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Advanced Spanish Language Course (Vol 1)

teacher avatar SPANISH Language Class

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (3h 12m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Immediate Future Tense

    • 3. Present Perfact Tense

    • 4. The Present Continuous Tense

    • 5. Future Tense

    • 6. Tu Informal Affirmative and Negative Commands

    • 7. Usted Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 1

    • 8. Usted Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 2

    • 9. Nosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 1

    • 10. Nosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 2

    • 11. Vosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands part 1

    • 12. Vosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands part 2

    • 13. Direct Object Pronouns

    • 14. Indirect Object Pronouns

    • 15. Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns

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About This Class

Hola amigos,

Welcome to my Spanish Class.

Please Note - Advanced Course Vol 2 link has been given below.

What will you learn in this Advanced Course Vol 1:

  • You will learn how to speak about your plans for the weekend, etc.
  • You will learn how to speak what you are going to do in a moment.
  • You will learn how to speak about what you have done recently.
  • You will learn how to give commands to somebody elder to you.
  • You will learn how to give commands to somebody younger than you or your friends
  • You will learn how to give commands to many people.
  • You will learn how to give commands in ‘Nosotros form’
  • You will learn how to speak using direct and indirect object pronouns

What Next? 

Click here for Advanced Course Vol 2.

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1. Introduction: This is the advanced course. In this course, you will learn a variety of grammar topics, which will help you clear many of your exams, school exams, if you're having problems understanding in your class what the teacher is teaching you, then this lesson is going to teach you very easily what ideal grammar topics, such as direct, indirect object pronouns, imperatives, present perfect tense to name a few. And if you are really looking forward to hearing your daily exam like E1, E2, or even B1 level, then this will somehow tried to make you acquire more knowledge for all of those topics that are being taught to you. Now let's move forward and see what the course really consists. As I said earlier, that you will learn many different topics. First, you will learn to conjugate verbs in future tense. Future tense will help you talk about your plans. It will help you talk about your plans for the weekend, your plans for a festival, a plans for your vacations. And the course is taught in such an easy way that you will learn one. So it sounds like a topic in depth, but in reality it does start very quickly and you will learn very fast. One lesson, you will learn how to talk about your plans for the weekend, vacations, tomorrow, next week, etc. Then you are also going to learn the immediate future, which is the infinitive. That tends teaches you what are you going to do right now? What are you going to do in the morning? What are you going to do this evening, et cetera? So even that tends to start very, very easily and nicely. You will also learn how to speak using the present perfect tense. That tens is a little complicated, but in my lesson you will learn it very easily. Conjugation of RBD, regular participles. How to construct them? How are irregular participles? How can you write sentences using the present perfect tense? All of that is used in that lesson. You will learn how to speak using this tense about what you have done in the recent past. For example, what have you done this morning? What have you done this afternoon? What have you done today? What have you done this year? This ugly in the textbook, it is very difficult to understand at times. If you looked at my lesson, you will learn it at once. It does that somewhere, you will find more detail, but it will not bore you all. In fact, you will find it really interesting because the course has been taught in a very interesting way and a very straightforward way. Then you will also learn how to give different kinds of commands. For example, commands such as withstand the commands. You will learn how to give commands for nosotros also throws. You will learn affirmative and negative commands for all of these. Imperatives is quite difficult debate. But again, I'm showing you from my lesson, you will learn it. Very many thoughts. I thought in a very, very easy manner, and I've made difficult dogs it sound very easy in my lesson. Now the other topic that you will learn is obviously I've already covered that earlier, that you will learn how to speak to somebody who's younger than you or to your friends. So that is the command of armadillo, negative command. I've also mentioned you will learn how to give Gammas too many people. So that is also throws affirmative and negative. You will also learn how to give commands in the nosotros. In all of these, I have also used the reflexive verbs. How can you meet commands for the reflexive verbs? And not many books do that. So it's a good idea to learn from my horse. Then you will also learn how to speak using the direct object pronoun or the indirect object pronoun. Together how to speak and write using direct and indirect object pronouns. This is not an easy topic at all. But again, I'm assuring you with this lesson. You will learn it at once because many people have said that my teaching style is very interesting and very student-friendly and very, very easy to learn. So please go ahead and take this course. If you want to do really, really good in your school, in your exam, you will score 100% for sure. 2. Immediate Future Tense: Now we're going to study the immediate future tense. Immediate future tenses used when we want to talk about our plans, about what we're going to do right now. For example, now I'm going to read, right now, I'm going to drink water. Now I'm going to eat in Spanish. How do we print this? We used a conjugation of the verb. The structure is IID plus infinitive. Infinitive is an unconjugated work. First, I'm going to conjugate the work in a table. I write my work here to go, and then I write my conjugation. Thus. Vamos. Just a minute. Let me quickly write my subject for loans all nosotros. Nosotros an alias. Hello, status. Now technically we all know that means I go, means you go, he goes and etc. But we want to say, I am going to, for example, I want to say a sentence like I am going to speak, for example. Sentence, I know your way means I go but I want to say I am going. How would I do that? Well, I will. Do. I have to attach this plus infinitive. Then it will mean to. So I can say for example, it means to speak infinitive, I can add, for example, I will show you here. Infinitive can be, it can be called me. And it can be also. I have taken all the verbs like ER, ER, NIR. I've taken all of them. So I can go like your voice. This means I am going to speak your voice. I am going to eat your voice. I am going to write that said, you have learned in the future tense, this is how easy it is. So let's one more time. Let's learn some sentences. You can easily say something like your voice. On Amiga. This means I am going to speak with my friend. Let's make another sentence. Which means you are going to eat in a restaurant. Okay? This is how you will do. Okay? Then we have learned the immediate future. 3. Present Perfact Tense: Let's start with the present perfect tense. Another easy tents that we can learn in Spanish. Now, present perfect tense. What does this mean? This dense is used when we talk about the recent past, what we have done recently. And it is used a lot in spin and not in Latin America too much. It is used a lot in spin. Now, let's look at some sentences in English. For example, she has written a letter or I have driven a car. I have written a letter to my friend. I have done my homework. These are all sentences that relate with the present perfect tense in Spanish. Let's learn how do we construct this? Let's see. I make my table here. It's very easy in Spanish to have is a bid. I know that we all know that to have is warped in air, but the Navy will not use with distance we use for a bit. A bit is used in the present perfect tense. Now let's look at x conjugation. But before this, we need to first write or subject pronouns, which are then we have, then we have Ilia, State, nosotros, vosotros. And then finally, we have alias. Alias who studies right? Now. How there's conjugation is very easy. It's irregular. Ue, which means I have then, then, then, then our base. And then finally we have, now we can easily translate this. Your e means I have AS means you have instead are means he has, she has formal have. Nosotros, estamos means we have vosotros. Obese means you all have. And then finally, aliens. Aliens who studies. They have masculine, feminine, and you all have formal, very simple. This is the conjugation of a bit like when I see I have returned. So this I had in Spanish as you. Now we have to learn how to save written and all like for example, I have spoken, I have learned, you have learned your image. I have. But now we have to learn how to see the Past participle. Past participle is this book on when we have Speak, spoke, spoken speak is present dense book that is read or written. And spoken is the past participle. This stems in Spanish is called the Perfect. Okay, in Spanish, we learn this leg, this in English at the present perfect tense. Now, how do we form the participles? How to form the past participle? Very simple. If an enzyme E, v omega e, and simply put UDL. If the verb ends in ER or IR, we simply put the ER and IR and simply put an ID. That's it. Simple. Let's say we have the work of blood. We all know our blood means to speak. Now what am I going to do? As my rule says, I'm going to cut this ER. Okay. Let me go to the ER. I have cut my ER and what does my rules? My rule says I have to put an AD. So I will write my edu here. I dig our blue and I write ED, our bladder, which means spoken. Our blood means to speak. Simply our blood. Spoken. Simple. Let's take another row. Tara, we all know means to sing. What will be its participants icon to the ER and right? Which means sung. Now let's say I want to see how I see. I have spoken very easy. I have is your AUC and spoken in our blood. Your blood o means I have spoken. I want to say no, I haven't spoken to my teacher, your blood or bone, me. Professorial. This means I have spoken with my teacher. Now let's say I want to learn how to form the past participles for ER, IR, simple. It, my vote, like Gmail, which means to eat. I put my ER like this. And I simply put my, I simply cut this and I put my ideal. Because the rule says, whenever the verbs ending in EIR, right, I told you that we will put an IV in order to form the past participle. So it becomes CEO COM 0. This means eaten. Let's take another row. Let's take an i7, or for that matter, less severe, which means to play what will be its participants. So I could IR and put ideal be though, claimed, this is the past participle. Very simple. Now, I can easily mix. And sentences with this. Now, before we go any further, we need to know the words with which we use the present perfect tense. As I had told you earlier, the present perfect tense is used that recent past, recent past, and it is used only in Spain. It does not use so much in Latin America. For example, I can say something like this morning, I have eaten my breakfast this afternoon. I have had this year, I have graduated this month. I have watched a movie this week. I have run in the park. These are all the reasons that have this, this, this, this, and then we'll have the present perfect tense. Okay? This is very important. You know, this, okay? Now let's write some keywords. And number one, ester monomer means this morning, this afternoon. S naught. This name. S there are new this year. Anything. Okay. And pneumonia, which means today in the morning. Okay, with all of these phrases, you can use present perfect tense. For example, your aid, they saw you landed this morning. I have had breakfast. Okay. Stamina. Your side door this morning? I will get this morning. I had had breakfast. Sda. Your goal me. This afternoon, I have eaten so simple. Now we're going to learn some irregulars, like any other things. Even the present perfect tense hazards, irregular participles. Okay? So we write down here, irregular past participles. They're not, they're not too many, they are just very few. The first one we will learn is SQL DB. It's participle is a screen. Don't know why it irregular. Irregular because as cribbing is not following the aforesaid rule, I have just told you earlier, I told you that when the war ends in ER, the ER IR and put ideal. But that does not following way. We are doing a script tool, hence, it is irregular. Now, let's look at