Ear Training & Aural Skills, Part 3: Melodies | Jason Allen | Skillshare
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Ear Training & Aural Skills, Part 3: Melodies

teacher avatar Jason Allen, PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction

      2:16

    • 2.

      What We Know So Far

      4:15

    • 3.

      Our Goal for This Class: Melodies

      2:14

    • 4.

      Tools We Will Use

      2:54

    • 5.

      This is Not Kung-Fu

      1:48

    • 6.

      Interval Recognition

      3:11

    • 7.

      Familiar "Riffs"

      2:00

    • 8.

      Looking for "Pillars"

      3:28

    • 9.

      Identifying Scale Fragments

      2:22

    • 10.

      Identifying Chord Outlines or Arpeggios

      2:35

    • 11.

      Example

      5:35

    • 12.

      Answers

      2:30

    • 13.

      Connect The Dots

      5:45

    • 14.

      Example

      2:41

    • 15.

      Answers

      4:48

    • 16.

      How to Hear Scale Fragments

      4:38

    • 17.

      5 Scales We Care About the Most

      5:11

    • 18.

      The Major Scale

      2:53

    • 19.

      The Natural Minor Scale

      4:04

    • 20.

      The Pentatonic Minor Scale

      2:32

    • 21.

      The Pentatonic Major Scale

      3:56

    • 22.

      The Chromatic Scale

      1:55

    • 23.

      Website for Scale Practice

      1:59

    • 24.

      Example

      1:39

    • 25.

      Answers

      2:47

    • 26.

      "Pillars" in Shifting Directions

      6:08

    • 27.

      Filling in the Missing Notes

      4:31

    • 28.

      Example & Walkthrough

      9:47

    • 29.

      Example

      3:11

    • 30.

      Answers

      3:08

    • 31.

      Tips For Dictation

      1:52

    • 32.

      Practice

      2:14

    • 33.

      Answer

      2:36

    • 34.

      Practice

      2:14

    • 35.

      Answer

      1:26

    • 36.

      Practice

      2:20

    • 37.

      Answer

      1:19

    • 38.

      Practice

      3:13

    • 39.

      Answer

      1:58

    • 40.

      Practice

      2:21

    • 41.

      Answer

      2:17

    • 42.

      Practice

      2:39

    • 43.

      Answer

      1:39

    • 44.

      "Feeling" The Harmony in a Melody

      2:14

    • 45.

      Tonic Triads

      3:49

    • 46.

      Dominant Triads

      4:31

    • 47.

      Example

      2:57

    • 48.

      Answer

      1:54

    • 49.

      Other Triads

      3:51

    • 50.

      Using These Practice Videos

      1:28

    • 51.

      Practice

      2:16

    • 52.

      Practice

      2:04

    • 53.

      Practice

      1:45

    • 54.

      Practice

      1:34

    • 55.

      Practice

      1:39

    • 56.

      Practice

      1:36

    • 57.

      Practice

      1:55

    • 58.

      Practice

      1:49

    • 59.

      Practice

      1:56

    • 60.

      Practice

      1:47

    • 61.

      Practice

      2:00

    • 62.

      Practice

      2:08

    • 63.

      Practice

      2:11

    • 64.

      Practice

      1:41

    • 65.

      Practice

      1:51

    • 66.

      Practice

      1:43

    • 67.

      What Comes Next?

      1:41

    • 68.

      Bonus Lecture

      0:36

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About This Class

100% Answer Rate! Every single question posted to this class is answered within 24 hours by the instructor.

Are you a music maker, performer, composer, or aspiring songwriter looking to up your game? This is the place to start.

Ear Training and Aural Skills is the practice of learning to play music by ear, learning to notate music by ear, and learning to understand music on a deeper level just by hearing it. In this class we are going to learn techniques for listening, analyzing, and notating music (writing it down) just by listening. Perfect Pitch is not required.

If you don't know me, I've published a lot of music theory classes here. Those classes have been really successful, and the number one request I've been getting from students is to make an Ear Training sequence of classes. So here it is! This series will have 6 parts: 

  • Part 1: Rhythms

  • Part 2: Intervals

  • Part 3: Melodies (This one!)

  • Part 4: Diatonic Harmony

  • Part 5: Chromatic Melodies

  • Part 6: Chromatic Harmony


Each of these classes comes with about 4 hours of training, and a LOT of things to practice with. And of course, access to me with any questions you have at any time.


Here is a list of some of the topics we will cover in this class (Part 3, melodies):

  • Identifying phrases rather than individual notes

  • Looking for "Pillars" in a melody as anchor points.

  • Using Scales and Scale Fragments to help identify a series of notes.

  • Identifying certain scales that will be helpful to melodic dictation.

  • Working with chords and arpeggios

  • Identifying a chord outline and implied harmony

  • Notating a Melody by Ear

  • 27 Unique melodies to practice with (including downloadable files)

  • And Much, Much, More!

My Promise to You:

I am a full-time Music composer and Educator. If you have any questions please post them in the class or send me a direct message. I will respond within 24 hours.

What makes me qualified to teach you?

In addition to being a composer and educator,  I also have a Ph.D. in music, am a university music professor, and have a long list of awards for teaching.

But more importantly: I use this stuff every day. I write music professionally, I am an active guitarist, and I stay on top of all the latest techniques, workflows, and styles. As you will see in this class, I just love this stuff. And I love teaching it.

You will not have another opportunity to learn Ear Training in a more comprehensive way than this.

Let's get started! 

See you in lesson 1.

All best,

Jason (but call me Jay...)

Meet Your Teacher

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Jason Allen

PhD, Ableton Certified Trainer

Teacher

J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of “glove” controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he’s not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation’s Music Educator of the Year.

... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Hey everyone, welcome to ear training, part three, melodies. So in this class we're going to focus on hearing melodies and writing them down, hearing melodies and playing them back, being able to identify melodies. Now there's a lot of tricks for this. I shouldn't say treks. They're not tricks, techniques and it's better word. In the previous ear training classes, we focused on rhythm and then we focused on intervals. And both of those are going to be really valuable to us here when we have full melodies. However, there are some techniques that we're going to learn, such as identifying scale fragments that are going to help us a whole bunch. We're going to focus on not hearing individual notes, but hearing riffs or pieces of a scale. Then we just have to identify the scale in order to get the notes. That's just one technique. There's a whole bunch of techniques that we're going to focus on. All of which are things that you can easily learn to help you get better and more proficient at ear training. Specifically related to melodies. I'm going to give you a ton of stuff to practice in here. At the end of this class, we've got a whole bunch of practice videos. So just a video where I'm going to show a melody or I'm going to tell you what you need to know about a melody, and then I'm going to play it for you three times. You're going to write it down. And then at the end of the video, I give you the answer. There's a ton of those. It's really fun. I had a fun time making this class. I'm not someone who enjoyed learning, going through your training classes in college, but making these classes have been really fun. So I'm hoping that this will be an antidote if you're struggling to learn this stuff. So let's dive in. 2. What We Know So Far: Okay. So you've taken to ear training classes now? Probably. If you haven't and you're just jumping in on this third one, you might want to consider going back to the first one or the second one, but you're welcome to try. So here's what we know how to do so far. In the first class, we focused on rhythms. So we can, with a reasonable amount of accuracy, listened to a rhythm and notate it. That's great. Another thing we learned to do in that class is basic dictation. That's going to be really important in this class. So, so the idea behind basic dictation is things like I'm going to play you something and you're going to write it down. And the second class, we didn't really do that over a longer period of time. We just did it with single intervals. So for a couple spots where we tried melodies. So dictation examples that I'm going to use in this class are going to work the same as in the first class where I'm going to say, I want you to write this in treble clef for four. I'm going to give you the first note. I am going to say it's eight bars long, or four bars long, or 12, whatever it happens to be. So I want you to keep that in mind because it's going to work the same as that first-class, except now we're going to have rhythms and pitches. Okay? What else do we know? We know intervals. We learned that from the second class. We focused entirely on intervals. So we know that when you hear a note and then you hear another note, what the distance between those two notes are or is likely to be. That is a hard skill to get used to, is to identify those intervals. And I'm going to tell you a little secret here. In this class. We're going to work on melodies, which is essentially a whole bunch of intervals, right? But intervals are a little easier because once you have a context for those melodies, things start to make a little more sense. It's not. Let, let me give you an example. Let's say we hear a melody that goes C to a, G to an F. Okay, so that first interval you recognize as a fifth and you write a G for the second note. Great, You're right. Now that interval that comes after that. We've got a C and a G so far. Context is going to tell you, we're probably in the key of C, maybe C major. So what are your options for that? F went down. Did it go down a half-step or a whole step? Well, it didn't fall out at the key because we would have heard a dissonant note if it didn't sound dissonant and it went down, it's gotta be either an F, maybe an E. So now your choices went from four really down to two, right? Because the context makes everything a little bit easier actually. So when you're working on a whole melody, you can think about the notes surrounding the notes in the melody. And that'll eliminate some of the intervals because you'll be able to tell, did it go out of qi, know, so therefore, it must be one of the intervals in the key, one of the notes in the key. We'll talk about this more later. Don't worry about it. I just want to point it out that it's actually a little bit easier than just randomly identifying intervals. However, all that interval training we did is going to be super valuable. So still super worth knowing. Okay, so that's where we are. We're going to combine those two things, intervals and rhythms into one. And we're going to work on pull melodies. Cool, cool. 3. Our Goal for This Class: Melodies: So what is our goal for this class? What do I want you to be able to do by the end of it? Or what do I think you will be able to do by the end of it? The main thing, like I just said, is to be able to write down or playback on your instrument any melody that you hear. We do have to do one new layer of kind of translation. And that is to go from intervals to notes. Okay, so you're going to have to pull some of your music theory knowledge in K. So if I say, If you, if I say here's the note, it's a C. And then I play another note. And you say, okay, that note is a minor sixth up. And you heard it as a minor sixth. Then you have to figure out what that note is, right? This is like an added layer of thinking that you have to do. So you're going to have to be able to say, okay, what is a minor sixth above C? And then you're going to have to write down in a flat. So we're going to pull from an understanding of music theory. Not any of the super advanced stuff, mostly diatonic stuff, major and minor scales. We are going to spend some time identifying scales in this class because there's a philosophy about philosophy, but a technique where you might hear like four notes in a row. And they might be just going right up the scale. And if that's the case, you don't want to sort out the intervals between every note. You're going to be like, That's the minor scale. So you just write down the minor scale. So we want to be able to recognize those kind of big chunks of stuff. So we're going to spend a little bit of time on scales. But all of that will go into help you be able to identify right down and playback on whatever your instrument is. Pretty much any melody that you hear. So that's our goal. 4. Tools We Will Use: Okay, tools that we're going to need for this class, not very much different than the other classes. Some kind of tuner might be helpful, not critical, but something that can help you identify a stray note if you're trying to figure out, figure something out. There are a few apps that have some your training quizzes, like that tenuto app. You could get that if you wanted to, you don't need it. And I am going to be using MuseScore again in this class. You don't have to get it, but it will be really handy. Having an instrument nearby would be handy. If there's any instrument you play, that would be good just because you might want to play these things back to confirm that you got it right. So piano, clarinet, bagpipes, whatever you happen to play, guitar. You can also do that with MuseScore if you just want to, if you don't play anything well enough to be able to read something and play it back. That's totally fine. I'll be giving you some MuseScore files in here and you can play that back as well. So that works too. We are going to be using a website like we used in the last one for quizzes. Not a lot in this class, not nearly as much as we did in the last class. But this same site does have some scales training. And so when we talk about scales and identifying scales, we'll go back to this site. We don't need to identify all the scales. That's not really going to be useful to us here. Mostly we're going to focus on major minor, harmonic and melodic minor. Also, pentatonic will be handy and chromatic will be handy. So we'll focus on those using this website, but we're not going to use it nearly as much as we used it in the last class. And I think that's it. Oh, get yourself some staff paper. Some good old-fashioned staff paper. Because even using MuseScore, MuseScore and is great, but there's something about writing it down by hand. It's faster. You can kinda scribble. You can do your own kind of shorthand and then go back and fill it in later. It's just a lot better. So you can find a PDF of a blank piece of staff paper. You probably already have one at this point. Just Google, blank staff PDF or something and you'll find like a 100 of them, print out a few of those or go to your local music store or go online and order some staff paper, whatever you want. So that pencil with a good eraser and that's all you pretty much need. Okay, let's move on. 5. This is Not Kung-Fu: Okay, now I'm going to give my obligatory, this is hard speech. You can fast forward it. If you're sick of hearing it. This probably won't be the last time. This definitely won't be the last time I say it in this class. But just to reminder, you may get frustrated while you're working on this. And you may feel like you're not making a lot of progress, and that is totally, totally normal. This is hard and it takes a lot of practice, okay? If you get to the end of this class and you feel like I'm just not getting any better at this. That's okay. Because you will have got in the class some tools, right? Some techniques and some tools to help you. As you use those tools, they will get more comfortable and you will get better at it. But it does take practice. Don't expect this to be like Neo in the Matrix when he learns Kung fu. That's probably a super dated reference at this point. And I'm sad I said it, but it's true. For those of you too young to know, I'm talking about in the movie, The Matrix. The first one, the, they have like an upload thing into the main character Nios brain. And they just like he just says, like I want to know Kung Fu and they go and they like upload it into his brain. And then they pull the wire out and he says, I don't conclude. It's not that it's the opposite of that. It's, I'm going to give you a bunch of tools. You're going to practice a lot and then eventually you'll get good at it. But anyway, takes practice, It's not gone through. Concrete takes practice to you. You know what I mean? 6. Interval Recognition: Okay, So we have a tool that we know well now which is recognizing intervals, right? And that's gonna get you pretty far. That's going to be your basic tool. But there's a couple other techniques that I want to look at for spotting a whole melody. That interval recognition falls flat on a little bit. So here's what I mean. Let's take a look at something like this. Okay? Let's just hear this. Okay. So we could hear that in a melody and we could say, okay, that's a major second apart, we're going up a major second. Then we go down a major second. And then we go up a major second again, right? Cool. If we can think that way, then we'll get it right. However, there's another way to think. We can think about this technique of identifying words instead of letters. When you read a letter, when you see something with a word on it. This says the word music and I speak letters. So when we look at that, we don't think MUS IC, we think music, we've learned to spot that as a word, right? And we don't need to pull apart each individual letter. So by thinking major second, major, second down, major second up, we're thinking in terms of each individual letter instead of the word. Okay? So I'm going to teach you some techniques now to identify the word and set up the letter. The letter, meaning looking at each individual interval still works, but we want to kind of use that when There's nothing else to grab onto, right? If we can spot or if we can identify a melody by a bigger chunk of notes. And that's always going to be better than just thinking in terms of individual melodies. So in this section, I'm going to go through four techniques for doing that. For identifying notes in terms of bigger chunks and not looking at the individual notes, interviewed individual intervals, I should say. However, keep in mind that the individual intervals and identifying those are still going to be our main tool for identifying melodies. Okay? Like that's going to be our favorite and most reliable tool. But these other tools that I'm going to give you now are techniques I should say, are going to increase your speed. It's going to be able to, you're going to be able to do this faster and some ways more accurately. Okay, so let's go into those four things now. Yeah, let's just dive into it. 7. Familiar "Riffs": Okay, the first tool I want to give you is kind of the most obvious one and also the one that takes the most experience. So you might not be able to do this one right away, but I want to put it into your head. And that is being able to identify larger groups of notes because they're familiar. Okay. So you hear something and you're like, oh, I know that I've heard that 1000 times. Then you know how to write that down. We could kind of use this as an example. So we could think major second, major, second down, major second up. Or we could think, I know how that goes. Like, I know that's like if the first node is C, I know that has to be CD, CD. I don't need to think about the intervals because this is familiar to me. I've heard this at 1000 times. We're just alternating between two nodes. So you will, after a lot of practice, get a little handful of riffs, so to speak, that you can just kind of identify because you've heard them before and they are really familiar to you. Yeah. I don't think I need to say more about that. It's kind of like a mental catalog of things that'll come up over and over and you'll get comfortable spotting them. So nothing really to practice with that. Just the more you practice this whole technique, sooner or later these things will pop up. And when they do, let it happen be like, Oh, I know this. So I'm going to just write it down instead of thinking about the intervals. You can still think about the intervals though, to check your work and that'll be helpful. Okay, let's go on to the next one. Pillars. 