Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Taking on Two-Point Perspective - using Affinity Designer | Scott Briscoe | Skillshare

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Get Better at Perspective Drawing: Taking on Two-Point Perspective - using Affinity Designer

teacher avatar Scott Briscoe, Freelance Graphic Artist

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Before Getting Started...


    • 3.

      The COV Rig & Two-Point Perspective


    • 4.

      3D Axes


    • 5.

      Locating Vanishing Points


    • 6.

      Determining Measure Points


    • 7.

      Draw a Flat-Top Pyramid


    • 8.

      Draw a Slant-Top Pyramid


    • 9.

      Circles in Perspective


    • 10.

      Class Project


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About This Class


This class begins where my “Beginning with the Basics” class leaves off. This time, I will be showing you how to use the COV Rig to draw in two-point perspective.

In my opinion, two-point perspective is the ‘meat and potatoes’ of perspective drawing. With it, we can portray objects and scenes that are suitable for public consumption. This can be seen in product shots, a lot of architectural photography, and tons of great artwork.

Have you ever wondered how other artists are able to draw, paint, or compose believable images? Chances are, it comes down to a knowledge of, and the ability to control, perspective.


In this class: 

  • I will provide a brief review covering general perspective and an overview of the COV Rig. 
  • We go over how the X,Y, & Z axes help us describe an object’s size, placement, and orientation in perspective. 
  • I will pull back the curtain and show you how to place vanishing points properly so you can draw objects at an angle of your choosing and avoid perspective distortion. 
  • I will also show you how to measure foreshortened distances in two-point perspective with Measure Points. This makes it possible to draw measured objects in perspective – without any guesswork. 
  • There are demonstrations on how to draw objects in two-point perspective using the COV Rig. 
  • I'll have a complete explanation on how to draw perfect circles in perspective.
  • I will show you workflows that will help you manage complex guide structures.
  • Plus, I will demonstrate techniques and skills that are essential to perspective drawing.


I will be working in Affinity Designer, a vector drawing program very similar to Adobe Illustrator. However, these construction techniques apply to other digital art programs like Photoshop and Sketchbook Pro - as well as pencil and paper.

The purpose of this class is to help you understand how perspective works and how to use sound construction methods to draw accurate two-point perspective. Let’s get started!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Scott Briscoe

Freelance Graphic Artist


That's me in my office, at my desk. It's usually the easiest place to find me. I've worked in the graphic design industry for the past 33 years. I've been happily married for 20 of those years and my family has grown to include two teenagers, a small dog, and three fish. I currently live in Orlando, Florida where I work as a freelancer. Away from my desk, I enjoy being neighbors with Mickey Mouse, continuing my struggle to master finger-style guitar, and riding my mountain bike on the beautiful trails found here in Florida.

