Adobe Illustrator on the iPad MasterClass | Martin Perhiniak | Skillshare
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Adobe Illustrator on the iPad MasterClass

teacher avatar Martin Perhiniak, Design Your Career

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction

      2:34

    • 2.

      Download Exercise Files

      4:21

    • 3.

      Creating a New Document

      3:23

    • 4.

      Working with Cloud Documents

      3:37

    • 5.

      Useful Settings

      4:28

    • 6.

      Gestures and Shortcuts

      2:18

    • 7.

      Artboards

      2:26

    • 8.

      Import Options

      3:58

    • 9.

      Pixel vs Vector artwork

      1:57

    • 10.

      Pencil Tool

      6:23

    • 11.

      Pencil Shortcuts

      1:09

    • 12.

      Pencil Exercise

      4:37

    • 13.

      Pen Tool Basics

      2:18

    • 14.

      Pen Tool Shortcuts

      3:27

    • 15.

      Pen Exercise

      4:39

    • 16.

      Blob Brush and Eraser

      4:27

    • 17.

      Shape Tools

      2:42

    • 18.

      Precision Mode

      2:42

    • 19.

      Layers

      3:06

    • 20.

      Selection Tool

      7:46

    • 21.

      Direct Selection Tool

      2:05

    • 22.

      Simplification

      3:38

    • 23.

      Stroke Options

      2:16

    • 24.

      Stroke Appearance

      2:21

    • 25.

      Align and Distribute

      2:29

    • 26.

      Mirror Repeat - Draw in Symmetry

      1:44

    • 27.

      Grid Repeat

      2:56

    • 28.

      Creating a Seamless Pattern

      6:15

    • 29.

      Radial Repeat

      2:25

    • 30.

      Selecting Colors

      2:48

    • 31.

      Swatches

      2:21

    • 32.

      Color books and CC Libraries

      2:58

    • 33.

      Linear Gradients

      3:01

    • 34.

      Radial Gradients

      1:39

    • 35.

      Freeform Gradients

      2:28

    • 36.

      Type Basics

      2:52

    • 37.

      Text Formatting

      6:19

    • 38.

      Type on a Path

      5:00

    • 39.

      Outline Text

      2:40

    • 40.

      Pathfinder / Shape Builder

      2:49

    • 41.

      Compound Path

      4:00

    • 42.

      Clipping Mask

      3:42

    • 43.

      Outline view

      1:28

    • 44.

      Handover to Desktop and Version History

      2:58

    • 45.

      Quick Export as PNG

      1:15

    • 46.

      Publish File Formats

      1:02

    • 47.

      Livestream

      1:19

    • 48.

      AI Coediting

      5:26

    • 49.

      Upcoming Features

      1:03

    • 50.

      2022 New Features

      11:17

    • 51.

      MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Introduction

      1:22

    • 52.

      MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Tips Part 1

      5:53

    • 53.

      MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Tips Part 2

      4:53

    • 54.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Llama Land Illustration

      0:41

    • 55.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Light the Way Composition

      1:17

    • 56.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Sloth Illustration

      0:49

    • 57.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Celtic Cross Design

      1:56

    • 58.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Wolf Constellation Composition

      0:40

    • 59.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - You Are Just My Type Design

      1:11

    • 60.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Friendly Fox Illustration

      0:51

    • 61.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - YES Lettering Composition

      0:30

    • 62.

      ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Vampire Illustration

      1:01

    • 63.

      Conclusion

      0:59

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About This Class

Illustrator has been the gold standard for creating everything from gorgeous web and mobile graphics to logos, icons, book illustrations, product packaging and billboards for decades. Until recently you had to have a desktop or laptop computer to use it, but now you can also create stunning illustrations and graphics on the go, by using Illustrator on the iPad.

Mastering Illustrator on the iPad is perfect for you

  1. If you are new to Illustrator and found the desktop version a bit overwhelming, or

  2. If you are self-taught and need the skills to work more effectively and professionally, or

  3. If you love the idea to work on logos, icons, illustrations anywhere on the go, with just your iPad and Apple Pencil!.

Taking this course can be the perfect introduction to creating vector illustrations for anyone who owns an iPad. The refined, modern interface and support for Apple Pencil makes this robust creative tool easier to master than ever before.

Course content updated with the latest 2022 new features

Here are just a few of the reasons, why you need to try this new, re-imagined version of Illustrator:

  • Intuitive way of drawing vector paths utilizing the Apple Pencil

  • Smart Delete and Simplify features for refining paths with ease

  • Drawing in symmetry with Mirror Repeat

  • Creating complex details from simple shapes using the Shape Builder

  • Advanced typographic features like Type on Path with access thousands of Adobe Fonts

  • Grid and Radial Repeat for creating seamless Patterns

  • Freeform Gradients for beautiful transitions and shading details

Throughout this MasterClass, I have carefully selected each example to give you clear explanations as we explore the key techniques from simple to more complex. If you follow along with the exercises and creative projects within the course, by the time you finish, you will use Illustrator on the iPad like a creative professional. You will effortlessly find your way through the app, creating amazing vector illustrations for yourself, for clients, switching between desktop and iPad at the office or working in a cosy park.

Thanks to Cloud Documents there is a seamless handover between devices and most of the techniques you will learn from this course will also apply on the desktop version of Illustrator.

Since Adobe is frequently updating their creative tools you can also expect to see new features released often for Illustrator on the iPad. These will be covered as new lessons added to this course each time there is a new product update released.

Existing and more experienced users of Illustrator may also discover hidden gems and workflows or catch up with all the new features released in 2022.

By purchasing this course you will get all the examples as downloadable exercise files, so you can follow along and practice everything at your own pace.

Take the next step in your creative career, enroll for this course now and let’s master Illustrator on the iPad together!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Martin Perhiniak

Design Your Career

Teacher

Martin is a Certified Adobe Design Master and Instructor. He has worked as a designer with companies like Disney, Warner Brothers, Cartoon Network, Sony Pictures, Mattel, and DC Comics. He is currently working in London as a designer and instructor as well as providing a range of services from live online training to consultancy work to individuals worldwide.

Martin's Motto

"Do not compare yourself to your role models. Work hard and wait for the moment when others will compare them to you"