8. Looking for "Pillars": Okay, So this is a technique that I use all the time. I call it pillars. I, that's not a term that I've ever seen anyone use, but this is just something that I've learned to do over the years. There might be another fancier name for this. But let's look at this little riff, okay? Okay, So when I hear that, here's what I'm going to think. I could think about each individual interval and I might. But if I'm trying to go fast, what I'm going to think about is, where do we start? And I'm going to kind of say, okay, that's a pillar that isn't there's a note right there. Okay. I know what that is. We're going to lock that in. Then I know the highest note in this arch is going to be right here, right on beat three. Okay? And then I'm going to recognize that we step back down to the same pillar here. Okay? So I have three kind of what's the word I can use other than pillar? Three things. Walls, let's call him walls. Here, here and here. Okay? Now, once I've identified those three pillars are a few things I can figure out. I can figure out if these two notes are the same. In this case they are. Okay. The beginning and end of the riff is the same thing. So if I know is this note that's going to tell me that note for sure. Okay. Then I can identify that this was just a scale motion going down to this note. And since I know where this is and where this is, I know how many beats that needs to be. So then I can walk backwards from here. I can say, we're just going up a scale. Okay, We're going to talk about identifying scales in a minute. But if I can just fill in the notes walking backwards, that will tell me what note this is. And this note and this note, okay. Now I have all the notes except for this one. I know that there's only one note in-between these two notes, so there's gotta be a gap somewhere. Okay. Then on second hearing, I'm going to really latch into this and I might have to listen for the intervals to find out if the gap is between these two or between these two. In this case, it's between these two. But even if I get that gap wrong, I have all the notes in this river, right? Except for that one. So I'm doing pretty good. So what you're looking for is things that you can kind of latch on to that, you know, are correct. If it's the first and last note and the high point, that can help you figure out like where are what is the shape and then walk backwards and fill in the gaps. Okay, so look for those kinda pillars that you can latch onto and say, I know what that is, I know what that is, what has to happen in between. It can be a really useful trick. 9. Identifying Scale Fragments: Now that leads us to the next most important one. And that is identifying scale fragments. When you hear just a whole bunch of nodes running up a scale, you don't need to think about all the intervals within that scale. Just identify the scale. Here we're going to work more on this. The next big section, we're going to focus on identifying scales and scale fragments. But that would help us out here, right? If I heard that this was a scale going down, then I can say that's a piece of a scale. And then I can just fill in the notes without thinking about each individual interval. Here's another case where that can work. So let's say this happens in the middle of a melody. So you're trying to keep track of all the notes in the melody. And then all of a sudden you hear this. And you're like, too many notes too fast. What am I doing? You, you pause, you take a breath, and you say, hopefully you know where that note, that riff started and where it ended. Okay? Identify the pillars, identify the high point, right on B2. You're gonna say B2 is the high point of that. So 1, 2, 3. Okay. And then you get to say was that just a scale going up and down? Yeah, that was just a scale that was just the first five notes of the scale going up and down. So then just fill in the notes. Don't think about all the intervals here. You've got this note, you've got this note and you know, you've got 16th notes in between. They have to be this. If you've identified the scale, then everything is right. So identifying scales and scale fragments, chunks of scales is a really important skill because we're going to hear those all over the place and melodies, especially with fast notes, they tend to be scales or pieces of scales. So we're going to work a lot on that in this first section. After this, which I have one more tip to tell you. So let's go on and do that now. 10. Identifying Chord Outlines or Arpeggios: Okay, last technique in these kind of big four things. Outlining of chords and in particular arpeggios, It's kinda the same thing. So if you heard this in the middle of a melody, you might think Uighurs gaps between all those notes. It's not a scale. The intervals are bigger than a half step or a whole step. I have no way of figuring out what they are. Right, because it's just, it feels like the notes are jumping around too much. Here's the technique. Try to identify them as an arpeggio. Are they in arpeggiate arpeggio? Lot of the time when you hear notes with skips like that, multiple skips, like notes that have a skip and then other notes that have a skip and another notes that have skips all in a row. Lot of the time it's an arpeggio, okay, so it's outlining a cord. So what we could hear with this is, okay, that is, if we're in the key of C major, That's our tonic triad. So if we land on this C and we know what note that is, then we know that this must be E G, and then back to e k because we can identify this as our tonic chord, okay? Because it's just each note of the chord played one at a time. Okay? And then we hear this. That's our five chord. Okay, that's a G major chord. It starts on the B, but that's okay. And we can identify that as our five chord. So what we're really hearing here is a 15 and then probably one, again, just in arpeggios. So we're going to practice identifying arpeggios and sometimes they're not this obvious. But when you hear a bunch of gaps in a melody, it's very common that they are arpeggios, so get used to keeping an eye out for them. Cool. Okay, next, let's walk through practicing identifying scales and scale fragments. Okay, here we go. 11. Example: All right. Let's try one. Okay, So I know you're thinking we don't have any tools yet. We've only talked about the existence of tools, not looked at anything in particular yet, but just humor me. Let's try one. So I'm going to play one example. And we're going to listen to it three times. And the first time I'm just going to play it, get what you can. The second time. Before I play it the second time I'm getting give you a little clue. And then I want you to hear it again and try to get even more. And then the third time, I'm going to give you another clue. Okay? And then we're gonna hear it a third time. And in the next video, we'll go over what the answers are. Okay? So like all melodic dictations are all going to start like this. You may remember this from the first class when we did rhythmic dictation. But going to tell you that we are in for four treble clef, five measures, and the first note is middle C, Okay? That's C below the treble clef staff. Okay? So for 45 measures, C, middle C is our first note and treble clef. I'm also going to tell you, I'm going to give you a clue. I told you I'm going to give you a clue in the, after the first listening and after the second listening. But I'm going to give you one for free, a clue to get us started. And the clue here is that we are only going to hear quarter notes, okay, so no complicated rhythm. The rhythm will be straight quarter notes for all five bars. Okay? So let's take rhythm kind of out of the picture for the moment, where we're going to hear a bunch of individual notes. Okay, So let's try it. So here's our middle C that we're going to hear. Okay? And here's listening. Number 1, off we go. Okay. That was our first listening. Now, here is your first clue. If you, you may have surmised this from context, but the clue I want you to think about in the next one is the major scale. Okay? Think about how much of a major scale we're hearing. I will say anything else? I'll just say that think about are, is there a major scale happening here, or fragments of a major scale? Okay, let's hear it again. Here's that first note. And off we go. Okay, listening number 2. Now, for our third time, a third glue. The third clue is, think about that first note, that middle C. We know what that note is. So latch your ear onto that and make sure that every time that note happens, you have it in the right spot. So just count 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2. And then if you hear that note, make sure that that note is in the right spot. So if you think you are mostly right at this point, then listen to it one more time through and just listen for that note and make sure you've got every time that that note hits in the right spot. Okay. If you're still struggling to get some notes, That's okay too. But for this onetime, listened through and make sure you've got that middle C everywhere that it happens, okay, we know it's going to happen on bar one B1. I've told you that. So listen for that node and then write down everywhere else that it occurs. Here's what it sounds like. Okay? So here we go. One more time. Okay, let's go onto the next video and go over the answer. Once you're ready. Think about it, keep working through it if you want. 12. Answers: Okay, So here's the answer. Let's think about those three clues I gave you. The first one was that it was all quarter notes that checks out. And we can look at that pretty quick and just see that. Second one. Think about scales. So the first thing we had here was a straight up C major scale. Okay? Then we had the first three notes of that C major scale again. Then it jump back down to the tonic of that scale. The note that is our kinda homebase that we already know that c, then it went up scale again. Okay, and then it just sat on that see, for another bar because, why not? So clean? Number 3. Listen for that. C. Boom. We go up. Downbeat of the third bar. Here it is again. Now if you got tripped up, it might be here because you might feel like that doubt that we fell down to that downbeat and that was maybe supposed to be on the downbeat of the bar and not on before. Which is why I wanted you to focus on that to make sure that you got this in the right spot. So this was on beat four, and then we moved up the scale from beat 4 all the way through the next measure. And then if you focused on just that note, you probably got the last bar totally right. So at least partial credit. Now remember that when we do these, if you were doing these in a college class, it wouldn't be that it's either all right or all wrong if you have one note wrong, but the rest of it right, You did pretty good. So if you've got a few notes wrong here and there, that's totally fine. And because this was just an experiment and we haven't talked in detail about these techniques yet. If you've got a lot of notes wrong, that's fine. What I wanted you to hear was that there's a whole scale in here going all the way up an octave. And then there was a little scale fragments. Two of them, actually, these three notes. And then jump down, and then these five nodes. Okay, so scale fragments jump out at you. Okay, so let's talk about how to deal with those scale fragments and full scales. When we hear them. 13. Connect The Dots: Okay, So I've opened up this example we just did in a graphics program because I want to show you something. The way I would notate this if I was just writing it out. Like this, here's what I would do. I'd start here. So we've got, let's do this. We got this first note. So I'd start off. I've written this first note because the instructor told me That's the first note. Okay, cool. So then the, the piece would start and I would not write any notes. Probably. I might write this first one and then I will here the second one. And then I'd say we're going up a scale. And I might just write like a line. As long as I was hearing this and say, okay, we're just going up a scale. So I would probably just write a line the first time through. Then I might write this note. Because I'd say, okay, as soon as I heard this one, I'd probably right, jump back, right that node because I'd say that was the end of the scale. Now we've jumped down. Then I might write a line connecting these two notes. Just a little squiggle to say, hey, those are the same note. So then when I double-check, when I go back, I can say, okay, these two notes have to be the same. Whatever this one is, it's the same as that one. And then again, I might just write a line once I hear this. And then maybe write this note once I got there. And then this note knowing that we jumped down. And again, I would write a line, maybe kind of a curved line to show that these two notes are the same. Then again, just align to say we're going up the scale. And the reason I'm using a line and not notes is because I can go back and fill those in later. If it's just a scale. I don't need to write them in. In the heat of the moment while I'm under fire trying to keep up just right align its major scale. I know it does not r. Okay, so another line. And then I'd probably write this note. And all four of these notes. Oops. And I might make another little line to say, these nodes are the same, at least the first one. Okay, So this is my little weird notation. But what we're doing here is playing connect the dots. That's all, you know. I'm not thinking about intervals at all here. You know, at no point in this that I have to match