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1. Introduction: two point perspective is pretty much the meat and potatoes up perspective, drawing whether we're considering art, photography or cinematography. Two point perspective. As a strong dimensionality to almost any composition, it seems to define our view of the world around us. It's upright. Vertical edges counteracted contrast edges that converge toward far points in the distance to use perspective effectively in our own compositions, it's helpful to understand how objects behave when our perspective to them changes. Continuing from where my beginning with the basics class left off, I talk about how we can control to poor perspective with the C. O. V. Rigg. That's right. The same CEO be read. Used to go objects accurately. In one port perspective can be used to draw objects just as accurately. In two point perspective, this class begins with a brief review covering general perspective and an overview of the C . O. V. Rigg. From there, we'll go over how the X Y and Z axes help us describe an object size, placement and orientation in perspective. They're not. Pull back the curtain and show you how to play Spanish imports properly so you can draw objects at any angle of your choosing and avoid the perspective distortion that often occurs If n she points are misplaced. I will also show you how to measure for short distances in two point perspective with measure points. This makes it possible to draw perfect Cuban perspective without any guesswork, as well as draw any other measured object in perspective. Of course, I'll demonstrate how to draw objects in two point perspective, using the C. O. V. Rigg and wrap it all up with how to draw perfect circles in perspective. Along the way, you'll see work flows that help manage complex guy structures that you can use while constructing your own drawings. Plus, we'll be loading up your perspective, drawing tool box with new skills and techniques. Once again, I will be working in Affinity Designer, a vector drawing program very similar to Adobe Illustrator. However, these construction techniques apply to other digital art programs as well as good old pencil and paper. Your class project is to draw your own objects in three D, using the C. O. V. Rigg and practice the construction techniques you'll learn about in this class. I've also published a companion class on skill share that's designed to advance your skills and knowledge in it. I should be. How to draw. Racing will step by step. My purpose in this class is to help you understand how perspective works and how to use the construction methods needed to draw accurately. In two point perspective, let's get started. 2. Before Getting Started...: I'll be using affinity designer during this class. Anyone that doesn't have a vector drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator or even a painting program like Photo Shop are sketchbook. Pro can download an affinity designer demo using the link here. Affinity designer really is a fantastic vector drawing program suited to both artists and graphic artists, and it's very reasonably priced. I'll be using affinity designer on a Mac, But if you're a Windows user, there's a version of a penny to designer for you that's currently available in Beta. Let me share a little bit about myself. I'm Scott Briscoe and I've spent many years working in the field of graphic design. I appreciate color form and, of course, good design. Also appreciate nearly all forms of art. During my career, I've been fortunate to work with very talented artists that seem like they could draw anything. I spent most of my time on the sidelines admiring their skills while it seemed like my old skills have played Toad and I didn't think I could take my own artwork any further. Then, somewhere along the way, I discovered the importance of perspective, which led me to an exploration of how I could. Using a troll perspective in my own drawings owe a great deal to the work Bruce McAvoy has published on his website. He introduced me to the C O. V framework, and I haven't looked back since. You probably won't either. Let's move on to the first lesson. 3. The COV Rig & Two-Point Perspective: in this lesson, we're going to talk about the key elements of two point perspective. How the C. O. V. Rigg will help us draw two point perspective and take a quick look at how to construct an object in two point perspective. For the uninitiated, the CEO v. Rick is a simple but very powerful tool that allows artist to measure objects and distances accurately When drawing. Perspective is purposes to define points in space that can be used to create guides, structures that assist the artists and drawing objects in perspective. As you'll learn, the advantages of using the CEO redbrick are many, including the ability to draw accurately in perspective the ability to measure size and foreshortened distances. It provides landmarks that help us of wood perspective, distortion and flexibility, meaning the ability to work from either a preplanned set of requirements or as a way to just make accurate sketches. During the basics class, we learned how to construct perfect cubes and a measure fuller grid in one port perspective , using the C O. V Rick the's construction methods air still relevant when drawing two point perspective, and we're going to continue building on those concepts going forward. So how exactly doesn't see Obi Rig help us to construct two point perspective? For starters, the CEO be re contains the horizon line. The vanishing points for two point perspective are located on the horizon line, which of course represents the viewer's view. Height. I'm 90 degree distance between the bashing points needs to be maintained in order to avoid perspective, distortion and the CLB. Rick helps us with this construction as well. Here we can see that vanishing 0.1 and vanishing point to our 90 degrees apart, as indicated by the intersection of the guidelines drawn from each vanishing point to the top station point. The next couple of illustrations will help explain how we're able to use the C. O. B. Richter arrive at a proper measurement between the vanishing points, the default Gov. Rick is already constructed with two diagonal measure points and to station points located 90 degrees apart. As was explained in the beginning with the basics class, this means the top station point can be used as the origen of our managing point angles as seen here. This also means we can use the existing diagonal measure points as vanishing points for two point perspective construction because these points are located on the horizon line and are now degrees apart. I'll explain this further in just a moment. Finally, we can use the C o. B Rick to indicate the viewers 60 degree cone of you recall anything drawn outside the 60 degree kind of you will appear distorted in two point perspective. Just as when drawing one point perspective, think of this area is a no draws, Um, any part of the drawing outside of a 60 degree cone of you will exhibit notice full perspective distortion. During this class, I'll be drawing inside the format size we created in the basics class, which keeps everything inside a 40 degree count of you quickly, let's go ahead and review the key elements of two point perspective. This view of a clock tower is oriented, so it appears in two point perspective. The first thing where we're of is it's a three D appearance. This is, of course, a new illusion we're able to create once we understand how perspective influences the angles of our shapes. Depending on how they're oriented with the viewer, the Basics class contains a lesson on how to identify 12 and three point perspective. If you need a refresher on the differences between each tapper perspective, pause this list and and go watch the types of perspective lesson on skill share. I've also posted this lesson on YouTube and Vimeo as well. Moving on what's most relevant for two point perspective is where an object Ames's parallel edge lines, the left and right side edges of the tower are converging toward their venture points. Located on the horizon line, we call in one port perspective. The clock tower would be oriented, so one of its sides is perpendicular to the viewer so we can draw any horizontal edges as horizontal lines on the edges parallel to the viewer will converge to the central vanishing point. Once the viewers orientation with an object changes so it's no longer completely perpendicular to one of the size of an object. That object no longer appears in one point perspective. In the case of this clock tower, we are again viewing it in two point perspective. We could see the horizontal edges can no longer be drawn as horizontal lines. Instead, they are converging to a vanishing point somewhere along the horizon line. Bear in mind just because we can see multiple sides of an object, it doesn't necessarily mean it's being viewed in two point perspective. Here, all of these cubes are oriented. In one point perspective notice. We can start to see the size of the cues as they move away from the central vanishing point . The front face of each cube is perpendicular to the viewer, as indicated by its horizontal and vertical edges. Again, the cubes edges that are parallel to the viewer are converging to the central vanishing point at the intersection of the horizon and median lines. Looking back at this clock tower illustration, we can observe. It's the convergence of parallel lines toward either a single vanishing point or a set of vanishing points that indicates the orientation of an object to the viewer. With Gabon's visible, we can see how all of the parallel edges on the left side of the tower converge to a single vanishing point, and the parallel edges on the right side of the tower converged to a second benching point that somewhere out of view in this illustration, from a top view, we have a different vantage point to see the towers orientation with the viewer, but adding, in some guidelines, we can see how these parallel edges each point to a vanishing point. The left and right edges meet at the front and rear edges of the tower to form 90 degree angles. We are able to draw these 90 degree angles accurately in perspective when we maintain a 90 degree distance between the vanishing points, even though a 90 degree angle will be drawn differently depending on this relationship with the horizon line. Finally, keep in mind when working with two point perspective objects. Vertical edges remain straight or plum. Saying this when drawing one point perspective. This is because the viewers point of view remains parallel to the horizon line. Once again, all of this information is covered in the basics class. You may hear me referred to the beginning with the basics class quite a bit during this class. A lot of the basics classes informational and explain in detail how and why things work in perspective. Drawn while using the C. O. V. Rigg and demonstrate many essential skills and techniques. Please don't let yourself struggle through this class if the vocabulary and techniques are foreign to you. Take the time to review the basics class, and then all the information in this class will fall into place. But that said, let's go ahead and take a quick look at how to construct an