oblique. Oblique means to open. Its participle is obese. Who breathe. It means to cover its participants will be added to this cool breeze. Discovered. This. Discovered participants as Crito means returns are being open, could be a Toulmin's covered, this could be a full moon. Discovered. This glibc to describe discrete, described in Premier, to print, impressive, printed, afraid to fry, fried. Fried. Resolving. To resolve this well, resolved. To die. More dead. Okay? So these are some very important irregular past participles you should know. All right, let's move on to the next one, valving to return to port West dorm, room to breathe. Rubato, broken. This is not difficult, okay? And you can easily make sentences with all these words once you know, don't. Let's look at devolving. Devolving means to return something. It's past participle is dv. Well, alright, now let's do the last one. Let's look at this are very important to do or to meet its past participle is a joke. Right? Now let's say, I want to say something. What I have done this morning, for example, the question is, but before we move on to this, we also need to learn how to make present perfect sentence with reflexive verbs. It's very simple. Let's say you have the verb. It means to get right. Now, how am I going to form the present perfect tense of this work is very easy. I will say Your, which means i, and then immediately I will put the prolonged here, your mean, why am I putting the pronoun and putting the pronoun? Because Leventhal says, flexible, we all know that reflexive verbs carry with themselves pronouns. I will put my pronoun and then I will take it as a normal ER. So I will do your live though I have gotten asked live on battle. This is how easy it is. And then you go straight forward. This is how easy this is. Let's complete this. It will be end. Alia, stead. See live on and in most living bottle. All our base level. And finally, see on level. Now let's say I want to make a question like what I have done this morning. Your EA as manana, this means what I have done this morning. And now you can write anything for that matter of fact, you can write anything you want to because you have learned the mean vocabulary. But yes, you have to be creative. So you can say something like ammonium and stamina. Your own IDO. The psi u, which means this morning, I have eaten my breakfast. Your army is square law. Then I have gone to my school. Email is coming from I mean, IID, which can immediately change into EIDL. You can see endless square law is to the adult, right? In this school, I had studied as to the Alice and Bob. It becomes as to the adult. Your quad there. No. I have written in my book this is how easy it is as Crito is irregular. And that's why I've written as click-through rate it is coming from the verb is. You can say something like tambien, chat ladder on nice. Also, I have chatted with my friends, shuttle others coming from the workshop. Law, and hence, HR law has been changed into MATLAB. This is how easy this is. So you can go ahead and have your vocabulary and the newer ready to go. 4. The Present Continuous Tense: This tense is commonly used in Spain, but it is a little different compared to English. In English, you use this tense, for example, when we're saying, I'm running in the park, I am writing a letter. I am speaking. You are also using present continuous tense when you ask somebody, what are you doing these days? And the person is saying, Well, I'm studying medicine for example. However, in Spanish, you don't use this tense like this. You can only use the stems when you want to talk about what you are doing currently, right now. For example, right now I'm speaking. So how do we do it? The, it is very easy. Well, first, you need to know the conjugation of the work has started, which means to be the very nicely conjugate the verb estar. It is conjugated like as a star. A star. A star moves as status. And then, as we all know its meaning, yo estoy means I am. To espouse means you are. Lsr means he is, Alia is farming, she is. Instead, Islam means you formal nosotros estamos, we are also throws as you all are an alias. Alias, which means they are masculine. They are feminine and you all are formal. Now, I will just very quickly give you an example in English. I am speaking for an example. So this is us boy, or simply. All right. Now, we have to learn now how speaking means how to form the I-N-G. Awful bob, it's very easy. If a verb is ending in ER, we fought, omit the ER and simply write. If a verb is ending in ER or IR, we simply omit the ER IR and write I0. And this is how simple it is. Now let's take the work of law, which means to speak. All right, now what am I going to do? I'm going to take my vote are black and I'm going to cut the ER like I had learned earlier. I cut it like this. And then what do I do? I put the eNB, right because the rule says if a work was ending in ER as simply omit the ER and right in the row. And I have done this. So it becomes a blood means to speak. And what does a blunder of London me speaking? This is how easy it is. Vov lead, which means to say, will become untangled Because it's an AR, what we call the ER and make it compounders who loves look at compound. Unthought isn't. Walk you omit the ER and write ongoing becomes bundle. Kantar means to sink compounder will meet singing. This is how easy it is. So if I want to say I am speaking, how will I write? Well, what does I am in Spanish? I am as a foil or USDA. So I will write your estoy. What is speaking? Are you a boy or Blumberg? Okay, you can make a variety of sentences you want to say, I am speaking in the school. You will say you are blunder en la, la, I am speaking in the school. This is how easy it is. Let's look at ER, IR and lingual. If a vote is, what do I do? I put my ER and simply write I0 and d. Okay? So this is what I do. I cut my eye, I got my ER and put IND. So it becomes 22, becomes eaten. Similarly as I've got my IRR and write IE AND OR because even for IR, oops, I have to put I0 and so it becomes, which means this is how easy it is. Okay? As fast as Caribbean URI. So easy right? Now, like any other Gerund, the present continuous trends also has an irregular. So let's look at irregular. Now. Let's look at the verb eat. The first irregular we have is what it means to go in dawning of walking. Okay? Another one they need, they need means to come. It's general is Vignesh, which means come in. Now why they need irregular? It is irregular because you can see he has been changed into, I did a slight spelling. Let's look at the D1 means two order to request or to us. It's general. So instead of at the end, it has been in those slight spelling. Another one, send, send Thevenin's to feel it stem is not the end-all spelling. Another one, we have Lake, which means to read. Reading, tie it to fall IN, falling to here, or here. To believe, gradient. Believing. This is how easy it is. Okay? Now you might be thinking, what is the procedure to form these irregulars? It's very easy. For example, let's look at the work they did a deal we all know in present tense is an E2 eyeball. The conjugated like Beadle, be this in presentations. So volume is changing. In present tense, they listen to me very carefully. If it is a stem changing in present tense, and if it is an IR, meaning it ends in IRR, then we will have spelling change in the gender. For example, is an E2 Ivo. And I want to make it a gerund. So I will do, I will take this and make it a PDF. This is how it becomes. Similarly for Venice. Venice is an E to IE verb in present tense, right? In order to format. I will take that and make it. This is what happened. This is only true for stem changing and IR. They have to end in IR. Okay? Now let's look at dormi. Dormi means to sleep in Spanish. And in present tense, it is evil. And it is an IR verb. So in order to make a gender, it will not be dormant or wrong. It will be, I will take. In order to form its general, this is how easy it is. Now, if verb is ending in e are all IR, ER, you IIR, then what happens? I had already showed you the participle, present participle for these worlds link layer. But what does the rule we need to know the rule. For example, let's take the lead, which means to read not technically, you will see that it is ending in ER. Right? Now. I need to frame it gerund according to the previous rule of IE and DU after omitting ER, then how it would be, it would be like Ellie. And then IND, really, really wrong. We cannot be done because in general, three vowels cannot come together. You can see i0 are three vowels, we cannot do that. So what do we do? We change the middle vowel. Listen to me very carefully. The middle vowel will change in y. So it becomes, which means this is what we do. And for which it is true. It is true only for these things. Let's look at another example. Okay? For example, we can look at by LV all longing to fall, right? It is ending in. So let's say I take the previous rule and I simply see a omit the ER and right. I do. I END. Now see again this is wrong because I cannot have three vowels together. That means the middle letter will change in y. So what will I do? I will make the spelling. And me. Means calling. So this is what do you do? Already? This will happen for all the verbs laid in fluid, which means to include distribute, distribute all the words that end in these. Okay? And I have told you how to form the four words that end in IR and that are changing verbs in the present tense. You have these irregulars. Okay, we can add, for example, would be brave, see preferring. So preferred it is also an e-book and it doesn't focus. So you will have these endings and now you can meet a variety of sentences. These, okay, you have learned the present continuous tense. Okay? What happens when the work is a reflexive mode? Let's look at reflexive. Reflect. How do we form judgments for reflexive verbs? Let's say we have the word parsec, which means to get it. Very, very easy to form this general. There are two ways in which you can pin is generally. Now we all know that reflexive verbs have the pronouns, me, the sea. All. And see. Me is for your day, is for you exit from you all know how reflexive verbs are conjugated in the present tense. Now what happens, the gerund present continuous tense, how do we conjugate it? We simply put our u then the me estoy level bundle. That's it. Which means I am getting your Misko 11. All I do is I bring this into the pronoun me because the prologue comes with you. Then I put my story because the correct conjugation for you and also as far as conjugative, conjugation is needed for gelatin. And then simple, I just make it like a normal ER. What? I put I omit my AR and put in here I forgot level. Your ministry level. In getting, you are getting the sample. You are getting sample. Another way to frame it as spoil. Me. Then ACSM. Over here. 123 on the third vowel, the port on the third vowel. From the right we put an axon us 0011 fundament, which also means I am making an ion getting of the only differences. You are putting the pronoun here. Okay, us 211. Here you're attaching the Salam before its flavor as here you are putting it, attaching it in the end. You're spoiling the Lavon. C and 1, 2, 3, 4 vowel from the right. Let's say we have the word desk space bar. Now you would easily thinking that this stem changing Bob, does this mean the spirit? But that doesn't mean that that stem change new in the present continuous. It will not, because we have just learned that generals have their own irregular. So we can simply say your bed or your fluid. This pandemic will not be something like your fear. System changing. Women all have their own irregular. Okay, so we have learned the present continuous tense. The only thing we need to learn, okay? And all you now have to do is just start creating sentences. You can predict how many sentences. For example, if you want to say, I am listening, how will you say I'm listening? As huge armies to listen? So if you want to say I am listening to my teacher, you can simply say as S Django army. I am listening to my picture. Okay? That's being taught very easily to you. Okay? And these go ahead and write some sentences using this. 5. Future Tense: Let's start with the future tense. What exactly is the future tense? Future tense is used when we're talking about our plans for the future. For example, what we will do in the weekend, or what we will do in our vacations, what we will do next year, etc. It is one of the easiest tenses in this language. All right, so first, let's start with the endings. In order to conjugate these worms. Well, we know that we have three groups of worms. One is ER and the other is ER, and the other one is IR. Alright? Now the endings for ER verbs for you will be with an accent. On top. We will have an ES. Again with an accent on the a. We will have an E again with an accent on the a, EMO, EIS, and E. Okay? So these are the endings we follow. This is for you, this is four. This is for L alleles instead, this is where nosotros, This is for vosotros and this is for Alias. Alias will status. All right, Basically