How to Draw 101 Ep. 1 - Basic Drawing Skills & Sketching Exercises With Pencil For Beginners | Tamas Benko | Skillshare

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How to Draw 101 Ep. 1 - Basic Drawing Skills & Sketching Exercises With Pencil For Beginners

teacher avatar Tamas Benko, Drawing

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      What's in This Class?


    • 2.

      How to Use the Lessons?


    • 3.

      Test Your Drawing Skills


    • 4.

      Drawing Tools You Need


    • 5.

      Optional Tools


    • 6.

      How to Hold the Pencil?


    • 7.

      See Things Differently


    • 8.

      Practicing the Basics


    • 9.

      Freehand Straight Lines


    • 10.

      Parallel Lines


    • 11.

      Connecting Dots


    • 12.

      Simple 2D Shapes


    • 13.



    • 14.



    • 15.

      Connecting Dots With Curves


    • 16.



    • 17.

      Ovoid Shapes & Ellipses


    • 18.

      Closed Curves


    • 19.

      3D Objects


    • 20.



    • 21.

      Sum Up


    • 22.

      What is Sketching?


    • 23.

      Sketching Real Life Subjects


    • 24.

      Chess Pawn


    • 25.



    • 26.



    • 27.

      Profile Portrait


    • 28.

      Simplified Shading


    • 29.

      Shading the Chess Pawn


    • 30.



    • 31.

      Dancing Figure


    • 32.



    • 33.

      Have You Improved?


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About This Class

How to Draw 101 Series - Episode 1

This class is about practicing the Basic Drawing Skills and making several Sketching Exercises.

If you are an absolute beginner at drawing, this one can be a perfect choice for your very first drawing class. Or if you are not a beginner, but you are having difficulties with your drawings, you are just probably missing some of the basic puzzles which can be easily fixed in these lessons.

This beginner class requires no previous drawing knowledge or special drawing equipment.
We'll be drawing with simple traditional graphite pencil on ordinary paper.

The first section is kind of an introduction to drawing.
I will show you

  • the drawing tools you need

  • optional tools for the future

  • how to hold the pencil to get a better drawing experience

  • how to see the world with the eyes of the artist

In the second section we will go through the basic building blocks of drawing. We will develop your basic drawing skills making a lot of fundamental drawing exercises.

You will learn how to draw 

  • straight lines

  • parallel lines

  • simple 2D shapes like triangles, rectangles, and squares

  • curves

  • circles, ovoid shapes, and ellipses

  • simple 3D objects like cubes and cylinders

We will also develop your hand coordination by connecting dots with straight and curved lines.

The goal of these lessons is to gain confidence at drawing these simple elements that we will use to build more complex objects.

I will give you an introduction to perspective drawing discussing the most frequently used 2-point and 3-point perspective. I will also explain an important drawing principle called foreshortening. With this knowledge you'll be able to draw subjects convincingly in the 3D space.

In the third section we'll put the drawing skills you've learned into practice. We will make all sorts of sketches on real life subjects based on reference photos. We will draw

  • a chess pawn built from simple 2D shapes

  • a chair by drawing straight lines using the rules of perspective

  • a fish using a bunch of S-curves

  • a profile portrait to practice proportions

  • a chess pawn with simple shading

  • a pair of glasses

  • a dancing human figure for an introduction to gesture drawing

  • and an astronaut just for fun

At the end of the class you can check if your drawing skills have improved. I'm sure they will if you make all the exercises with me.

I hope you will enjoy this class as much as I did through its creation.

See you in my Basic Drawing Skills & Sketching class! 

Meet Your Teacher

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Tamas Benko



I love to teach new skills to students, so I'd like to see you in my class!
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Level: Beginner