object. In two point perspective, I want to draw a box shape oriented at a 45 degree angle to the viewer using the C. O. V. Rigg, as is. What do I mean by the C. O. V. Rigases? As I mentioned earlier, the Dagnall measure, points that are already part of the C O B rig, can be used as vanishing points because they're located on the horizon line and or set 90 degrees apart. My box shape will begin with a vertical line that's also known as the primary line. This line indicates the initial height of my box shape, as well as its position in space. In fact, we can use the bargain point of the primary line, also known as the anchor point, to measure this objects distance from the viewer or its relationship to other objects in the scene. At the moment, I'm not really concerned with this objects position and depth. I just want to quickly demonstrate the steps for drawing a basic shape. In two point perspective, constructing edge lines from the top and bottom points of the primary line to the left vanishing point begins to define the left side of my box shape again. In this context, I'm able to use the C O B rigs. Dagnall measure points. There's vanishing points rather than point used to measure distance and death, as previously demonstrated when I created a cube or floor grid. In one point perspective, the same is true for the edge line is constructed from the primary line to the right vanishing point. They indicate the top and bottom edges of the right side of my box shape. We would need some sort of measure point in order to accurately draw the width of my box shape, as indicated by this back edge line. As we learned when drawing in one point perspective during the basics class, however, creating a measure point would require jumping ahead a couple of lessons, so I will just make a decision that the less out of my box shape should be this wide. This package is drawn with a vertical line connecting the top and bottom edge lines. I will do the same for the right side of my shape. I'll just pick a point that indicates how deep I want this side of my shape to appear and connect the top and bottom edge lines with another vertical line once I have both. Back edge lines indicated I have enough information to draw the top side of my shape. The box shapes talk back edge is parallel to its front edge, so an itch guy needs to be drawn to the left vanishing point. I can finish the top side of my shaped by constructing an edge guy to the right. Vanishing point for the box shapes other back edge. Once all the guides are in place, it's only a matter of drawing a shape for each out of my box By following the construction guys, I take the time to create complete shapes from working in the vector programs, so I could easily feel the shapes with color later. Okay, I've drawn a simple box shape or unit at a 45 degree angle to the viewer. If I were to use the standards, Gov. Rick to create additional box shapes. Each shape I draw will be oriented at a 45 degree angle to the viewer, no matter where they're located. Inside the format area, the C O. V. Reid, make sure the rules of perspective are still enforce the viewers relationship with the central vanishing point. Her rise in line and median line doesn't change just because we've chosen to draw this scene into poor perspective. That means that the viewers relationship with the objects vanishing points doesn't change, either. I noticed the guidelines drawn from each vanishing point to the C o. B Rick Stop Station Port. The station point is currently out of you in this illustration. The lines that connect each of these vanishing points to the top station point are at 45 degree angles, adding together both 45 degree angles. We get a 90 degree angle. This list is no that are vanishing. Points are indeed 90 degrees apart since they originate from the top station point. Now it's understood why we can simply use the existing Dagnall measure. Points is our vanishing points when we want to construct objects oriented 45 degrees to the viewer and be confident that each shape withdraw using those vanishing points will be warning into that angle. Going forward, we can build on this concept to construct vanishing points where we're able to draw objects at any angle of orientation we choose. Let's talk about how the central vanishing point influences objects drawn in two point perspective, depending on objects placement in relation to the central vanishing point. The use of accurately placed measure points, which will learn to use in an upcoming lesson, will automatically adjust the side exposure that's visible to the viewer, the same as we saw earlier. When drawing one point perspective to demonstrate, all of these cubes are drawn at a 45 degree orientation with viewer. Compare the left and right size of each cube. The cubes in the middle, residing on the median line, have equal exposure on their left and right sides. Looking at the cubes on the left side of median line, we see the exposure of side a decreasing as the exposure of side be increases. The opposite is true for the cues on the right side of the median line, with side A's exposure increasing inside. These exposure decreases also note that the cubes maintain their overall with even as their size are automatically adjusted as they move away from the media. It's easier to see why this is if we look at it from a top down view. Visual raise drawn from the viewer to each and the cuse. Vertical edges should have the side exposure changes as the object moves away from the central viewpoint or the viewers direction of you. Looking at this slide again, the queues residing on the horizon line don't have either the top or bottom size visible. The cues that are above the horizon have their bottom size visible and the amount of bottom side exposure increases as the cube gets further above the horizon. The opposite is true for the cuse below the horizon. They're topside. Exposure increases as it gets further below the horizon line. The amount of top and bottom side exposure is being controlled automatically by the guidelines drawn to the vanishing points. Finally, we could see once again how the convergence of parallel edges increases as objects get further above or below the horizon. This convergence influences how 90 degree angles appeared to the viewer, depending on their relationship with the central vanishing point. We can rely on the C. O. V. Rigg to help us draw these angles accurately without worrying about all of the physical properties of perspective. These examples provide a strong case for using the C. O. V. Rigg. It's a stable set of points in space that help us control the many variables that occur when drawing perspective. The technicalities of side exposure and edge angles are handled automatically by the CEO. Be Rick, while we focus on simply building, are objects. So what about drawing objects that we want more unit to an angle other than 45 degrees? For that, we need to learn how to locate vanishing points to construct objects, any angle we desire. And what about measuring for short on depth and two point perspective? For this, we need to also learn how to locate new measure points based on where the vanishing points are located. Before we can do that, I want to talk a little bit more about object orientation. Ah, common way to describe object orientation is with the use of the axes, X, Y and Z. You might already be familiar with the X Y Z coordinate systems from elementary school math . But let's review how this will pertain to perspective, drawing so more on the same page. 4. 3D Axes: when drawing objects. Using two point perspective, it's very helpful to begin planning the drawing using box shapes. A box shape is a great tool to help us both visualize and draw our objects in perspective. A box shape is simple to understand, yet complex enough to convey all the information needed to determine an object. Size and orientation is face in this section. We're going to be twisting and turning box shapes into various orientations with the viewer . A box shapes, orientation, size and placement can be described with an imaginary system of axes X, Y and Z that can be associated with any object we create. The system of axes can also help us translate a to D plan of an object into a three D drawn . Let's take a closer look. We'll start with a box shape that's currently being viewed from a one point perspective, which can easily be seen here by this box. Shapes, horizontal and vertical edges. The perfectly round hole through the middle is another clue that tells us this object is perpendicular to us. We'll talk more about how circles working perspective later in this class. For now, let's reorient the same box shape so that we see it from a two point perspective. You to go from a one point perspective, you to a two point perspective. You. The only thing that has changed is the object has been reoriented around its Y axis. When talking about an object orientation in three D space. It's often helpful to describe that orientation in reference to its axes. In this illustration, we can see a Y axis or vertical axis has been positioned in the center of this object. This access can be used to describe how the object has been rotated, which in this case is 25 degrees around its Y axis. We can keep reorient in the object around this y axis, and it is still being viewed in two point perspective. An object access is relative to the object itself. For this reason, the objects access is often referred to as its local axis. The very Y is also a way to describe it objects, height. Here we can see this object has an arbitrary height of one unit. This illustration helps to see how the vertical edges of the object mimic the direction of this vertical axis. This applies to the X axis is well, the X axis runs left to right through an object and describes its horizontal edges. The variable X is also used to describe objects with. If we reorient this object around both this local X and y axes, this is the result we can see. The object has been turned to the viewers left around this Y axis as before, and then rotated Ford around his X axis so that his front is facing downward. This object is no longer being viewed in two poor perspective. Rotating the object around its X and Y axes has changed our view to three point perspective . Notice how the objects vertical edges air now converging to a vanishing point somewhere below the object. Now that this object sides are visible, Weaken described its depth with the variables e. The object Z axis is aligned with the edges that run from the front of the object to its back. In this illustration, we are able to see all of the objects axes indicated. If we take the object and rotated around this local Z, and why axes? This is what it would look like. The object is rotated the same amount around this y axis, as in the previous illustration, But this time there is no location around the X axis. Instead, it has been rolled to the viewers left around the Z axis. Additionally, the variables X, Y and Z can describe in objects position in space is well. So why describes up and down ex describes, left and right, and Z describes either nearer to the viewer or further away from the viewer. What's important to note is the Y axis is the primary axis used to orient objects. In two point