an interval or find an interval. Now being able to find intervals is still important, but in this particular example, I didn't need to at all. I had to do was identify the scale. So I heard a note. I heard a scale going up. I just wrote a line inside. That's a major scale. I know what that is. Then when I go back, I can write it in all these notes. And that's fine. It's easy to write all those notes in here. I know we jump back down to that first note because I'm holding on to that first node in my ear. I hear it here, here, here, and then all through here. So I just have to connect these little dots and know what the top note is. And the top note isn't really a matter of guessing the interval from here to here necessarily. It's just a matter of counting. If I know that we're just going up a scale, I just have two here, 12345. We just went up a scale, five notes. Then we jump back down. I don't really need to worry about what this interval is because this note is the same as this one, this one, and this one. Just have to make sure I write the same note that I wrote in those other spots. And I'll be right. So that's how I would hear it if I was trying to notate this on the fly in the context of the example that you just did. Now, yes, this takes a little bit of practice and you don't have to do it this way. You can write all the notes as you go. But consider thinking this way, right? Thinking about scales rather than trying to figure out each note along the way. Few here a scale, just squiggly line and go back and figure it out later. Maybe make a little note up here that says what that scale is. This is why I really like to do this on pencil and paper so that I can just write major scale here. Just write MJ major going up. And then I can erase that and fill it in with notes later. In fact, I have had music theory teachers who were giving oral skills tests like this and required you to write with pen so that they could see you doing that. It's not wrong to do that. They just wanted to know if that's how you are thinking. Anyway. So when you hear the scale fragments, consider playing, connect the dots, right? It's all we have to do. Let's try another one. 14. Example: Okay, Let's do another one. The clue here is that we're working on similar concepts. Okay, So think about scales. Think about that connecting the dots idea. This one's going to be a little harder though. Okay? So 44, first note is middle C. I think we usually actually see the key now that I think about it. So key is C major. First one is middle C for 45 measures K. So write that out on your paper. Write five empty measures. That's going to help you out. Treble clef. Here we go. So here's that first note. Okay? Here it is again. And here is our example, first-time through. Okay? Think about it for a minute. When you're ready. Let's hear it again. No more clues. It's time. You got this. Here it is again. Pause the video if you need to. You need time to think about it. But when you're ready, I'm going to play it again. Here we go. Third HAM. Okay. Take a minute. Make sure you've got the best answer you can find. And then we'll go on to the answer in the next video. 15. Answers: Okay, So here's the answer. Now. There's kind of a trick here. So let's think about the way you may have. You may have approached this and then I'm going to tell you a little trick you can do. So. Maybe you heard these first notes and you were thinking scales because we've been talking about scales and you thought, okay, we just went up to the second note of the scale or we went up a whole step. You might have just identified that as an interval. Either way, it's totally fine. But then we went back to that first note. Okay. Then there was a leap. Okay, so there's a leap and we have to think and now I got to figure out what that interval is. Sure. So that was an interval of a perfect fifth. Okay, we went up a perfect fifth. So maybe you recognize that as a perfect fifth, in which case you would have landed on a g. Cool. So if you did, you got to a G and then you went back down here. Now, let's think about this for a second. Because what if we got that leap interval wrong? If you've got that leap interval wrong and you didn't identify it as g or as a fifth, maybe you identified it as a fourth or a sixth, or a third, or anything other than a fifth. You could still correct yourself because watch this. You would have gone from here. And then if you're keeping track of this pitch, the C, you would have got to here, and you would have said, Okay, wait a minute here. When we got to beat 4 of that second measure, we landed on that see again that middle C again. Which means we, and I know from listening that we stepped down a scale from that leap. So what I would do if I was writing this, is I would write this note and then I'd hear this leap. I take a shot at it. I'd write a fifth or six. Maybe I'm wrong and we're forth. I don't know. Maybe I guess it wrong. It's not really going to matter in a second because then I'm going to write a scale going down. And then I'm going to say, holy smokes. Here we are again. So this note, I'm recognizing as this note. So I'm going to write that note. And then I'm gonna go back in-between my listens. I'm going to go back and write and do this backwards. And I'm going to read a scale going up from here, d, e, f, g. I know that's a scale going down. So if I do this backwards, That's going to tell me that must be a G. So I don't really need to get this interval right. I need to get this note right. That makes sense. Once I get this note right, I can walk backwards up the scale and find that has to be the interval of a fifth. Now, cool. Let's keep going. So then we hear this again. And we heard this once before and this interval again. So we know that this is the same. So if we know we got these two bars, right, then we know what this interval already is because we've got it right back there. But even if we didn't get it right, we can do the same technique here. We're going to take a shot at that interval. We're going to see if we're right. But then we know what we hear here as we go up one more scale degree here. So we go up and then down. And here we land on that tonic again. So once I hear this, I've identified this is on beat 2. So now I can say, okay, that's B2. And we just walked down a scale. So I'm gonna go backwards. And now I know I've gotta go down one scale degree. And that's going to cover that leap. Make sense. So you can work with these out of time and go backwards. Identify the scale going backwards, make sure that those kinda pillar moments that we talked about before are correct. So the pillars here for me would be all of the Cs. Okay. That's how much these last year. But this one this one and this one and I guess these other two as well, but especially these three, because they're gonna let you walk backwards and find the right answer. 16. How to Hear Scale Fragments: Okay, So we know the advantages of listening for scales, but how do we actually identify the scale when we hear it? Or how do we know we're playing in a scale and not just random notes? There's a couple things to think about. The first is, we're going to do a little practice identifying scale, and we're going to do that and the next seven or eight videos. That'll help us get some tools to identify the different scales. But more or less, you can think about how does the melody feel, how does it sound? What is the quality of it? If you took music theory, my music theory classes, then you know a lot about identifying scales and what those scales sound like. You know what the major scale sounds like with a minor scale sounds like. Things like that. If you hear a passage like this, you can probably identify some characteristics of it that are going to make you feel like it's a major scale. So two things to deal with here. A, is it a scale be, what kind of scale is it? Let's tackle a, is it a scale first? Nine times out of 10, when you hear notes sequentially going up or down, they're going to be some kind of scale. It might be a chromatic scale. It might be a weird scale, but it's almost always going to be a scale. If you hear notes going in a pattern consistently up, the thing you really want to listen for is leaps. Hey, because big leaps are going to tell you that we're not in a scale. If you hear something like this, Let's do a little example here. Here's our C. Okay? This doesn't sound like a scale. Okay, and that's harder to figure out on the fly or she were. However, it's also harder to listen to you. So if you're not, if you know that you're writing down something that is like a singable melody, which most of these examples tend to be. They're going to not be super random like this. They're going to have some kind of scale behind what they're doing. Not all of them. Not all of them by any means, but a lot of them. If there are meant to be sung, they're probably going to be not so jumpy than this. As this. They're going to be a little closer together. They might still have leaps. But even just doing this, we've got little itty-bitty scale fragments in here, right? Here's a little scale fragment. And in C-Major, going one to one that's up and down, one scale degree. That's a tiny scale fragment. Here. We have a leap of a fourth, but then we have a little scale fragment right, right there. It doesn't make it all the way down to tonic, but it does give us a little fragment of the C major scale. So there are these little tiny scale fragments all over the place. If you hear notes in sequence, close together with no leaves, you are almost always hearing a scale of some kind. Okay? I might, I'd have to go look up the technical definition of scale, but I might say you are always hearing a scale of some type. If they are, if there are no big leaps in it, and even if there are big leaps in the right places, there might, it might be a scale because there's like a billion different kinds of scales. Okay? So keep that in mind. Now let's talk about the particular scales that we care about most, it's not that we should study and learn to identify every single scale that exists in the world. That would be a good trick, but we don't have time for that. Instead. There's about five that are the most common in kind of melodic singing and melodic dictation that you should be the most aware of. Okay, So let's go into those next. 17. 5 Scales We Care About the Most: Okay, like I said before, we don't need to have every scale imaginable. Be quickly identifiable by ear. That would be a handy trick and don't let me stop you from trying to learn how to do that. But we can narrow down the list. I mean, there are a hundreds of thousands of scales, right? We can narrow down the list to about five. There are five scales that if you are really good at identifying these five scales, they will help you like him measurably at identifying melodies. Now why five? Because these five have the intervals in them that will quickly help us identify some stuff. There the most commonly used. And we can pretty quickly get in the habit of saying, of hearing like a scale passage in a melody. And then saying, is this part of one of those five, or is it not part of one of those five? And it fits not part of one of those five. That actually tells us a lot about what's going on in that scale pattern as well, right? Because if it's not part of one of these five, then we know that it's not any kind of ordered pattern of half-steps and whole-steps with an occasional minor third, talk about that in a minute. Which would mean that we could in our head, move on to the next category of things and say, is it an arpeggio? Is it an outline of a court? Which if it's a quick passage that could be mistaken for a scale, and it's not a scale. It's probably an arpeggio. So we'll get to that in the next big chunk. So if we can identify these five scales, we're in pretty good shape. Cool. So what are the five scales? We're gonna go through each one right now. But the first one is our good old fashion major scale. So in the next video, we're going to talk about what to listen for to help identify that major scale and ways that the major scale can help you. So that one probably wasn't very shocking to hear that. That's one of my five for this. Second. Can anyone identify this scale just by looking at it? This is our natural minor scale. Now I'm not including melodic or harmonic in it. Because what those melodic and harmonic scales give us is really the most identifying thing there is that leading tone up to tonic right here, which we have in the major scale. So if you hear that you're either in a major scale or partly in a minor and partly in a major, which is effectively the harmonic or melodic minor. Talk about that in a second. So natural minor scale, second 1, third 1. And you will recognize this scale. This is a little bit of an oddball one, not one. We see all the time. I'll give you a clue. If you're a guitar player, you know the scale backwards and forwards. The biggest clue here is that there are not seven notes or eight nodes including the octave. There are five nodes and six notes including the active, which means to pentatonic scale. This is our minor pentatonic scale. Okay? This really helps us out because it really, it gives us this minor third interval. It's going to be handy. Fourth one. Major pentatonic. Okay? This one really is a shift of the minor pentatonic scale. So I was hesitant about including it in this list. However, it does have some qualities that I think will be really handy for us to be able to identify. So a good one to have in your toolkit. And the last one should not be forgotten. Can anyone put a name on this one? This is our good old fashion chromatic scale. Just a chromatic scale. Um, what you might think, well that's obvious, but it, in some contexts, it's not. You could hear a quick melodic passage and think that a minor scale, or is that a chromatic scale? It's sometimes it's not as obvious as you think. So we want to get good at identifying chromatic scale. This is going to give us a toolkit of just hearing a whole bunch of half-steps in a row. Okay, so let's go into each one of these and talk about what specifically we can listen for to help us identify these. And then we'll do a little bit of practice. 