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1. What's in This Class?: Welcome to my basic drawing skills and sketching exercises class. My name is stamps. I love to teach new skills to students. I'll be your guide in this beginner drawing session. Class consists of three main sections. First, we discussed some of the drawing fundamentals, like what tools we will use, how to hold the pencil, or how to see with the eyes of the artist. Then you can develop your drawing skills by making all sorts of simple exercises where you can learn all the simple building blocks of drawing. With these new skills, you will be able to draw more complex subjects in the next section, where we will make several sketches using reference photos, we start off with simple ones and nicely move on to complexity. By following my instructions, you can learn how to draw what you actually see. This class is created for those students who are absolute beginners at drawing or having difficulties with. You can start a class right away because it requires no previous drawing knowledge or special drawing tools. My main goal is to help you overcome your initial barriers at drawing that many beginners suffer from. I'd also like to provide you a relaxing activity. If you diligently make the exercises, you will find the sketching projects pretty exciting and entertaining. I hope that I can see you in the first lesson. 2. How to Use the Lessons?: Drawing fundamentals are extremely important. If you take your time and learned the basics, drawing can be fun and entertaining. Otherwise, you will get frustrated and probably lose interests quickly. Learning to draw needs, certain level of dedication, persistence, and patients don't raise the bar too high, too early and don't be too hard on yourself. It will take time and a lot of practice to create stunning artworks. I encourage you to watch every minute of this class, follow the instructions step-by-step, and perform each exercise, theory plus practice, you need both in order to improve. It would be ideal if you could spend at least one hour we discussed each day until you finish. But if you don't have the timeframe everyday, that's fine too. Don't feel any pressure to complete the lessons. Go through them in your own pace. This glass was intended to be a relaxing activity for taking the lessons. Find a calm place. Keep your phone turned off, and caveats to people around you not to disturb. Drawing requires an uninterrupted, relaxed state of mind. Before each drawing session, calm down your mind and focus on your goal that you are going to learn these drawing skills and be better at drawing. You ready? Now let's get into it. 3. Test Your Drawing Skills: I know, I know you can't wait to start drawing something interesting. If you are in, let's make an exciting experiment. Choose at least one or two subjects from this collection. Take a pencil and paper and make a sketch on them, spending no more than five minutes with each. What is a sketch? Sketch is rapidly executed free hand drawing. It is usually used to record ideas or graphically demonstrating something. The sketch is usually simple. Details and accuracy are not important. You don't have to be afraid of making mistakes. So spend no more than five minutes on each. Keep It Simple. No details and accuracy is not important. At the end of the class, I will ask you to do the same. Then you can put your sketches next to each other to see how your drawing skills evolved. The sketches you are about to make now may look awkward, but it doesn't matter. Don't feel ashamed. You don't have to show them to anyone. My hope is that you'll be satisfied with the ones you will create at the end of this class. And you'll be happy to show those ones to your friends and family. Now pause the video at the reference image you'd like to make a sketch of. Or you can find these images in resources in case you'd like to bring them out. 4. Drawing Tools You Need: First, let's talk about the technical side of drawing, about the tools you need for this class. One of the great things that drawing it requires very little investment. As a beginner, forget famous brands and expensive tools. Your success will depend on brands the least. The cheapest equipment will just due. To learn the basics, you will need cheap office papers. For graphite pencil, pencil sharpener, and an eraser. Let's talk about pansies first. You'll probably notice one of these marks on your pencil. Like 2H, H b or two b. These are hardness and softness grades. I made some scarce with different pencils. On the left side of the scale. I applied very little pressure on the paper and increase the towards the right. On the right, you can see the darker stone I could achieve with the highest pressure without breaking the tip of the pencil. Each stands for hardness. The higher the number is, the harder the graphite we'll be. With an H pencil. You can draw light thin strokes and the tip of the pencil will remain sharp longer. So an HB pencil is a hard graphite for making light strokes. The B stands for blackness. B pencils have software graphite. You can draw darker and borders strokes with them. With the higher number, you can achieve a darker tone on the paper. B pencils are great for shading. Hb pencils are somewhere in the middle. You can also find Penzias with F grading, which is a little bit harder than an HB, but less hard than an H pencil. Here at the bottom, you can see a full-scale. I use seven different grades for this example. Anyway, whatever type of pencil you have, it will be just fine for this class. If you intend to buy one. I suggest something in the middle, in the heart and scale by, for example, a 2H and a 2B pencil. I have to know that we are not the same. There are heavy handed and right handed people. If you are heavy handed, you probably need a harder pencil like a for H to be able to create light strokes. If you are light handed, a 2B pencil will be fine for you. But this is really something you need to test. You can also use a mechanical pencil in the stores around me. It is sought to be leads. But I suggest the traditional pencil for this class. In order to be able to try out each technique I'm going to show you. For the long-term, I encourage you to try out different Penzias and work with the ones you like best. Quick tip. If you take drawing seriously, you will have a bunch of pencils. Manufacturers usually mark them only on one side. When you have 15 different pencils, it's kind of exhausting to find a certain grade. So as you can see, I mark my pencils on each side. Now it's easy to pick the one I need from the stack. High-use, right? Japan for marking and let it dry. The traditional pencil requires a sharpener, of course, the most basic sharpener pill just to for sketching. For sketching, a regular renal eraser is just fine. But later, you might want to get a kneaded eraser like this. It provides much more control over erasing, which will be extremely useful in shading. 5. Optional Tools: Now let me show you some optional drawing tools which you don't necessarily need now, but sooner or later you probably purchase them as you dive into drawing more and more. This is a band SILAC standard. It's just more convenient to hold the shorthand sealed with this two. Then struggle like this. This is sandpaper. You can get it in any do-it-yourself store in a format like this. Choose a fine-grained one. I cut them into smaller pieces and clip them. With this Eigen sharpen my pencil is quickly. I can also create a tip shape like this, which is not possible with a regular pencil sharpener. With a tip like this, I can draw board loose strokes. Until you get sandpaper. You can alternatively use a piece of paper to form your tip. I also have a multifunctional multiple sharpen our I'd like to point out that some software Penzias retire BY number, have a thicker graphite road and require a non-standard sharpener. This one has four different hole sizes. For example, I can create a tip like this in the second hole. Then I can use the sandpaper, the formula t. These are brushed pens or specifically water-based drawings. I have a lighter tone and the darker tone for shading. This side is a brush. This brush I can shade pretty quickly. It also has a fine tip. I have these two gray tones and the tone of the paper. We did three different tones and video line drawing. You can actually make pretty nice catches. Sometimes I use color pencils to make my sketches more exciting. You might want to draw a sketch book to archive your sketches easily. A few years later, it will be fun to look back where you started and high or drawing skills evolved. If you plan to use it on the way or outdoor to the smaller format. Alright, now take your pencil and paper and let's see what we can do with them. 6. How to Hold the Pencil?: How to hold the pencil? This question may sound a bit odd. You may say, I know how to hold the pencil. I learned it when I was a kid. Well, writing and drawing are two different things. The way you hold the pencil has a big impact on how your drawing will look. Let me explain. This is how people normally hold a pencil or a pen for handwriting. You are using three of your fingers and your risk to control the tip of the pencil. Although your finger muscles are probably dance, as you write. You can use the tripod grip for drawing, but pay attention to some details. Keep your fingers and wrist, lose. This way the joints in your hand not under too much pressure. So drawing real, not be tiring at all. We described. You can create small, thin, precise lines that are uniform in weight. The weight means the thickness of your stroke. This grip is ideal for drawing small details. But as long as you move on your fingers and wrist, this Greek works only on short distances. If you have a nice readable writing, it means that you train your muscles and nerve pathways properly. When you were a kid. You are capable of creating sophisticated movements with your fingers and wrist. But even if you are good at this, using your fingers and wrist is not ideal for everything. I'm trying to draw a perfect circle. For example, I'm using my hand just like for handwriting. It won't work. You've see the anatomy of the hand makes it pretty hard to draw a perfect circle. I try not to move your fingers and wrist. Instead, use your elbow and shoulder joints to move your hand holding the pencil. Now, I can make a much better circle. And there is another group called the overhand grip. I'm holding the pencil like this. Your hand is relaxed, your fingers are lightly holding the pencil. This way. You depend on your elbow and shoulder to make a stroke. It's much easier to draw straight lines, fluid curved lines. By changing the tilt angle of the pencil and paper, you can control the thickness of your strokes. You can draw soft, thin lines and thick lines as well. By applying bigger pressure on the paper, you can draw heavier strokes. The overhand grip is ideal for sketching. It serves where both for short and long distances. It provides a greater range of motion Daniel risks. You can also create fluid gestural lines. You can vary the line weight