perspective, this object came. He rotated around its local Why access to any angle and the object will appear in two point perspective. This, of course, excludes angles such as 91 80 and 270 degrees. Because those angles will simply return the object to a perpendicular view. Each object in the scene will have its own local set of X Y and Z axes. Plus, the scene itself has its own set of X y and Z axes, which is called the World axis. Here we can see our object has been rewarding it to 25 degrees on the Y axis, while the scene remains oriented at zero degrees to the viewer. There is also an interesting phenomena happening in this illustration says. This object is positioned with its center at the Horizon line. It's X axis remains that flat horizontal line, even though the object has been rotated around its Y axis. This is also true for the object Z axis. It appears as a horizontal line as well. Instead of rotating an object in relation to the viewer, we can also change the viewers orientation by rotating the entire scene around the world's Y axes. I noticed that the floor grid and the object have been reoriented 45 degrees in this illustration. Because the entire scene was rotated, the object in the scene appears rotated as well, even though it's local, orientation remains at zero degrees. One of the benefits of drawing objects in two point perspective is weaken view objects with a greater degree of dimensionality than one point perspective sometimes allows when objects are viewed. In one point perspective, it's sometimes more difficult to get a sense of the objects depth, especially if their position near the central viewpoint as seen here. But when we reorient the object in two point perspective, the object can still be placed central to the composition and the viewers able to see much more information about that object. This is a big reason why two point perspective is a preferred view and drawing perspective . Let's take a look at how referencing the X Y and Z axes can help us draw objects in two point perspective. Here's a plan drawing of an object we might want to re draw in perspective. This plan provides three Ortho graphic views of the same object, but it's difficult to visualize what this object looks like without taking the time to study these shapes. For a few moments, if we had some labels to identify which views correspond to the object, it starts to become a bit clear. The X Y and Z variables provide a better understanding of the objects height, width and depth. Once the object is rendered in two point perspective, we can interpret the object much easier than we could with just the Ortho graphic plan views, even though they contain as much if not more, information about the object. This is what makes two point perspective such a powerful communication tool. The object now looks like it could be an oversize easy chair with the foot rest or possibly a piano on a bench. I could have also chosen, rendering the object turned so that the front points toward the right instead of the left. I've used the same plane to draw this object, this time with the opposite side visible. What if we took the plan and swap the Z axis with the Y axis? We can then draw the object like this. What was the top is now the front. Now the easy chair has a head rest instead of a foot rest. We can also flip it on its Y axis and get this. I'm not sure what this is now. Maybe it's a piece from Tetris. The main take away is the X Y and Z axes allow us to describe an object so it could be understood well enough to be drawn in perspective. Any perspective in the next section, I want to show you how to locate vanishing points so we'll be able to draw objects from any angle using two point perspective 5. Locating Vanishing Points: in this lesson, we're going to focus on locating the tomb invention points needed for two point perspective . We have two main concerns if we want to draw objects accurately without perspective, Distortion number one. These vanishing points need to be located somewhere on the horizon line and number two, they should be placed 90 degrees apart from each other. Unsurprisingly, the CEO be rid will help us solve both of those issues. I'm going to demonstrate two different ways to place vanishing points. One scenario is toe have a predetermined angle in mind in which to draw our senior object. The other method. Let's a sketch out an orientation foreign object on the fly without worrying about specific angles. Let's first look at finding vanishing points for a predetermined angle. Let's start with a fresh you'll be rig. If you've misplaced your previous CEO, be rig. I've included this starter file with the rest of the class files. I use the rectangle tool to create a square with its right corner snap to the top station point. I am adding structure to the C. O. V. Rigg that will help me place vanishing points at the correct distance apart. on the horizon line. Using a rectangle automatically provides a 90 degree angle at each of its corners. Originating this angle at the top station point ensures that the vanishing points will be the correct distance apart at the horizon line, as we'll see in just a moment. Otherwise, the object Strawn, using vanishing points that are too close together, could appear distorted. I'll use the transform palette to rotate this rectangle to 30 degrees. This rotation is going to help me set up my venturing points so the objects drawn using the Spanish in points will be oriented at a 30 degree angle to the viewer. I don't need these edges of the square, so I will delete them by converting. My shaped occurs with this button, switching to my no tool and selecting this corner node, I'll slick the break curve action button. These buttons are accessible when the No to list selected, Then select this corner note and break it as well, switching quickly to the move tool. I select this section I no longer need and press delete, I should point out, even though I can select multiple knows at a time. The break operation on Lee seems to work on the last note selected notices. I slept multiple notes, which note I've selected last after clicking the brake button. The last note selected has been broken, but the other two notes are still connected. Okay, back to locating the vanishing points. I want to extend my remaining edges down to the horizon line. You can see I'm using page layouts with objects as my snap setting. This helps me align these guides with the horizon line. I need to extend my horizon line outside of the 90 degree C O. B in order to see this intersection on the left. I have my ruler displayed, and I'm looking at it to determine how much I will need to increase the size of my work area to encompass the modified C O. V. Rick. Then I use the document set up dialogue to increase the size of my work area by 12 inches. As we continue to work in perspective, our God structures will often fall outside of the main C. O. V. Rigg, especially when we start creating guys structures for a three point perspective. Where these lines intersect, their horizon line defines the vanishing points needed to draw objects at a 30 degree orientation to the viewer, here is the vanishing point for the less out of our objects and the vanishing point for the right side of our objects. This creates handy snapping points at each intersection, so I'll be able to quickly at my guides before I demonstrate how to draw shape. Using these vanishing points noticed. The guidelines on the left is 60 degrees from the median line, and the guideline on the right is 30 degrees from the media. If we had both of these values together in equals in 90 degree angle next, I want to go ahead and drop box shape. Using these 30 degree vanishing points, I start with a vertical primary line that defines the height I want my shape to be. I'll create this line where I want my shapes run edge to appear in my drawing. Moving on, I will create the guides from both the bottom and top of my line to each vanishing point. When the vanishing point placement causes the work area to become larger, we can't appreciate affinity designers snapping system to help minimize, zooming and panning around as we place the in points of these guidelines. Now I need to decide where I want to terminate this object in depth. This edge needs to be a vertical line, just like the front edge. If I were building the shape based on a plan, drawing this line would either define the X width or the Z depth for this object. The same is true for the vertical edge line. On the other side, once these edge lines are added, have the points I need to create inch guys that define the top side of my shape. I'll complete my box shaped by drawing in each of its sides. We now have an object oriented 30 degrees to the viewer. Simple as that. Any additional objects I draw using these vanishing points no matter where I placed the minimum format area will also be oriented 30 degrees to the viewer. Does this mean if I want to draw an object in a different orientation? I need to think create an additional set of venturing points. Yes, it does posits video and look at your physical surroundings. Take a moment to notice the items on your desk or perhaps the chairs in the coffee shop, each rain it around there y axes at some random angle, looking at my cue props. If I hold both so they appear to you in one point perspective, then rotate this one around its y axis. I have one Cuban two point perspective and one cube. Still, in one point perspective, if I turn, keep Jr a little bit, you're not viewing both of these cubes in two point perspective, but each jointed two different angles. To draw these keeps in perspective, we would need to define a say, the vanishing points for each que based on the angle to the viewer. One more thing. I want to touch on regarding vanishing points in this illustration, on comparing benching points that are ideally placed to vanishing points. That or not the shape in the middle is drawn with a set of vanishing points that are located 90 degrees apart. The shape on the left is drawn with its vanishing points much closer than 90 degrees. Can you see the difference? The angles at the base of this shape are steeper, and there is more of the topside visible. Locating the venture points closer together causes the objects in a drawing to appear like they're being viewed through a wide angle lens. If these vanishing points are located further apart, like the shape on the far right, the perspective begins to flatten out like it's being viewed through a long zoom lens. Here we can see the angles at the base of the shape our shallower, and there is less of the top side showing. Sometimes you may wish to create a drawing that intentionally incorporates some type of lens distortion. You can take advantage of narrowing or widening the distance between the vanishing points to achieve the affect. Your after more on that in a future class. Let's be honest, though, do any of these shapes look bad? Not really. I think If I didn't already know what was exactly wrong with the Drawn, I would only get a sense of unbalanced with this composition as a whole. Because each of these shapes are using a different set of vanishing points, even though they're all drawn at the same angle of orientation, it might be difficult to spot these airs if the shapes reviewed