18. The Major Scale: Okay, Let's talk about the major scale. If you hear a quick passage, how can you identify it as the major scale? Or if you just hear a straight up scale, let's just focus on scales for a minute. How can you tell if that's a major or minor scale? The first things I would listen for would be half-steps. And that's pretty much true. And in all of our scale, well, in the major and the minor scales. So where are our half-steps in this scale? The biggest one, the one that's going to jump out to you more than anything else, is that leading tone at the end? Right there, that big half-step. The second one is, of course, between our third, fourth scale degree k. So if you hear this, just those five nodes, you could identify it. You should be able to identify that as a major scale. It gave you a half-step, give you a couple of whole-steps. And that's really kind of all you need. Really all you need is the first four notes or so. But certainly if you get to the end where you hear this leading tone and let's stop right on the leading tone just to give a little extra emphasis on that. Okay? That leading tone creates that lot of tension, pushing us up to the tonic. So that tells us a few things, right? That tells us that we've probably heard a major scale because we're really leaning on that leading tone. It also tells us what timing is, right, because we feel that leading tone pushing Teutonic really hard. So that means that the next note, a half step above that leading tone, is probably tonic. And if you can figure out tonic in a melody, then you can use all your music theory skills to help you give context to the rest of the melody. You can try to identify things that might sound like five or four. You can identify chords and think about harmonic function, and that can put you in the right area. So biggest things to watch out for are those half-steps. Now you might be thinking, well, the minor scale has half-steps two. So what am I listening for? And the minor scale. And the minor scale could have that leading tone. So let's go over to the minor scale and talk about that. 19. The Natural Minor Scale: Okay, Let's talk about the minor scale. So, yes, the minor scale is essentially the same assortment of notes as the major scale, right? Just, just starting from a different spot. If we start here on the third, right, we have a major scale, but that's not what we're using it for right now. What we're using this for is to help us identify specific intervals. Okay? And the main thing we want to use the minor scale to help us identify. It's not so much that leading tone, but that minor third here. Specifically, a series of notes that includes a whole step and then a half-step. Okay? And then maybe another whole step. So that we get that, that note right there. We're gonna get that again with the pentatonic scale. But this helps us identify whole step, half step pattern. Okay? So we hear whole step and then half-step. There's also gives us that minor seventh. So if we hear that minor seventh Right there, that can tell us we just heard a minor scale. Okay, So we're really talking about using these scales to identify passages of notes, longer strings of notes, where there's some kind of characteristic. And then we can latch onto, and with the minor scale, it'd be that minor third. And that lowered leading tone, right? The flat seven. That can be a really good clue that you're in a minor scale. Now what if you heard a harmonic minor scale? Or a melodic minor scale is a melodic minor scale, since that's a little bit more likely. What you would probably here then is the first half of the minor scale and the second half as a major scale, write these notes, which is what a melodic minor scale is. In that case, you ought to be able to identify it as exactly what I just said, which is the first half is a minor scale. The second half is a major scale. That's the way I would do it. So I would hear, cool and then I would hear right? So I could put that together in my head and say, Oh, that was a melodic minor scale. Or I could just skip that step because I don't care about identifying scales here, I care about identifying the melody. So in the melody, I can say, well, I definitely heard that minor third at the beginning. So there was a minor scale happening here because that note stuck out to me. And then I heard that leading tone at the end. So that stuck out to me. So we probably have first half of a minor scale, second half of a major scale. So it's melodic, harmonic, whatever. That might mean that you get there's a wrong. But in these kind of melodic dictations, melodic is more likely. So keep that a up and use the second half of the major scale. Cool. So I guess what I'm saying here is, let's not spend a ton of time identifying the melodic minor. Let's stick to the natural minor because it's distinctive from the major and use logic to put together what it most likely is. Exempts court. All right, Let's go into the pentatonic. 20. The Pentatonic Minor Scale: Okay, pentatonic. Pentatonic has these kind of big gaps in it. And I think it's really handy for us in ear training to be able to identify it so that we can, we hear a scale that has a leap in it. We can say either that the pentatonic or it's some other kind of scale with a leap in it. So if you don't remember, here's what a pentatonic scale sounds like. Here's our pentatonic minor. Okay, it's got that big leap right there. Okay, So this is a minor scale with basically two notes thrown out. But the pentatonic has a very distinctive sound. The reason I said a minute ago, if you're a guitar player, you know the scale backwards and forwards. It's very easy to play on guitar. We use it for a lot of soloing, a lot of riffs. It's a very guitar friendly cord or sorry, scale, which might be why I use it as one of the ones we latch onto your exam guitar player. So I can identify this one from a mile away. You know, it's just like one of those scales that I know really, really well. So maybe this one is less useful to you if you're not a guitar player. But I would argue that it actually is a fairly useful because of that leap. Right? So if you hear something that is called boom, and you're like, What is that? It sounds like a scale, but it's got a weird leap in it. It might be a pentatonic scale. Okay, So we're specifically hearing this lack of a two. We go right up to the minor third. Okay? Then we have another minor third leap here between the five and the six, which is effectively seven. So there's no six and there's no two. Okay, so Let's do that one more time. So get comfortable recognizing this one. It can really help you out. Now, I also like keeping the major pentatonic scale in our bag of tricks. So let's talk about that one also. 21. The Pentatonic Major Scale: Okay, major pentatonic. I find this one also to be really easily identifiable and help us out with some of those big gaps. So this one also has those two big gaps here between the third, fourth note of the scale, which if this was a major scale, would be third and the fifth, right? We're missing an F here. We're also missing the seventh. Okay, so that's one of the reasons I like this one. If we go back here, we have that leading tone seven. And the major scale. Here we have the minor seventh and the minor scale. And here we have no seventh. Or you can think of this as like a diminished seventh if you wanted. In the major pentatonic scale. Minor pentatonic scale has that minor seventh. So that can be a good clue. If you hear a run that sounds like a major scale. But it doesn't have that leading tone or a minor seventh or anything in that seventh spot. You can think major pentatonic. Okay, let's hear the major pentatonic. Cool. There's one other reason I like this one. This is one of the most distinctive little melodic ideas all by itself, and you can use that to identify it a lot. There was a popular song that is nothing but a major scale or a major pentatonic scale. Going up, starting over, going up, starting over going up. It's something that you may have heard at some point in your life? I heard it a lot when I was little. It makes me it is something that was always playing in the car when I was little. Does anyone recognize it and play it again? Does that sound familiar? Maybe an old classics on. Maybe. Let's adjust the rhythm just slightly as I've done here. Here are the same notes. And then starting over, Zoom and recognize it. Let's try it with this rhythm. Maybe. Let's adjust the tempo just a little bit. Slow it down a tad. Little too much. There it is. Let's try here. That is a classic song called My Girl, look it up. But that little line from my girl, I guess you would call it the baseline. Yeah, It's the baseline. So super distinctive that whenever I hear it in something I'm like major pentatonic. Um, I can spot it a mile away because of that, because I recognize it as that My girl thing. So in a way, we're kind of crossing streams here, right? Because I'm identifying that melody. But that melody happens to be just the scale played up from tonic diatomic. So it helps me identify the scale by identifying the melody. Anyway, major pentatonic. Keep that one in your toolkit. 22. The Chromatic Scale: Okay, Last but not least, the chromatic scale. So the reason we want the chromatic scale, it's not help us identify tonic, not to help us identify a leading tone or anything like that. It's really just to be able to say, I hear a whole bunch of half-steps, k in sequence. So let's hear planet or the chromatic scale, just to remind us. Okay, Let's hear it out a little bit. Speedier tempo. Okay? That constantly rising stair-step is what you should identify. 4k, it might be constantly descending, okay. We don't care about what tonic is here. What were, the way we're going to use this one is when we have something like those pillars that I talked about. Like you hear this note, for example, and then you hear this now, right? You hear a fifth, E to B, and then maybe you hear a whole bunch of nodes in between. Okay? That was a chromatic scale you just heard connecting those two kind of pillars, right? So that's how we want to use the chromatic scale. We don't want to mistake it for a major scale or a minor scale or anything else. We want to hear it as a whole bunch of notes in-between two key points. So whole bunch of half-steps. Okay, cool. So let's talk about a cool way to practice identifying all these scales. 23. Website for Scale Practice: Okay, so I'm back here on this music theory dotnet website that I like. It's got all these totally free little practice drills you can do. So I'm in exercises, your hyphen scale. Okay, so now we've got scales. If I go to our little gear COG over here, I can turn on different scales. They don't have minor pentatonic. Just major pentatonic here. Although actually don't know if this is major or minor pentatonic. It's probably major pentatonic. You can turn on modes. You can turn on harmonic and melodic minor, can turn on blues scale and whole-tone scale. But you don't need to. If you just have these four on, it would be really good. Practice. Let's figure out if this is major or minor pentatonic. The only really way to do it is to run through this until I get 1. Okay. That was a minor? Is a minor. Okay. Yeah. So major pentatonic. Same thing. Major pentatonic again. Okay. So stop, and there's no way to stop it once it starts playing. On, of course, we get a chromatic scale. So I have to just talk over it for a second while I wait for it to stop. Okay? So set this up, use this to give yourself a little bit of a drill, okay, cool. 24. Example: Okay, Let's try one. So let's just do it and then we're going to talk through it. And that rind of four for C major, trouble. Getting about this tempo. Okay? Yeah, let's just do it. Here we go. Listen number one. Here. 25. Answers: Okay, So here's the answer. Now, here's how I would have listened to this one. I would have heard this first note, wrote it down probably as quarter note because by the second time I can tell that was definitely a quarter note. And these were your thoughts. So I heard this and I heard that beat four kids, so I know beat one. And for r, c is c, whatever. Then I can walk back up with eighth notes. Because I know this was just a major scale going down, identified that major scale. So now I know that this leap was a fifth, C up to G, because I just walked backwards up that scale. Okay, Now B2, I heard one again as my C, and then I heard another C, not until the downbeat of the next bar. Okay? So what I would have done is here this maybe take a guess at this interval, but this was a big interval and it sounded weird. So I might have not even took a stab at it. But found this C and recognized that we did a scale all the way down to that C. And I didn't hear any skips in the scale. Which means I can walk backwards. That's why it sounded weird, right? Because that was a seven. Now maybe it's easier for you to recognize that leap of a seventh than it is to recognize this scale going down. That's totally okay. I'm just trying to give you a number of different tools here. So recognize that interval or recognize the scale or both. Both are great. Okay, then at the end, I heard RC, I heard an octave of it, and then back down to our C. Okay, so pillars, when it comes to this stuff, we're thinking about pillars. In this case, I use these two Cs as pillars and then walk back up my scale. And this k and the second bar, I use this as a pillar and this as a pillar. Then downbeat of bar three. And then I recognize that we just walked down a scale. Okay, so let's talk a little bit more about these pillars, pillar idea. As it relates to a more complicated example where we're shifting directions. 