See full profile

Level: Beginner

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Transcripts

1. Introduction: Illustrator has been the gold standard for creating everything from gorgeous web and mobile graphics to logos, icons, book illustrations, product packaging, and billboards. For decades until recently, you had to have a desktop or laptop computer to use it. But now you can also create stunning illustrations and graphics on the goal by using Illustrator on the iPad, this course is perfect for you if you are just starting out or if you are self-taught and aiming to learn to do things more effectively and professionally. I am Martin brainiac, certify that there'll be expert and instructor. Besides using Illustrator for over a decade as a professional graphic designer and illustrator, I have taught thousands of people in classrooms, webinars, online tutorials, courses, and live streams. Thanks to being truly passionate about both using and teaching Illustrator, I am proud to say that I was officially voted as one of the top ten Adobe instructors in the world. Taking this course can be the perfect introduction to creating vector illustrations for anyone who owns an iPad. The refined modern interface and support for Apple pencil makes this robust, creative tool easier to master than ever before. Throughout this course, I have carefully selected each example to make sure you get clear explanations without wasting time. Even why we explore complex techniques. Having worked for clients like Disney, Martel, Cartoon Network, Nickelodeon, and BBC, I have ensured this course will help you start using Illustrator on the iPad, just like a creative professional. Thanks to the Cloud documents, there is a seamless handover between devices and most of the techniques you will learn from this course will also apply on the desktop version of Illustrator. Adobe is frequently updating their creative tools. You can also expect to see new features release, often for Illustrator on the iPad. These will be covered as new lessons edit to the course. Each time there is a new product updates released. By purchasing this course, you will get all the examples as downloadable exercise files so you can follow along and practice everything at your own pace. Take the next step in your creative career, enrolled for this course now, and let's master Illustrator on the iPad together. 2. Download Exercise Files: I wanted to make sure that you can easily get hold of all the examples that we will be using throughout this course. So there's actually a couple of different ways you can get hold of them. First of all, you can use a desktop computer and download the Illustrator files from the exercise files lesson. So these are the AI files. Once you download them and open them on the desktop version of Illustrator, then you will be able to go to the File menu and choose Save As to save them as a Cloud document. Here, you might be greeted with this dialog box where you can choose Save Adobe Cloud document, or this dialog box where you just simply have to hit save. And now let's jump to the iPad. And you can see immediately the file is now appearing here in the your work Cloud documents section within the home screen. And there is a little cloud icon next to the thumbnail, which means that it's not downloaded yet. So it's available to download. We just have to tap on it. And once the download is ready, you will be able to get started right on the iPad to make things easier and to avoid transferring fire several times throughout the course, I put several examples and exercises into a single file and only used separate files wherever it was necessary. So in this collective exercise document, you will be able to see a couple of sketches which I prepared for you to be able to trace over. And if you go into the Layers panel, you will see that the sketches layer is actually locked. So when I turn that on and off, you can see that's the one in the background. And I already have a layer setup called work here, within which you will be able to start drawing. There's already a couple of elements on that layer, which is for a specific exercise later in the course, when we will be talking about the repeat features, I recommend to draw these yourself, but in case you want to jump ahead, these are already there for you to get started with. Don't worry about messing up anything while you are practicing. If you want to get started with a fresh new document, you just have to follow the steps that I showed you before. Start with the desktop version, save it as a new Cloud document and then you get a clean start with everything the way I originally set it up for you. Another way to get hold of all the exercises is to use the public CC library that I created. The link for. This is again included in the lesson where all the files can be downloaded from. And once you click on the link, you will see a list of all the assets in categories that I sat up. And when this page opens, you just have to make sure you sign in with your Creative Cloud account. And after that, you will be able to choose the copy to your work option. This essentially will make a copy of the whole CC library and edit to your account. Once you are done with that on the iPad within Illustrator, you can create an empty new document. Just go into the Import Options and choose libraries. Here, the library should already show up and you will be able to simply tap on any of these assets to add them into your document, then you will be able to resize them and start working with them. So I'm going to show you this again, going into import libraries and then selecting another asset and resizing it before I get started working with it. So hopefully by having these two different methods, it will be easy to get hold of all the exercises, but please make sure that you only use these assets to practice and don't distribute or share them anywhere, publicly. And last but not least, I just wanted to mention that if you are planning to practice while not connected to the Internet, you can actually achieve that by going into the files that you've downloaded and choose the additional option make available offline. This can be useful in case you have a Cloud document, but you still want to access it while not connected to the Internet. So I hope you will find it easy to get hold of these assets and that you will have fun working with them. 3. Creating a New Document: First of all, we need to learn how to create a new document. This is extremely simple. Here on the home screen, we already have a couple of preset sizes that we can start with, like a four letter and the full HD VAB size. But if we need more sizes than that, we can choose Create New on the bottom left. Now, we have categories to choose from. Print sizes, screen sizes, and illustration sizes. Each of these presets can be set to portray because by default they're set to landscape. So if we select that, even the icon is going to update and in case we need a custom size, we can set that up here on the right side. Well, first of all, we can decide on the unit that we wanted to work with. So we can choose points, pixels, inches, centimeters, millimeters. Let's just stay with pixels. And once we have that, we can specify the size. I am just going to type in something different here, 2500 by maybe 1500. It recognizes that this is a landscape format, but if I change my mind and I want to switch the two dimensions, I can just tap on the portrait orientation. You can also look the aspect ratio. And in that case, if I change one of these values, the other one will automatically update. We can choose between two color modes. At the moment we have RGB and CMYK. Rgb is better for screen while CMYK, if you're planning to print your illustration and if you plan to use the same dimensions in the future, you can also save this as a new preset all the way at the top, we have the option to name our file already. And last but not least, we can also choose how many artboards we wish to start with in this blank new document. And we will come back to art boards later on. But for now, just so we can see it, I'm going to choose three art boards and then tap on Create file. So here is our new document. We can move these artboards around. They are all the same size that we specified in the beginning in the dialog box. Now, whenever I want to go back to the home screen, all I have to do is to tap on the little arrow on the top left corner. And then the most recently created document will show up in the recent tab. So we can very quickly come back to it by just tapping on the thumbnail. Or if we want to manage the document, we can also use this little menu here where we can rename the file, duplicated, deleted, or even make it available offline. And this is important because by default, every document you create in Illustrator on the iPad is going to become a Cloud document. The file format for that is AIC. Ai being the native file format originally used for desktop, and then additional C stands for Cloud. One of the biggest advantages of working with Cloud documents is that we can easily transition from the iPad onto the desktop and vice versa. Plus also we have an automatic backup of each state that we save, which is called Version History. And we will cover this later once we created a couple of documents in this course. But remember, you can find this option in this drop-down. So now that we've seen how to create a new document, in the next video, we will learn how to open up a file that was created on the desktop version of Illustrator. 4. Working with Cloud Documents: Here we are on the desktop version of Illustrator and I have an art work or pen which has two layers. We have the illustration in the background and the text on a separate layer. It's a fairly complex artwork, so we have lots of objects in each of the layers. And currently this is not a Cloud document. I can tell that by the five format, it's simply just an AI file saved on my computer. Now let's see what I need to do to be able to continue working with the same file on my iPad. First, I need to go to File Save As and choose Save Adobe Cloud document. When this message first comes up, it just explains what's the difference between using a file offline or in the Cloud? You can decide not to see this again each time you are doing this conversion. And then just simply click on Save to Cloud documents. You can choose a file name for it as well. I'm just going to keep it the same and then save it. Now as you can see, the file format updated to AIC and now switching onto my iPad under your work category, it should automatically appear once the synchronization is complete. If a Cloud document hasn't been used on the iPad yet, it will show a little icon on the bottom right. That little cloud icon there means that you will have to first download it once I click on it, that's when the download starts. And it usually doesn't take long, especially if you have a good internet connection. And now we can see the font being open on the iPad. So I can zoom closer and select any details from here and even use the same layering that we had on the desktop. So all of the objects that we prepared on the desktop is still completely editable on the iPad. And the best thing about Cloud documents is that you don't even have to worry about moving the files back and forth between the iPad and the desktop. Because now all the changes I do here on the iPad will be reflected on the desktop. So let's just see how that works. I'm just going to change the background color. So once that's selected, I will use the color picker and maybe make this a little bit more purple or a light blue, something like that. And now, for example, if I go back to the home screen, the document will be saved and synchronized. Notice the little icon here, that little blue arrow icon under the thumbnail is telling me that it's being synchronized at the moment. And once we switch back on the desktop, we can see straight away that the thumbnail updated as well. So we can just select that and we can immediately see that it is the same background color. Now if I want to go back to the previous version, I can do that from here on the desktop or from the iPad. Just simply go to the File menu and choose version history, which opens up a separate panel that keeps track of the changes. I can even see when these changes were made. And then I select the previous version. I will get a preview here in this thumbnail. And if I want to go back to this version, I can just choose revert to this version. And the document is going to update here on the desktop, but also switching back on the iPad, we see the changes immediately reflected here as well. So when I open the document, we can see once again, the original background color is now restored throughout this course. A couple of times we will be moving back between the iPad on the desktop, but we will mainly concentrate on the workflows you can do just purely using the iPad version of Illustrator. In the next video, we'll take a look at a couple of useful settings and preferences. 