without the others. For comparison. I suspect the reason the narrow and wide shapes don't appear explicitly wrong is because we've gotten used to seeing drawings and photographs that are not observing the rules of perspective, and we've adjusted our expectations as such. But we're here to get better at perspective, drawing by first understanding, ideal perspective and not judge. Others work or pretend to know their artistic intent. Let's create another set of vanishing points, but this time we won't begin with a specific angle of orientation in mind to draw object. Instead, we'll create the angle for object on the fly. I'll start with a clean C O. V. Rigg, create my primary line. They know we'll just visually create a line that defines the angle. I want this object to be oriented to the viewer. I'm just following my muse and picking an angle that looks good to me at this moment. In this case, I think I want to see a little bit less of this side of the object than we did on the previous box shape. So while draw this line at a steeper angle from this angle line, I can figure out where my venturing points need to be placed. Basically, I'm going to be working backwards from how predetermined, Angle said of Vanishing Point guidelines are created. Let's create a guideline based on the angle of our sketch line that intersects have a rise in line. Now I will create another guideline from this intersection to the top station. Point recall. This is our hinge point for two point perspective guidelines. Next, I need to create a line from the top station point back to the horizon line 90 degrees or perpendicular to the first line. One way I could do this is by duplicating this first line, then rotated 90 degrees from its top point using the transform palette. Now I can extend it until it intersects that arise in mind. Again. I use the top ruler to help me determine how much I need to increase the size of my work area. Then open up the document, set up dialogue and in, or a new value for the documents with this reveals my second vanishing point location. So now I have both vanishing points residing on the horizon line and since I worked from the top station point to create my 90 degree angle, I know that these vanishing points are also 90 degrees apart. I convinced my box shape as before. By creating edge lines from a primary line, I could define any depth of desire for the left side of my shape. But I'll just stick with what I sketched and just pick a random debt for the right side of my shape. Again, I'll take the time to enclose each side shape of my box so I can easily assign Bill colors later. Even though I'm using the pen tool in line mode, I can command select the second note of a line and continue. My shapes is if I weren't polygon mode. We've just learned how to use the seal be rigged to help us locate a center. Vanishing points to drawing object at any angle. Using two point perspective, we can either sketching angle on the fly or apply a specific predetermined angle. Whichever method satisfies our drugs requirements and composition. Out of curiosity, at what angle did I end up drawing this shape? When I click on this guideline, affinity designer is not able to provide any information in the transform palette regarding the angle. Fortunately, there is a way to determine this angle or any other line that we need to know the angle of with this simple trigonometry formula, the arc tangent of the height divided by the width to demonstrate how this works with this guy lines selected, the transport pallet tells us the width and height of the line. Using the system calculator in scientific mode, I can quickly divide the height by the whip as described in the formula, and then use the Arc Tangent, which becomes available when I press the shift key to calculate the angle. This tells me I've drawn my shape at an approximately 79 degree angle, just 11 degrees more, and this shape would appear in one point perspective because it would have been reoriented a full 90 degrees. Now that we understand how to locate our scenes vanishing points, we need to locate a pair of measure points to accurately measure the foreshortened depth of our objects. In two point perspective, this will, of course, allow us to again draw perfect cubes in perspective. I'll see in the next list 6. Determining Measure Points: in this lesson, we're going to be adding measure points to the 30 degree angle vanishing points we constructed in the previous lessons so we can draw on accurate Cuban two point perspective . Locating the vanishing points is the first step because we use the position of the vanishing points to locate to measure points on the horizon. Mine want to measure the left side of our objects and one to measure the right side. Notice how the measure points resigned opposite the side that will be measuring To locate a measure point. We need to find the distance between a vanishing point on the horizon line and the top station point looking at the right side finishing point. We can see the distance between it and the station point is represented By this guideline. We can use the length of this line to measure a distance along the horizon to locate a measure. Boy, there are a couple of methods we can use to translate this distance. Let's open up the previous CEO V rate with the 30 degree vanishing points already defined, I'll just select all the layers that make up the box shaped group them and hide the box shape along with its guide structure. Let's look at the first method we can use to locate a measure point. This guideline that defines the location of the right benching point is the length needed to find the right measure point. I will create a line over the top of this existing vanishing Point guideline and a sign that the MP color and increased the stroke thickness now carefully rotated so that it aligns with the horizon. You can see that I'm displaying the Objects Rotation Center so I can position it where I want. My point of rotation. Where this line ends defines the location of the right measure plan. I need a better marker for this location because the line gets visually obscured by the horizon line, and the measure point location at the end of the line is a little hard to see. I can create a small circle with its center snapped at the end of the line and give it the MP color. Now I have a point that's easy to see and something I could snap to. That's one that that you can use to locate a measure point another way to translate this distance is by using the circle as a measuring tool. Using the Ellipse tool, I will create a circle with its center originating at the left vanishing point. This circle is also assigned the MP color, but with a dash stroke to make this circle the size, it needs to be carefully aligned the circle's edge to the top station point. I'm using the length of this guideline to set the radius of my circle. This means were the circle intersects. The horizon line is the exact same distance along the horizon line from the benching point as it is from the vanishing point to the station point, this intersection locates the left measure point. I want to trim the circle down a bit by converting the circled occurs. Use the no tool to place a new node at the intersection of the circle and the top station point. Break this note and break this note again, where this circle intersects the horizon line and then delete the remainder of the circle. I'm left with this art werent under six, The Horizon line becomes my left measure point, and it also makes a handy snapping point. Use the method you prefer. I use the radius method because I like how it visually documents my c o v Rick. I can immediately recognize where my measure points are located, and it provides a simpler snapping point as well. Now we have enough information to draw perfect cube in two point perspective, I need to draw a line the height of my cube somewhere inside my format. Even though this will be a measure cube, I am just free handing a size that will be suitable for this demonstration. A lot of my age lines you can see here. Both the methods I used to create edge lines are the drawing from point to point with snapping or duplicating an existing line in repositioning it. I need a measure line equal to this line that defines my cubes height. Remember, the Cuba's as tall as it is wide as it is deep, so I will duplicate this line. I signed the stroke, the measure color and make the stroke a little thicker, rotated 90 degrees and snap it to the bottom point of my primary line. I want to use this page layout with objects. Is my snap set you might notice. I've added a couple of extra snaps that since the basics class and I'll be exploring those a little later, I can use this line to define the Z depth on the right side of my cube. From the end of this measure line, I'll draw Measure Guy to the measure point that is left of the median line. This measure, God will be used to define the depth of the right side of my cube, also like to give these measure guides the NP color, where this measure guiding her sex at this Edge guide indicates the length of this measure line in death because of the 45 degree principle, we learned about this again during the basics class. So using this technique, we can measure the cubes height in depth, an important note. The only intersection that matters to us is where this measure guide crosses the edge line that the measure line is attached to. Now that I know where to terminate this side of my Cuban death, I'll create a vertical line from this intersection to the upper edge guide. I missed this intersection a little bit, and since I noticed the error I feel like I have to fix it now. I could move this horizontal measure mind so it's opposite in snaps to the primary vertical line. This time I would draw Measure Guy to the left measure point to locate the X width on the cube along the edge line. I can now draw vertical line from this intersection to the upper edge guy with the side vertical, each guys in place. I can go ahead and complete the top face of the Cube. With the measure points in place, we now have the ability to measure depth in two point perspective. Using the 45 degree principle, we only needed to have some additional structure to our C o B rate to make this possible note, though a specific measure points needs to be used for objects side. Unlike in one point perspective where we could choose almost any diagonal measure point to serve our needs. I want to also point out thes measure. Guys do not define the back edges of the basis of the Cube. I could go ahead and create those edges so you can see what I mean is even confused. These lines in the midst of God construction and end up with unintentionally distorted shapes. This is a big reason why use color to differentiate the intent of my guidelines. How finish about drawing the size of our measure. Cute again. I'm taking the time to create complete shapes for each of the cube sides, with opinion to designer snapping turned on. This is usually a very quick and easy process you can see here I swapped the outline of you to place my points accurately when I hit an intersection where snapping is unavailable and there we have it. A perfect measure. Cube drawn a two point perspective sound. Got construction, removes any guesswork to building