26. "Pillars" in Shifting Directions: Okay, I'm going to add a second staff here just so I can show you kind of how I would approach this. So let's hear this one. Okay. So a lot of notes, lot of notes going by. So if I heard an example like this, what I would write is, I'm going to first note that these clefts are both treble clef. Okay, this isn't a grand staff. These are both treble clef. So I'm going to write a C. And then I'm going to try to identify this as a GI if I can get it. If not, I'm not going to worry about that. I'm just going to kind of notate my pillars here. So what I've identified here as I heard a C and then I heard a scale going through here, and then I heard a G. So I could count up the scale. In this case, I might hear 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Or I might try to identify this as a fifth, or maybe I didn't get that, that G let's assume I didn't get it. Maybe I didn't hear that it was an interval of a fifth. That's okay. We'll leave that off. So here I heard my C Again, my C again. Here, I heard that as a G and another G there, but let's assume maybe I didn't, let's assume I didn't catch that that was a G. Okay, so now I've got kind of four pillars here. And they're all just where my C happened, k. Now let's use reason to figure out the rest of them. Okay, So here I heard a scale going up, 12345. So let's fill that in. 345, okay. Now, I know that that's a G, right? Maybe I didn't hear the interval by itself. That's okay. Because I can walk right up to scale, because I've identified that as a major scale. And now I'm on that g, k. What's the next thing I heard from here down to here is another scale. Okay, so can fill in that. Now I also know here that if this doesn't perfectly down into that see, one of my pillars, then something went wrong, right? Maybe there was a leap in here that I didn't catch or something like that. But if this sounds like a scale stepping straight down and it lands on that, see that I know I got it right. Okay, now I've got a trickier one here. So let's hear just this, these two beats. Okay, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum. So I know I'm back down to a C here. So you can kind of approach this in the same way. I can say this is a C. I started going up a scale. And then I shifted directions here. And then I came down. I could also do it backwards and say, I'm on a C here, and I approached it from a scale. So that must be it. Ideally, you would recognize the Kinda pivot point when they shift directions like this as a pillar. But this one was a little tricky because it went by really fast. But we still got it by going up to scale from both directions. Okay, well, that's here. Second half of that bar. Okay, Same thing we heard at the beginning. Right? So let's go up our scale. And now we know that that's a G because we just walked up the scale, we landed on the G. Okay, now we've got a tricky one. Let's hear these two beats. Okay? This is actually the same kind of riff as this, but up, starting on the five. So I could hear it as the scale continuing on, up to there, up to that seventh, which is a little weird. But hopefully we can hear GASB knowing that we're on a G. And this is the spot that it turns, that it switches directions. I could also go all the way over to the sea and just start working backwards. Oops, I got to do that. Whoops. Going up the scale from this C at the end. So C, D, E, F, G, a, B. That'll tell me that the B is the note that it shifts directions on by going backwards. So obviously you can't hear in real-time backwards. So what you do is you just kinda have to remember this for just a second. And then in-between, I mean, you write down the pillar moments while you're hearing. And then in-between listening attempts at this melody, you fill in some of this stuff backwards. That's what I do. And then you got it, right. So if we can get these pillars, these kinda main moments, then we can kind of use logic a lot of the time just to figure out what the missing notes probably are. Most likely are. If we can identify the scale and a couple key points. 27. Filling in the Missing Notes: Okay, let's try something that's a little more melodic and a little bit more like a melody. So I'm going to switch up the rhythm just a little bit. Also RAN, have some gaps in the scale here. Okay, so let's just hear this ones and then we'll walk through how I would approach it. Okay, so first of all, pillars. So let's go down to my other staff here. I'm definitely going to hear this note, and hopefully I'm going to grab this note. Beat four. Score doesn't like me putting beats without rests there. So hopefully I'm going to hear that note also. And then I'm going to recognize not only are the pillars the same in this bar, but in fact that B2 is absolutely the same as bar one. Okay? We're going to use that to help us double-check k. Now, in this bar, I might be able to use as a pillar b1 because I heard that this was a C. And if I could hear that half-step, it would sure. Do me a lot of good. Okay. So I can hear that we just walked a half step down from C. So I can use that as a pillar. And maybe I heard that this is G, but maybe I just heard that it, something weird happened here. So let's leave that off for now. And then at the end, we her to see again as our pillar. Okay, so let's start filling in some missing stuff. So I heard this and now I heard that we had a scale going up. Four notes. Okay? Hopefully I got that rhythm. Okay, Now this note, if I didn't recognize this as an octave on the first time through, I could try to recognize it as this interval of a fifth here from F to C. That's going to be fine. If you recognize that. If you don't recognize it, maybe this C down here will remind, oops, will remind you that this is an octave. So if you can't hear that interval, maybe this one will tell you that's an octave. So that should tell you that this is an octave, but hopefully you got an octave on the first-time through. Okay, Then we hear this again and we know this is the exact same measure. So we're going to double-check to make sure our first measure is right. When we hear this. And we're like, Yep, it's right. So we're just going to put that in there. So now we know these two measures are right. Now we hear this. So I'm going to just, I'm going to hear a scale going down and I'm going to count 123 on beat three. It shifts directions because it goes 123. That beat three is one scale degree up. Okay, so that's easy enough. I can fill those in. Okay, now I know I went one scale degree up. I can double-check that. Next time I hear it to make sure that this note and this note are the same. Just by listening closely. Now I know from this point, we go scale wise down our next pillar that see, I could, if I wanted to go backwards from that C and just go up a scale. And that would actually help me confirm what this note is if I walk backwards from that scale. Cool. So just think through it. By connecting the dots. Make some of those pillar points, and connect the dots. 28. Example & Walkthrough: Okay, Here's our next one. Okay, so let's think about this before we dive into this, let's think. We hear a lot of notes right now. Before you dove into this at all. You may have heard something like this and said there's no conceivable way I can write that down. I just hear like a ton of notes. But now you have some tools you can work with, right? So let's think. So just based on that one hearing, what do you hear here? Chromatic, right? You hear a chromatic scale happening. There's a lot of chromatic notes. We're not in a major scale here, we're not in a minor scale. No pentatonics. This is totally chromatic. Okay, Cool. That gives us a place to start. Next, let's think about where those pillars are. Let's hear it again. See if you can latch on to any kind of pillars. Okay. I hear almost a two beat pattern. So I hear like going up for two beats, going down for two beats, going up for two beats, going down for two beats. And then the third bar is a little different, maybe something different every beat. So let's see if we can latch onto it. We know our first note is going to be C because I should have told you that before we heard it, but now I'm telling you. Okay, So now we're probably going completely upper chromatic scale and then back down to C. We hear something. The pivot point is right on beat three, K. That's a tricky interval to get right there. So that's tritone. So let's say we didn't get it were outer know somewhere in there. Okay. Let's keep going. We'll come back to that. Next. We're going up and down. We probably, maybe we hear this pivot point on the end of beat two. We really want to try to get that. Okay, but maybe we don't know what interval it is. Let's just say it's somewhere around there. Oops. No, I want to delete that node. K. Somewhere around here we hear our pivot point, even though we didn't catch what note that was, we're going to switch. We're going to put a pillar kind of there and we'll figure out what note that is in a minute. Then maybe we heard another pivot point here. On the end of beat three. We don't know what note that is, but let's say it's somewhere around there. We do know it noted as that's great. Okay. Then we're going up maybe we don't catch what note that is right there. I probably wouldn't. But B3, I'm sorry, B2. Hopefully we can hear that our C comes again right there. And then we've got this little half-step DDD, DDD. I might try to catch that right on the first one. Because I'm hearing that we're just going between a half-step. So that really sticks out. This one is almost the same, but a little bit different. Okay, and we end on that c k. So let's grab that C also. Never going up, shifting directions here. So hopefully we can catch that. Maybe not what note it is, but we shifted directions. And then the last note back to C. Okay, so we've got some things we can start with. So hopefully, we can hear that this is a chromatic scale going up, okay? If we do 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, That's gonna get us to that A-Flat. So that's going to tell us what note that is. When we go in and fill in all the notes, Let's do it. Okay, so D sharp, E, F, F sharp, G, a flat. Then you might be thinking side note. The accidentals I'm using are different than the accidentals in the original. That's okay. When you're totally chromatic like this, as long as you get the right enharmonic note. There's no way for you to know what accidentals were used in the original. So these are all the same notes. Okay, So we get to that A-Flat. So now we know that that's an a flat because we can just count the notes and we recognize the chromatic scale. Cool. Now we could do this pivot point going backwards. And that would basically confirm that we're on an, a flat here because we would go up the chromatic scale going from that C over. And it would get us to that a flat. Also. E loops that E, E flat, D, C sharp. And then C natural. I'm going to stick a natural on that just so, just to remind us. Okay, So with those two pivot points, we know we have that whole measure, correct? Now, it's getting a little trickier here. Okay, So what are we here? Let's go beat by beat. What do we hear in this first beat? Okay, there's chromatic going up. Okay, so let's get that done. We know that this is C. This is going to be C sharp, D, D sharp. Okay? Now here, something weird happens. We know that we shift directions on the end of beat two. We heard that. So that means we're going to keep going up to that spot. And that means that that pivot point must be G flat. And then we shift direction. So that means this must be an F. And then we're going down. Okay? Now we're going to shift directions again. Right here on the end of beat three. Okay, we spotted that shift of direction. So now we're going up. Oops. C. E-flat. Yes, that is an E-flat. Natural. F, G flat, G flat, G-natural. And then we here, we're continuing up. We haven't shifted directions yet. A, a sharp B. Cool. Now we can confirm we're right, because we know that this is a C and this was all chromatic up to that C. Okay, so then we heard this dadadadada. And from here we can here that we're going up until we shift directions right there. So this must be C sharp, D, D sharp, E flat, D. Now let's hear that last beat. That's weird. That would be a tricky one to get. Maybe you can hear this c in there. In which case you would hear half-step approaching 0. Is that why it sounded weird? No, no, sorry. I screwed up my accidentals from it. D flat, and then down to C. So again, using context to figure out this big scary Blache of notes. Now you might be thinking, okay, these are all cool techniques, but what if I'm listening to an actual melody and not a scale? Let's try that. It totally works. Yes, it's not gonna be as obvious as it is in these examples, but you'll still be able to use it. So let's do an example now that's, that's like more of a real melody. And we'll try to figure it out using these techniques. Here we go. 29. Example: Okay, Let's go back to just doing a normal one case. So this is going to be just a normal melody. I'm going to play it for you three times. And then we'll go over the answer, okay, So I'm gonna give you a clue. Because this is, this is a little bit trickier. The clue I'm going to give you is minor scale. Okay? I'm like hesitant to tell you that because I want you to recognize it, but in this first one, I think we're okay. Okay. So minor scale, the thinking minor scale, all right. Five measures for, for treble clef. First note is C, but not middle C, C above that, see on the treble clef staff, this one. Okay, here we go. 3 times. Off we go. Okay. I'm going to turn on a metronome. I do. I do that. Oh, I remember. Here we go. Okay. And I'll give you one bar. And then one bar, and then it starts K and you'll hear the metronome going. Okay. One more time. I'm going to slow it down. Okay, So one bar and then it starts. Okay, and let's do it one more time, just like that same tempo. Here we go. Okay, let's go to the video, go over the answer. 