when we conjugate the verbs in the future tense, we do not omit the endings. It's very important we know that we simply add these endings. For example, let's say I have the verb hablar, which means to speak. Now, in order to conjugate this work, I am simply going to put these endings. So for example, I know that this is an ER verb alluded, highlighted in red. And now, let's see My first conjugation. It will be you are black. So I write a blog and then I simply put an E because this is what my rule is saying. My rule is saying that for you, I need to put an e after the ending AR. So I do and I writing E here. Then I go onto my next conjugation, 4, 2, 4, 2. My conjugation will be I will write our blood and then I will write it as I'm just following this formula. Then I move on to the next conjugation. Elea. Instead of law, I copied this ending and so forth. So my next one tradition will be nosotros estamos, because the nosotros conjugation ending is EMOs. Then we do also throws our blood. And then finally alias. Alias instead this. So we will quickly highlight these endings. Do so just so that you can see how they are conjugated. And then we will translate all these conjugations. So for example, you are blurry will mean I will speak to our bladder, will mean you will speak. And he will speak Alia of Lara. She will speak. Instead of Lara, you will speak and etc. Now, the verb, such as ER ending verbs in Ireland, verbs will have the same conjugation. For example, which is an ER word. Luby Dr, conjugated in the same way, commit, which means to eat, will have the same conjugation. As applied. We will not permit the ER. We will simply put the endings we have just learned on top. So we will say cameras or Mira committee's comment on, okay, Palmer, which means to eat. It's conjugation will be morass. And then finally, I will eat, You will eat, You will eat, we will eat, you own will eat, they will eat. And you all know this is the translation. Same goes for another. Like it is an ion. It will be also conjugated in the same way. So the conjugation will be the same as creepy day, etc. Let's see if we want to make a sentence with it. I can easily see something like this. You are blurry. Professor. This means I will speak to my teacher, or I will speak with my teacher. This is what translation is. Okay? Or we can call morass. And restaurants. Will eat in a restaurant. Okay, because we just learned that cameras means you will eat simple. Now, we also need to know some keywords with which we use these future tense. So some key words include, for example, our new caveat and our new Kavya and the coming year. Okay? Or I can easily see la semana. This means the coming week. Or L miss given in the coming months. This pattern, you can see that all the words that support future with these words we use the future tense. Now, we can also use future tense with money IANA, which means tomorrow. For example, tomorrow I will go to the restaurant or tomorrow I will eat Italian for something like this. Okay, so the key words you can use, the future tense. You can also use it with, for example, proximity, which means approximately, which means the next day. Okay? So let's see. I can easily save money on your Idi Amin a square law. Now it is coming from which it, which means to go. So this means tomorrow, I will go to my school. This is how we make a sentence. We can easily meet few sentences about what will be our plan for the vacations, etc. Now, just like any other tense, future tense also has its irregulars. Okay? So irregular verbs in the future tense are the following. By irregular, I mean to say that they do not follow the rules of the regular verb. So what are some of the irregular verbs? Some of the irregular verbs include the following. Number 1, we have Sally, which means to leave or to go out. It stem is. All we do is we did the Stems sounding and put the endings we have just learned. So I will just write the endings once again of the future tense. They are E, E S, E, E MOS, EIS, and then E. All right? So if I need to conjugate Sullivan, all I will do is I will not tolerate this time because I've written here these are irregular. What I have to do is I have to take the stand sounder and then attach this appropriate endings. So I will do, you will solve. Leo said, Sandra. Nosotros, el dreamers also throw salaries and use aliens who study this. And let's move on to the next row. Let's say we have four layers. We will do ponder and then write the endings. Then we have get it. Which means to want. I will write good. Okay? And then attach the appropriate ending. Then I have Kabir, which means to fit its stem. The next one is they need. It's stem is vendor. Then we can write. Then it, which means tender. Which means to have an stem is standard. Then we have four there, which means to be equal to or can it stemmed will be. Alright. We have sobbing whose meaning is to know. And stem is subgroup. We have acid whose meaning is to do or to meet, and its stem is. Alright. So these are some of the most common ones that are used in the future tense irregulars. And now we can easily mix sentences with it. We also have valid, which means to value, and its stem is valid. We have our beer, which means there is, there are or to have, and it stemmed will be. Now let's say I want to conjugate one of these works. Let's punish. And I want to conjugate it. Okay, according to these are the future tense endings we have just learned. Let's say I wanted to conjugate the verb police. All I do is I will do laundry and then attach these endings. So I will write boundary, boundary, and then I will add E-S, ponderous boundary, boundary most foundry and palindrome. So this is our conjugation of pony. Boundary will be Ivan. Wondrous will be, you will put, Andrea will be he, he will put, she will put your foot and etc. And now you can easily meet any sentence about your vacations, your weekend, etc. For example, let's say I want to write a few sentences about my weekend sentence writing the future tense for example, okay, I will use these words and create a sentence about my, let's say my weekend. What are my plans for the weekend, for example? I can choose some very common words. Let's see, I have lead or me, IID, SQL DB. Let's take ten verbs, 1, 2, 3, 4. We have comprised. Let's take a few irregular. Said is irregular we just learned. Let's take Venice. Let's see what our salad, and let's take some easy ones all. So for example, travel aha. Okay, so I have 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6 7, 8 9 10, 3 4 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. So I have my ten volts. And now I can easily talk about my future. My weekend plans. Okay. So I can see Fin de semana, which means in the weekend. So I will not omit anything we have just learned. We will see you later, which means I will be in the weekend. I will read your leader only bro, interessante. In the weekend, I will read an interesting book. Okay. Then you can write another sentence with Gmail. You can see ambient. Ambient means also, this is a connector. Tambien, your own restaurant around the Italiana. Also, I read in an Italian restaurant. So what am I doing? All I'm doing is just conjugating the world. That's it and writing my sentences, this is how easy it is. And then you can also write your own mi familia with my family. Okay? Then you and change things around and choose a different subject pronoun other than Yo, you can write nosotros. Nosotros includes my family and I because I've just introduced you and me Commedia, so that makes it nosotros. Then we will come with verb e, and we can say, nosotros, loosey-goosey, or rather we can see us go, which means later, nosotros, estamos, our own central commerce. Which means then we will go to eat a Moses coming from the word E. I have used the nosotros ending. If you will see EMO S ending is for muscle. Then we will go to a mall and let's say I'm going to leave or distribute for now and move on to compressor, which means buy. And I will write in moles and we will buy more courses. Many things. Dallas Como such as uno de los Panther alone. Bands, last. Golfers, this soil, sunglasses. Last vertebra, vegetables, okay, and the list is endless. You can put anything you want here and then you will have creativity. Basically, our job is to have correct conjugations and creativity. Then let's see, we can use Vineet. Now we need a few, remember, is irregular. We can see something like our continuous Zoom next. Nosotros. Then dreamers, because they need, is not regularly irregular. I will take the stem vendor and attach this ending of EMO. For nosotros are continuously or nosotros when dreamers are la casa. We will come to our house. Your me today and I will do my homework. If you remember. We've just used this word acid. And it's irregular stem is. So all I've done is I've taken the R. This R, and I have put the ending. So this is how we meet sentence, okay? Now next one we are left with SREB Trevarthen salad. Then you can write something, write loosey-goosey. You. The way I will watch logo you very Kula, omega. And la delivers you. See how easy it does. Then I will watch, then I will watch. You don't even have to put your because they're in itself means I will watch I will watch a comedy movie on the television. Okay, then you are left with Trevarthen salad. You can see tambien. Yo I will write on our mi amigo, I will write a letter to my. Now you are left with travel. And then you can see something like R, the mass which means besides you now saline, if you remember. Okay, this war I had told earlier is an irregular. It has the stem of Sandra. If you go to my regular list, I have written here that Sally, these are all the regular Sally's follows the stem of Southern. Alright, so I'm going to write other mass your sound. I put my E ending for you for future. Use, 100 deme. I will go out of my house. Eu trabajo en la Nina, and I will work in the office. So here are my sentences, seven sentences I have written, some, I have joined. Okay. This is how easy it is. And now you are ready to talk about your weekend plans, your vacation plans, what you will do next year, what you will do after graduating, anything, and all you need to know is perfect vocabulary and correct conjugations. And then you are ready to go. 6. Tu Informal Affirmative and Negative Commands: We're going to learn how to form informal affirmative and negative commands. Commands basically, what affirmative command, a command is when we give someone a command, an imperative, for example, via the book, Eat your food and drink, juice. Write a story. These are all command. Affirmative and negative commands are also known by the name as imperative. So the very important topic. So let's go ahead and learn how to form these commands. It's very simple. Let's see, we have the world at large. Let's put number 1. Here. Are black means to speak. We all know that. Now how do we form? It's affirmative command was we're going to learn the affirmative command. Then we will learn the negative command. Alright? No, affirmative commands are formed this way. First of all, what we do is we conjugated verb of blood in normal present tense. So what does blast normal present tense conjugation? We go like this. First we see you are blue, right? First we say you are blue, then we see our blood. Then the third conjugation is a Liao state law. So this third conjugation is the affirmative command for the third conjugation. So our blah, blah, mean speed. So if I say to somebody, are bla, I'm seeing speed. This is what I mean. Here. I'm not saying he speaks, she's people use it. I'm simply giving a command to somebody. Speak abline Espanol, which means speak Spanish. I'm simply giving a command. So you always need to remember the third person conjugation. That third person conjugation of the verb in present tense, affirmative, informal command. Let's look at another verb. Let's look at amir, for example. We all know means to eat. Let's look at Commerce conjugation in the present tense. It's your Como, and allows that. So the third person conjugation is this Omi. Hence, this is the command for, affirmative command for. So I can easily see and something like ALL me la comida. This means eat the food. So I am giving the command. Food here, I'm not saying for me like she eats seeds or you eat. I'm simply giving a command. This is the informal affirmative command. Let's look at another word. For that matter, as we all know means to write this a second. So we write with the right its meaning to write very quickly, we will conjugate this work as scribble. Scribble. Let me change the spelling. It is ribose, ribose, and then quickly we do SQL DB, right? So again, the third person, This is the command. Obviously we go ahead as G3P, most Asclepius as globin. But we don't have to go that far because we're just taking the third person conjugation. So I put this in red. And this is my affirmative command as cribbing. So this means, right. So I can easily say something laid asleep and la carta write a letter. Right? Now, let's go and add irregular verbs. Now we have many irregular verbs. So what