objects accurately in perspective before moving on. I want to quickly share my basic organizational methodology that I'll be using. Going forward, I will create a group in the layers palette that contains my vanishing point guys and my measuring point guides and label a 30 degree rig. Any time I need to build an object in this orientation, I can use this rig. I was just showing high. This part of the rig is needed if I need to create a separate godric for, say, a 58 degree orientation. I'll create the vanishing points and measure points and group them into their own structure as well. I usually delete these measure lines as soon as I'm done with them, but so you can explore this file. I will label them inside their own group. I will group what I call the VR God lives together and label those. These are the guidelines used to define a shape structure. In case you're wondering B R stands for visual raise. I would usually save my measure lines because they can be easily You used our group the side shapes and label those as well and put all this into an object group and give it a name. This structure gives me the ability to toggle on and off the elements of my shape that I need as I continue to construct my drawings. This is the basis of my organizational workflow, which really begins to show us value on drawing increasingly complex compositions. This lesson concludes the fundamental lectures for this class. Next, we're going to see how to use these fundamental skills with a practical example 7. Draw a Flat-Top Pyramid: an important skill in perspective. Drawing his projection, I introduced this technique during my stack boxes class when we used it to project a position upward that was measured on the ground plane. Let's look at another way to use this valuable skill for this project. I want to start with the box guide in the form of a cube and constructive pyramid within it , and then use a projection technique to help me alter the shape of the pyramid. I have a clean C O. V. Rigg Open. An affinity designer. I have updated the Godric's color palette. As you can see here, I've exported this color palette and you can find it in with the class files. I'm going to create the pyramid at a 45 degree orientation so I'll be using the C O. B rigs. That little measure points as vanishing points. I've added a primary line at a size that I think looks good for this demonstration and given it a stroke of one point, I like a little thicker line for the primary line. Next, I'll go ahead and add my hitch lines and make sure that they're set to 1/2 point I'm being more particular with my guidelines during this demo because they're going to be a lot of guys before I'm done. I want to keep things as clear as possible. I need to add measure points because the perfect pyramid begins with a perfect cube here. I'm using the Ellipse tool to locate, not measure, points, using the vanishing points that are already part of the C O. V. Rigg, I'll turn this circle into an arch. As before, I can duplicate and flip this arch to get the right measure point, because I'm working at a 45 degree orientation that makes both vanishing points. In both measure, points are equal distant to the media in mind. I need to create a measure line to find this height in depth. You'll notice here that affinity designer is not wanting to snap to the end of this line. I can fix this issue simply by choosing another snap set. I'm on checking snapped object bounding boxes because I've found that it makes points snapping. More reliable. I'll go ahead and create a new snap set and call it points to now affinity designer snaps to the point immediately and I can create my measure guy. As before, I slide the measure line over so I can create the measure guy for the other side of my cube shape. I need to switch back to the page layouts with objects snaps that for affinity designer to snap this. It works really well when you need to snap to vertical or horizontal lines and shapes. Now I can end my vertical edge lines for the left and right size and my shape. Once these edges are in place, I no longer need to measure guys, so I'll delete them. I'll create all the edges of the box guide because it will help me construct my pyramid. I also want to keep this measure line so I'll name it and hard it out of our way here. I'm selecting all of the edge guys there on the back of my box shape. I'm going to sign them. That BR 30 stroke color group them named this group back the Ours and dragged the group down to It's just above the CEO v. Rigg Group. I'll select the rest of the edge guides and group them as well. This group, I'll name front be ours. I'm paying more attention to my layer organization because it really increases the visual clarity of my guidelines. I can easily tell the front edge lines from the back edge lines. I can improve these guidelines a little more if I pull them into my box guide, which eliminates any crossed edge lines. I don't always go to the trouble to do this, but it can certainly help if your God lines are getting tangled and confused. My box guide is looking clean now with the box got complete. I'm ready to draw in my pyramid. It's surprisingly easy to create a pyramid. The first step is to use the fine centers method on the top base of the box guide. You can see my edge snapping wasn't working as well as I thought it waas. I'm zoomed in quite a bit, so this error likely wouldn't show up in the final drawing. But since I've seen it, I can't seem to stop myself from fixing it with the top. Sooner indicated I can simply draw the side shapes in my pyramid. I'll drag the shapes between the front and back br layers to keep the presentation accurate . I don't need the center guys anymore, so I'll just delete them. That was easy. I could have used any of these surfaces to locate the pyramids point and always get an accurate payment in perspective. This suggests, since we can locate a Newport on the surface using the find center method, then we could locate a point anywhere on a surface to achieve other shapes as well. Next, I want to give this pyramid of flat cop where I just cut off its point halfway above its base. At first, this test might seem a little complicated. The pyramid has slanted surfaces. Instead, the parallel or perpendicular surfaces were used to working with. Plus, we're secretly hoping the task won't require a bunch of tricky trigonometry calculations to pull off. Thankfully, we can use what we already know about perspective guidelines and vanishing points along with projection. To solve this problem, I need to measure half the height of my peer man. To do this, I'll duplicate the primary age line and a sign that the measure color. It's just a matter of dividing this measure line by two in the transform Pilot decides it, since I want to slice this paper man right through its middle. Next, I created guide along the left face in my box guy, where this guide intersex the front and left vertical edges, marks the middle of the left face. The Mitchell. I have served his purpose, so I'll get rid of it. While I now have an indication of the middle of the left base of my box guy, I don't yet know where the middle of the less face of my pyramid is. Since it's less away from the box guide, I need to project this line onto the pyramids. Left face. The strategy is to find common points on both the box guy and the pyramid. Thes common points helped create targets to project from one object base to another. I'll start the process of finding common points by finding the center of the left base of my box guy. I want to draw vertical center line down to the base of the box guy. This is a common point for both the box guide and my pyramid. I found some more sloppiness and once again feel compelled to fix it, even though no one would ever notice it. There's already another common point between the box guy in the pyramid at the center of the top face, so I can connect these two points and indicate the vertical center of the left base in my pyramid. My center guides have served their purpose, so I'll delete them out of my way. Next, I want to draw a line from the center of my box guy to the right vanishing point. This happens to be the Z axis of my shape, and I'm projecting it from the center of the box. Scott face through the center of the pyramid face. This intersection of the vertical center of the left pyramid base and the Z axis line indicate where the middle of the left face and the pyramid is located. I'll just duplicate this existing guide in position it along the pyramids, left face and extend it to the edge of the face. Bring this line in so we can see this a little better. With this line in place, I can trace it around the pyramid shape to define the rest of the slice line. Notice that I'm keeping Mott Layers palette organized as I do this now, it's just a matter of repositioning the points of the existing size of the pyramid and drawing in the top shape. I finished things up by organizing the layers palette. Complex object construction often starts with some thoughtful planning and then utilizing some former projection technique. At first, it may be difficult to visualize how to build a given object, and sometimes it might even take multiple attempts. It's the process of finding our way that either intrigues us or frustrates us. This project is a good example of using construction lines thoughtfully to not only create an interesting shape, but to create inaccurately. In the second part of this lesson, we're going to look at how we can take modifying an object based on a box guy a step further. 8. Draw a Slant-Top Pyramid: I want to do another demonstration of projection using a pyramid once again, but this time we'll slice the pyramid on an angle. This exercise will provide more practice, creating vanishing points and measure points as well as using projection to modify shape from a box guy. I should do a little more clean up to the layers palette Before I start a new object. I'll grab my 45 degree measure point guides and group them into their own layer so they're more accessible. If I need them later on in the project and just take everything else, group it and label it. Pyramid one. I want to steal this primary line so I can create my new pyramid the same size. My Dubuque It primary line is still stuck in the Pyramid one group, so I'll just cut it out of there and paste it back in. I want to create a new set of vanishing points, so this pyramid sits at a different orientation to the viewer than the previous one just approved. The C O. B rate gives us the opportunity to orient objects precisely. I'll set up the bashing points at 36 degrees after a few and clicks, I get this rectangle trim down so I can extend its remaining edges to the horizon line to locate both vanishing points. Now I'm ready to determine the measure point, starting with the vanishing point on the left. Using a circle guide helps me to quickly find the radius between this vanishing point and the station point. Once again, I want to trim down the circle guide. This cleans up my construction a bit and gives me a clean snapping point. I will use a circle got again to find the other measure point this time using the radius of the right vanishing point with both of the vanishing points and measure points located, I want to go ahead and