30. Answers: Okay, So here's the answer. So minor scale, we're in C minor here. So we heard this first note and then so we heard basically the minor scale going down and then up. Okay, and hopefully, if you recognize that it's a minor scale, you recognize this as a B flat, not a B natural. And then this was an E-flat. So if you recognize this as a minor third, then this may have given you a good pillar. Another option for a good pillar would have been this note, because this phrase was the same as that phrase. Okay, the beginning note was different. But the eighth notes are the same. Beats 2 or 3 and 4 were the same and two bars. So those would have been good pillars here and here. E flat seem notice that one. Be a good spot to check. This rhythm was a little funky, so that could have stumped you up. But what you heard was it just went up to scale. One extra note, okay, so we're still just in the C minor scale. Then from that node up to the next scale degree, and then down, and then just down the minor scale. And then we jump to an octave and then the tonic. So if you've heard this as the tonic note, then good. Then you could go backwards and say that was an octave leap from there. And it would make sense logically to go from a G, which is the five. Remember how in melodies we like to have these 51 relationships, 5, 1, tonic. So that would be a logical guess that this was the five and then it went up and then down. So pillars that I would have used here, definitely the first note, maybe the first note of beat three, this E-flat if you get it, but if you don't, this note will work just as well. And then scales this G you can try to latch onto. But if not this E-flat, which is the same as the last two downbeats, are all the same. And try to latch onto that. And then this last note, which can tell you C and then that G and then scale going up. So it's a little trickier to use these in context when it's not just a straight up scale going up and down. However, these scales really tell you a lot about what's happening and really give you really solid clues as to what the notes are. 31. Tips For Dictation: Okay, in this section, I've got six melodies for you. We're just gonna go through them one by one for practice. So use the techniques that you've been practicing. If it seems like these are all based on scales, they're really not. These are just normal kind of singable melodies. I mean, they are based on scales, but what you're going to see is now that you're thinking about identifying scales, you're gonna see the scales like everywhere. And that's because they are, it's not because I've made these melodies to be very scale oriented. It's just that this technique of recognizing fragments of scales is a good technique because it's kinda everywhere. So you'll see scales kinda everywhere you go now. Okay, so identify the scale. Think about the fragments of the scale. Look for those kind of pillars that you can latch onto. Go slow, take your time, pause in between each listening. Think, use logic. And to figure out some of the notes. And don't worry about getting a 100 percent. If you don't get a 100 percent on these, that's okay. If you get the majority of the melody, then you're doing really great. And if you're struggling on these, you're not alone. Just keep at it, keep practicing k. At the end of this, I'll give you a PDF of these melodies if you want to go through them even more. But for each one of these will do listening three times and then I'll walk you through the answers. Go off, we go. 32. Practice: Okay, here we go. No clues. I will however, give you the standard info. So this first one for four treble clef, first note is going to be g, k. So G on the treble clef staff, it sounds like this. Okay, that is our first note. Hey, I'll give you one bar with accounting and then I'll leave the metronome plane. Okay, So one bar click and then the piece, oh, and it is for Mars. Okay, here we go. Okay. Pause the video if you need to add here is listening number two. Pause the video if you need to. Here is attempt number three. Final. Final listen through. Okay. Take a few more minutes if you want. When you're ready, go on to the next video. 33. Answer: Okay, So here's the answer. Here's how I would approach this one. So we know that this node is, I would listen for this node and then I would try to hold that in my head. And here that this second note is one scale degree higher. Okay? That gives me four pillars from those two things. So we've got this, we got beat for just the same note. I've got beat one and I've got beat four. Okay? From there, if you can hear that this is a hat or a whole step, this is just one scale degree up. You can kinda hear that there's a pattern here where we're going one scale degree up and then one scale degree more from that. And then back down, you can hear a little scale fragment going from here. We'll major scale and scale fragment from here, going one to one. And then 1, 2, 3, if you want. Really similar thing here, same pattern just up a step. Okay? So we're just on 4, 3, 2 of that G major scale. Then we have a big leap here. How can you get that? Well, if I didn't get that, that was a fifth leap, I will go to the end. There's another good pillar, just that last note, same as our first note. Then I would go up. And then this little riff is just a really familiar riff. So it's, it's one you'll get good at recognizing. But might not be obvious right away. You can probably hear that this was going to one. And then you might be able to hear that this is three to one. And this is a half-step up. So that can be a little tricky to get, but once you get it, you can go up the scale more. Now get you to that e. And then you can maybe guess that this leap was a fifth because you don't know what a leap is. Take a guess of a fair because it's kinda the most likely go. All right. Let's do another one. 34. Practice: All right. Next 134. Okay. So get 34 in your head. Said 34. Firstnode is a G, same as the last one, k, g. And the first line of the treble clef staff. Treble clef, 12345 measures five measures, treble clef G. I'll give you a one measure count off, but remember we're in 34, so you're only going to hear three beats. And then we'll buy it. Here we go. Okay, pause the video if you need to, then a second time right now. Here we go. Three for our firstNode. Is that pause if you need to. When you're ready, you will hear it a third time right now. First known as t. Right there. Here we go. Okay. Take some time when you're ready. Go on to the next video. 35. Answer: Okay with this one, hopefully you identify that we're hearing a minor scale, okay, So we're hearing kinda G minor. Kind of exactly G minor. So that first interval we get that hopefully gave you a clue that either said, this is G minor or that is a minor third. And if G is our atomic, then we're in G minor. So that tells you a lot about the possible notes we could have here. From there, we heard a half-step down, which got us to the second scale degree and then back to tonic. Then that same interval again of a minor third. And then just some scales going up and back down. And then switch directions. And back to tonic. So scale stuff here, scale stuff here. Switch directions up and then back down. So pillars, I would use PR downbeats. Maybe this one, if you heard that interval, definitely, that last one. Could go on to the next one. 36. Practice: Okay, for, for firstNode is going to be a D on the treble clef staff here. So that's the second to the top line on treble clef. Five measures for, for one measure of count off. Here we go. Okay? Pause if you need to. When you're ready to hear a second time. This is it. Okay. When you're ready for a third time, we will go right now. Here's your first note. D. Here we go. Okay, when you're ready, go on to the next video. 37. Answer: Okay, So here's the answer. Hopefully you heard right away that this was a leading tone here. So we hear bom, bom, bom 3 and 4 k. That leading tone is, I might even use that leading tone as a pillar here. Because if you can identify the first note which Kang's I gave that to you. And that leading town. It's going to get you through this whole thing. So once we hear that leading tone, Here's a scale going down. Shifting directions, up, shifting directions again, shifting again. That leading tone pillar, then that same riff again. And then the tonic. So this thing is just to scale going down and up and then back to that tonic ref. So pillars, obviously that D leading tone, the leading tone, change of direction. Leading tone, the leading tone. D, leading, leading tone. Deep. Lots of things that grab onto, and this one. 38. Practice: All right, let's do one in 68. Okay, so remember was 68, we count two big groups of 3123456123456. Okay, Keep that in mind. So 68123456 measures six measures of 6 8. First note is a K a on the treble clef staff. Second space from the bottom. Sounds like that. Okay. I'll give you one-bar count in and remember 68123456. Okay, Here's our first note again. That's an a. Off we go. Okay, so our metronome is just counting the big beats. Me see if I can change that. No, I don't think I can. So our metronome is going to count 1, 4, 1, 4. So it's not going to count eighth notes, it's just going to count basically dotted quarter notes. 12, I bore six, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, cat. So the two clicks you're going to hear are 14. Here we go. Okay. To that one more time. Here's our first note. That's an a that in your head. Here we go. Second time. Third time, coming up right now. Here's our first note again that a. Here we go. Okay. When you're ready, go to the next video for the answers. 39. Answer: Okay, For this one, I might do one pass of the rhythm first. Just to make sure I've got a good idea of what the rhythm is. But when I'm focusing on pitches, really thinking scales here, because this really just walks up and down as our first note. And then we go down. But then right back out. So we just have scales. Scales, we have yep, scales. So no leaps, just straight up scales here we're in a minor scale. So a minor is our key. From here. It sounds like there's a leap of a new scale here, but it's actually not a leap from this now, right? It's just a scale degree down, right? And then here we do have a leap, but this is where your memory will help you. Because we have a leap here, right? You can take a guess that it was a fifth and you'd be right. But another way to do it would be to remember where this note was. And remember this is just down one scale degree from that. So we have that. And now we have this. So just a scale degree down. And then we have our first note again, that's a good pillar. Then this kind of weird random note sitting there could have thrown you off on the rhythm. But then by just scales, right? And then leap back up to our firstNode, actual leap of a fourth. So if you guessed a fifth, you would have been wrong. But this is our first note, right? That's our kind of main pillar. Go. Let's do another one. 40. Practice: All right. Door for 412345 measures. First note is C underneath treble clef staff, so middle C sounds like that. Muriel, one-bar count in and your rough listening, everyone. Okay. When you're ready for listening, number two, we will do it right now. Okay. When you're ready for listening number 3. Here's that first note again. Let's get it back in your head. And here we go. Okay. When you're ready, go on to the next video for the anthers. 41. Answer: Okay, Here's what this one sounded like. Again, you may have wanted to take the first pass just to focus on the rhythm for this one. Because there's a lot of notes, move them by pretty fast. But hopefully you recognized pretty quick that we heard the same two bars twice. We heard this bar and this bar. And then these were exactly the same. And we had this extra note kinda tied onto the end k. So that means we only have to focus on these two bars, right? So we pretty much, we're playing with a C major scale here. We went down and then up, down, up, down, up, Down, up. Okay, so just a note down, a note up to you, notes down or note up two notes. So once you've found that pattern, as long as you are in the right scale, major scale here. You could have got all of this just from that scale. Then this thing is a little tricky, but there is a trick to it. So this had a bunch of leaps in it. Okay? But if you kept following the scale, you would have got it that node, okay, then maybe this note was a mystery, but this note was the next note in the scale. The scale kept going up. But this node got added k. So what I would have done is write these notes. Just to make sure I get those right. Then maybe you could go back to your first note on a second Hearing. Keep this in your head and maybe you could hear that. If that's there, what note is this? That's the second scale degree. So the second, third, fourth. So then you just have a little bit of a scale here, okay? Yep, and the same thing for the second half. And then eventually we end up in this tonic and then jump back down to a tonic. 42. Practice: Okay. Last one from this set. 446 bars, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Yes, six bars for, for firstNode is going to be e, that's E. And the bottom of the treble clef staff sounds like this. Okay. I think that's it. Treble clef. Here, the E again. Okay. Here we go. One-bar count in. Okay? When you're ready for the second time continuum. Because here we go. Here's that first note again, ie. Okay? And here is our second listen. Okay. When you're ready for number 3, we will continue on. Here's that first note again. Okay. Listen number 3. Here we go. Okay. When you're ready, go on to the next one for the answers. 