happens if we need to give the command for a verb, like for example, video. All know lead means two order to request or to us. And they did is in E2, Ivo, right? Now, let me look at conjugation. It is Speedo in present dense, be this, okay? Final SBD. So B is the imperative, the affirmative embedded the fourth, right? So this will be the conjugation for buddies. Let's look at another one. Let's look at, for example, comment, which is another irregular. Now, Goldman Sachs means to start, we all know that and it doesn't eat to Aibo. Okay? So the conjugation will be commun SaaS and Kuhnian salary. This is how we conjugate in present tense. So this one will be the conjugation companion, star. Star. Okay? So all irregular verbs in Spanish stems will be formed like this in informal imperative for. Alright. Now, let's look at O2 you evolve now number 6, Let's say we have door mere means to sleep. It's conjugation is 0 to UE, so we go dwell. So where May is the imperative? Bled me, sleep. This is the conjugation. Now just like any other, obviously the imperatives of who also have it's irregular. So let's follow the list. Irregulars lists or irregular affirmative commands. Let's have a look at that. Well, first we have the water, they need. It means then, okay. So we can easily see that the need is irregular affirmative command because then there's conjugation is tengo DNS DNA, but DNA we're not following. We have then hands, it doesn't irregular. Then comes Sally, which means sun. So sol means leave. Okay, ten means have. We are all giving a command. Then we have bullish on air means to port. It's command is formed. Okay? Then we have a verb leg. It's command is v0, accent on the E. Then we have the need whos command is then. Okay? Then we have something like a set which means to do or to make command is us at Jesus, asked lab area, do the homework. So these are the important command that we all should know. Another one is the seed, which means to tell an even local man is D, D, D level. So this is how we make sentences with these worms. So please learn this list very, very carefully. Now, Let's look at some how to form a formative two commands for the flexible box. Okay? So reflexive verbs, affirmative commands for. So how do we form? That is very simple. Okay, let me just underline the hidden. Now. Let's look at we have the verb live on task. For example. We all know live on parsing is to get up. Now, how will we form it's negative. I mean, affirmative command for that is simple. First of all, we need to know what are the pronouns for the flexor website pronouns, I'm the sea laws or NC. Okay. So I will normally just pretend that live on Parsi is a normal Iago. Let me just see like that. So I will do live on Levon us live our lives. The third conjugation, I will do live on. And then since we're writing commands, since we're writing the command for two, I will put this over here. The prolonged because they comes for Twilight might be here. Okay. Levodopa to get up, this is what it means. So levodopa and afterload quantity, I will write an accent on the vowel from the right, 1, 2, 3. So here I will put an accent on the right. So this is how I format another one. Let's look at irregular won, this bet, Darcy, we all are familiar that this is an E to IE work. So again, I will take it like any ER verb. Okay, I will consider it an ER. I will forget about my age. I just need to remember that because it doesn't work. I need to put my pronouns. Me. See, I'm going to forget about all the other pronouns, Okay? I'm only going to concentrate on T because T comes from. Now this bed parses conjugation, if I look at it at only a vote will be disappeared. Disappeared, thus disappeared. So I write met this guy here, and I will write my DE in the end this week up. Okay, so the axon will come here. The third vowel from delightful have an accent, 1, 2, 3, right? So this, this is how the conjugate reflexive verbs, see. It is so easy. We have learned how to conjugate or right to affirmative commands. Now comes the negative score. How do we frame that? Let's say we have something like, so let me in, I didn't negative commands or imperative. Okay? How do we form negative comments? What do I mean when I see negative two commands? Negative two commands is when we see this. Okay, don't write, don't speak, don't run. It has all those words. Do not do this. This is a negative command. So how do we form a negative command? That is very easy to do. What do we do in order to form a negative command? Let's say we have the verb hablar. We have to do some very carefully over here. It is ending in ER. Okay? We have to change it into different ending. So we again go back to our present tense. Okay? It's conjugation in the present tense. Our blue first-person, okay? After being on the gut though, okay? And now what I do is I will add n. Why do I, I didn't eat because it's an ER, because it doesn't Iago. I will identify here. So it becomes avidly. Okay, I have to go by step by step. Now it is oblique. Now why did I hear? It becomes obvious? Then I write here, no, no Atlas. This means do not speak. This is a rule. It's not difficult at all. Let's look at another one. Let's look at a simple walk. And Darby all amines to sink, we need to form a negative. Okay, how do we form? It falls to be conjugate counterpart in its present tense for first-person, It's first-person is right? So I got my all over here. I cut it like this. Then I'll do plus. Okay. And I didn't hear. Okay. And then it becomes untidy. All right. Then I do know here and after the county I put an S know Canvas is necessary to put in as it will be wrong if we do not write this. Why do we build that? It's okay, just promised yourself we put an S because it's so low context means do not sink. Simple. Let's look at the stem changing world. For that matter. It's first-person conjugation is beetle, right? So what do I do? I cut my, oh, okay. I put my all like this and then I add over here nowhere. Then we have to remember that when the war ends in ER or IR, be very careful when the verb ends in E, IRR, IRR. Then we have to add an e. Okay, then the verb ends in ER, we have to add and then the enzyme E RRI, then we added, okay, so what does it become? It becomes PDA like this. And then what do I, do? I write nor be that an S Nopi does, which means do not order, do not ask because BDD means to order or west. Let's try another one. Let's go for EI, BB, BB admins to drink. It's any of its first-person conjugation is the BU, right? So what do I do? I cut my All right, I got my all here. And then I add an e here because it's an E of 12, I add my E, Then I do BBBA. Okay. Because I'm adding an a and I put my no, no. No, the bus do laundry. Okay. This is what it means. Simple. So this is what we, how we do it. Now. There are some slight changes for words that end in. You see ARG. So negative, negative. Two commands for CR, GR works. Let's do that here. How do we form the negative commands for C, I, G, r, and z? They are very simple. If a verb is ending in ca, The omit, the CR, and right? If the verb is ending in G, are, we omit the GR and Reggio. If the verb is ending and zd are, we omit the z they are, and write. C is. Let's look at the practical for that matter. Practical means to practice, right? So what do we do? We put practical is the first conjugation. So it actually will give you a middle onto because we need to conjugate it in present tense, right? So practical. Ceo, I mean, I will omit. Okay, I will cut the CEO and I will write the case. Okay, So it will be no practicals, which means do not practice. You will have to move this c. Let's look at a GR and involved like Leah, god. Okay, it means to reach or to arrive. I conjugate it in first-person legal right here. And I add GUG instead. So it becomes, I guess, okay, Do not, do not reach. Then finally, let's look at something like comments, which means to start. And we conjugate it in first-person. It is a stem changing E to IE, what we saw, right? And what do I do? I said, Okay, and I will add here instead. And it becomes, says, okay. So this is what I would, what will happen. So this is how we form the negative two common for CIGS and DR and links, right? So this is what we do. You just need to remember that we need to omit the last two letters in order to form it. You need to omit that over here of practical. You need to omit the g of LIGO. And for each one of them, each one of the first-person conjugations. You need to make two letters of the first-person conjugation and then these endings, this is what you need to do. Now let's look at other conjugations of what happens to those. So this negative two comma four over negative two comma four volts, what happens there? Let's look at the half. As I said means to do It's first-person conjugation is right. So what do? And also, so all I do is I put, I omit the all like I have been linked with other conjugations. Okay, Amato, and simply write. And because it is an ER verb, I put an a and S know august do not do another one. The needed. Just a minute. Yeah. This I have to put number 1 and then it will become over here, number two. So let's look at the nature means to have the looking at negative two common to be very careful. It's first-person conjugation is angle, right? So it will be, I will again talk my all, and I will do. And because it is an ER, I will put an E here. So it will be Angus do not have nothing as it will be. Let's look at another one. This field for that matter, the seed means to tell or to say it's worse. Person conjugation is Diego. Okay, it doesn't work. Okay, I cut my all and I put it because I have to put an a. So it becomes the god rate. And I've put an S here, right? So it will be no Degas. Right? So this is how we form the negative comments for Google Books. No irregulars. Okay? There are some irregulars for negative commands. Okay, there are irregulars, four to negative commands, they're irregulars would everything in Spanish, we have to learn that. So there are just a few, not many. One is for cell. So said will be no sales. Okay, Do not B, we have four dots, which is this. Do not give Vi, have a 14, which will be no Vajrayana, do not go. Okay, these are irregulars. We have no idea. It will be, right? We have 14, which is more days, do not B. Okay, So these are some irregular form. Some commands. There are some irregular that we need to work on. Okay? They're not really difficult to learn. They're very, very simple. The last irregular we will have to submit no say, no, say positive. So these are the irregular sport to negative command. Okay. So severe means to know nosy possible. Okay. Now, what do we do? We, now let's look at negative four reflexive verbs. Okay? Negative comments for reflexive verbs. Right? So it will be something like, let's say we have the verb, live on parsing. Okay? We know their pronouns, okay, they are made, they say North. So all we do is be reading law. And we put up from Monte here nor there. And again we will, we will change it into E naught level. This, this is how it will become, do not get. Let's see, we have this bedpan. All it will be this, this symbols. And he took this thing that is the negative commands for the flexible books. And via this topic. 