group it altogether. This because my 36 degree rig No, I'm ready to construct my box. Guy. This box God will be another cube to enclose my pyramid. As always, I begin with the edge lines drawn from the primary line to the vanishing points. I will copy the primary line so I can base my box guides with on its height. Once again, I am positioning the measure line at the base of my primary line. Now I'll draw a measure guide to the measure Point on the left to measure this with in depth along my box guys. Right side bottom itch guy. How quickly slide my measure line over and let it snap to the primary line and create another measure guy to the right measure. Point to measure this with in depth along my box guys left side. I'll zoom into this intersection of the Measure line and Bottom Edge guide to create a vertical line for the Bucks, guides back edge and do the same for the other side. I don't need the measure guides any longer, so I delete them out of the way. I'll name a measure line and hide it until I needed again. Later. I'll quickly duplicate my top edge guides and snap them to the back edge lines to complete the top of the box guy. I'll repeat these steps for the bottom face of the box guide as well. The last age I want to draw is this one on the very back with the box guy complete. I want to take a moment to 10th etch lines that make up the back edges group them all together and drag them below the etch lines that make up the front edges group. All of the front edges together as well. Now I'm ready to go ahead, drawing appear men, using the same steps as the previous lesson. I'll start by finding the foreshortened center on the top face of the box guy. Then, after some fiddling, I go ahead and draw on the sides of my pyramid. I want to slice off the pyramids top again, but this time at an angle. Specifically, I want the pyramid sliced down through its right side. I want to determine the angle of the slice. By starting at the point 1/4 down from the top of the pyramid and ending 1/4 up from its bottom, I'll start by creating another measure line. Obviously, I've for gotten about the measure line. That's a for this purpose. I used to transform Pilot to divide the height of the measure line by four to give me the 1/4 down distance from the top. Next, I'll create a guideline from the left Vanishing point along the box, guys left face. I'll be using this line to trace a measuring point around the back face of the box guide. A little later on, I could just move this measure line down to the base of the box guy because it's already sized to measure 1/4 up. I frequently switch between snap sets as I work. I like that offending to designer allows me to switch snaps sets on the fly, even in the middle of drawing a shape. I'll just duplicate this existing guide to mark the bottom position on my slice and get rid of the measure. Now I'm ready to Tracy's guidelines around the front and back face of my box guy here, I'm drawing in the angle of the slice along the box guide space. You can see how this slice is intended to go down and through the pyramid. I no longer need these original guidelines that help me position. Let's slice so I'll just delete them out of the way in order to better visualize how this slice works. I'm indicating the slice on the opposite face of the box guide as well. My next step is the foreign common points or edges between the box guide and my pyramid shape, so I can create projection targets. I'll start by finding the center on the right face of the box guy. As before, I'm using the sooner point at the base of the box Guy and pyramid. Now I can connect the top sooner to the left bottom center, which draws a guideline along the right face of my pyramid. I want to indicate this back edge of the pyramid. This will help me visualize how these construction lines should come together. I can clean up the sooner guys and they work from this center line to trace along the bottom face of my box sky slash pyramid to find the center along the back edges of my objects. Now I can easily draw guideline along the back face of my pyramid. I need to find one more point before I create my projection so I will continue the center line up the box guys back face. Now I can create a projection line through the box. Got impairment by connecting these two points where this projection line intersects the daughter guidelines along the pyramids, front and back faces marks where the slice needs toe happen. It's simply a matter of adding parallel guides along the pyramids front and back faces to indicate the slice on the pyramid itself. There is a collision of God lines at this slice intersection on the pyramids. Back face. Here's an instance where taking advantage of assigning different colors to your guidelines really pays off. I'll go ahead and trace in the size of the slice among the rest of the pyramid just so we can say how it all comes together. There is now more than enough information from the construction guides to alter my existing shapes to create my slant sliced pyramid and complete the object by drawing in the top shape. I'll call this one done after I make sure the layers palette is nice and tidy. Once we have an understanding of the fundamentals of perspective and have learned about a few basic skills, we can quickly move on to more complex shake construction. A shape like this is really not easy to draw in perspective, yet we just drew it a box. God bless the CEO V very makes it possible, were able to increase our ability to observe how all kinds of shapes air constructed when we know we can use these tools to great shapes like this accurately. The more we practice and observe, the more confident we become. Then there will be less need to draw construction lines for every shape we create. It's amazing what artists like Scott Robertson can do with minimal construction lines. I'm sure one day soon you'll be able to even amaze yourself, your two boxes almost complete next up, drawing circles in perspective. 9. Circles in Perspective: being able to construct circles in perspective paves the way to draw shapes like cylinders , pipes, arches and wheels. In this lesson, I'm going to explain how to draw circles in perspective. It all begins with a perfect square. If we put a circle inside a square, we can see how these two shapes airline together with each side of the circle tangent to part of the square. To draw the same circle in perspective, we need to draw on accurate square in perspective, which is something we're already quite familiar with. Then drawn a lips with its sides, tended to the square in perspective. And finally make sure the ellipses minor axes allies with the vanishing point that is perpendicular to the ellipse, a step that is sometimes overlooked. Let me show you how this looks in affinity. Designer. I've already prepared to square based on a 45 degree orientation in perspective, using the C O. V. Rigg with your lives tool, I will draw on a lip shape within it and adjust the shape until I have a part of the Ellipse tangent to each side of the square. This looks OK, but it seems a little off like the Ellipse needs to be rotated clockwise. The reason the circle shape appears to be a little off is because it's minor. Axis is not properly aligned with the objects. Orientation in perspective, Let me explain in this illustration, I have a simple ellipse, which is what a circle becomes. When viewed in perspective. The apex of the ill iptc size that air furthers depart defined this major axis. The major axis devised the ellipse through its long side, perpendicular to the major axis is the minor axis. This line devised the ellipse along a short side. When it comes to war inning and the lips in perspective, we're most concerned with the alignment of the minor axis back again, to our perspective drawn with this ellipse selected, we can see the notes that indicate a major and minor axis. In order to correct the orientation of this lips, I need to align. This shapes minor access with the appropriate vanishing point. To do this, I will find my square guides foreshortened center using the fine center technique. Then I will draw guideline from the center to the left vanishing point. Think of this guideline as if it were an axle four wheel. It may seem strange at first, but it's this line that the ellipses minor axis needs to be aligned with. And in order for it to appear correctly as a circle in perspective, I will make sure in toggle off high selection while dragging so I can see my notes as I just the ellipses rotation. I am not concerned about whether or not the minor access knows Align with Axl guide vertically when the ellipses adjusted two sides. I am only using this axle guide to rotate the lips to the proper angle. Now take a look. The shape now appears as a circle in perspective. Easy enough. It's just a matter of making sure each side of the lips is tangent to each side of the guys square and rotating it so it's minor axis is aligned properly. Force in practice. Let's turn the shape into a cylinder. Working from what we already have, I just need to create some edge guides to the left vanishing point. I am working at a 45 degree orientation so I can use the C O. B rigs, diagonal measure points. I make sure that I have the back edges indicated as well. I also want to practice, keep in my layers palette tidy as before. I will group the guides according to back in front of Ers, and arrange the layers appropriately. I'm going to duplicate this ellipse and move it to the back face of my shape. Notice the front and that faces are lying to each other based on the X axis line that runs through the centre of both shapes. Therefore, I'm able to use the same ellipse since it has already been rotated. So it's minor access is lined with this axle guy. I need to Onley resize the ellipse. So what size are tangent to the back face of the shape really quick? And this is just in observance. If I do locate this back face of lips and drag it over the front face of lips, notice how much the height gets foreshortened in perspective Compared to the whip, this is the very reason we should want to put in the effort to learn how to draw objects in ideal perspective. Otherwise, how could we make these types of comparisons as we're learning to draw the C. O. V Wright makes it possible to draw any shape accurately in perspective without the guesswork back to the task at hand. The next step is to draw the top and bottom edges of what will become my cylinder. For this top line, I will draw a line from one of lips to the other. It's not as accurate as it needs to be because I don't have any points to snap to. The goal is to make this lying tangent to both the lips. He's starting with the line already drawn close to where it should appear. I have to zoom in a bit and start playing with the position of this end of the line until I get a tangent by stretching its in point beyond the ellipse shape. When I'm happy with the placement, skill the line until I have my point. Align with the top apex of the lips. This side is done, and now I have a hinge point in place, as I just the other part of my life. I need to adjust this in point in the same fashion to make the line tangent to the back face of lips. Now I repeat the process for the bottom edge of my cell under shape. With that done, I'll