43. Answer: All right, a little slower one here. So first note was E, hopefully you identified E minor. Is that what we're working with here? So this first note was our tonic, and we were in a minor scale. So just scales up and back to that first note, good pillar, and then down to the 7. And then back to that first note. This bar is same as the first bar and scales. And then a little hiccup here. This was probably the hardest to get if the whole piece, because it's not the note we would expect. So what I would have done here, here, this scale going down and then said, well, that's not the note I was expecting, right? A little question mark there and then write that note. So this note we know as our first note. So we say, Okay, that's an E. And then on the next time through, I would listen for just how we approach this e. Right? That's that seven to one and it's a flat seven because we're in minor, but we don't really care about that. We just hear one scale degree under the note that we're aiming for. So under up to it. So then we've got this. And then we know this one goes underneath that tonic note and then up to it. So that's how I get that note. Cool. Okay, let's move on and talk about something new. 44. "Feeling" The Harmony in a Melody: Okay, So we've been identifying scales and little nuggets of scales throughout a melody. But there's another thing we can do. This is a little harder, okay, so this takes a little more practice to get. But let me just play you a little three bars. Okay? Listen to these three bars and just think about what you want your hearing. Okay? So we heard a bunch of eighth notes, a bunch of leaps in them, right? Hard to call any of this a scale fragment. But did you maybe hear two different chords, three chords total? What we're hearing here is just arpeggios, right? And if you can hear this and identify this as like a 105 one chord progression, then you all, then at that point, all you have to do is follow the shape of the pattern because, you know, we're just arpeggiating notes. Let's hear it again. So think we're getting the first bar is a one chord. It's just playing C, E, G, E, C. That's our one chord, okay? Second bar is a five chord, G, B, D. It's an inversion that starts on D, but it's just the notes of our five chord. And then a third bar goes back to our one-quarter, right? So 15 one. If we can identify that, then we know all of these leaps here are just arpeggios of our chord. And it makes it a lot easier than just randomly pulling notes out of nowhere. So that's what I want to work on in this section is in the context of a melody. How did latch onto some triads that are arpeggiated? Go, Okay, let's focus first on our tonic triad. Let's go to a new video for that. 45. Tonic Triads: Okay, So here's a little melody. Now you might think, Okay, I heard a couple of nodes and then this fast little thing. So how can I figure this out? This whole thing was just a tonic triad on C. So C, E, G, that's your first clue, is those first three notes. Right? So like I said before, this is a little bit trickier thing to latch onto. But if you can hear these triads, then when we get to this fast passage, you can say, well that's just the same triad again. Write C, G, C, G, right? Just the triad. And G, G, C. So nothing but the tonic triad. Let's try this in context of something. So let's say we have a melody that's going like C loops, the E, So we're playing with the scale here. Let's just use quarter notes actually. Ok, so there's a leap, bunch of leaps. Okay, let's do just that much. Okay? Let's hear this. Okay? So what I would hear in this is a scale. Okay? Just a scale going up from this tonic. Then we get to here, then we have a big leap. And then a bunch of leaps, right? So this whole measure is an arpeggio of our tonic triad, right? So tonic triad, if this is our tonic, is going to be C major. So I get to the G. I know g is in my tonic triad. So then when I hear this leap, I hear the lead back down here, leap back down to E. And then I know this is all our tonic triad. So now I know what all of those leaps are because it has to spell the tonic triad, because that's what I hear. Right? Then here I have another scale passage. Going down. Cool, harder to hear. But if you can get used to these, you'll be in really good shape. Think about it like this. In a melody. 99% of stuff of notes in a melody is either going to be chunks of scales or chunks of arpeggios. Like for real, as long as it's diatonic, if it's totally chromatic and going all over the place, then maybe not. But all of it. Almost everything can be distilled down to a scale pattern or an arpeggio pattern. Now, it's not always the tonic triad that, right? We're just looking at a tonic triad. Let's add in the dominant triad and take a look at that. 46. Dominant Triads: Okay, I've gotten a little trickier one for you here. Okay, So this one I put in the key of G-Major just to switch it up on us. So here's our malady. Okay? So if I heard this, one of the first things that I would try to latch onto you and then I would hear in it is that I would say to myself, Okay, first bar scale passage, second bar, tonic triad, third bar, dominant triad, fourth bar, tonic triad. That jumps out to me. And here's why. So scale pattern, we've spent enough time on that. This, we have a little scale pattern here. We have the end of that scale pattern. But then I can really feel this tonic triad, right? This is a one chord, G, B, D, B. So this is a one chord going up all the way to here. Actually, this note is in both the tonic triad and the dominant triad, which in this case it's going to be D major, is the five, right? So the dominant triad is the five of our key. So I can feel that there's this d that all the way to the D and you could include the C If you really wanted to. Well, no, you get well, yeah, you code if you wanted to think of it as a seventh, that feels like the dominant to me. And then we go back to the one. Now, what do I mean by that? Feels like let me, let me do something here for you. Let me add a second staff is a piano, and I just want a bass clef piano. Ok, so now I've got a bass clef staff on here. Here's what I'm really hearing. What my imagination is putting in here is a big bass note. Okay? So these bass notes are not here, but what I'm hearing, right? And that's what's telling me that these are triads. So here's what it sounds like with my superimposed bass notes. Okay, so you need to put these in. If I take these out. Now let's hear it again. Can you feel the cord and especially try to feel the cord when it switches to this five, Do you feel like a shift? That's what we're trying to get to. Okay. If you don't feel it, that's okay. But that's what we want to strive to get is try to feel that as a different chord. Cat will get a lot more into this once we get into identifying chords by themselves. But this is a good kind of intro to that. A good place to start for identifying chords is to try to find these arpeggios within Melodies. It's hard, it's harder than scales for sure. But if you can do it, figuring this out is so much easier. Okay, let's do an example plate piece. 47. Example: Okay, Let's do one and then I'll give you the answers in the next video. So here's your clue here. You will hear one full bar that is the tonic triad and 14 of our dominant triad cap. Somewhere in this, there are also some scale passages in it. Okay, so treble clef 123456 measures, let me make that a well-known six measures. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Yes, six sweaters are first note is F on the bottom space of the treble clef staff. Sounds like this. Okay. Here we go. Oh, let me turn on the metronome. And I'll give you one bar. Here we go. Oh, that's quite fast, isn't it? Let me slow that down. Just a hair. Okay. Here we go. Okay. Listen. Think about it for a second. Pause the video if you need to, and we will play it again right now. Oops. Here it is again. Pause the video if you need to. Be ready. We will play it again right now. Okay, when you're ready, let's go to the next video for the answers. 48. Answer: Okay, So here's the answers. So we started with this note. Our first note was a major third. That was pretty much a blind interval. You had to kinda hear that one. But my hope was that you heard that as the start of an arpeggio. Okay, because going F to a is going to tell us, is going to sound like an arpeggio. But then we stepped down by scale, all the way down to c. So just a scale, they're down from that a. Here we have C, E, G, C, F. So C, E and G, C gives us our five chord. Okay? So here we have our five chord right there. Going all the way up. Then this f is tonic. So maybe you heard that f sounded fairly stable when we made that leap up to it. That's going to tell you that that's our tonic note. And then in fact we're going to step down. F a, C, F, C, F, because step write down our tonic triad. Okay, so 51. And then from that F little scale, down to five and up to one. Okay? So you kinda gotta use your music theory knowledge here, right? Like we're kinda pulling back into music theory land to help us understand what's happening with the melody that we're hearing. It's tricky. Now. There's more than just 15, Right? There are other records as well, so let's talk about those. 49. Other Triads: Okay, now being able to hear all the chords arpeggiated in the diatonic scale would be quite handy. I'm not going to drill you on that right now because that is something that takes a lot of practice. But if you can do it, it's quite useful. And we will spend more time on this once we get into actual harmonies. But let's just look at what it looks like. So let's hear this one. Initially the metronome off because we don't really need it right now. Okay. Let's hear this one. Okay, neat. So what if I put a base note on this? I can, so we're in C major. So I could say, see here we have G, B, D, B. So G major, so that's the five. Here. We have D, F, a, F, So d, That's the two. Here. We have a, C, E, that's the six. Here we have D, F, a, that's the two again. Here we have G, B, D, B, that's the five again. And then C, E, G, E, C, That's the one again. Okay, so let's put another C there just for fun. Okay, so now these bass notes should help you here, these chords a little bit better. Okay? So obviously, obviously we don't have these bass notes, but this is kind of, your job is to you here these arpeggios and figure out what these bass notes might be. To help you identify these. Without these, you're stuck with just identifying intervals up and down, which you can do. We've worked on intervals and I don't want to say you should not be able to identify intervals. But if you can think about the context and try to latch onto these arpeggios within the melody. And it'll be much, much easier. And you can use both, right? Identify the arpeggio, and then on the second pass, identify the interval. And then you are, you know, you're right because you've got two different methods to check that passage. Personally, for me, grab and all these intervals in context. Very, very difficult. Hearing the arpeggios. Much less difficult once you've learned to identify the arpeggios. Okay, So we'll spend more time on chords and harmony once we get into a section on a future class on chords and harmony. For now, just keep in mind these would be a very good thing to practice identifying diatonic triads by arpeggios. Okay, let's go on to some melodies for practice. 50. Using These Practice Videos: Okay, you're on your own now. So in the next chunk, I'm going to give you a ton, maybe 15 or so, until I get sick, I'll make a note of little melodies for you to identify. Now, these will work the same way as they worked in the last class. So I will play the melody three times through and you'll see a black screen while it's playing. And then at the end of the video screen I'll lighten up and you'll see the answer. Okay, So after the third time, the answer is going to pop up. So pause the video if you're not ready to see it. Okay? With that said, In all of these, you should be able to find scales and arpeggios. I'm not going to explicitly make them using scales and arpeggios. I'm just going to write as many melodies as I can think of, but I bet you'll be able to find scales and arpeggios all over them, especially scales. Because that's just how melodies work. I think it's all had to say. So please practice these. I've got a little bit more for you at the end after these. So give them a shot. Good luck. I think you'll do great. You got this. Here we go. 51. Practice: Okay, here we go. Now in most of these, I'm not going to talk at the beginning, but I want to explain something. What you'll see at the beginning of all of these examples is something just like this. So what this is showing you is clef, time signature. First note. I'll play it so you can hear that first note. And this means this is example number one. You can ignore that. And it is four bars long. Okay, So this is telling you everything you need to know. So I'm not going to talk. I'm just going to show this and then I'm going to black out the screen once you start playing. Okay? And then after the third time, the screen to light up and you'll see the answer. Go. Okay? So here's number 1, everything you need to know. Here's your first pitch. That's what it sounds like. Off we go. 66. Practice: Hi. 67. What Comes Next?: All right, So we've reached the end. I hope that this is starting to make some sense. We've gone from rhythms to intervals, two melodies, okay, And combining all of those skills, I hope you're starting to feel a couple things click now, like I said before, and I'll say again, This is not kung-fu. I should stop using that kung-fu. People are going to get really offended. But this takes practice, a lot of practice. The ear is a muscle and doing this as exercising muscle sooner or later that muscle's going to get stronger and stronger and stronger and you're going to get better and better at this. So what comes next? It's time we dive into harmony. Whole different can of worms really. But a lot of the same techniques still apply. So in Part 4, we will look at diatonic harmony. So harmony that's in q0. How to know what chord is happening just by hearing it. This will be especially important for those of you that are working in pop songs and trying to figure out the harmony of pop songs really fast and on the fly. Most pop songs are mostly diatonic, so this is probably what you want. After that, we'll get an, a chromatic harmony where we can't rely on the key. But next, diatonic harmony embark for. Cool. I got a couple more things for you, so don't go anywhere quite yet. 68. Bonus Lecture: Hey everyone, want to learn more about what I'm up to you. You can sign up for my e-mail list here. And if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also, check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me. And one of those two places are or both? And we'll see you there.