of your strokes, which adds dynamic to your drawing. But because your muscles and nerves are not trained for its movement, it will probably feel weird at first. But don't worry, by practice and repetition of certain movements, you will develop a muscle memory and this technique will become your second nature. I have to point out that to enjoy all the benefits of the overhand grip and make it ergonomic. It requires a theatre drawing layer, a drawing board, table top, or a standing ESL. Most people start to draw on a table in a position like this or like this, none of them is ideal. The problem with this body posture, that your spine is in an unnatural state. Very soon you will probably experienced back pain. The problem with this other straight back body posture is that you don't look at your drawing in perpendicular angle 90 degrees. Looking at your drawing or reference photo in other than 90 degree angle, perspective distortion will take place. Look at the difference, how you see this image into different positions. Binds will be distorted on this one compared to this one. And you're drawing on look like you'd expect. So you want to keep your paper as close as possible to perpendicular compared to your viewing direction. Let me show you some possible environmental setups for healthy and proper drawing experience. You need to find one that fits the best for you. Find a body posture where you can keep your arm and its muscles loose. If you feel pain in your wrist, fingers, or spine after sometime, it may be the sign of an inappropriate pencil grip or a drawing board position. And even if you have the right environment setup, I suggest to take a few minutes break in every hour. Stand up from your desk, take a walk, move your joints a bit and refresh your bloodflow. Sitting in a place for too long is not happy anyway, your whole body needs some physical exercises. The reason I mention this is because it's easy to lose the sense of time when you draw. On one hand is the perfect mind state for drawing. But on the other hand, your health is also important. So don't forget to take a break. 7. See Things Differently: If a lesson is extremely important than this one, it is to see things differently is so essential that if you understand this interchange everything. Let's say we have this i, we want to make a sketch of. The very first step is to observe it. Observation means that you analyze the details of the subject. In this case, I'm not talking about its color or texture. Rather than go off its orientation, size, and the relationships of its parts. In everyday life, most people's brain doesn't deal with these details. Of course, your unconscious mind records every little detail which can be recalled by hypnosis, for example. But your conscious mind just doesn't do that. It would be just too much information to process. That's why your brain uses simple symbols for objects to recognize and understand them. Your brain created the symbols in your childhood. It works like this. When you try to draw an eye, for example, you probably draw something like this. Your brain says, okay, that's an i, I have a symbol for that. So it recalls the symbol and you don't really drove what you see. But some very simplified version of it recorded in your childhood as a symbol. When people draw like this, most of them think that they just cannot draw. There is nothing to do. But that's a false belief. Actually, anyone can learn to draw. You just need to switch your brain into a different state and you look at objects. Some people can get into the state more easily than others, but anybody can learn that. And once you learn it, you can start drawing what you actually see. Just like those so-called talented people. Modern science had made several discoveries about how the human brain works. I promise I'm not going too deep into science in this class. But if you know these things, it will be much easier to believe that you can learn to tour. Our brain has two separate parts, the left side and the right side. The left side controls the right side of your body and it performs task that are related to logic analysis, calculations. The left side is also responsible for connecting words to symbols I was talking about. If you are right in the person than the left side of your brain is dominant. On the other hand, the right side of your brain controls the left side of your body. And it is good in tasks that need creativity and abstraction. If you are left-handed, you are probably a creative person by nature. Now the situation is not so simple because in a small percentage of people, these two sides are flipped in functions. Plus some people were intended to be a left-handed by nature, by the educational system, forced them to learn right hand writing. Anyway, I hope you get the point. Now here is the thing. If you struggle with drawing, it is probably because your left side of your brain is dominant. And it is so dominant that it even tries to solve things that right side would be much better at, like drawing. So when you try to draw a figure, for example, and you end up something like this. That's because your left side of your brain is in control. The symbol that is stored there and connect it to the world figure will show up on the paper. But you can change this. In order to be able to turn off this mechanism, we need to get the left side back off and let the right side to do its job to control your drawing. Scientific experiments shows that you can treat the left side of your brain, giving task that each will find boring. After some time, it will give up and the right side can take control. I will show you how to achieve this. Once the right side of your brain is in control, you're drawing restart to look like reality. Well, not immediately, but with some practice. Does it sound exciting? Then stick with me in the next lessons. 8. Practicing the Basics: Now it's time to learn using the tools and training your arm to execute drawing actions. You need to wire your nerves to do these movements accurately. As you practice, you develop muscle memory in Iran for drawing. It may take some time. Of course, each drawing, no matter how complexities builds up from simple elements, such as straight lines, curves, simple shapes, and forms. We will go through each of them. The more we practice the simple building blocks, the more confident you will be at drawing. In the following lessons, we will be doing a lot of exercises. Each practice has its own purpose. The type of exercises you struggle with it, you need to practice the most. Make them part of your role map session. Because just like sports, drawing, also need some warm up exercises. 9. Freehand Straight Lines: In this lesson, we'll be concentrating on drawing straight lines. It's not so easy as it seems. Now, draw with me. I'm drawing a simple line. Draw it in this 45-degree angle because it's easy to make using your Apple. Even with a simple line, we can discover several important drawing properties. Stroke has an orientation. I control vertically, horizontally, or in any direction. Orientation is key. You can always take the sides of the paper as a reference. Compare your stroke to the horizontal or the vertical edge of the paper. Right at the beginning. It's useful to learn to identify and some main angles. Let's say we take this horizontal as the base as a reference. I also draw this way article which closes a 90 degree angle with the base. A 45-degree angle should be at the middle, somewhere here. It divides the 90-degree angle into two equal parts. Let's divide this 45-degree angle into thirds. Something like this. We get 15 and the 30 degree angle. If I do the same over here, I get the 6075 degree angles. You will analyze the relationships between two lines all the time. If you can identify an approximate angle between them, it will be much easier to draw their orientation accurately. For example, if I wanted to copy these lines keeping their directions, The first thing I will do is to determine their angles to the vertical or horizontal. This one is roughly 45 degrees. And this one is between 1015. This one compared to this one is about 90 degrees. All right, now let's get back to line properties. Align has a length. I can draw short strokes and longer ones. Stroke has brightness. This one is pretty light because I applied very light pressure on the paper. If I add more pressure, I can draw a darker one or even darker. Remember, you can also change the brightness of your stroke by choosing harder or softer graphite pencil. I can also change the thickness of the line. But to illustrate this, I need pencil with a tip like this. With the tip of the pencil, I can draw thin lines. Changing the angled pencil. I can make the stroke thicker. Switch to overhand grip. To draw strokes like this. You can also change the speed of your stroke. You can draw very slowly or faster. Declines look more dynamic, which is good in general. But precision is also important. Test different speeds and stick to the one value line still look like as you intended. Now watch this. You can also change the thickness of your stroke in one single movement. This is kind of an advanced technique. I'm changing the angle of my pencil as I am making the move. Don't worry, if you don't succeed with this one right now. It needs some practice. Let's sum up. Stroke has an orientation or direction, length, brightness, bright or dark, a thickness, and dynamics. So you can draw all kinds of strokes and they will have their own unique meaning or message to the viewer. 