slit both of these edges. Switch to the no tool, click the joint curves button and then click the clothes car button to create a close shape . This s me up to use affinity designers, powerful bullying tools to finish up the cylinder. I'll select the back of lips and copy it. This, like my new shape and paste in the copy of the Ellipse so that it's located directly on top of the layer that contains the body shape of the cylinder in the layers palette. The result of many bullying operations is determined by which shape is on top. I'll go ahead and sign it the black color. Now I slept both this shape and my lips and click the add button to fuse the shapes together. This operation creates the rounded back edge for the main part of the cylinder. In case you're not aware of affinity designers, additional bully and functionality, I will do this last operation to return to my to individual shapes with my to shape still selected. This time, I'll hold down the option key as I click the add but in the work area, I see the same result. But in the layers palette, we can see that I've created a compound shape. If we display what's inside of this group, we can see I still have my original shape still intact. That's great, but it actually gets even better. I can slip this lip shape and then dragging around in the work area and see how this updates the overall shape. That's really cool, but it gets even better. I'll select and copy the front lit shape. Select the shape layer inside the compound, shape and paste in the Ellipse. See how it updates the overall shape in the work area. But this is not how I want this lips to affect the shape. In this case, I want to subtract their lips from the main shape. We can do that here in the layers palette by clicking on this icon, which brings up a menu of choices on how we want to apply the shape within the compound group. I would use a track, and I have the shape I want. Now I can select this compound group and paste in the lips again. So it's about the compound route. This lips represents the face of the cylinder. All a sign at the black color and make sure it has the same stroke way. And I have a complete cylinder. I will quickly hide the construction guides so we can have a better look that turned out rather nice. Now I want to take a look at drawing and a lips. In one point perspective. I already have a square shape drawn in one point perspective, with its midpoint located at the horizon line. When I draw the lips inside this square shape, the lips appears correct. This is because the minor axis already matches the shapes horizontal X axis, as it would appear in one point perspective. But notice what happens if I start with the same shape located away from the horizon line. When I draw the Ellipse, It's minor Axis is at the correct orientation for the shape because we're still in one point perspective. But this time the lips seems slightly off. It looks like in east rotate clockwise a little bit. Most of the time, we can just ignore this small discrepancy in the context of a fully rendered drawing. This would be very difficult to notice. But the question is, what do we use as a guide to rotate this ellipse properly? Unfortunately, I don't know, but I have a work around that sauce a problem quite nicely. It involves taking advantage of working with victor. Shapes in this document already have an orthogonal circle inside of the square. I'll select it and converted to curves with a no tool. I will select all the circles notes and reveal the control handles. Notice. Each of the control handles air tangent to both the circle and the square. Each of the control handles in points are located at a specific distance away from the note they're attached to. I can use the distinct location, that angle of the control handles to re draw a circle in perspective. Manually, let me demonstrate. I have created a ruler that marks where these handles air located in proportion to a circle . I can use this ruler to help me draw a circle in perspective without using the Ellipse stool. By the way, I have included this file along with the other class files. Back in our previous example, find the foreshortened center using cross lines and then draw horizontal and vertical guides through my shape. I want to keep this ellipse, but hide it out of our way For now. Copy and paste. What I'm going to call the Magic Circle ruler. I want to resize the ruler so I can use it to dynamically find a measure point on the horizon line. If I leave the ruler of its present size, my dynamic measure point would be way outside of the C. O. V. Rick. You might remember seeing this technique demonstrated in the basics class. Once I had the realer size close to the width of the shape I want to use it with. I'll make sure its position at this corner of my eye shape. Rulers work the same as measure lines. They both measure along the guidelines they're associating with. Now I'll create a measure guide from into the ruler to the back edge of my shape and then extend this measure guide to the horizon line. This gives me my dynamic measure point. Now I can duplicate this measure guy to indicate thes handle, stops for the horizontal edges of my shape and create my vertical guys thes vertical guys mark worthy in points of my shapes. Control handles need to be positioned to recreate the curve of a circle shape in perspective accurately. I no longer need these measure guides, so I'll delete them. I can rotate my ruler 90 degrees and resize it to match this other edge. This ruler is a proportional ruler. That means I can use it to measure and position both vertical and horizontal guides and skillet to any size. I want to draw guys from each route, take mark to the central vanishing point. With all the guys in place, I will manually draw a diamond shaped by snapping to my center guides, select all the notes and convert the notes to smooth and then just a just a handle. So they allied to the square box guy and reach to the handle. Stop, guys. This shape took a few more steps, but it is more accurate. Island hide the previous lips that I drew. We can compare both ellipses and see that the difference isn't a lot. But once you see the ellipse oriented correctly, you can now more easily see how the first ellipse isn't quite right. I'm able to rotate this original lips a few percent, and it will appear accurate as well once it's been re scale. This also proves the accuracy of the magic circle ruler. For drawing circles in perspective, notice how the curves of both the manually drawn circle and the Ellipse lineup once I rotated and scaled the lips into position. No, the amount of rotation of an ellipse in perspective changes depending on how far away and in what direction a shape is located away from the central vanishing point. I will leave it up to you to decide which method works best for your own drawings. You might find using this magic circle ruler helpful when trying to great ellipses and very shallow angles in two point perspective as well. 10. Class Project: for your class project. I want you to draw your own object or objects utilizing the construction techniques covered in this class and the C O. V. Rick Europe. You can be anything. You can be an abstract shape, or it can resemble a familiar object. There are a couple of ways to approach this challenge. You can either open up a C O. B. Reagan just starts catching to see where your imagination leads you. Or you can take a more purposeful approach and work on solving the construction for a particular shape or saying I leave the choice up to you. I think it's important to get familiar with these tools and techniques and practice using them. While all this information is still fresh in your mind, this is the object of toast create for my project. I went with something abstract but also had a purpose. I knew I wanted to shake that conserve as the main imagery for this class. Therefore, it had to be built using the skills and techniques that have been demonstrating during this class. I started out by sketching a simple silhouette. Once I found the shape I wanted to explore in perspective. I sized it inside the C O. B rig and positioned it where I wanted it in relation to the horizon line. With the size decided, I went ahead and created rulers based on my silhouette. You can see I've marked the height extensive the slanted shapes at the base of the object in my wire ruler and indicated the position of the centre shape on the X and Z ruler. The object will have the square base so I can use this. We're going to measure along both the X and Z axes. Rulers work just like measure lines. They rely on the 45 degree principle to measure a distance and depth using measure points. The only real difference is the extra take Mark's provide more points to measure from. I began my perspective. Drawing with a primary line drawn to the height of the UAE ruler. I decided to build this shape at a 30 degree orientation with the viewer. So the primary line is positioned at a little right of the media mind to keep the overall shape relatively central to the composition. As you've probably already guessed. I then added edge lines for the main box guide. I used the extensive. My X and Z rule is to find the foreshortened depth of my shape using measure points. The next step was to use the wire ruler to indicate the cut lines for the slanted shapes at the base. These lines were used to set up a projection into the box guy to indicate the top edges of the slanted forms. Utilizing my measure points once again, I created the first set of insect lines at the base of the box guide. Also, make sure I had intersections vertically with the guidelines added in the previous step. Then I used the innermost take marks on the X and Z rulers, along with measure points, to create guys for the center. Part of my object. I kept these insect guidelines and separate groups for clarity. As you can see in this composite drawing, the project has a lot of guidelines with all the construction guides in place, I drew in all of my field shapes. Then it was just a matter of adding appropriate shading to the shapes. And finally I embellished the drawing with some noise occlusion shadows in some highlights along the slanted edges. Here's a close up view of the final object you'll discover as you work on your own project that adding simple details goes a long way. The space between the outer and center shapes makes it feel like these are two shapes fastened together into one object. Notice the flat edge at the top of the centre shape that prevents the slants from coming to a point had are choosing to let the shape in and a sharp point. It would have made the whole composition less convincing. Because most items in this world have some sort of finished edge. You can also see the highlights added to the slanted edges make it seem like they're ever so slightly beveled. I didn't use any ellipses in this project, but don't let that stop you from using a lip season yours. I have created a companion project for this class, where I show you how to build a racing will step by step drawing this wheel uses many ellipse sees, and it includes a lot of demonstration using rulers. There's great information in this class, so please take advantage of it. Feel free to ask any questions, and I can't wait to see your project