5. Useful Settings: There's two different ways of finding the preferences. If we're on the home screen, we can just tap on our account profile icon and that will open up the app settings. Or if we are in a document, we can use the cog icon here on the top right. Besides the app settings, we also can change the file name and the units that are used for the measurements. We also see a little bit of information about this current document. But most importantly, for this video, we can go into settings within the general settings. First, we can decide whether we want the toolbar on the left or on the right. And notice whenever I do this in the background, the two sides are swapping places. So by default we have the tools on the left side and we have our panels on the right side. But depending on which one you prefer or maybe if you are left-handed, it might be more convenient to have the tools on the right side. The next option is for the color theme of the user interface. I prefer to set this to dark because it's just easier on the eye, but you can switch it to light or make it even brighter. Or you can use System Settings, which is going to reflect the iPad OS settings. Right below this we have an important option called Scale Strokes and Effects, which we can turn on or keep it turned off as it is by default. And we will come back to this setting once we start making transformations on the objects that we create on the input, we have another very important option, palm rejection, which I recommend to keep on. This essentially helps you to be able to rest your hand on the iPad screen without messing up your artwork and purely rely on the Apple pencil for input, there is a useful shortcut that you can customize, which is the double-tap on the Apple pencil. I prefer to use this for these selecting objects or parts. But as you can see, there's a couple of additional options here you can choose from if you prefer, you can even disable it by setting it to no action. And that way you can keep tapping on the pencil without affecting anything. At the bottom we have an option, Show taps as a blue dot, which essentially highlights wherever you are tapping or pressing the Apple Pencil. This can really get in the way if you are just using your iPad normally. But if you want to record it like myself, it's actually quite useful just to indicate what you are doing. In the next category, we can change the units for the stroke size and the type size. So instead of the default points, we can choose any of these other options under Account, you will be able to check which Creative Cloud account you are signed in width. And if you wish to change to another one here, you can just choose Sign Out or so you will be able to see how much free cloud storage you have available and also how much local storage you have on your iPad. When you choose a bout, you will be able to check the version of Illustrator on the iPad and you can expect regular updates with improvements and new features. So it's always worth updating or having an automatic updates setup on the iPad. And last but not least, within Help, you can find lots of useful information, including things like gestures, touch shortcuts, keyboard shortcuts. We will go through these in the next couple of videos. But before moving on, there's actually one additional thing that we can change outside of the app settings, and that is the position of the touch shortcut. So this is the little helper here on the screen. If we tap and hold and start dragging it, we can reposition it somewhere more convenient to access. This is a sticky settings, so the touch shortcut will remember its position wherever you left it last time throughout the course, we will be covering all the touch shortcuts for each of the tools. But for now, just remember that if you tap the center part of this circle, that's the primary state of the touch shortcut. And if you drag a bit further out, that is the secondary state. If you want to see a list of all of these touch shortcuts in one place, you can just tap on the question mark icon here. Choose View, touch shortcuts. And as you can see, there's the two states, primary and secondary. And if you scroll down, you can see it being applied to all of the tools that we will be covering in this course. As I said, you don't have to memorize these right now because there will be plenty of time practicing and using these throughout the course. 6. Gestures and Shortcuts: In this video, we will cover all the useful gestures that you can use on the iPad. If you want to get a list similar to touch shortcuts, you can once again find this in the question mark drop-down view gestures, which is going to give you this list. But I'm going to show you how to use them, although they are very intuitive. So simply by pinching, you can zoom in and out. If you do a quick pinch gesture, you can quickly fit the artboard through your screen. And once you start making changes, as just say, I move this object here, rotate it around. I also select another object and stretch it out. Now if I want to undo this last step, I can use a two-finger tap on the screen. If I do it, again, I keep going backwards. So I undo the previous steps. And if I want to redo these steps, I can use three fingers tap on the screen, which again can go all the way back to my last step. By default, you can't really use your fingers to interact with much on your actual artwork. So you can't even select things or move them around unless you are using the quick menu, which we will be covering later on in this course. However, you can use your fingers to tap on any of the interface elements like panels or tools on the left side. And if you tap and hold on a tool with a little arrow next to it, like the pencil will open up this additional setting to access the blob brush. In this case, the same applies for the shape tools and the type tool. But most of the work that you will be doing on the iPad is actually going to rely on the Apple pencil, which makes sense for an app that is designed for illustration. We won't be using keyboard shortcuts in this course. But if you have a Bluetooth keyboard that is connected to your iPad, once again, you can find all the available shortcuts under here, few keyboard shortcuts. And they are actually exactly the same what you're used to if you are using Illustrator on the desktop. So in case you have a Bluetooth keyboard, I highly recommend to start learning some of these shortcuts as well because it can really increase your efficiency using Illustrator on the iPad. Now that we covered though the preferences and useful settings, in the next video, we will take a look at how to work with art boards. 7. Artboards: Having multiple art boards within an Illustrator document is a great way to organize your work and set up multiple different illustrations in the same file. In case of a branding project, for example, you can have all the collaterals in one place. So we have the logo, the business cards front and back, even the app icon and a brochure or prepared within the same document. The good thing about Illustrator art boards is that they are not restricted in size. So within the same file you can have various sizes or prepared for that specific purpose that they are designed for by using the selection tool, which is the first tool on the top of the toolbar, you can select any of the art boards and move them around. You can also increase, decrease their size by grabbing the control points around it. You can also rename art boards by double tapping on this text here on the top left corner. You can also duplicate art-boards by tapping on the quick menu item here just below it. And if we just move to the side, we can see it's automatically named exploration copy in this case. So it not only copies the size of the previous artboard, but also all the artwork inside it. And if you decide to delete this new art board, we can tap on the trash can icon, but it's going to keep the artwork intact. So it just simply removes the art board from underneath it. With the art board tool here on the toolbar, you can choose presets sized art boards to add to your document. So for example, if I choose the first one letter, it's going to add that our board underneath the selected artwork. Or if I don't have anything selected, and again I choose the art board tool may be now a different size, is going to edit just next to the previously created art board. Once again, I can just select this and move it around, align it, and place it anywhere within the document area. And it's worth mentioning that you can even overlap art boards. So if I use this art board as a large size that covers everything, I will be able to export all the assets in a single file or export them individually using those smaller artboards inside it, we will cover all of the export options that we have in Illustrator on the iPad in a later chapter in this course. But now in the next video, we will cover all the different ways you can import artwork and photos into Illustrator on the iPad. 8. Import Options: There are a couple of different ways of importing assets into Illustrator on the iPad. The first one is from the home screen all the way at the bottom left we find import and open. This will allow you to browse on your iPad. So if you have things set up like Google Drive, dropbox, Creative Cloud, or any other storage solutions. You can use it directly from here. And whenever you choose an asset, Illustrator on the iPad is going to generate a document for that. And even though this is a useful way to get started, I actually prefer to import things into an already created a document. So if we just open up a blank document that we created earlier on in this course, we can find the import options here on the toolbar. And there's actually quite a lot of options. We can either use the camera on the iPad or bring in existing photos, files, or even import Cloud documents are assets from CC libraries. But let's just start with photos. Once I select that, it's going to allow me to browse through all of the albums on the iPad. And as you can see, I already prepared an album with a couple of sketches. I'm just going to pick this image and it immediately appears within the selected art board. So even though Illustrator on the iPad is for vector drawing, you can easily work with pixel images and use them as part of your illustration or just as a reference to trace over. We will be doing this a lot in this course. So you will get to play around with these drawings in the next couple of