10. Parallel Lines: Now let's practice drawing parallel lines. We start off with short ons. Draw line strokes, applying light pressure on the paper. This way, it's easier to keep your muscles relaxed. Find an angle which is convenient for your arm and hand. As a beginner, you don't have to train yourself to be able to create perfect strokes from any angle. Find the range where you are the best. And later, when you need a certain angle, feel free to turn the paper to fit it in that range. Now if you use the drawing board, which you cannot rotate occasionally, you don't have any other choice than to learn drawing in any angle. But don't stress yourself. Your strokes don't have to be perfectly straight. Use a ruler if you need perfect straight lines. Otherwise, a line that looks straight to the viewer is good enough. I'm drawing in this 45-degree angle. We are drawing short lines, tried to keep a constant distance between them and they should be somewhat parallel to each other. Try out both directions from the bottom to the top and from the top to bottom. Which one is more comfortable for you? What I want you to focus on is that your hand is lose tried to keep constant thickness, same length and spacing. We are not in a hurry. You are teaching your nerves and muscles slowly with repetition. Later. Once you have accuracy, you can increase speed. If your lines bend like this is because your wrist and fingers cannot cooperate properly, or the line is longer than your wrist and fingers cooperation could physically handle. If you experience difficulty is like this, you can try fixing your wrist and fingers position and use your elbow and shoulder to do the motion. Your fingers and wrist joints are not rotating at all. Just your elbow and shoulder. This way your lines should remain straight. Remember, you want to avoid technique like this. You want one solid single stroke each time. Now let's try another angle. If you are making mistakes, that's okay. Don't stress yourself. We are practicing. Mistakes are a lot. Let's try it with bigger spacing. Now let's try to draw lines parallel with the edge of the paper. This time, try not to rotate the paper. Find a position with your elbow and shoulder so you can make these lines. Remember, your wrist is in fixed position, it doesn't rotate. Let's try the opposite direction. Now let us draw vertical lines. I faced with challenges in this direction. I am trying to draw from the bottom to the top. I'm also testing Read, speed works best for me. Sometimes if you speed up a little, your strokes will be better. And don't forget, your fingers and wrist are in fixed position. The motion comes from your elbow and shoulder. There is a shading technique in drawing code, crosshatching. I'm not going into detail now, but with this technique, you can create different tones on your drawing to illustrate shadows on shore distances like this, you can let your fingers and wrist do demotion. In cross hatching, you can play with the spacing between strokes, with the number of layers of your strokes. And we'd pencil pressure as well. Let's try drawing longer socks. For long strokes. You definitely need your elbow and shoulder to take control. Let's try the overhand grip. Good. 11. Connecting Dots: We can develop our straight line drawing skill further. Let's create some dots randomly like this. We will connect them with straight lines. These exercise helps you learn targeting certain point on your drawing. If you find this exercise challenging. And there is a technique you can use code ghosting. If you are not sure that your stroke will hit the target, imitate the motion above the paper. First, I'm hovering my pencil above the paper a few times and the right orientation is found. I let the pencil down and troll. If you are unsecure, caused first, dental, rotate the paper as needed to do it as best as you can. Lines must be straight. Strokes are very loose and lightweight. Now, you apply very low pressure on the paper. Feel free to run through the target video. Strokes. Stopping right at the target would influence your strokes quality negatively. Longest strokes are more challenging, but that's okay if you miss the target, try it again. No need to erase. You don't want to interrupt destroying session with erasing. Play with the pressure as wire, drawing darker strokes. Try out the overhand grip to. Now let's draw straight lines coursing through a center point. That's okay if you miss the center, do it a few times and your precision will improve. Different speeds and pressure. Try out two very good. 12. Simple 2D Shapes: Now it's time to draw some simple 2D shapes. Simple shapes are the building blocks of more complex objects. You will use the skill or the time is you can draw these simple shapes. You'll be able to draw things with ME. Complexity. For example, we can imagine how these simple shapes beard up a complex subject like this. If you are able to recognize these hidden 2D shapes, it will be much easier to draw. The subject. Subject may seem unmanageable at first glance. But if you break it down to simple elements, the task is getting much easier. Now let's start off with drawing some triangles. You can draw all sorts of triangles. I'm not going into geometrical terms because they are not important from our perspective. However, you can observe symmetry, in some cases. Stability or instability. This one looks balanced. This one looks unbalanced. Now let's draw some rectangles. Rectangle has four sides and four right angles. It's important that opposite sides are parallel to each other. So we will use our scale to draw parallel lines. You can draw a flat rectangle, a tall one, or you can rotate it. If all the four sides are equal, it will be a square. Let's draw some squares in different sizes and orientation. If we don't insist to right angles, we can draw a parallelogram trapezoid. Good. Now what if I take the shape? Draw some vertical lines from the corners and make two strokes with the original shape of a cube 3D object. I can do the same with this one. You see how simple it is? Well, it looks like a cube because I intentionally followed some rules. The rules of perspective. Perspective is an essential drawing principle, so let's explore it in high level in the next video. 13. Perspective: Perspective drawing itself deserves a complete class, but now I'd like to give you an overview. So in this lesson, we are going to look into some typical applications, the 2.3 perspective. I know that I won't be perfectly accurate and detailed because it would take too much time. But using principles I explained here, you will be able to create more believable 3D objects in your sketches. In perspective, we have an important straight line, the horizon line. It's up to you where you place it vertically in your picture frame. But it will have an impact on the final image. I'm going to use a cube to demonstrate some of the key terms of perspective. If you look at the cube from front, it looks like a square. If you rotate the cube around its vertical axis, it will look something like this. Now if we move our position upwards, looking down at the cube, we will need to know the rules of perspective to draw it accurately. First, I draw the closest radical edge of the cube. In perspective, edges parallel with the ground follow a rule. They must meet somewhere on the horizon line in one single point on each side. These single points are called the vanishing points. Let me put these two vanishing points here and there. By the way, this is the reason it's called two-point perspective. Because there are two vanishing points. These two vanishing points have a certain relationship. So you cannot just place them anywhere. But it's an advanced topic. This topic is discussed in detail in my perspective drawing class. Now I draw guidelines for the horizontal edges. I know that they are start here at the end of this vertical edge and go towards the vanishing point like this. Similarly, on the other side. Another rule of 2 perspective is that every vertical line is parallel to each other. So I can draw the other two vertical edges on the sides parallel to the existing vertical edge. I put them somewhere here to get the feeling of a cube. Now I have these corners so I can draw new guidelines from here as well. Finally, I redraw the visible edges of the cube. And we have an object in 3D. Let's take an example for the 3 perspective. This will be my picture frame. This would be the middle. But this time I shift the horizon line downwards. Somewhere here. This will be the closest edge. And I pulled the two vanishing points on the horizon line here. And there. As you can see, a vanishing point doesn't have to be inside your picture plane. These edges converge to this direction. These ones converge to this direction. And the horizon line is not at the middle. Vertical lines also started to converge towards the third vanishing point. It is usually far away. Let me put it over here. I mark the bottom corners of this, let's say building. And I draw the guidelines to desert vanishing point. I emphasize the outlines. I erase order unnecessarily strokes. And we have a dramatic look of the 3D object. Now you don't necessarily need to draw these construction lines. If you know the rules. You just need to imagine at edges converge to a single point on the horizon. Plus, remember, sketching is not about accuracy, so you don't need to be perfect. Good enough is perfectly fine. For example, this object is not perfect from perspective point of view. Guidelines don't meet in a single vanishing point. But it's okay because the viewer won't realize this as long as you are close to the accurate one. All right, so now you know how to draw straight lines. You know the basics of perspective, and you can draw some 2D and 3D shapes. It's time to bend these straight lines because nature objects buildup from curved lines. 14. Curves: Straight lines are mostly used in man-made objects. In nature, you will see curves instead. So being able to draw fluid lose and dynamic curved lines is equally important. So let's get into it. Let's start off by drawing curves using our wrist. Notice that there is a size range where this technique works good enough. For other curves. It's better to use our elbow and shoulder. So I keep my wrist and fingers fixed. Only my elbow and shoulder do the job. I tried to draw an S curve like this. Still keep your wrist and fingers in fixed position. Your elbow and shoulder should cooperate and solve this task. Now that's draw. 15. Connecting Dots With Curves: Now let's take an empty paper and make a little bit more difficult exercise. Plays two dots on the paper and try to connect them with a curve. You can rotate the paper and the curve can be any kind, but try to keep it fluid and try to hit the target. You miss the target nodes. You can always use coasting before we made the stroke. If you experience this kind of break in the curve, you are probably making disrobe from your finger and raised, which is not good. I know. I repeat all the time, but it is so important to remember that your elbow and shoulder are the keys to draw nice straight and curved lines. Some orientation is not convenient. Rotate the paper and try again. Let's make it more difficult. Tried to connect three dots to occur. You can connect three dots many different ways. Like this. Like this, or like this. Find the right curve that fits the dots smoothly. The curve should be a single movement. Don't lift off your pencil midway. Here is. Imagine that these three dots are on an ellipse. Imagine the ellipse above the paper. It will be something like this. And I got the curve. I slowly lower my pencil and draw it through the dots. Try out the opposite direction. It may work better or rotate the paper if you need to. This is not an easy exercise, but it really makes you better at drawing. Good. 16. Circles: In case of the circle, you definitely need to use your elbow and shoulder to draw. If you draw from your fingers and wrist, you will get something like this. This is far from a perfect circle, right? So make sure your stabilize your fingers and wrist. Caused the circle. And draw. You need to force your finger's not to move because I'm sure they want to. They are used to. So you need to focus on not letting them move. Try out both directions to see which one suits best. You can eliminate your fingers taking part by switching to try to draw different size of silicons. I'm drawing two lines like this. Imagine these lines as tangential to our circles. This exercise helps you practice positioning the circle. I know it's not easy. Another great exercise for drawing circles to connect them outside or inside. 