7. Usted Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 1: Let's study the Orsted and affirmative and negative commands. So what exactly is a command? A command is when we give instructions to somebody. For example, read a book, write a story. Okay? These are affirmative commands and negative commands are those in which we see, do not do this, do not close the door, do not open the window. These are negative commands. Commands are also long as they're embedded, Okay, This topic is also known as competitive. And instead commands or commands in which we treat, in which we speak to somebody who undertook with speak to them politely. So we use instead. Now, how do they work? It's very simple. It's not too difficult to understand, but we have to listen very carefully. Let's go step-by-step. Let's say, for example. So we're learning how to create firmer. For affirmative or state of the system was stopping. We are learned some headings subheading Affirmative Commerce. So let's say we have our first work out. Okay. It means to speak. Okay. We all know a large means to speak. No, I won't say speed. The speed to somebody who is elder to me. Okay. I want to say speed because I'm doing that. How will they see this? It's very easy. First, I have to conjugate this verb in the present tense, but not fully, just the first-person. So it is your obliques in first-person are blobs. Conjugation is your obliques, right? It means I speak. Now what we do is we take this blue, okay? And we have to contest. All right? And then what I need to do is because this what is an ERP? Only because it is an IAM role. I have to add. So now the command is ugly. This means speed. Okay? I do this for all the ER, regular books. Okay? All the ER, renewables which are regulated in the present. Let's take another regular verb in the present tense and E. Cv, by law, by Latin means to dance. It's first-person conjugation is your bio. Okay, in the present tense, I'm speaking. Now in order to change it into the affirmative command, what I do is I will write the plus sign. And because it is an IEP, because it doesn't ER I put an E for all the books that are in the ER and put an E for all the okay. The first conjugate them and first person present. Oh, and then edit. So this will become bye. Okay, bye. E myelin, which means done. Okay, so I can see something like 40 or 50. Which means please dance. Okay. I'm seeing this politely dropper. Let's take an ERV and can be something like homemade. We all know means to eat. Now it's first-person conjugation in the present tense is okay, so I will take this, Cuomo, okay? I will take this and write it here. Okay? And what I'm going to do is I will strike out and I and II here. Okay? Because only because it is so valuable things in ERV Omega 0 and then the enzyme, the own weight. And adding. So this becomes warmer, which means, so I can see some ten la la comida, which means eat the food. Okay? This is how we make a sentence. Okay? Now, let's say we have, let's take an IR. For example, we can take a screen, which means two, right? Okay? So again, I will conjugate this open. The present tense for spars of scalability is a scribble. Okay? And what am I going to do is, I'm going to write this as clipboard. And as I had mentioned earlier, I will remove that. And instead I will write. Instead, I will write and evens again. So you have to remember that works in the ER and IR and the new conjugate them in the first person. You have to omit and writing. Whereas when I invoke ER, we conjugated in the first-person of present dense and the ohmic, the oil, right? So it's the other way round. Okay? So we have to remember this. So this becomes as three bar, which means, right. So I can see something late. S3, which means right. Now, this is true for regular ER, ER, IR. Okay? Instead affirmative commands. Now let's look at this affirmative command. But to live with that, stem changing, stem changing in the present tense. Earlier we had learned imperatives or commands, affirmative commands for that, for regular verbs in the present tense. Now we're going to look at affirmative commands for works that are stem changing lake. Like for example, we have E2, I, II, III, and IV. Okay, so let's look at the first example of e2. We can look at lake Mendota. Means to have evening snack. In this, E changes into E to IE. Okay? So when a conjugate this verb in the present tense, first-person, I write my door. Alright? So your median, there's a first-person, we have learned that. Now what I have to do is I write this median though like I have been doing again. Okay, write it again. Now. What do we do? We cut this and what will be attached because it's an ERV. What did we learn? We learn that we will write the cosine of 0. I will write any, I will not write any other letter only because it's an email. So it will be meeting in D. Which means how evening snack. I'm given a command to somebody has already. Let's look at another example. This time the e to IPO. Let's say we have the video. It means to order or to request, and we all know it doesn't. Right? So my very first step, what am I going to do? I'm going to conjugate it for us in present tense, first-person, like always. It's first person. Conjugation is your PDL. Then like I have been doing earlier, I be like this, right? All this, okay. Like I have been doing. And what will add here? What did we learn? Because it's an ion, right? I will add an e. Okay, we had learned that whenever the war ends in ER and IR, the ER and IR and the right. So the final answer will become E dot. So this means requests or order. Okay, I'm giving a command, PDA, request, please order. Then you go to a restaurant. The waiter will see, Do you feel that be Della who ordered the food? Because of this is how you give politely. Okay, Let's look an example of an IPO. For example, we can look at movies. Movie it is also in Year 1 plus it is an e-book. It means to move. And weekend. Let's just say to move, right? The stem change here it is. So again, like I have been doing, I write the first-person conjugation. Does your good old dream is into you? Now what I do is I like I have been doing. Okay. And low not over here. I will not add it here, I will write it here. I will omit. And I and I will add in here. Why? Because well, so I will see waiver, which means, okay. So we have learned how to on affirmative commands for stem changing world but was dead. Now, another thing we need to learn how to form a formative commands for Gogo verbs. How to farm affirmative commands for Google, for hosting. Okay, now we have to learn this because we have different sets of commands for a variety of work. Now, let's see, we have our sales, which means to do or to leak. We conjugate it in the first-person. Okay, first, like we have been doing. So number one is conjugated by your ago, right? So I put I put I'll go here. And then again I will cut. And then I will do this plus sign and add an e. Because we had learned early because I have to add it. So it becomes other, which means do or other local media mix with other lottery. I do. Another one. Let's see. Okay. It means to tell or to say the series first-person is vehicle. Okay? So what I do is I got to 0. And instead I am writing it only because it is an i7 of Degas, which means 10. Let's take another one. Is tengo. It stem. It's imperative will be. For. The first-person is solid. It's command will be saga. I omit the own right and because it's an ion, similarly, it will become omega six. Many first-person bingo. How easy it is. So these are some also we can look at triad trials. First person is triangle. Command would be triangle. Okay? So this is what we do. We just keep changing all the endings. Now let's look at some irregular. But before that, we can also look at some UI or ending work. Affirmative commands for you ir ending work. We also have the UAE in Spanish, like include for example. So it can become something like, for example, let's say we have the verb is, first-person is. Okay, So again, I will omit all and I will add an E, so it becomes, so this is easy. Also. Included will be included. Next, let's look at some irregular. Instead. We have some irregular stats comments. All right, so what do we do for irregular or Command V? Now there are only a few reminders. So our first one is four, which means to be an ellipse command is set up, which means either one would be the norm. It is. Estar, which is S, which also means we have dA, which is D. And it does give. Then we have obvious, which is, which means there might be. Okay. I mean, I have also, okay. Then we have sub b, which is six. Which means no. Okay, seep Oliver that know that. Okay. So this is pretty much and these are the irregular commands that we need to follow. Okay? They're very easy to learn and they're not difficult at all. So just for revision, I want to tell you that it's very easy to formulate, revise once again, whenever we haven't Iago, in order to meet the command for it, you force me to conjugate it in first-person. And then we need to cut and then added because it is an ER. And if it is an ER or ion, then you need to write in. So you can easily see that it is not difficult at all. It's a very easy exercise to do. And we use on a daily, on a daily basis. It's not difficult at all. Okay. These are the chromosome. Let's look at some common form for reflexive. How to form affirmative command for reflexive verbs. Again, very easy. Okay? So let's see. We have the verb which means to get up. You all know that this world means to get right. Figured out it's prolongs very quickly. We see your main goal VC, right? We see me live on resident dense. Then it becomes the live on sea level. Then we see nor live. And then we finally see, I mean, we all live and die. And then we finally see LeBron boundary. This is what I see. So now again, I have to again look at the first-person conjugation. The first-person conjugation is millibars. Millibars, quietly, written milliwatt here. Now. Now this is not a command, this is just the conjugation, first-person conjugation of lemon tarts in present tense. So let's pretend that live and parses a normal ER. Okay? So if it's a normal ear works, obviously I'm going to live on and when to sea level. And then because giving an offset command, I have to write S here. So it becomes live on the AC. And then I have to put an accent from Todd ball from the right, 1, 2, 3. Here I will put an accent level. This is the command for reflexive. Well, for a formative, Let's look at another one. Let's say I have the word desperate. It we all know it means to wake up. And again, if I look at my first-person conjugation, it will be made this beer store. Okay? So, but need this sphere, there's a first-person conjugation. I'm looking for the command. So again, let, let me say that this is a normal ear, okay? A stem genuine work. So I will write here this, be it for this beer too, because it's per tarsiers and E2 are evil, right? So, but this PFD, I will write it because it doesn't ER verb. So I changed the winter. But because I'm giving an offset command, I will write this C because the promoter is used with this. So I write here this periodicity, which means we got, and I will put the accent on the third E from the right-hand side. Here, 1, 2, 3, this beer. So this is the command for flexible. 8. Usted Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 2: We're now going to continue with the previous lesson of homestead affirmative and negative commands. This is Part 2. So I'm going to continue from where we had left. We're now going to continue with how to form, how to farm. How to form affirmative commands. For C and G are firms, right? So a verb is ending in CAR. What we do is the false obviously conjugate the verb in the present tense, you. And then we write, after omitting the VI conjugate and info, that ends in GR in first-person. Same for Z, the RV right? Now, what do we mean by this? Let's say we have the practical. So obviously I will conjugate it and present tense for us to your practical. Now, I will cut off like the rule has said. And I will post this on one of the first person conjugation. Do you see depending on the conjugation. So your practical for CARTO or the command will be right here because simply because it doesn't see. Then let say we have a G. It is legal. Philosophy conjugated in the present tense. Legal. As my rule has suggested, we need to cut, right? So this is what I do exactly. I read LLC. Then I write for number three. And let's say I have comments on this is here. We need to do two things. First, we need to know that this is a stem Changing Woman present tense. Okay? And then here what I do is I can, I will cut two things here. Not just to end, right. We'll start. Let's look at another example. Let's say we have MBSR. So I will do MPS, and then I can do this. Okay, so far, we need to know that we got Zed all for R&D or make the Zeno all in the first-person. Okay. So these are all affirmative command that we have learned. You have learned that affirmative command for regular verbs, for stem changing world are reflexive verbs for URL bugs. All we have learned for global world, we have learned. And now we are going to learn how to meet the negative. So negative. Instead commands or a negative comment is when we say, for example, don't do this, don't do, don't write, don't write, don't read, don't speak, born, eat, etc. This is a negative command. In order to negative or stat command is very easy. All we do is in order to form a negative command, simply add before instead of formative command. Okay, so we have learned how to build affirmative command now we simply need to add the norm. So for example, let's say I have to make a negative command for our blood. Now blood means to speak. So it's command was right, affirmative command. This is the affirmative command. Affirmative command. In order to form the negative command, I will write law, which means do not speak. Okay, so let's say we have the word believe. This means order to request. If you remember, affirmative command was PDA. In order to frame is negative command. All I do is let's say we have the near the nails. So no PWM. Do not request. Okay. Do not request. This is what it's meaning will be the affirmative command, distinct and negative commandment. Now what happens? Let's look at practical. Practical affirmative command is practically just a second. Okay, So we can say something like practical, simple. Okay? Same goes for legally little comment, sorry, we will say no. Say. Now what happens for how to follow. Commands for reflexive verbs? Will get, this is where we'd have to do just a little bit, not too much, just a little bit of work we need to do. So let's say we have the lemon bars. Okay? We had the affirmative command for parsing is the C. B had learned that it is Levon. Live on. Right. Now. However, it's negative command would be just a little different. So I will say, instead of attaching the affirmative command, this is the affirmative command. The negative would be no. Instead of attaching the pronouncing the end, now I will grade it for the conjugation, nor say live on that. So this means get O'Sullivan. Similarly, let's look at our cost. Rc means to go to bed. Okay? Now it's first-person. It's affirmative command is the rate of, say, this is affirmative command. So it's negative command will be a quiz. Do not go to bed. So this is the reflexive comma. And let's say we had also learned some affirmative irregular verbs. Like for example, we heard no affirmative command was saved. If I want to see this means B today. So I won't do it, do not. I will say no, do not be. So all those dead negative commands, a very easy. The only walk you have to do, a bit of work you have to do is reflexive and answer. 9. Nosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 1: Let's study the nosotros affirmative and negative command. How do we fund them? Well, first of all, we need to know that the affirmative and negative commands for nosotros at least are the same. They're not different. The negative commands are the same as the affirmative command. So let's say we have the verb. First of all, we need to know that nosotros means we know sutras. Affirmative commercial be something like, let's go, let's, let's play outside. Okay. This is what the nosotros commands because it's involving. Okay. Now, let's say we need to form the muscle command for a law. What do we do? Well, all you need to do is you need to change the ending. If the world is ending in ER, you need to change it into. But before you do that, you need to conjugate. The verb in. Present tense for a person is conjugation in the present tense, first-person is your outlook. Right? Now, what I do is I will cut this. And then, right? Okay, so it equals then what? This is actually the head command. So what do we do? Now? We do, we attach MOS problems. This means less speed. Okay, oblique muscle. There are 23 things you need to do. First you need to see what is the ending of the word. Then you need to conjugated in first-person, present and gave, which is our blue. After doing the first-person conjugation you call TO and I didn't hear you add an e because it's an E. Then you write after our array, you need to write most MOS. It's important for all the muscle. May need to write a more. Let's say we have the comma 2. We will conjugate it in first-person. It is your Como. Then I got and then I will write, I will add an instead now because, because it doesn't Iago, I didn't. So for each island, for ER, what I added. So it becomes coma, but that is incomplete. I have to write MOS or mama's. So this means, okay, Let's see. Now we have an ion is, a scribble, isn't like we have been doing. For other words, we will conjugated in present tense first-person. And it is a scribble. As usual, I will cut and instead write e. Okay, so you need to remember whenever the world was ending in ER and IR after omitting the reporting. Okay. So even for IL-13 will put an eight. So this becomes a scribble. But again, it is incomplete. So the MOS, It's a nosotros command, if you just read as gigabyte will be that command. As Caliban most means less. Like this is a translation. So this is how we demonstrate command. Now let's say we have some illegal, okay? How do we work with irregular in the present? Then what do we do? Let's say we take a verb like Volvo for example. Okay? Valverde, you need to know two things for these ones are very easy to do. The ones which are irregular in the present tense are very simple. Okay? These are the ones which are irregular. Let's see it. I blurred the ending ER and have them. Like for example, Volvo, we all know it is a stem changing both, right? It isn't evil in the present. But we also know when we are conjugating a verb in the present tense, we have learned from the beginning, the nosotros and vosotros never have a right. So here we will not do stem, here we will not do first-person wealth or we will not. We will not do well, we will not do well Vamos or anything like that. We will keep all. So it will be one. And then we omit the ER. And so we actually do it like this. Volvo. Okay, we omit the ER. Okay, so let's write it again here. Okay, we omit the ER. We will not conjugated and you need to remember that verbs which are irregular in the present tense, which are either gluten the present and meaning, and not any. I'm not talking about Google Voice here. I'm only talking about stem changing work in particularly the ER. I'm also not talking about IR. Only I'm talking about ER. Then changing words in the present tense. And especially the O2, you E1. So for them, but do we do the ER? So this is left with one. And then we have learned that the, let's cut the ending again here. The A0 because it's an ER. Then the put, its becomes vulva and then most. So it becomes Obama's. This means legs. Okay. Let's look at another one, a similar one, length five. Well, there is also an eval and it doesn't, ER, I told you this is particularly true for warps that are changing. E and E are words. Like now, again, we will do, we will keep it as so. Let us write bolded again, the gut, the ER, right? As usual because it is an ER work, I will. So it becomes bone. And then the right folder. And then MOS, Madonna's. So this becomes, let's be evil. Good, Let's be VR, evil. Okay, let's be evil. Okay? So this is particularly true for ER and invoke that are stem changing in the present and especially. All right, let's look at another example, the ER. So let's look at another one like mitten dot. Dot is an ER hormone and it is a stem changing world. Has to offer, let highlighted. And the second, each inches in height, we all know the second E changes into i e. Let's highlight this. Now here again, we will not do median, we will not be. You need to remember that for staging involves specially for ERM. Erm stem changing verbs in present tense. In order to construct or nosotros command. We will not conjugated and first-person present. We will simply do like this. So let me run that again here. Let's cut the ER. And what we write, we will write M, because we had learned earlier that whenever the verb ends in AR, we will cut the yarn writing. We do like this. This means less evening's meeting demos. Now. Now let's look at Google Voice. Google verbs like for example, a, which means to do or to me. Here, we will conjugate it in first-person. So we will do ago because of first-person of a sudden present tenses, alcohol. Then what I do is I will omit this all like I had been doing earlier. Okay. And then I will add an e because it's an ER verb. So it becomes argon. And then I had most. So it becomes other modes, which means Let's do another one. Number. Then. The next first-person is angle, right? So again, I will, and I will write e because it's an AR verb. So it becomes thing. We attach. The Namaste means let's have, right. Let's look at nine. Let's do Sally. Sally spokesperson, Salvo. So again, i o and I lied. I didn't eat becomes saga. Why do I didn't eat because it's an ion. And then most sell downloads. Let's leave, or let's go out this year. For all the verbs like this, see the need. For all of these, you will follow the same rule. For near is also there. Now, what happens when our world is changing? And then very carefully, Let's say we have the bending. This vote is an IR plus e to the present tense, right? Okay, so let's highlight the ending. The kind of change for ir ending Bob status, changing. They do not happen for AR work on ER verbs even if they're changing. But it does happen for IR and Min blobs with Justin changing. So what do we do? We do like this. The definitely change it into first-person here. It will be PDL. They are still quite easy to translate to conjugate and the nosotros imperative, but slightly difficult, but we will learn them. So we conjugated and fetal. Okay, and then we omit though, like we have been doing, and then add an E, so it becomes PDA. Most of this was relatively, which means next order or request. Let's look at a similar one. Muddied, which means to measure. In present tense. It is also an E to I plus citizen. So it will become, we do present tense was person, needle. We omit, all right? And we add an e here. So it becomes me Dharma. Let's measure. Right? So now what happens when it is? Or do you evil? Let's see. Like dormir for example, which means to sleep. Dormi is an evil. That is Guillermo, in first-person. However, we do not take the E for you evokes in the present tense. And if we have to change them into nosotros imperative, we have two things. We have to take E and we have to cut, right? So it becomes boom, right? And then we attach it because it's an ion. So it becomes most. This is true for evolves. And only I think it's very important to learn. Right? Now, let's look at, for example, E to IE. For example. Cynthia, Cindy, it means to feel and it doesn't E to IE in the present. Right? So we write something like we will conjugate in first-person. It is siento. Right? However, we again, we do not take this leg in. Evokes. We didn't take the e even for siento, we do not take okay. I've got here the cocktail and the all like we have been doing. Okay. And then instead we had an IEP because it's an ion. So it becomes csi. E has been omitted so we don't write them with ease into this means. Let's feel, okay. So you have to remember only for IR and stem changing both like UI and this happens not for others. 10. Nosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands Part 2: Now let's study the affirmative commands for seti. Or see GER firms. Let's say we have the practical. All we're doing. We're going to cut this ce que yo E MOS whenever the tendency to cut the sea and just write M0. That's it. You don't have to conjugated in first-person present. Let's look at another example. But first let's read the whole thing up the cables. Number 2. Then rewrite. See here we've got the CAR and relate E and more. And then we do the pMOS, gate Moscow carbons to touch auto play an instrument. So Tolkein most means, let's touch on, Let's play an instrument. Then. Number 3. Let's look at g are like Leah god, it means to reach or to arrive. Let's cut the ER here. And we add again DUE MOS. Also for verbs that end in the gut, the GI, and GU. And so this becomes, which means let's arrive or net. Now let's look at the MBSR. And besotted means to start here again, we do not want you get it in first-person. Be simply courtesy. Okay, but before doing that, let's related again MBSR and we got the cmos. We do see mostly in sludge star. So for all the ropes which ended, we do this thing. We can look at another example, like comments. Comments. And we got the ER. And instead E MOS and cmos. We have to cut the zeros. So we cannot forget that. And we put C MOS instance would say loss, which means, Let's start. And how do we negate these commands? All we do is we simply put, negative command would be no, let us not speak. Let us not. So in order to form a negative command, all we do is simply, I don't know, in front of a before the affirmative command. That's all. Now let's look at some irregular. Irregular commands are the following. Iid, which means to go is Vajrayana will mean less. Data, which means to give would be the most, which means, let us give a star, which is to be the demos. Let us be subarray, will be set bombers. So these are the irregulars for nosotros command. Now let's look at nosotros command. The flexor. Let's see, we have the level four level. They're all we do is we do know SV, right? Monos live on the right. Notice because this is the pronoun for reflexive verbs, for nosotros, relatedness. And more has to be written because we've been doing here all Levon. Okay, similarly, this data would be this task or we could do is we have to cut and put mono. Okay, So we do that. We write this thing here. Again, as you can see, they are not changing the E to IE because we do not do it for nosotros also because it's an ER. But let's say we have this, this is an E2. I will then will do. So. Again, we will cut the RSC, okay? And we will here we will do and I like we have been doing this. Okay, So these are the muscle for reflexive are two quite difficult. We just need practice. And then we will be pretty clear what to do. 11. Vosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands part 1: We're going to learn how to form the philtrum, affirmative and negative commands. Affirmative commands are very easy to learn. Let's learn how to form the affirmative commands first. Let's say we have the worst of all we need to do is we need to r of the vote. Andrew, simply right? But, but we have to conjugate this works. Okay, we have to conjugate it later on. So simply attach a D. So this becomes our blood. The translation of this. All of you, our blood. Same goes for the vote. All I'm going to do is I'm going to cut and dried or D. So this becomes comment all of you. So nevermind whether the work is an ER. Er, we have the same ending here also we will cut and dried as green, which means all of you speak. Even if the verb is something like bendy, for example, even if it is irregular in the present tense in doesn't matter. It