chapters. Moving on, we have Cloud documents. As for all types of Cloud documents, not just illustrator, and we have a couple of different things here like this. One is a Photoshop Cloud document. If I select that and choose place, it will give me a couple of ways of importing this into my Illustrator document. So I can convert all its layers to objects, which is great. Again, because it was a layered Photoshop file, I will be able to access all of its contents separately. Or if I just want to simplify things, I can even flatten all the layers into a single image. And besides that, I can also decide to Import hidden layers or not. Now this really just matters if you are going to use all the layers are separate objects. So by choosing this and then clicking Okay, we get the artwork placed into the Illustrator document. And from the layers panel, I will be able to access all of its contents, which in this case is just that cloud that I can separately move from the rest of the illustration. But by going back to the same cloud documents option, There's also fresco Cloud documents here, like this illustration of the vampire. If I select that and choose place, it will give me exactly the same options. Now in this case again, I will use Convert layers to objects. And once again, it generated a separate group where I can find all these layers and start interacting with them. And last but not least, if we go back to import options, we can also choose libraries, which is giving us access to all the CC libraries that were generated with our Creative Cloud account. These can be used on all the Adobe tools, both on desktop and mobile. And they are extremely useful to keep things consistent, easily accessible. So for example, from this folder called Adventure designs, I have a couple of nice vector illustrations. And if I just pick any of these, it will be pleased into our Illustrator document. And this is actually a fully editable vector object, which is resolution independence. So we can zoom in and there is no rasterization. But also once again, we have access to all of its contents and details once we start opening up the groups within the layers panel, since we started talking about pixel and vector artwork, if you're not familiar with the differences between them. In the next video, I'm going to explain this a little bit in more detail. 9. Pixel vs Vector artwork: On my screen you can see the same illustration created in two different ways. On the right side, the pixel roster version, which was created by using Adobe Fresco. And then on the left side, the vector version, which was created on the desktop version of Illustrator. In a nutshell, the main difference or advantage of vector graphics is that they are resolution independent, meaning you can zoom in as much as you want and you will never see loss of quality or pixelation. And that essentially means that you can print it out in whatever size you need without losing quality. While, if we look at the pixel version, this is not going to have those nice, crisp, sharp edges. And also the closer resume, the more we start to notice the pixels or the small building blocks of a raster image. Photoshop is a tool that relies mainly on using and utilizing pixel graphics. While Illustrator is designed to work with vector graphics, and fresco is almost like a hybrid in-between the two, which supports both vector and raster workflows. And other main advantage of working with vector graphics, besides the fact that they are resolution independent, is that they are made up of individual objects. And it makes it very easy to go back and make changes to any details like here, for example, if I wanted to select any details, I could go and dive deep into selecting either the nostril of this bad. And it doesn't require me to set up separate layers. It's just simply the way vector graphics work. Every single detail is going to automatically become a separate, individually selectable item. And that makes working with vector graphics so much more convenient because you can make changes to any details at any point of your workflow. Now that we've covered everything that you need to know to get started in Illustrator on the iPad. In the next chapter, we can focus on drawing. 10. Pencil Tool: The most intuitive tool for drawing has to be the pencil tool. This is the one that we will start reading this chapter and I will show you all the shortcuts and techniques you need to learn to be able to work with it more efficiently. So the first thing that we need to set up is the colors that we will be using for the drawing. And these you can set here in the toolbar. There's a fill color and stroke color. For now I am going to use only the stroke color. I'll set that to black, but I would be able to choose any of these colors by using the color wheel, setting the hue on the outer ring and the saturation and brightness in the middle, you can quickly reset a color back to white or black, or also just simply remove it with this icon. As you can see at the moment, we have no stroke. But if I tap on the fill again, there we can change the colors. And there is a very handy shortcut. You can swap the fill and stroke colors by just simply dragging over them. So I can transition the stroke to fill and vice versa. So I am going to draw with black fill and I'll just show you very quickly this is how it looks by default. But if I zoom a little bit closer, I can show you that this is actually a very thin line. It's using one-point stroke size by default, which might be a little bit too thin to see what we're doing. So I am going to open the Preferences on the right side, and via this path is still selected, I can just drag over the point size so you don't have to type in anything. You just scrub to the right and left to change the size. I'm going to set it to maybe around six points or seven points. The good thing is that we don't even need the properties anymore. We can just hide it because every new path that we will create, Going to remember the last few settings, the pencil tool automatically create anchor points and these can be adjusted later on. But for now, I would like you to just remember that some points will be indicated with a square by others will be indicated with circles. The squares we call corner points, and the circles we call it smooth points. There is a very important setting for the pencil tool, which is called smoothing. And this is something we can find here at the bottom of the toolbar. By default, it's set around five, but you can go all the way up to ten or you can reduce it down to 0, which is basically disabling the feature. Now let's see what this means. If it's set to 0 and I try drawing a similar curve to what I have next to it. You will see that we have a lot of additional points created because it's trying to follow the movement of my hand extremely closely and generate every little detail. So all of those imperfections will be much more visible. That's probably not an ideal way of working because first of all, it doesn't look great. And secondly, it is more difficult to make changes to a path if it has a lot of anchor points. So going back to smoothing, Let's see what happens if we go all the way up to ten. Now if I draw the same thing, notice how while I'm drawing, illustrator is trying to simplify this path as much as possible. And now we only have a couple of anchor points created. The higher the smoothing, the more continuous and nicely flowing your paths and we'll be, but the less details it will be able to capture. So in general, I would recommend to use somewhere around five for smoothing value, which once again, can generate lines more closely to what you are drawing, but still refine them and create a nice continuous flow without the imperfections. There is a very useful technique with the pencil tool and that is to simply pose via drawing to create a corner point. So let's just see if I start drawing and then hold, then go down, hold again, and go up or down again, and so on and so forth. You can see, I can create nice curves, but then I can turn and go in a completely different angle thanks to the fact that I posed once and that created a coordinate point. Now remember when I mentioned the squares and circles on these pads that we create, you can tell that wherever I post, it actually shows a square. And in-between those squares, it shows smooth points. The little circles. Each circle would have also handles which describe the curve. And we can see these once we start using the direct selection tool, which is the second one from the toolbar. By clicking on any of these circles, we can find those handles. If I move this down a bit and adjust the handles, it's a little bit easier to see it. We will learn a lot more about these in the next chapter when we start editing our parts. Now moving back to the pencil tool, if I start drawing freely, and then I decide I need a straight segment within this path. I just need to tap to the point which I need to connect to. So simply tap here, There's my straight line. I can tap anywhere. And as you can see, that will automatically create a straight segments. And then if I want, I can continue drawing freely once again. Now if I ever want to close the path, all I have to do is to continue drawing and hold close to the end point or starting point of that particular path to be able to continue a previously created path like the one above. I will first use the selection tool, that's the first tool in the toolbar. Select the path, then switch back to the pencil tool. And now you can see I can either continue drawing from the left side, I can also continue from the right side. There is also another quicker way to close and open path. I'm just going to go back one step and having this path selected, I'll just switch to the Direct Selection Tool. And once the quick menu comes up below it, I can just tap on this icon here. Join path, which is going to close up the empty part with a straight line. Now that we've covered the basics of working with the pencil tool, in the next video, we will learn more about how to utilize the touch shortcuts. Why working with this tool. 11. Pencil Shortcuts: You might recall that in the first chapter, I moved my touch shortcut up here on the top-left. But remember you can reposition this anywhere. I prefer to keep it here because it's just easier to access it close to the toolbar. And we will be using this now in combination with the pencil tool. So we already know that with the pencil tool, we can draw freely or if you just tap anywhere, we can create straight lines. However, we can also switch between the two Drawing Modes by utilizing the touch shortcut. So I am using the pencil to draw and holding down with my other hand the center part of the touch shortcut, that's the primary state of it, which I will be able to continue. Vdd constrained straight lines. These are either vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. If I hold down the outer edge of the touch shortcut, with this, I can draw straight lines without any restrictions in direction. Once again, holding down the outer edge or secondary state of the touch shortcut, I can draw lines without any restriction and of course, at the same time, and I can also connect to previously created paths like this. 12. Pencil Exercise: Now that we learn how to use the pencil tool, it's time to put it into practice. And in this document I have a few exercises that we can go through. So first of all, here we have this sketch of a fox simply created with a single line using the pencil tool. This would be a great exercise, just simply setting up the color to be black and trying it out here first, I can see that the stroke size is too small, so just like before, increase it to something a little bit thicker like that. And now we can remove this