17. Ovoid Shapes & Ellipses: Another frequently used 2D shape is D avoid shape or shape. Being able to draw all kinds of avoid shapes is especially useful in human figure or animal joining. Lets practice some. Another important 2D shape is by definition, an ellipse has two axes which are perpendicular to each other in whatever position the ellipse is. An ellipse is a symmetrical shape. The two parts on both sides of an axis has to be identical. They should overlap each other perfectly if you rotate it one into the other. Now let's try to draw all kinds of ellipses. Remember, you draw from your elbow and shoulder tribal directions clockwise and counterclockwise. Use the one which works best for you. Try to rotate the ellipse. I'd like to point out that whole circle shapes become an ellipse in perspective. Think of a car wheel for example. Inside you, it's a circle. In perspective, it becomes an ellipse. But note that the axes of the ellipse, in this case will be tilted slightly in perspective. They will be located somewhere here. 18. Closed Curves: Now let's play a bit. Let's draw closed curves. You can draw any curve, just close the shape somehow. Use lose and light strokes. Your strokes need to have a certain momentum in order to look fluent. In the next lesson, we are going to deal with 3D objects. 19. 3D Objects: You have already learned how to draw a square and how to turn it into a cube. But a 2D shape like this rectangle can be turned into another frequently use 3D object, the cylinder. From side view, the cylinder looks like this. It's a rectangle. I draw some lines marking the volume of the cylinder. These are called cross contour lines. You can use cross contour lines in your sketches to make it more readable to the viewer. Now let's change the viewing angle slightly. Imagine that the camera or the viewer moves upward slowly getting above the cylinder. I need to draw thin ellipses at the top and the bottom and connect them. Note that as I moved the camera further upwards, the ellipse will be getting wider. You can also notice that the height of the cylinder is getting shorter, at least on the drawing. This is how rotated objects behave in perspective. Distances are getting compressed. In top view, we just see a circle cylinder. If you notice, I use the 2 perspective in this example because radicals or the contours on the sides have remained parallel to each other. And more realistic illustration would be to draw the cylinder in 3 perspective where radicals converge doors vanishing point like this. As a consequence, lower ellipse is getting smaller. Now let's draw some cylinders in different positions. You can draw them in 2 perspective. Vertical lines are parallel to each other. In 3 perspective, where they converge slightly. This cylinder drawn in 3 perspective drives us to another important drawing principle called foreshortening. Let me explain it in the next lesson. 20. Foreshortening: Foreshortening is a technique used to create the illusion of depth on a drawing or a painting. It is tool in the hand of the artist to illustrate an object receding into the distance. Applying foreshortening can be quite challenging for beginners. Your logical brain, it's just protests against it. But if you understand how it works, it will be fun to use. Let me show you what foreshortening is about on this human figure. The important body part is the lag. In this case, I'd like to illustrate different lack positions. I draw a guideline, an ellipse, which will have me to draw the other leg positions correctly. Let's say the figure turns his right leg exactly towards us. It will look something like this. Let's say he turns his right leg into a 45-degree angle. It will look something like this. Now let's analyze what's happening here. I draw the outlines of the legs in different positions and move them to the side on by one. And notice that the length of the leg changes. The leg is getting shorter as he turns towards the viewer. Through foreshortening, objects get compressed and distances shorten. Now let's see another example. We look at this figure from the top. It will look something like this. An average adult male figure is roughly eight heads tall. If we check these proportions on the perspective drawing, you can realize that they are totally different. They are not just random, but follow the rules of perspective. We can state the distances are getting shorter as they get further away from us. But the parts get compressed. This seems so unnatural for our brain. When you first try to draw a figure in a position like this, I'm sure you will draw the torso and legs longer than they should be. You just need to fight this battle with the left side of your brain. Find reference photos where foreshortening takes place. Tried to draw them and check proportions if they match with the reference. If you practice your figures, we start to look like as they are in reality. 21. Sum Up: Congratulations, you have reached an important milestone. Let's sum up. You can draw straight lines in several ways. You can control the orientation, pressure on the pencil, the thickness of the strokes, and the distance between lines. You can draw all kinds of 2D shapes, rectangle, square, triangle, or other polygons. You can draw curves, waves, ellipses, circles, and shapes, all sorts of oils. You can draw 3D objects in perspective like cubes and cylinders. Eventually, you possess all the essential skills to be able to build up more complex objects. You start speaking the language of drawing. So it's time to make some sketches about realised subjects. 22. What is Sketching?: Before we get into actual drawing, let me clarify what sketching is and share some thoughts on drawing in general. Let's refresh the definition of sketching. Sketching is a rapidly executed freehand drawing. Rapidly means that the drawing takes only a few seconds or minutes. Sketching is usually used to record the ideas or graphically demonstrating something. The sketch is usually simple. Details and accuracy are not important. Now the word rapidly doesn't mean that your strokes need to be executed quickly. As a beginner, don't worry about the speed. It's much more important to learn the proper drawing technique. Speed will come later with practice. Sketching is often the first step of creating a complex artwork. Actually, many painters star there our creation process with sketching. In the first phase, the artist tries to catch the essense of an object or a person with a few lose board lines. I have to note that the sketch is usually not so impressive than a completed polished artwork. While a sketch can be completed in a few minutes, a finished drawing can take hours to complete. After the sketching phase, the shading phase comes and in parallel, you start adding details and texture to your drawing. Sketching is also perfect for learning the basics, the core concepts, and some of the most important drawing principles. It's also useful to train your muscle memory. At the beginning, drawing won't reflect exactly what you see on a reference photo or what you have imagined in your head. But that's perfectly normal. When you face with difficulties in your drawings, you might think that the problem is with you thinking of something, I'm not talented enough. I don't think that's the reason. You are just missing some very basic puzzles. Once you've got them, you will experience success. One of the goals of this class is to teach you how you can recognize issues in your drawings and how you can fix them one by one. The result will be a better drawing and you will enjoy this activity more. I'm not seeing you want faced with difficulties throughout your journey, but I'm hoping you have a strong desire and the wheel to make this true. If you put the working, I'm sure you won't be disappointed. 23. Sketching Real Life Subjects: Now we will take some reference photos and sketch what we see. I think a beginner can learn lot making sketches based on reference photos. Some artists suggests otherwise, drawing from imagination from the start. I think it's important we adopt some kind of visual library in your headfirst based on real-life subjects and compositions. You can also gain confidence at drawing this way. Nonetheless, feel free to start sketching from your imagination at anytime. But if you feel stuck, step back to references. Find a good photo on that particular subject you struggle with. If you want to practice, find professional photos with interesting subjects. Draw anything you find fascinating, captivating, or compelling. Be prepared to draw something several times. Identify issues on your drawing and fix them on the next copy. If you reach a certain level of likeness, you can start drawing from your imagination. I've chosen some subjects from life, and we'll go from simple to more complex. First, watch how I draw a particular subject, listening to my commentary. Then try to draw the subject on your own. Or you can draw with me, But then you probably need to pause the video. Occasionally. Your drawing won't be perfect for the first time, but that's okay. You don't need to repeat it. Feel free to step to the next lesson. Once you finished with the glass, you can try drawing the subject again, you found the most interesting, and I'm sure your second trial will be much better. If I find a challenging subject, I often draw it 23 or even five times. We all improved by repetition. Don't think that artists can draw anything perfectly for the first trial. 24. Chess Pawn: So I'd like to draw this chest bone, ignore the beautiful shadows now, we will be dealing with them in a separate lesson. Let's focus on the shape of the chess piece. Now. Believe it or not, most artists spend at least half of their time in the creative process with observation, analysis, and thinking. And only in the rest they actually made the strokes. You will follow a similar process. We will repeat the sequence over and over, observe, analyze, and jaw. This drawing exercises are spend a little bit more time withdrawing than a sketch would require. Also are be more accurate than a simple sketch would require. The reason is because I think it's better to see how you can reach a higher level of accuracy where he can descend from any time. Let's get into it. The first thing I'd like you to realize is where the horizon line is. It is somewhere here because we see these color pretty much from the side. It's base and top are basically horizontal lines, while the other circular shapes are ellipses in this viewing angle. So I draw the horizon line. The horizon line helps me to remember that ellipses below that, we're curve downwards because we are looking at them from above. As I mentioned earlier, if you see a relatively complex 3D object, you can always break it down into simple elements like lines and 2D shapes, so you can draw it more easily. Let us do that. We have a circle at the top. This is kind of a thin, horizontally placed rectangle. We have a beautiful S-curve over here. At the bottom, we have several ellipses. We have learned to draw each of these elements, so we just need to put the puzzles together. First, I mark the top of our subject. I use very light