will still do believe. We will omit that. And right now, what happens if it is a Google Form? Again, I will do I will cut our and it will become a set, which means all of you do, or we want to print the negative command. How do I find them? All I need to do is I need to first conjugate them in the present tense form. So let's see, I have the vote. Okay? All I do is first, I need to conjugate it in first-person present tense. Present tense, first-person is upload right? After that, what I'm going to do is I'm going to cut and I'm going to write an EIS instead. Okay? So it becomes oblique. Why do I write EIS simply because it is an EIR. Whenever the verb ends in ER, I will write EIS. It's very important. So the answer is no, which means all of you blocked. Now let's do another example. Let's say we have the first-person is Yokohama IV. But all of the color mode like this. And I will attach an EIS simply because it doesn't Iago, if it's an ER, what I do the opposite, I attach an EIS. So it becomes OH minus all of you do not. Let's look at an IR verb now. Sbb, it's first-person is S Gremio. I removed all. And again, iodine and EIS, right? Simply because it is an ion, whenever the word ends in ER, I have to write e, s. So the whole answer, this is no. Which means all of you do not rate. Now let's say we have those like okay, now pending. Before looking at the d, Let's look at us. It, okay, So Google verb in the present tense we can to get it. Foreskin ago, you, our goal is the first-person present tense conjugation of acid. I will get 0, 0, and I will attach EIS. Why? Because it isn't ER, well, so it will be no. Otherwise all of you do not do or do not mean no allies. It will be. After that. Let's say we have the word like this. They did, for example, not indeed. It is an E2. I work in the present tense. It is an E2, Idaho. It's first-person conjugation is PDL. So what I will do, I will do. Okay, I will omit all and write EIS instead. Let's say we have another one. Same deal, for example, will be a little different. Syntax. First-person conjugation is siento. However, it's vosotros command will not be seen nosy and dies. It will be more sin. Why? Because we just state this. We will not be the only thing that Then let's see, we have the door door meals present tenses, Guillermo. So we only for the negative vosotros command, so it will be no dermis and we write EIS because it IL-4. Right? So this means all of you do not sleep. This is what it means. Now let's say LB need to form the reflexive vosotros affirmative command. How do we form that? Medicine? Let's say we have the word level, but all I'm going to do is we omit ER, ER assay or IRS, and right, instead, That's it. So for 11 times 11 and I omit ER and it becomes live on, all of you get on. If it's desperate policy, it will become this bit. Right. I omit the ers and make it. If we omit are not ERS, we omit the IRS. Okay. And then we attach the desperate. Okay. So just because this potassium Changing Woman the present tense and doesn't mean it will have the same changes here. It has its own central stem. Right? Now how to find the negative reflexive command, the negative reflexive verb commands. For nosotros. All we do is, for example, let's say we have 11 buses. What we do is first we write then, and then we rightly days. So if the rope is ending in ER, okay, we omit ers and put EIS instead. Okay, first, right? Then right, then right. Then right. Eis if it ends ers if it if it if it ends in ers or IRS. Right. So you all don't do not know. For example, let's look at, we will just move ahead and now look. Reflexive verbs for C are invoked. For example, how to form commands, vosotros commands. For, let's say CAR, ir. Verbs, ending works. Let's say we have the practical. So whenever the war ends and C are, all we do is we got the CAR. And right. Q you EIS instead IS, so this becomes d. Okay? So these how to form negative vosotros. No practical. And if it's ending in Lake LIGO, like GR, okay. All we do is we cut the GAR and instead write g, you will get this is true for all g. So we know all of you do not arrive. And if it is MBSR, they are ending the cut and dry it instead. M phase we write C, E IS instead. So for all the zodiac works, we will write d, c density. This is what we do. 12. Vosotros Affirmative and Negative Commands part 2: Now we're going to learn the second part of the commands officer. Let say we need to form the negative command for the flexible. And we have the volt, DC for example. So for vested say we will do this. Feels okay. No, Mr. Okay. Because all we're doing is we are omitting the RS and simply put in the OS, which we had learned. Now the irregulars are irregular. Irregular reflexive vosotros command. Okay, for irregular. Irregular also throws commands. For the flexible. These are EDC, which is ethos, and this is the affirmative command. And N4, which is negative. So that said, please, thoroughly, so that you will understand more. 13. Direct Object Pronouns: Let's learn the direct object pronoun. What exactly is a direct object pronoun? In English? Let's look at an example. Let's say I see something like this. I go to the market. I see flowers. I take the flowers. The flowers. I take the flowers. The flowers to my mother. Know what peculiarity do you see in the sentence? The peculiarity is that we are repeating the word flowers again and again. In order to eliminate the repetition, I will substitute the word flowers, the word. For example, I go to the market, I see the flowers. I did. I buy them. I take them home and I give them to my mother. This is the direct object pronoun. So let's look at the example in English. I give the flowers. For example. Flowers is always the object. Why? Because it is receiving the action from the verb give. Okay, very easy to understand. Snorkel difficult. Flowers is the object. B is the direct object because it does receive the action from the verb to give. So I need to substitute the flowers were the direct object pronoun the DOP. So I say, I give them. This is how we do in English. Or if I say something like I give the book, I don't want to repeat book. I will say I give it. So the advantage of direct object pronouns is that we eliminate the repetition of the same words again. And now how does this happen in Spanish? Well, it's very easy. First of all, we need to copy all the pronouns. So the first one is me in Spanish, which means then we have d, which means then we have which means him or her. You. Which, which will be masculine. And formal, only means Him. We will delete feminine form. By the way. Also means it, right? Then we have no, which means us by, by the way, law will be feminine. I'm going to write this. It does masculine and feminine have holes, which means all of you. And this is informal. We have lost, which is masculine, right? It can be formal. And then finally, we have also need them, but this then is feminine. And it also means all of you far more feminine. Whereas this all of you will be far more masculine. It's very easy. Look a little complicated, but it is not difficult at all. Right? Now let's say I want to see any sentence but under direct, used a lot in Spanish, Okay, Just like we do in an inch. So it's very important we understand. Now let's see, let's take an example. For that matter. Examples. For example, I write a sentence like your boy, only drew. What does it mean? I give? Your drawing means I again, only Brahmins book. Right? Now in English, if I will see, I want to substitute the word book BOP with the direct object pronoun, what will it be? Very simple. I give it. I give it simple. And then you also need to know that it will come after divorce. Okay. Give is warm, so it will come off the state. But in Spanish it's the other way. In Spanish, the DOP will come before the vote, right? So let's see how we do. So. Lecture. Also, I need to tell you another thing. Why is under direct object? Why? Because we have just learned that the word is direct object, then it receives an action from a wolf. Hence, this workbook is a direct object because it is receiving the action from it. I did receive the actual game. Now, let's look at the sentence in Spanish. You're only bro, I need to say I give it in Spanish. However, let's say we go step by step. First. I write my here, I've written my. Then give is boy. Okay. Your do is I give. Now I have it in Spanish. We had just landed in the table. Let's go to our people. There are to one, it does, this one does. So it will come here. In Spanish, we have two kinds of. One is masculine, one is feminine. Law, is the masculine. Law is different in the two. C therefore, is this a masculine or feminine? Well, clearly only bro is a masculine word because it does eliminate all the all law from the beginning that only blue and masculine. So technically I will be using low. So I will write my low, but am I going to write law? You're doing no wrong. Because I just told you that in Spanish, the law will come before the conjugation right before the vote. So I will write over here, your load. Does this mean I give it? I give basically, but the correct translation as I see, how easy this is. Okay, Let's look at another example. We can say something like, let's say I give the DBA or rather clean the tables, for example, a different sentence a little bit. I clean the tables. So in English, what do we do? I need to substitute tables with the direct object pronoun what will I say? I clean them. I cleaned them. Now. Let's do it in Spanish. I is you. What is limp? Er is the worst. So Olympia, you Olympia, Olympia and the tables last misses. The Olympia last myth. I clean the table. Now. I want to say, I clean them in Spanish. So what does, what does them in Spanish? Well, first let me write your Lin Biao. Now I'm only left with them, right? So let's see what does them in Spanish? There is many things in them. There are two kinds of them. I've written them here, and I've written them here also. So one is lost and the other one is last them. So then do you think will continue very carefully, very, very carefully, which then will come. The last message is a plural word. So it is clear that we will use, in this lab. We will use them. So your last so easy right eye. And then this is how we do. 14. Indirect Object Pronouns: We will study the indirect object pronouns. Now what are exactly in direct object pronouns? Basically, an indirect object pronoun is used to replace the indirect object. What is exactly an indirect object? Indirect object basically answer the question to whom or for whom, and actually scattered out, or to whom or for whom are known as given. Now we're going to look at a chart which shows the indirect object pronouns. But before that, let's look at some examples in English. Let's say we say something like I give the book. So I give the book to an over here since I'm giving the book to honor the indirect object because the action is being done to another book is being given to us. Right? Now let's look at the chart. Indirect object pronouns. So the first one is which means, for example, is D, which means to you or for you. And this is informal. The next one is which means or formal? Or it can mean to also. Then we have no, which means to us. Then we have all switched to all of you. And this is informal. Then we have which means to them, which is masculine, which is feminine. It means to all of you, which is form. So this is a chart of ideal. Now let's say I want to say something like, for example, I want to see. A sentence like I show or basically I give the gift for example. Okay, I give another good. Okay? So to give it and giving it to the gift. Right? So right now we're going to ignore the good work and I'm simply going to concentrate on I give. So in Spanish, the sentence will be translated. Your Your Honor. Now, this sentence I have to substitute. The idea will be indirect object. Pronoun is the indirect object here, because the action of giving is being done to her. Right? So I will, right now, I will substitute and say, I give her. In English. The idea is her. No, I want to write something like I give her in Spanish. So is in Spanish. I give to another we will say I'll give two armor. You'll do. I get to write I give to her. So 200 and Spanish we just learned was SUV write. Your. The only difference here is in English. The ideal p of 200 is the ideal. We write off to the vote, whereas in Spanish, before the vote. However, this answer is incomplete. We need to write your behalf to write on here because it is not signifying the gender. It is different compared to DOP when we get to know the gender because in BOP we have. But then li is signifying the genders will be nice to put on. Your honor, I give to her. Okay. Now let's look at another sentence. Let's say I want to say I cook for Maria. Anthony, for example. I cook for Maria. And we had learned earlier that the indirect object, all this answered the question to whom or for whom something is being done. Right? So here in this sentence in English for Maria and Tanya is the indirect object because for whom and my cookie, I am cooking for Maria Antonia. In English, the ideal p would