line by switching to the selection tool and tapping on the Delete icon here on the right. Now, we can switch back to the pencil tool and we can decide where we want to get started. I will probably start here on the right and draw this first section because it is a straight line. I can even just tap once and then tap again. So there's the straight line. Then continue drawing from here, creating a curve. I can let go the pencil and draw the next line. Or if I want, I can also just keep holding until it creates a corner point like before. Again, holding it down here, create a corner point, holding it down there. Or if I need to move around to make it easier to draw, I can just use the panning gesture with two fingers on the art board. Maybe go a little bit further out and then draw this next segment. Now if I'm not happy with that curve, I can remove it and try it again. That's not bad. Let's draw the next one. And then let's draw this long section here. And then finally, another curve at the end. Any mistakes I made, I will be able to refine later on. We will learn more about these in the upcoming videos and chapters. But now let's do another quick exercise. Here's another single line illustration of this Rhino. So I'm just going to start here on the left side. And I will try to continuously draw this now. And I'm not that worried about the details. So I don't try to make it exactly the same. It was I'm posing a couple of times just to create corner points. And there we have our illustration. Let's draw one more thing. Here we have this beautiful illustration of a rose. Again, I'm going to use the pencil tool and now we will create multiple lines. First, starting with the spam, then drawing these other parts. Then let's draw the leaves. Then draw the flower. And then when it comes to drawing these smaller details here, it might be worth reducing the smoothing just so we can get closer without joining up these path that we're creating. And maybe just finish off that line, dad, My be better if you draw over here. Now, you are probably wondering how we can tidy things up like here. This line doesn't connect into the other line, or again, it's not aligned perfectly here. Another coronary here we might need to amend. But these are all things we will learn once we get to the next chapter where we are editing parts. For now, all we have to do is to get familiar using the pencil tool to draw straight and curved lines. Feel free to do these exercises a couple of times or even draw freely before moving onto the next video, where we will be learning about the other most useful and essential tool called the Pen tool. 13. Pen Tool Basics: We already seen that the pencil tool is great for drawing freely because it creates all the anchor points for us. However, if you want to be a little bit more precise, you should use the pen tool with this. It's more like constructing paths than drawing them, because each and every anchor point you will have to define yourself. So if you just tap anywhere, it will create straight lines. But if you tap and drag, that's when you start creating curves, that dragging motion is going to define the handles. They always come by default as pairs to allow for a nice continuous flow between the curves segments. So for example here, if I tap and drag again, you can see that there is a perfect continuation between the last two curves. However, if I want to continue with a straight segment now, I can just tap on this last anchor point, which will remove that empty handle. And now I can just draw a straight line again. You will need to do the same thing if you want to change direction between two curves. So if I tap and drag, then tap once on that last point again, and then tap and drag again. You can see I can have two curves following each other without having a smooth continuation between them. The great thing about the Pen tool is that it automatically allows us to go back and make changes to any of the anchor points or handles so I can tap on them, move them around, and also do the same thing with the handles. I can adjust this curve completely while still having the Pen tool selected. The good thing about that is once I made my changes, I can just come back and continue drawing either curves or straight lines. You can easily remove any point still with the same tool just by simply tapping and holding on them. And you can add additional points by tapping anywhere on the path. Once that point is created, you can move it around freely, just like all the previous points. Make sure you spend some time practicing using the pen tool before you move on to the next video, where we will learn about a couple of additional shortcuts which can make working with the pen tool even more efficient. 14. Pen Tool Shortcuts: You might recall that in the first chapter there was a preference for setting up the double-tap on the Apple pencil, and I chose to set it up to create new parts. This means that whenever you draw something with the pen tool or even the pencil tool, and you decide to create as an additional path without continuing the currently selected one. Or you have to do is to just simply double-tap on the Apple pencil. And you can see now I'm free to draw a new path. So just as a reminder, the settings you can find here from the cogwheel settings. And this option is actually the double tap which I chose to set to the select object or path. Now I'm going to switch to the selection tool, select all of these parts, and delete down quickly just to clear this art board. And I will show you what you can achieve by using the touch shortcut in combination with the pen tool. So first of all, you might remember that we can create curves by dragging with the pen tool. And then I'm just going to draw another one here. This creates these handles for us. And by holding down the center of the touch shortcut or the primary state of it. With this, we will be able to split the handles. So the default behavior would be for the handles to move together as a pair, which I can show you if I just undo this last step. So without holding down the touch shortcut, I can move them together. Once again, with the touch shortcut held down, I can split these two points. If at any point I would like to combine them back together. For that, I can use the outer edge of the touch shortcut, which is the secondary state. And if I just tap anywhere on the handles, immediately they will snap back together and become a pair. Once again, it is also possible to move points along a path. Once again, by using the secondary state of the touch shortcut and start dragging a point. You can see that it will adjust the point and move it along the path. Now, depending on how many points you have on a path, you might be able to retain the original shape or might not. So for example here, if I add an additional point, maybe move it down here, and then we add another additional point in-between when I'm using the secondary state now and moving that point around, there's not much change going to happen because of the other two neighboring points restricting the path. This is a feature that you might not use often, but it's still very useful because instead of adding and removing points, if you just need to nudge a point around but still retain the original shape of your path. You can just move points around like here. I can have a much nicer curve moving that point further to the right compared to having it too close to the other one on the left. Once again, the secondary state of the touch shortcut. And I'll just drag that point to the right. Remember you can also use the pen tool to edit any of the points on a path. So simply just selecting something and moving it around. However, if you hold down the primary state of the touch shortcut while moving a point or a handle, you will be able to constrain the movement to horizontal, vertical, or diagonal directions. And that's all you need to remember about the Pen tool. But just like before, in the next video, we will also practice a little bit using this tool on an actual illustration. 15. Pen Exercise: I will be using the same exact drawing for this exercise just to be able to compare and see the advantages of using the pen tool over the pencil. You can follow along and do the same exercise, but also you can feel free to use any other examples, whichever you feel is best to get used to the tool. So all we have to do to get started is similarly to before, define the first, then the next one. I'm going to keep this straight, so I just simply tap there. But then I'm going to tap and drag. And notice that I can move the handles around easily to adjust the curvature. And sometimes you might need to drag the handles out quite a long distance from the center of the anchor point itself to create the right curve that you are looking for. And then at this point, I knew that I will have to split the handle to be able to create that next curve segment. So if you recall, we can use for this the center touch shortcut and drag that handle. I feel like it will need to be somewhere around here for that next curve segment to work. And then I can just tap and drag out to the right. And now I can just adjust this handle here, and maybe that one as well a bit. Now we have another coordinate point to the ovid. Here. We can simply just tap on that anchor point once more to remove the free handle and then tap and drag to create the next segment. But at the same time, even before letting this go, I will already use the touch shortcut to break the tangent or handle, set it up in the direction I need it. And then I can move on to this next point here and drag it out. We can adjust once again the handle and then continue again with a straight line here. Here comes another curve and another longer curve further down. I just zoom out to make sure I have enough space. That looks good. Then to continue, let's break this handle up again. So holding down the touch shortcut, I'll set it up. I think it will need to be something like this, then we can continue drawing and drag it out. Yes, that will work. Once again. We can break this handle here and set it up for the next segment. Click and drag, and then just adjust this handle further. And that. Then we can break that next handle again and set it up to maybe somewhere around this way. And then click and drag, create this nice curve here. Then I can see that this handle will be too long. So I will just move it in. And notice that although the handles on the two sides are still connected, but I can have one side longer than the other by default. And here, now we can just tap and maybe just adjust this handle a bit further. And then finally, we create our last curve. So just like before, if I feel like I need further refinements to create a nicer curve, I can move points around and maybe at this point we can use that other shortcut, the outer edge of the touch shortcut to move this point along the path, maybe there it would work better. And then further adjust the handle, makes a nicer transition. And the same thing here on the tail. If I want it to come back, I can adjust these handles easily until I'm happy with the curvature. And then to make sure I don't mess up anything, I'm just going to double-tap on the Apple pencil, which deselects the path. And we can take a closer look at this. If I use the direct selection tool and tap on this path, we can see we haven't had to use many anchor points, definitely much less than what the pencil to create it by default. We could be much more precise setting up all the curves and straight lines exactly in the direction and shape that we needed them. So that is really the main advantage of working with the Pen tool compared to the pencil, even though it's not that intuitive and free. And it might take a little bit longer to get used to, but it's still a very important tool for vector illustration. So I highly recommend to continue practicing with the exercises that are included in this course and any other examples that you find yourself that will motivate you to practice and get better at using this tool. In the next video, we will be covering two additional tools which are also extremely useful for drawing the blob brush and the eraser. 