strokes. I will decide later which one to keep. I also mark the bottom. The circle is tangent to the horizon line. So I draw this horizontal as well. I draw the circle, likely. This is symmetrical shape, so i mark the center axis, we dashed line. And I draw this vertical axis right here. Actually, the horizon line is located a little bit lower. Let me draw then. The color will be somewhere here. And let's see how the sides of the scholar relates to the side of the circle. Something like this. Similarly, on the other side. You can simplify this curve, drawing a circle. I gently draw over the curve of the head. In the meantime, I erase some of the construction lines. You don't necessarily have to. I just want to make the area clear. Now let's deal with the bottom ellipses. Lets find their outer edges. You can do this in several different ways. Now I check its relation to the contour of the top circle. It will be an angle like this. Now I draw the bigger ellipse and a little bit smaller one. Let's try to copy this S curve. I am using very light pressure on the paper. My hand is lose. I'm trying to be as fluid as possible. Here we can notice another curve bending in this direction. Let's copy these curves to the other side. It's not easy to mirror this curves. I know. I draw the lower part of this third ellipse, and I emphasize the other ellipses a little bit more. It seems that the vertical axis is a little bit off. Let me fix that. Nope, let's try again. I draw this vertical slowly. Night looks okay. Now, I think it's time to finalize the contours over here. I draw this darker stroke slowly. All right, this S curve looks pretty decent. I continue with the DOM. Now let me erase these construction lines. I'm still not satisfied with the bottom right. Let me fix that. I think it's better now. Well, I consider this one has finished. Let me mark the horizon line. We dread. Notice that you can draw a complex 3D form like this without knowing anything about three-dimensionality or perspective, you can simply break the subject down into simple 2D shapes and draw them paying attention to their orientations. But you can create much better drawing if you are aware of the volume of these forms. Some drawing, some of the cross contour lines of this object to illustrate its three-dimensionality. The cross contour, which is right in the middle, will be a straight line. With the next radical cross contour line. I tried to follow the volume of the subject. As I move to the side, the Kurzban more and more. Now what about the horizontal cross contour lines? The one located at the same level as the horizon line will be a straight horizontal. Above the horizon line on the surface of the sphere, they will start to band. Below the horizon line. They also banned, but in the opposite direction. Something like this. I tried to draw this bone if you haven't done so. The goal is not perfection. Just tried to follow my guidelines. If it takes half an hour to complete, that's okay too. Once you have enough practice behind you, this drawing with this level of accuracy, we'll take five minutes TO, if you simplify it, it can be done in a minute or so. Have fun with it. 25. Chair: Now let's draw this chair. It contains only straight lines as building blocks. So it should be an easy one, right? Well, not necessarily. It is a bit challenging, but it'll be a great exercise to recognize some interesting interrelations. I'd like to note there are several ways to approach a subject like this. I'll just show you one possible way of doing this. The first thing I recognize is that this is a perfect example of 2 perspective. This lower part of the chair is basically a cube. We can realize that these vertical edges are parallel to each other. These edges converge to a single vanishing point somewhere in the distance y. These edges converge to another vanishing point somewhere on the right. This time, I used soft pencil holding like this at the end of the pencil. So I can make pretty loose strokes. Draw the legs of the chair with thick light strokes. I'm trying to follow their horizontal distribution and watching the distances between them. Now, I'm checking the angle of this edge. It's around 45 degrees. Something like this. I draw the inner edge of the lag behind. Now let's analyze the angle of this edge. It is slightly above the horizontal. So I copy this tilde. I draw this other edge, keep it in mind that it converges a little. I draw the front edge, which also converges with the one behind. Now let's analyze the bottom edges of the imaginary cube. They converge the same way, but in a little bit bigger angle. Because remember, all of these four edges meet in one single point somewhere in the distance. Now let's see the other bottom edges. It's the same method just on the other side. You see it's just a cube we have already learned to draw. The only challenge here is to place it in the right orientation. You will see at the end why it's important. But we have checked the angles, so it should be just fine. Now disclose brace is somewhere at the lower third. It converges to the very same vanishing point on the left because it's parallel with the left edges of the cube. I draw the other cross braces, keeping them in line with their own vanishing points. You see these edges all converge to the same vanishing point. And these ones converge to the other. I find some kind of beauty in this, even if it's just a simple chair. Now let me add some thickness to the seating surface. The legs, and the cross braces. Now here is a trick. Why I'm doing this. I'm paying attention to those holes between the legs. There is a term for this enjoying its called negative space. I tried to copy their shapes, width, and height as I'm drawing. So I am not focusing on the dark areas on the subject, but the white areas behind the subject. If these white shapes are accurate on your drawing, your subject will also be proportionally right at the end. Notice that the backrest has a slight tilt compared to the vertical. This is vertical. Slightly tilted line. Let's measure how told his backrest is compared to the cube. I'm using my pencil and my finger to determine its a little bit taller. Let's mark this. I switched to overhand grip. It will be easier to draw this bond. Alright? So we have a pretty nice structure of this chair. Let's fill in this plate. And let's start to develop our contour lines. As you can see, I can make corrections as needed. I'm looking at the whole picture to see where things need to be fixed. We have six slides over here. Let's draw them equally distributed. As a next step, I draw the contour lines of the chair. Pay attention to which one is in front and which one is in cover. When you draw these contour lines, it's important to remember are vanishing points. These contour lines should also pointed towards then. This is where your straight line drawing skill base of I speed this up because there is nothing new here. I just keep watching the reference photo as I'm drawing these contour lines. Look, I'm using the need to do is like this, to remove this time in graphite dot over here. Alright? I think I've got a pretty nice drawing of this chair. I hope you got something similar. Now let me mark some key elements with colored pencils. These radicals where our starting point regard a slight tilt over here. And we had this key 45-degree angle on this edge. Now marking some of the negative space I was talking about with blue and green. You can check the accuracy of your drawing by comparing these areas. If their shapes match, your drawing should be proportionally right? In the meantime, I'm adding a little bit of texture to the chair to make it more interesting. Here is a tip for you. If your chair doesn't look quite right, tried to draw it again, but this time, start drawing these blue and green shapes first. Don't step further until they are correct. If they look correct, you can be adopt the other parts of the chair. Hope this helps. 26. Fish: Now let's practice sketching some S curves. First, let's observe this photo. This is where the fish is heading to. Compared to the vertical and horizontal. It looks like this. The most important curve is this S curve. I follow through several times so I can reproduce that. Let's give it a try. And I make the curve again. Actually, the overhand grip delivered better. Now I can start beard up the fish on this S curve. The head is an X shape. I mount these contours. I measure the length of the body until this top thin. I draw the curve of this fin. And this one on this side. This is the line of the spine. I'm checking this angle so I can mark the end of the spine. The body has a curve, something like this on the right. And the curve like this on the left. There is another important S-curve over here. If you are uncertain about the curve, you can always draw straight tangent lines. I tried to find relationships with other tangent lines. Here I found a 90-degree angle. The vertical is always a good reference. I can position other lines too. The contour of this big tail will be here. On the right. Here is another S-curve. I think we have defined the beige shape of this fish. Now I can start adding details. I'm drawing the darkest areas on the fish. I don't care what these body parts are called. I can only their shapes, sizes, and orientations. As I'm getting more confident about my drawing, I am slowly adding darker contour lines. I'm using the triple grip, my fingers and wrist to draw these tiny details. If you are sure about a line or a curve, you can make it darker, applying bigger pressure on the paper. The quality of your drawing will depend on how much detail you add and what level of accuracy you follow. But it's up to you. I'm scanning the reference photo and if something gets my attention, I will coping. You don't have to stick to the photo in every little detail. It's just a reference. See your drawing will know how the reference load. This is not true in case of a human portrait, but now we are just drawing a fish. I'm adding these dark patches to the skin. I'm using the side of the tip of my pencil, shade these areas. I tried to follow. Finally, I erase the construction lines. This contour line is too dark, so I am using the need to do is to remove some graphite from the vapor. Actually, if I darken some bars, the drawing will look better with the higher contrast. Alright. This is my fish in better lighting condition. How is yours? 