horizon line. This is the edge of the table. They don't necessarily have to overlap each other. In this case, the horizon line is above the table. Remember, it's identical to the viewer's eye level, which is obviously above the table in this case. Anyway, we have completed the structure of our cup holder. I'd be a slightly bigger, but I leave it that way. Now what about drawing a spoon over here? Can we make it? Of course you can. While a half the level of confidence is a good thing. But the spoon in perspective is a quiet, challenging subject for myself. But why not try? Let's see how it goes. Let's create some perspective guidelines. First, into this block. I imagined the spoon height would look on the table in this view in Django. And I tried to form it. We also need to pay attention to its size. It should be in sync with the coffee cup. Anyway, let's form its shape. The longitudinal center line. Let's find the final contour line. As usual, I draw some cross contour lines to better show the 3D structure. This surface bends downwards. This surface bends upwards. Something like this. Good. This is beyond the scope of this course, but I'm adding some simplified shading to the sketch just to inspire you to step further in developing your drawing skills. I'm using the small sections and their orientations to create the proper shadow pattern. The next episode of my how to draw series is about shading. You can learn the basics of how shadows are created and how to make believable shadow patterns on your drawings. As you got to this point in this class, I'm sure you'll find it interesting. So don't forget to check it. If you want to practice a coffee cups are more free, free to use a reference to get the idea about its proportions. And the way my hope is that in the last five days, you have made a great progress in developing your 3D visualization skills. By now, I'm sure that you can feel the volumes of real-world objects and you can actually draw their structures confidence. You can see things differently by now with the eyes of the artist. Of course, art is more than that. But at this point, I'm sure you have a solid foundation on 3D structures and perspective. And you are ready to step further to an advanced level in the near future. 27. Assignment - Day 5: In this last assignment, I'd like to give space to your creativity. Choose a subject that you like and you think it's in line with your current 3D drawing skills. Something that you can deal with. Make a sketch on that. Focus on the structure. Primarily. Use cross contour and section lines to show the volume of your subject at the end, just for the sake of fun, you can also add some details if you want to. Once you've finished, take a photo about your sketch and please send it to my email address. You can find my contact info and my official website, which is my full Let me know why I chose specific subject, what you liked about it, and how you feel about your sketch. I'd love to see your progress at drawing and we'll be happy to give you a short feedback on your work. I'm so excited, I hope you don't skip this opportunity. Finally, I'd really appreciate a written feedback and rating on the platform that would also help others to know about my class. I wish you the best and see you may be in another drawing session of mine.