16. Blob Brush and Eraser: Both the pen tool and the pencil tool can help you to create parts and the outlines of objects. However, there's a different way of approaching drawing within Illustrator on the iPad, and that is by using the blob brush tool. This is going to create fill instead of stroke details, and it will automatically define the outline by using a specific brush size. Once again, it sounds more complicated than what it is. So let me show you how it works. You just have to tap and hold on the pencil tool and switch to the brush or Blob Brush tool, which will give you a couple of settings in the beginning, I prefer normally to start with the basic round brush, but this is something you can come back to and make changes to later on. Now, we need to make sure we choose a color that will be visible on the white backdrop. So I will probably use a green color since I'm planning to draw over this cactus here on this sketch. And once I start drawing with this tool, notice that it has a thickness which can be adjusted with the number just underneath the color swatches. I'm just going to increase this a bit. And let's see. Now it covers much better that area that we need. And if I just continue drawing down this way and adding these additional shapes here on the left and on the right. The good thing about this is that everything is now combined into a single object. So when I use the direct selection tool, we can see that even though we were drawing in the middle, it actually defined a path or a silhouette around this shape. So all these brush strokes that we added are automatically merged into a single object. When we switch back to the brush tool, you actually can find additional settings at the bottom of the toolbar where you can adjust the roundness and angle of the brush. With this, you will be able to create more calligraphic brushes so I can show you how this looks. But if you want to quickly reset the brush, just go back to the settings and tap on this icon here at the bottom, you can disable the function called merge brush strokes if you want to keep each brushstroke as a separate object. And you can also choose to use the pressure dynamics of the Apple pencil or not. When it's turned on, you will be able to change the thickness of a brush stroke while you are drawing. By pressing harder on the screen, you will be able to increase the thickness of the brush. And if you want to adjust the sensitivity of this dynamics, you can tap on this little arrow and increase or decrease this percentage once it's set to a 100 per cent. That is the most sensitive way of using it. Because now if I press lightly, it will be very thin wire. If I press harder, I can go to a much thicker brush size. And if I come back and reduce the size maybe to 20%, then I will have much less freedom in changing the thickness by applying pressure on the screen. Similarly to this tool, we have the eraser with which you will be able to cut out details from objects. All you have to do is to make sure you select the detail you wish to make changes to before you use the eraser, then you can select the tool itself. And this tool once again has a couple of settings at the bottom, including the size of the brush, smoothing, similar to the pencil tool, and then also similar to the blob brush, we have roundness, angle, and pressure dynamics. Now if I start drawing with this tool, I can cut off the bottom part of this cactus or I can cut any details out of it and notice how it quickly adjusted the path and all the points on it. I'm just going to draw another shape here with the blob brush. Because I would like to show you that if you have multiple objects on the canvas and you have nothing selected, then with the eraser tool, you will be able to cut into any objects currently unlocked and available on the Canvas. While if you select one of these objects beforehand and then use the Eraser tool, it's going to only delete from the selected item. This can be a useful way of protecting details. You don't wish to make changes to when you are using the eraser tool. Once again, feel free to practice these tools before moving onto the next video, where we will be covering how to work with the shape tools. 17. Shape Tools: In this video, we will be covering the shape tools which you can find here. In this category. We have the rectangle, ellipse, triangle, and star options. Let's start with the rectangle with which we can draw rectangles or perfect squares by holding down the touch shortcut. Once you create a shape, you will still be able to make changes to it easily by using the corner widgets, you can adjust the corner radius on all the corner points. Or if you use the direct selection tool and select a specific point, you will be able to adjust it individually. You can also select the shape and rotate it around. And if you use the touch shortcut via rotating an object, you can constrain it to a 45-degree angle. The Ellipse tool works very similarly to this. We can start drawing ellipses freely, or again, holding down the touch shortcut, we can constrain it into a perfect circle. Or if we use the outer edge of the touch shortcut, we can also draw ellipses or circles from their center point. So let's try this again. Now, you can see I'm drawing them from their center point. When you are using the triangle tool or polygon tool, you will be able to add just a couple of additional things, including the number of corners. This is something you can do by using this little slider here. With that, you can increase it further up to as many points as you need, or all the way down to three points, which is the minimum. You can still use the coronary widgets to adjust the radius on the corners. And you can also access these features from the properties panel where you will find the point size for the corners and the number of corners here just below it. And last but not least, we also have the Star tool with which we can draw a star. And currently there is no way of adjusting the number of corners on stars. However, I'm sure it's going to be added as a feature later on. This is really all you need to know about working with shapes. There's one last thing that might be obvious, but whenever you create shapes, you can obviously fill them in with colors, either by using the properties panel and selecting a color there, or by using the toolbar on the left and tapping on the fill color. You can also choose to add that there also remember you can easily swap the stroke and fill colors simply by just swiping over them. And that is all you need to know about creating shapes. However, in the next chapter we will learn how we can also combine them together to create details like the clouds in this illustration, very quickly and easily. 18. Precision Mode: In the previous video, we've seen how to work with shapes, and now we will learn how to work more precisely using guides and grids. In this document, I already have a rectangle created, but I'm going to draw another one. And you will see that I can create this freely. However, while I'm drawing, notice that there is a magenta diagonal line appearing a couple of times that actually shows whenever I create a perfect square. So I can go further out as well. Now I know it's a perfect square. And also, if I want to align to another object, that magenta line will again helped me to align their bottom edge. Or again, if I drew another shape from the bottom, I can align that edge is like that. And of course, I can align two edges even if I want them to be overlapping each other in case you want to work more precisely, you can go into this section called precision, where you can turn on the grid which might not be visible well in this recording, I'm going to change its color to black. And I will zoom a little bit closer and then start drawing again. Notice that it doesn't actually make any difference until I also turn on Snap to Grid option. Once that's enabled, now my shapes will align to the grid in the background. And even if I start moving shapes around, they will snap to the grid in the background. There's lots of options you can change for the grid line, spacing and subdivisions, which can help you to add just a grid to make sure it suits your workflow. Sometimes you might want to use an object just as a guide instead of being part of the illustration. In these cases, make sure you select that object and then go to these additional settings here on the right and choose Convert to guide. This will remove any appearance and visibility from that object and simply keep it set up as a guide. So now even if I turn off the snap to grid option and also the grid itself, I can select another shape and align it to that guy that we just created. Again, it can be aligned, of course, to any edge or even coordinate point, and that guide can still be moved around if necessary. However, if you want to make sure a guide stays in place, you just have to click on the little lock icon in the quick actions underneath it. This will still allow you to move objects around and aligned to that guide, but you won't accidentally move the guide itself around. And that is all we needed to cover about drawing in Illustrator on the iPad. In the next chapter, we will be focusing on editing our drawings. 19. Layers: Layers are extremely useful to organize your work, especially when you start to create more complex illustrations. In this artwork, everything is on a single layer. However, within this layer we have a couple of groups. So that already makes it easier to access individual details, increase their size or move them around. Liters on the iPad work very similarly to the desktop. Or you have to do to create a new one, is to tap on the plus sign here on the top. And of course, you can rename layers. So let's just rename this one by dragging to the left and then tapping on this icon, I will call this Mountains. And if I want to move a couple of details like the mountains onto these new layer, I can just hold onto them until I can start dragging and then just simply drop it into this new layer. Now, because we created this new layer on the top, it changes the stacking order. And if we want to keep the mountains in the background, we just have to make sure it's placed underneath the other layer. Now, it will be very easy to hide the mountains separately or the details on the other layer. And since we have a couple of different things on this layer on the top, it probably would make sense to separate them. So let's just create another new layer. And I will call this cacti. Now, just like before, I am going to open this layer on the top, select one of the items and holding down the primary touch shortcut, I can add the other cactus as well to the selection. Now that they are both selected, I can hold onto them and then drag them into this new layer that we created. Now that we have them on a separate layer, it's very easy to hide them and show them individually. And if I want, I can also move these additional plants into the same layer, just like we've done it before, selecting all three with the touch shortcut and then dropping them into that other layer that we already used before. So once again, these are the items now on this third layer. Besides organizing things, layers are also useful to individually look parts of the illustration. So for instance, if I only want to work with the llama, I can easily look the cacti layer and the