27. Profile Portrait: Now let's create the sketch about this lady. It won't be a finished portrait, but hopefully we get a certain level of lightness by the end. You might think that drawing a human face is not easy. But if you follow my lead, you will realize how simplicities. But before we start drawing, let me give you some tips here you can let the right side of your brain take control. It's important in this case because the human phase consists of several well-known body parts, we have symbols for in our brain, by the eyes, the nose, or the lips. We want to avoid calling the symbols by the left side of our brain. But how can we eliminate this? First, forget the name of the facial features. Instead, ask questions like this. What's the orientation of this line compared to the horizontal or radical? What angle is this line man to be? How does it relate to the surrounding ones? What shape is this? How far is this shape, line or curve from the other one? How does this edge curve? These questions will activate the right side of your brain, which is good at abstract thinking. And this will have to draw what you actually see. Now let's get into it. What do we do first? That's right. View observe. I mark some key levers on the face and hairline. I borrow the eye level, the tip of the nose, and the bottom of the chin. Let's not forget the lips. If you look at these marks, you can realize that we have three equal parts. So this is a good starting point we can use on our drawing. Let me mark these levers on my drawing lightly. I intentionally took distances a little bit longer. You don't necessarily have to copy the exact size of your reference. You can scale your sketch up or down. If you know how to measure proportions, the result will be just fine. Now let's analyze the horizontal distances. The tip of the nose is here, in front of the forehead is over here. The i the corner of the mouth. And the start of the hair line, hiring the same position. And the corner of the eye is also important. Now I'm checking the tilt angle of the forehead compared to the vertical. It is something like 30 degrees. The tilting angle of the nodes is around 40 degrees. There is another tilt angle over here. It's 20 or something. I started with marketing the tip of the nose. Over here. I'm drawing the tilt angle of the nodes, continuing with the forehead. In the meantime, I'm adding the curve to these lines. These angles are extremely important in case of a human face. If they arrive, that Ruby likeness, if they are not Darrow and let's draw the mouth and chin. I am using very light strokes because I'm not sure yet if everything is in place. The separation of the ellipse is somewhere at the top third of the nose chin distance. And it has a slight slope. I'm adding these curves to the leaps. Checking where the side of the nostril is. Here is a nice ellipse which can help me locate the side of the nose. Let's check the eyes position. The eyebrow goes like this. The center of the eye. The eyelids look like this. Now let's draw the headline. I hope you have ordered they realize this nice S curve over here. Making sure the location is right compared to the nose and the i. Something like this. Let's draw the pupil. And she's, I'm adding some dark to denials. It's time to emphasize some contour lines. I'm forming the eyebrow and the lips. And you draw the contour lines. You don't have to use constant thickness and wait everywhere. Actually, your drawing will look better if you diversify this line properties. Sometimes you don't need to use a contour line, just making the background dark at certain places. I increase contrast by making strokes darker here and there. Let me fix the forehead and construction lines. Oops. Let me take it back. All right. I think I'm done with this sketch. On this face. You need to pay special attention to these directions. If you want to achieve likeness on your board trade. I have to apologize. The sun was about to go down by the end of my drawing. I realized it through playback. I was totally lost in drawing. So I took a better shot next day. It looks like this. The good thing about this is that I can see my drawing with fresh eyes now and I can realize some mistakes you can learn from the tab. The truth, I'm not satisfied with the likeness. There are some issues I can see now. For example, this distance is bigger than it should be. The curves of the eyelids don't exactly match the photo. The line of the hair should be closer to the mouth. This curve below the nose is just nitride. And the tilt angle of the forehead could be better. But you know what? This is just a sketch. So I leave it as it is. However, if I use the sketch for further realistic drawing, I will definitely fix these problems before I move on. 28. Simplified Shading: Now let's take a break and learn something that we can use to make our sketches even better. As you already know, you can create the illusion of depth on your drawing, applying the rules of perspective. But there is another important tool in the hand of the artist called shading or rendering. Beyond the shape of a subject. The other important information for our brain to recognize its 3D volume are shadows. In sketching, you don't necessarily illustrate shadows, but if you choose to, it'll be a simplified version. The way how light creates shadows on surfaces is a very complex topic. Photorealistic shading takes a lot of time. In this lesson, I just want to give you some quick tips how you can illustrate light and shadow on your sketches, adding some extra information to the viewer compared to a simple line drawing the value scale. Let's explore the very basics of shading. I have already showed you this value scale. It contains different tones from light to dark. We can choose from these values or tones to illustrate light and dark areas on our drawing. This scale has a continuous transition or gradation from light to dark. Sketching is about simplification. We can simplify this scale to, let's create a scale of three different owns. Amusing the sandpaper to create a bigger shape on the tip of my pencil in order to shake faster. On the left, I leave the square wide. On the right, I create a dark dawn applying big pressure on the paper. Note that this is a 2B pencil. I add several layers to the stone to make it as dark as possible. Now, I'm creating a middle tone or midtone, as artists say, with the medium pressure over here, something like this. So we have a very simple three don't value scale. Well, one of them is the tone of the paper. So we have basically two different tones to work with. But it's perfectly fine for a simple sketch or study. You can also use brush pens to speed up the process. I have a light grey and the dark tone. Or you can use another drawing technique called hedging. Hedging is about drawing parallel lines to create the illusion of a certain tone on the paper. In this method, I took the spacing smaller between strokes. You can also create different tones like this. Who would light is actually, there are endless number of varieties to illustrate shadows on a drawing. Using software Penzias like 4B, 6B, or 8B, you can create further dark tones. Let me extend this scale with an 8B pencil, for example. With the black charcoal, you can even get a darker tone. And with the 2h pencil create an extra light on, on the left. So now I have five different tones to work with. This is out of the scope of this class. But if you are going after photorealism, you will need a wide range of value scale to create smooth gradation between tones, light and dark. There are some terms regarding shading. It's worth know them because you will hear them all the time in tutorials. Let's see this sphere. When you illustrate light and shadow on an object, the first thing you want to observe where the light is coming from. In this example, for the sake of simplicity, we have one single light source hitting the surface of the ball from this direction. Then you add different values to the shape, which will create the illusion of a form, a 3D shape, or a 3D object. These words are synonyms. Here. You can see the different terms in case you'd like to explore further. You can find this illustration in a PDF attached to this lesson. I am not going into detail on this now because in sketching, we don't need this level of accuracy or smoothness in gradation. So we can illustrate these elements pretty simple. We just need to communicate clearly what is in light and what is in shadow. Two or three different tones will be more than enough. They will clearly define the form. When we make our sketch from a reference photo, we just need to identify which shadows are essential to describe the object. Others can be ignored. In sketching too much, try to reproduce the photo. Remember, sketching is not about realism. It's about demonstrating something quickly. A quick tip. It's much easier to analyze shadows on a grayscale photo. Colors can be confusing. So if you are a beginner in shading, use greyscale photos or convert the colors to monochrome. All right, now let's get back to sketching. 29. Shading the Chess Pawn: Now let's take this chest bone again and do a simple shading exercise. This image contains pretty nice shadows. So we can make our drawing better by illustrating these shadows simply. Now let's get into it as a first step and making a quick sketch on the subject. This time, I don't spend too much time on accuracy. You will see that the simplified shading can add more to a sketch than inaccurate line-drawing would add alone. I'm erasing the construction lines. Let me show you how you can use the kneaded eraser to lighten your line drawing. I formed the eraser into a cylinder shape that I can roll on the paper. This way I can lighten my drawing pretty quickly. Now it's time to observe. Our reference image will be focusing on shadows. Now, I'm looking for terminators on the surface where light and dark areas meet. I'm going from top to bottom. Here is one on the bowl shape. I lightly draw this curve on the sketch. I'm also looking for this kind of transitions, which are not so obvious, but they are there. As I plan to use two tones plus the white of the paper, I tried to categorize the areas falling into these three tones. Pretty dark, midtone, and light. Here is a cast shadow on the color. And another terminator over here, I mark the bottom of the color because it's a pretty dominant separator. There is another terminator over a year, which is a slight S curve, if you notice. And I'm scanning the subject further to mark the rest. I'm not sure you can see these curves where on your screen. The transition from light to dark is very smooth, but they are there. I darken the contour only where shadow exists. Other contour lines should remain lied or invisible. I find these curves captivating. Let me emphasize this part of the contour. Similarly, on the other side, my needed to lighten these guidelines. They should not be seen on the completed sketch. Let's make the shading. I'll be using this 45-degree angle in my shading stokes. You can choose any angle you want, but tried to stay consistent inside your drawing. This first layer will be represented by a midtone. And I add the second stronger layer to this dark area. Don't worry about the transition over here. It's moved on the image, a 3D photo realism. Now, we just want to clearly communicate to the viewer. Reach area is dark and which one is light on our sketch. In this section, I tried to apply the same light pressure that I used on the top. It's not so difficult, right? This exercise also develops your nerve paths in your hand because you need to stay inside those guidelines. Find an optimal speed value are still accurate, but you are also making progress. This area where the object touches the ground has the darker shadow, occlusion shadow. The simple three-to-one shading is complete, but you can always go a little bit further. So I'm adding some further details to my sketch. And everything is in place. We can make the dark areas even darker, which will increase the contrast on the drawing. Of course, there are exceptions, but higher contrast usually improves the look. Let me remove this guideline over here. We need a database. You could also make the highlight visible on this bowl-shaped. I'm trying to make this contour line dynamic cluttering the pressure inside one single stroke. So there will be some kind of transition from dark glide. There are places where you don't need contour at all because the surface is so light, there is no difference between the stone and the background. So this is how you can add simplified shadows to your sketches. 