be, I cook for them. Then is the ideal. Then is the ideal be over here. Now in Spanish, I need to write them, but I have to go step by step. So I say cosine of hostile and that's all I'm going to write so far. Okay? But I need to see what does the pronoun for ideal? For them? It is less. And they are girls. Maria Antonia, feminine is also less. So I will say Your casino. For Maria. Tanya. I cook for them. It's necessary to put Fatah Maria Antonia, because we do not know that gender by simply less. Now let's look at another example. Let's say we want to say something lay. She shows the house. Maria. Do you for example, and this U is informed. She shows the house. So u is the indirect object. Okay, why? Because the action of the houses being done to you and it is informal. So v have to say something a lot, casa. Okay. This is simply shows the house. Now, I want to put to you what this to you in Spanish rule U is. And if this informal, so we will use this day will come before the conjugation. It's different compared to English we rewrite. Do you often the holes after the vote? So we read Alia de la casa. This mean she shows you how to write in English. The ideal p has gone after the shoes within Spanish. It has come before the boundary. Right? So this is the ideal p. Right? Now, let's say we have another sentence like, for example, gives the gift, for example, gives the gift to us, for example, or to Maria. Maria. Maria and Maria and I is actually, so if I have two, why is this an indirect object? It is an embedded object because the action is being done to Medea. And so in English, I will substitute muddy and islet us. The ideal be the boy gives the gift to us. Now in Spanish, What is it is lost to us is not the, excuse me, the boy. Excuse me. So this is the conjugation. I do. P of loss will come before the conjugation is called nosedive. The boy gives us the gift. So this is the ideal. It's not very difficult. We just need to learn the chart and sentences and then we will get to know. 15. Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns: Now we're going to learn how to frame sentences with direct and indirect object pronouns together. So the DLP, which is the direct object pronoun, the list is the following. Is, is. But in form. Then we have law, which is him. But it is masculine and formal. It does all masculine. Then we have loud, which means her feminine form. And it is this feminine. If we have no switches, us, all switches all of you. And then we have loss, which is then, and it is masculine, then we have loss also means all of you. But this all of you formal. And it is for masculine or boils. Let us also, as all of you and this all of us informal. And this can be for any one boys and girls both. Then finally we have this last is all them. It is feminine. And then we have all of this, all of you far more feminine because it is lost. So it has to be feminine girls. So these are the DOP. Then L-DOPA. The DOP is used when we replace object pronoun. For example, let's say we have one sentence like a Libra. You will do. A Libra means I give the book, right? I give the book. And I want to say instead, I give, Hey, you're doing a Libra means I give the book. And book is the direct object. I want to replace the direct object. So in English it will be, I give it. In Spanish, it's going to be written in a little different way. How will we say we will see you all? And let's see what does it in Spanish? It then Spanish. There are two routes. One is low and when this law, so we have to figure out which it we will put. So we will look at are nonsense. Libra is muscular. That means I have to put a masculine it, and it masculine is low. I will write your load. I will drain your loudly in Spanish. The DOP comes before the verb there as an English, it comes after the vote. Right? Now let's say we have another sentence. For example, I go to the food. In Spanish, it will be your scene or la comida. So la comida is the direct object. It is receiving the action from the walk signal. So it is the direct object. I need to say, I cook it, I replaced the word for it in English. So ISA in Spanish, you will see it. Again. There are two kinds of, each. One is a masculine, feminine next door chart, which it we, we use, we will use la comida is feminine. So I write your law school syndrome, which means I cook it. Now let's look at the indirect object pronouns very quickly. In direct object pronouns. So we need to revise our list. So again, means or for me, it has two meanings. Just to do a little division, indirect object pronouns are those pronounced in which an action is gathered, our person or for a person. In ideal p, lead do not replace the direct object, but indirect object pronouns tell the audience to whom the action is being carried out. Okay, so we will see an example in a minute for you. And it does all informal. Then we simply to him. For him. It also means to be masculine and feminine. Norse means to us, or for us, also mean all of you. For all of it is informal. Then we finally have less, that is them or for them, and for both masculine and feminine. Right? And then we finally have all off to all of you. For all of Okay, So basically the ideal answer, the question to whom or for woman action is being done. For example, I cook for the children. I write the letter to my friend. So to whom am I doing the action? I am doing that to my friend. So let's look at this sentence. I right? I let my friend didn't actually put things in the sentence. One is objective, direct object also, because I write a letter, letter is the direct object, whereas my friend is the indirect object. And why is letter embedded object like is a direct object because it is receiving the action from the Voc to write. Direct objects. Are those objects will always receive the action from over there. As ideal, indirect object is a word which tells the audience for whom or for whom an action is being done. So we can technically right the DOP and ideas together, which is obviously this, what this lesson is all about. But first we're going to do the ideal being the sentence. We're going to learn how to put the indirect object permanent. So soon in English this sentence would be written as I write a letter to her because to my friend, it can be to him or her because I do not know who is this person. So this can be I write a letter to him or her because we haven't introduced this person before to my friend can be anyone. Right? We do not know the gender. So this is, I read the letter to him, slash. Now, I need to write the same thing in Spanish. So I'm going to write I letter, letter in Spanish for us to your scribble. Right now, I need to see what I have to write. Either I'm going to say to him or to her knowledge, see what this to him or to her. It is right. It is written here. That means to him or to her. Right? So I am going to see your scribble. Again, just like for the direct object pronoun, we were writing before the symbol for the indirect object pronoun the indebted over from Oracle also come before the verb. It's a little different than English, right? The ideal p before, after the vote. Because here we've done, I write a letter to him or her. To him or her is the ideal p in English and it is coming straight off of the verb. Write. In Spanish, it's different. We righted before the war. Here is clickable is the contribution of the robust clearly. So it comes here. Your list. Okay? And it can be a friend. It can be any because in Spanish we have genders, boyfriend. So this can be USB or not our amigo. Audit can be Amiga. Let's look at another sentence. I sing a song, Maria. Okay? Or we can do in Spanish, we write for film. Medea. Medea is the ideal p here, whereas a song is direct object because it is receiving the action from the work. And to Maria is the indirect object because it doesn't deceiving, because the actual law singing a song is being done to her. And we just learned that indirect object. Always answer the question to whom or for whom something is being done. Now, obviously I have to replace this to Maria, the indirect object pronoun. So your count or not functional Maria will become different. In English, I sing a song to Maria would be, the ideal bit will be, I'll sing a song, right? Because Medea is a girl's name. So I will say to her I will replace Maria, which I cannot write to me or to us, because the only ideal p that with Medea is to her. I sing a song to her. Now, I need to see in Spanish What does to her in ICT, in my ideal. It is. Again, it is, right? So I will write here. I sing a song to her, okay, So I will say, I will just save you. Anthony, consumed here. And I wrote right here, because Kung fu is a verb and we just learned that in Spanish, the ideal be always comes before the vote. And Gunther is a walk or it will come here. In English is the other way round if gums after lever, seeing is a war, and 200 is the ideal, ideal piece coming straight after the verb seem to consume now. But we do not know what is the gender. Lea is glibly already know it can be him or her. So it's very important that we write the name of the person who will be our muddy. It's very important that we write this. So say on a consumer Maria, which means I signal to her to Maria, it's actually in English. We are seeing it like that. I know in English we do not see I sing a song to her tomorrow. But in Spanish we have to say it like this. Because if we don't write this, then this sentence will mean I sing a song to him. Or it can when I sing a song to her. Or it can mean either singer song to it. Or it can mean either single song, former, because when we go back, Lee has so many. So it's important to mention whom we are talking about. So that's why we have to say Medea. So we know that we're talking about a girl. This li is standing for a girl. So literal translation of the sentences. I sing a song to her, to Maria. Okay, It's actually like this. If the spores select, say it's a story and Maria has already been introduced. And we say, I sing a song to her. Then I don't have to say Maria again because now I know that I'm already speaking about a girl. Now what we have, now we have to look at the DOP plus ideal. How do we frame these sentences together? What do we do when we have direct object and indirect objects together? How do we write the sentence? So we can pick the previous sentence for this. We can say, I write letters to you for example, okay, and this U is informal. So here we have to think this. The one in red is the direct object, and this to you is the indirect object, the one in blue right? Now. So letter is the direct object. Why is it a direct object? Because I write the letter, It's receiving the action from the right. We need to remember that direct objects are those objects which always received that from oval. And indirect object pronoun is indirect because this action is being done to you. The action of writing electrode is being done to you. We have just learned that indebted objects always the answer, always answer the question to whom or for whom something is being done. So please remember that red is the direct object and the blue one is the indirect object. Right? Now, we want to see, I write a letter to you now in English, Let's say we have to substitute letters. The direct object pronoun. How will I say it in English? I will simply say it. It will be, right. Do you will definitely become, this will stay the same. Or rather let's, let's games the question and write something like okay, let's say I write it for an exam. Okay, I write it to you. Now. I have to write this in Spanish. How will I, will write it like this? Sky also, your eye, right? Now, I want to see it. We also need to translate the sentence in Spanish. Your screen. I write a letter to our API. We have to do you, we will not see all the PO2, we will not write Vc. The DU will change into your S3 VO NACA. So in Spanish, the carta is the direct object, so we put it in red and art. Indirect object. Can we put this in blue? If I have to write it in English with indebted would direct object pronoun, indirect object pronoun, I will write it like this. I doesn't change. I do you for example, now in Spanish we have to say Scribble, which means I arrived. And I have to say, so what does it in the direct object? Let's go back and see it. There are two effects. One is low and wellness law. But since cartels a feminine noun, I will use law because it feminine. So I will say, Yo La, scribble, your life, scribble and we will put it in red. Your scribble, right? But now, I also have to say to you too is the idea of Lexie. How do we say to you and we have learned it as informed route to you. So what will it be in Spanish? Let's see, what does ideal pilus to you at this stage? Right? So we write, the last thing is the ideal P always comes first. So this, this means I lied to you. I write to you, this is your day law. You have to remember that the ideal p comes first, then comes the DOP. Okay, this is how we write it. Your screen. I like it has been changed to the right. So we will write over here. Red is direct object, which is direct or indirect opera than ideal.