mountains as well by using the little pad locks in the layers panel. And now if I make a selection on this area, you can see only the Lamar details will be selected. So I won't accidentally include any of these details in my selection, which is a great way to selectively modify parts of your illustration. And there's one last thing that I would like to mention that you can use the layers panel also to delete objects or even layers by dragging them to the left and then choosing the trash can icon. In the next video, we will continue to use this artwork and the layers that we created, but we will explore all the different things that we can do with the main selection tool. 20. Selection Tool: The main selection tool that we have on the top of the toolbar is for selecting objects and modifying them. So let's just start by selecting this cactus here on the left side, we can see it also highlighted in the Layers panel. And if I open this group, we can also see that it's made up of a couple of separate objects. And by using the layers panel, I can get to these easily, individually. Or if I select the main group, I can also double-click on it to select the individual items inside it. I'm going to select the whole group again. And here, just below our selection, we can see an icon with which we can ungroup this selection. So by tapping on this icon, now, they are all independent objects and they won't be automatically selected together. However, if I want to turn it again into a group, I can hold down the primary touch shortcut and click on these additional details, which we'll add them to the selection. And now we can once again use the group function here at the bottom if you want. Of course, you can also name your groups similarly to what we've done in the previous video, we can just drag to the left on the group in the layers panel and then tap on this icon and I can just type in cactus. It is very easy to resize and rotate objects, or we have to do is to grab a corner point. If you want to make sure that you are not changing the proportions, just hold down the primary touch shortcut, which will constrain the proportions. You can also use this point here on the top for rotation. Again, with the primary touch shortcut, you can constrain the rotation to 45-degree angles. And since we are working with vector objects and which means that they are resolution independent, you will never lose quality by resizing any of the objects within your illustration. In the first chapter, I mentioned an important feature. It's a preference that you can turn on, which by default is disabled. This is for resizing objects that are using stroke attributes instead of fill colors. So this other cactus that we have here on the right side is also grouped. So it's made up of three details, but they are grouped together. But notice that when I'm changing its size, it is resizing in a different way. This is once again, because this object is using stroke instead of fill and to assure that it resizes, keeping its visual appearance exactly the same, we would have to use the preferences. And within the general options, we have to make sure the scale, strokes and effects is turned on. So now that we enabled that when I start resizing, you can see that the stroke size or stroke weight is also increasing while I'm changing this object. And just like before, if I hold down the primary touch shortcut, we can also constrain the proportions while having an object selected with stroke attribute. You can also access the stroke width option from this quick menu here below. And this is the second icon you can just drag up or down to adjust the values. The same feature you can access also from the Properties panel, you can drag left and right on the number within the stroke category to the left of this icon in the Quick access area, we have an opacity control, which we can again drag up or down to increase and decrease the selected items visibility. I wouldn't recommend using this to hide or show details for that, it is better to use the little icons within the layers panel. This is more to create transparency or making certain details see-through most creative tools you would expect to also have blend modes. And that's actually something you can find within the Properties tab here above, opacity, which is the same feature we just use from the Quick access menu. We also find a drop-down for Blend Modes. And multiply, for example, would make the selected object always darker. Via screen would always make things more brighter. And then we have also overlay, which is a little bit of a mixture of the two. Of course, there's plenty of other blend modes here. They are all exactly the same as on the desktop version. It's hard to define which one is best for what purpose. But in general, you most likely would use these first four normal Multiply Screen and overlay within the Quick Access area, we also have an icon for quickly moving items around. This is the fourth icon. Sometimes when you have a complex object or maybe the outlines are very thin, it might be difficult to move them around. That's why we have that icon. And for this, you can actually also use your fingers and just simply move the object wherever you need it to be. When you have multiple objects within the same layer, there will be a stacking order between them. And we can see this in the Layers panel as well. So that cactus is behind of that little plant detail at the bottom because that's the way they're set up here in the layers panel. But if I quickly want to move the cactus in front, I can use this third icon, which is for changing the arrangement and just simply drag it up to move it in front or drag it down to move it behind. So once again, if I drag it in front, it will be able to go all the way to the top of the current layer that is placed into, but it won't be able to move between layers for that, you have to result to the technique that we learned earlier on in the previous video. So let me just move this back again behind that detail. And then moving on within the quick access icons. The next one is for locking the selected object. This is exactly the same feature that you can find from the layers panel again. But it's also good to know that you can use the top-left corner of the selection for quickly unlocking it. The next icon we have already seen is for grouping and ungrouping items. So for example, if I want these two details to be grouped together, I can just select them and create a group. Now of course, you can have groups within groups, like in this case, the original two details were already groups, but now they ended up being in another group, which just like before, it makes it easier to select all of these details together and move them around either by tap and dragging on the items themselves or using the Move icon in the Quick access area. When you went to duplicate something, you just have to tap on this icon within the Quick Access area. And now we can move these duplicate to the side. So by default, when you create a duplicate, you want immediately see it. It will only show up in the layers panel because they are overlaid on top of each other. You just have to move it to the site to be able to notice it. Another faster way to duplicate would be to use the secondary state of the touch shortcut while dragging an object. This again creates the duplicate and it's very similar to holding down the Alt or Option key on the desktop. And last but not least, don't forget that when selecting a group, you can always double-click to access an item inside the group. But then if you already got to an individual object and you double-click again, you will switch to direct selection mode. And notice that even the tool in the toolbar changed to the second selection tool, which is called Direct Selection. And this is the tool that we will be covering in the next video. 21. Direct Selection Tool: We already seen in the previous chapter how we can use the pen tool not only to draw, but also to amend and edit existing paths. However, the best tool for this is actually the direct selection tool. We can find it here in the toolbar. And whichever object we select, it's going to show us all the anchor points it's made up of. There's a couple of useful techniques to learn here. First of all, that you can convert a smooth point into a coordinate point and vice versa by double-clicking on the point. So if I select this one, for example, I can just double-tap to turn it into a corner point, or double-tap again to turn it back into a smooth point. Notice that the quick access icons below our selection is also different compared to the ones that we've seen for the selection tool in this video, we will go through most of these icons. So the double-click that we've just seen can be also accessed from this menu. It's called Convert to corner. So if I tap on that, again, we get the corner point or tapping on the one next to it, we can go back into a smooth point. Of course, this smooth point can be further adjusted by dragging the handles around. And naturally we can move any of these anchor points around as well, or even move them along the original outline by using the secondary state of the touch shortcut, which again is something that we already seen in the previous chapter. So to summarize between two selection tools, the main difference is that the direct selection tool allows you to change individual anchor points. While the main selection tool is for amending or editing the whole object itself. Remember, whenever you use the selection tool, you can quickly, temporarily access the Direct Selection Tool by double tapping on the object. And when you are done making changes, you can just hit Done here on the top, which will take you back to the selection tool. In next video, we will look at a couple of techniques how you can simplify your parts. 22. Simplification: It is always advice to keep the anchor points as low as possible because this is going to help you to make changes much faster. Here we have the example of the rhino created with a single line, which we've done in the previous chapter. And you can see that there's actually quite a lot of anchor points here. Good news is Illustrator on the iPad has a brilliant way of simplifying parts by simply clicking on this icon here, you can get a much neater result without affecting the appearance of your illustration. So let's see this again. I will just undo this last step and then tap on simplification. The change on the appearance of the path is hardly noticeable, but we have a lot less anchor points. So once again, this is before and this is after. If you don't want to use simplification on the whole path, you just want to tidy up certain parts of it. You can also use the Smart Delete feature. I will zoom a little bit closer and select this anchor point here. I will now use the Smart Delete icon from the Quick Access area. And you will see that hardly anything changed once again, because Illustrator manage to replace these neighboring anchor points with handles that can define the exact same curvature for which we had an unnecessary anchor point in-between them. So once again, I undo this step. That's the point that we had originally. I can even move this up a bit just so we can see it better. What's going to happen? So there's the point where it's handles and one side tap on Smart Delete, it will disappear without any noticeable difference on the path. Now of course, you won't be able to remove every anchor point without affecting the path itself. So for instance, if I select this one here, if I now tap on Smart Delete, there will be a much more drastic change since it was impossible to use the neighboring anchor points to describe that complex path segment. I am going to just undo this step and also show you what happens if instead of using smart delete, we use the normal Delete Anchor Point option, which is the trash can in the creek access area. The same point is selected. Now I tap on the trash can, this actually going to delete that anchor point, but also it will break up the path and it will open it up leaving a gap. If this ever happens, there is also a quick option to close the path by first selecting the two points that needs to be connected and then tapping on this icon here in the Quick access area, we can join those two details with a simple straight line. It is also possible to slice, so cut parts into multiple parts. So for instance, if I select this point here and use the scissors icon from the Quick Access area. Now, we have two separate paths. The one that we just trimmed off and the additional part that we have here, once again, using the direct selection tool, if I select another anchor point like this one here, and maybe also holding down the primary touch shortcut, selecting another anchor point. Now, using the scissors tool, we can again split the path into multiple segments. And now we got a section here, another section here, and the third section on the top. Now that we've covered ways of simplifying pods, in the next video, we will look at the similar technique, but this is more for converting a path into an outline. 