30. Glasses: This pair of glasses may seem a difficult one to draw because it's in a nice perspective and it contains lots of different curves in different angles. But we are going to cope with them. Let's start off Vidra recognizing the perspective of the subject. I can draw perspective guidelines for the top. And the bottom curves are marking the orientation of these vertical curves. So these are the main directions we need to focus on. Let's forget the tampers behind for now. Similarly, we will add this table Con tool to our sketch. Later. I'll be using a soft be pencil with a flat tip to make the first draft. I draw these perspective guidelines. I use board light strokes. As a next step, I create these radical guidelines to find the center of the glasses for the nose bridge. I use these intersecting diagonal guidelines. I have the center so I can erase these guidelines. I continue videos around the lenses. I'm using very bold strokes. There is no need to finalize these shapes yet. They will develop slowly. I'll draw the upper contour and we have the base orientation of the glasses pretty quickly. I can start adding details now because the base structure looks solid. Let me draw the curve of the nose pad or something like this. Similarly, on the other side. As I'm forming the curve and watching the negative space or negative space is your friend. Your shapes will match the reference more if you use these negative shapes. Let's deal with the temples. I trace its curve and copy. Same for the other one. I'm also paying attention to the relationships with the surrounding shapes. Now let's draw the table contour. Here is the corner of the table where the line changes direction. I'm checking the angle of this line. Compared to the horizontal. It is something like this. This one is almost horizontal, but not exactly. I'm checking where it intersects the glasses. Notice that there is a slight lens distortion over here by the continuity of the line breaks. This kind of detail is not important on a sketch, but I will copied. Let me erase these perspective guidelines. Now, we can create the contour lines and give a final form to these glasses. And watching the reference photo and trying to copy directions as best as I can. I'm checking the thickness of each part. Thickness is constantly changing because of the design of these glasses and perspective. Remember, in perspective, there is compression by distance. I make amendments as necessary. Sooner you fix an issue, the less you need to redraw. Placing the temples at the right spot is challenging. But our friend, the negative space can have similarly on the other side. And making sure that the shape of the negative space is correct. This triangle shaped negative space is one thing. But the contour of this temple over here also has to be in line with the other part of this contour line. I emphasize the contour of the table as well. And we have a pretty nice sketch of this pair of glasses. Now let's add some shading to it. I analyze the photo and check whether the darkest areas are. This time I'm using my dying to paying these areas. You can use your pencil, of course if you want to. I'd like to note that colors, texture, and shadows are different things. But in this case, we have a grayscale image. So the situation is simple. I just need to check if an area is dark or less dark. It doesn't matter now if it comes from color, texture, or shadow. This part of this exercise is like painting in a coloring book. It's kind of fun. Good. Now I take my lighter gray, dying for painting remaining areas. I add the mid tone to the table. And we are done. I hope you enjoyed this exercise. 31. Dancing Figure: In this lesson, I'd like to give you an introduction to figure drawing. Figure drawing is something that can greatly develop your drawing skills. We have this lady dancer in a beautiful dynamic, both. Let's make a sketch of her. Finally, draw a figure. The first thing we want to recognize is the pose of the figure. This figure can be built from a nice dynamic S-curve. This is also called the gesture. Gesture drawing is about to capture the subject and in the meantime, express its motion. What is interesting in gesture drawing, that the result will be a still image, but if it's done right, it will convey the whole movement of the figure. The photo was taken about. To express a movement, you need to use lose light strokes that have a certain momentum. Let me draw these curves that make the gesture. Hi, Mark the head, the rib cage. And the parallel is figure drawing. We require some level of anatomical knowledge if you plan to dive into just at, portrayed in a previous lesson, let's analyze this body posture. Are marking the main angles that I will illustrate on my drawing. I also try to discover relationships between them. For example, if I extend the contour line of this upper leg, it will be tangent to the head. Also notice how the contours of these two will converge to a single point. Somewhere here. The orientation of the lower legs is also important. Are marking the key levers on the figure. The top of the chain, the bottom of the pelvis, the ground level. And the deep of the fingers. I will need to follow these proportions on my drawing. I also analyze these horizontal positions and their relationships to each other. We have several things we need to pay attention to, but we can make it step-by-step. Let's start from the top. I copied these guidelines one after the other. Tried to copy their angles as accurately as possible. Compared them to imaginary vertical and horizontal lines to each other. You can also check the simple 2D shapes, such as triangles and polygons that these guidelines have created. I'm using very light strokes, but I start marking the contours gently, but I feel confidence. The head is in a position like this. I mark the hand of Chin distance. Let's find the bottom of the valleys. I'm using my pencil and my index finger to check distances and proportions. As I have the reference next to my drawing, I could easily project these levers horizontally. But if you have your reference somewhere else, you need to be able to create these proportions without horizontal projection. You can use simply your eyes to evaluate, but it's better to measure with the pencil. Icon to new with the lag. Should be located somewhere here. Let me jump to the valleys. Look at these beautiful angles over here. The back and the chest seem almost parallel to each other. Let's go with the shoulder and the arm. I started drawing the hair. Let's create the contour line of the face. Here we have the year. The figure is slowly developing. I think I can emphasize these contours now. Let's form the leg. I'm erasing this gesture line because I find it distracting at this point. Let's draw the contour of the tress. You may realize that I'm jumping around. That's perfectly fine. Work on any area that gets your attention in a given moment. I have to know the time spending way more time on this drawing, then a sketch would require this level of accuracy is more than you need in a sketch. But I'd like to show you what's beyond sketching that you can call drawing, or at least the beginning of drawing. Let me erase these guidelines. I think the figure is pretty much done. Now I'm using my dying dress. I further erase some unnecessary strokes. I had some darker final touches here and there. And here is the answer. I hope you have managed to create a nice drawing. 32. Astronaut: I found this modal interesting. So let's draw it. I'm starting off with marking the top and the bottom of my figure. This will be the Hammond. I draw the center line of the body. Notice that we have perspective again. Let's copy these guidelines. There is an ellipse on the side of the Hammond. And this middle part also consists of ellipses. Here is the neck and there are some kind of protectors on the shoulder. I'm drawing the contour line of the body. The legs are spread out. So I need to illustrate this. The arms are held in a 45-degree angle. I think the horizon line is somewhere here. To remind me which curves should band in which direction. Below the horizon de curve this way. Above the horizon, they curve this way. Notice that each of these guidelines converge to a single vanishing point. So when you draw these lines or curves that are horizontal and nearly parallel to each other, they should converge to the same vanishing point. Now let's draw the arms. I don't know what it's called, the chess, but I draw it. I started making darker strokes because basically we have the structure. When I draw this, let say ARMA. I tried to fill its volume. I'm thinking in 3D. I suppose this approach need some experience, especially in perspective drawing. If you are not ready for this approach. Just tried to copy the orientation of the contours of the bounding shape one-by-one. The top, the bottom, the left, and the right curve. Drawing these shoes is a great exercise for practicing perspective. If you don't like what you drew. Try to identify which part is not correct, which line or curve is in the wrong direction. He raise and try to draw it in another angle. Is it better now? One way to improve is to repeat drawing a certain part until it's good enough. Now let me add the details to the circles are ellipses in perspective. Oh right. The line drawing is ready. Let's add colors to it, or at least darker and lighter tones. I ever feel free to use color pencils or pens. I just use darker tone and the lighter one. I like this painting part. It reminds me my childhood. I'm using the lighter tone. Oops, I added an extra layer to this thing. It doesn't matter. Let me raise these guidelines. The horizon line is just fine. Actually, it makes the drawing better. To enhance the experience, I add some shadows to the figure. I'm using the reference image. Of course. I think I'm satisfied with the result. I hope you liked this exercise. 33. Have You Improved?: Now it's time to take the reference photos you made sketches about at the beginning of this class. Make those sketches again using all the skills you have learned throughout this class. Now pause the video and come back when you finished. Now put the matching ones next to each other. What do you think? Please let me know in a feedback. I'd love to hear whether you're drawing skills have improved.