23. Stroke Options: We already learned how to change the thickness of a stroke. We can either use the Quick Access area and drag up and down the second icon. Or we can use the properties panel where we can drag the number again to the left or the right. It is important to mention that for open ponds, you won't be able to adjust the alignment of the stroke. It will always have to be centered. However, if we close this path by selecting the last point and continuing it with the pen tool and then closing it up in any way like this, for instance. Now notice that these options here in the stroke area within the properties panel became available. And we can change it to have the stroke aligned to the center or to the outer edge of the original path. Now, this is easier to see when we have a simple object like the ellipse with which if we just draw something like that and increase the thickness, we can simply change from center aligned to inside or outside of the original path. That is also an important feature called Create Stroke outline, which is a way of converting stroke appearance into a filled object. So just to make this again easier to follow, I'm going to create a ring by using a very thick stroke. And then if I go into the object options, here I can choose Create Stroke, outline. I doing this, the stroke became a fill and now I won't be able to make changes to the thickness, for example, or the alignment of the stroke. But I can start using tools like the eraser and just cut into this shape, creating some gaps on it very quickly and easily. You can, of course, still use a stroke attributes on these new objects or even swap the field into the Stroke option. But this is going to create a completely different look to the original ring that we had. Because now instead of a single path in the center, we have three separate shapes with individual outlines. In the next video, continuing to work with stroke attributes, we will be looking at how to create dashed lines. 24. Stroke Appearance: To be able to access the dash line options, you will need to make sure you have the Properties tab open and that you have an object selected which has a stroke attribute assigned to it. Once you have this setup here in the stroke area, you will be able to switch to dashed line. First is going to give you a default dash and gap size. But you will be able to increase or decrease these once again, simply by dragging the values to the right or to the left. We can also increase the gap just like that. And we see the update live on our selected path. If I zoom a little bit closer, I can show you another important option. This is once you have an open path or you have a dashed line applied to it, here, we can change the end points of the gaps and we will be able to see this better if I increase the gap size a bit. So this is the default cap feature, which is just a straight line. And this is the round cap option. If you are using round caps and you set the size to 0, you can actually create a dotted line as well. And just like before, we can easily increase, decrease the gap size to change the intensity of the dots. And of course, we can also use the stroke size to increase or decrease the size of the dots at any point, of course, you can also change the color of the stroke from this icon here, we can just pick a different color. And now we have that quickly applied, these changes at all non-destructive, and they can also be copied from one object to another. So in this case, let's just say we would like to reuse the same settings on another path. All we have to do is to go to the edit options here on the right and choose copy appearance. Once we selected that, we just need to find another path on which we would like to apply this. And then go back to the edit options and choose Paste appearance, which will ask us whether we would like to use both the fill and stroke colors settings. And in case of texts, we also have character style and paragraph style options, which would replicate the formatting of texts as well. But for now, we just say Paste and we can see the same visual appearance now applied on this path. In the next video, we will take a look at another useful panel called align and distribute. 25. Align and Distribute: This is the panel for Align and Distribute options. These can be used to align and distribute objects or anchor points to each other. So let's see how this works. First of all, on these couple of rectangles here, once I come back to these settings, I can first choose a line to top edge, which is going to just simply align them like that. If I undo this step, I can do the same thing, aligning them to that bottom edge. And now I can use the horizontal distribution, which will evenly spread them out without moving the objects on the far left and far right. There is also another important option in the same menu. I'm just going to select this illustration now. And if we come back here, we can also flip this horizontally or vertically. And as I mentioned, the Align and Distribute options also work not only on separate objects, but also on anchor points. So for instance, if I select these points here at the bottom and come back to the align options and choose align bottom edges. I will now have them exactly in the same vertical position. And I can even move them down or up all at the same time. So I'm just going to go back a couple of steps to see them again in different positions and maybe even move them a bit further away from each other just to make it more obvious what we're doing. So something like that. Now I am going to hold down the touch shortcut and select these four points like before. Then going to the Align feature and then again align them maybe now to that top edge, which of course, in this case it looks a little bit weird. So we can just refine it further by moving all the four points together at the same time. Now let's not forget that we can also create guides and align objects to them. So if I use the pen tool and create a straight line by tapping once and then holding down the secondary touch shortcut, click again, then go into the object menu and choose Convert to guide. Now, I can just use the direct selection tool and move these points onto the guide that we created. So with this, we can align them easily to each other. In this case, this took longer. However, in some cases, this might be a better way to get to the results you're looking for. In the next couple of videos, we will be taking a look at the repeat features, starting with the mirror option, which is brilliant for creating symmetrical drawings. 26. Mirror Repeat - Draw in Symmetry: Creating symmetrical drawings has never been easier thanks to the repeat features in Illustrator on the iPad, all you have to do to get started with it is to use one of the drawing tools, like the pencil and start drawing your first-line. Once it's created, switch to the selection tool, and then from the sidebar, select mirror repeat, which will immediately give you the center of symmetry line, which can be done adjusted to the position you need it in. And then continue drawing. I am going to focus on the central part of this illustration and draw some additional details which we need for the eyes. As you can see, when I get close to the center point, I can even overlap the two lines automatically. And the part that went through the symmetry line will be automatically hidden. This is a huge time-saver and makes working in symmetry so much easier. Now switching to the pen tool, I can continue drawing, still, keeping everything in symmetry. And just like before, we can start adding curves by dragging than adding corner points by tapping once more on the anchor point and creating the next curve segment. So as you can see, both working with the pencil and pen tool in symmetry makes illustrations like this come to life so much faster and it's so much more fun as well. In the next video, we will take a look at another repeat feature called grid. 27. Grid Repeat: Repeat Grid can be extremely useful when you want to create patterns. So for instance here, this cross hatch that I want to have on the ear of this fox would require me to draw lines very closely to each other and following the same curvature. Now we can do this much easier by using the Repeat Grid option. Let me just draw one line and then using the selection tool and the Repeat Grid option, we can now set up how this should work. First of all, I will zoom out and show you that we can easily increase or decrease the size of our repeat grid. We can also control how many columns and rows we need of the pattern. So in this case, I just want a single column like this. But I would like to keep the lines closer to each other. So I am going to zoom closer and drag these two points until I get the pattern to the density that I need. I can get even closer if I wanted to. And of course, I can still control the thickness of my lines from the properties panel by adjusting the stroke value. At the bottom of the properties panel, we can see the options for the grid. Repeat the second value here we can control the vertical distance between the tiles. And in case you have multiple columns, you can also control the horizontal distance between the repeats and you can even overlap them on top of each other if required. And there's so much more useful options here. But just to finish off this design, I am going to reduce the size of this area because we only needed around the ear. And then zoom in closer. I can now choose to expand this design by going into the object menu. And once we select it, expand, we can just choose the eraser tool and start deleting the details that we don't need. So I'm just going to quickly get rid of all of this. And then on the other side, delete all the details that is not necessary. And the amazing thing about the repeat features is that you can even combine them together. So now that we used repeat the grid, why not use the repeat mirror option that we've seen in the previous video. So having this group selected, I can just choose mirror and move the center of symmetry where it needs to be. Now switching back to the pencil tool, we can finish off the drawing by drawing these lines here. Posing for the corner points like we've done before. And then closing up this shape. So this once again appeared on both side thanks to the mirror repeat that we set up after using the grid repeat. In the next video, we will take a look at the additional features of repeat grids. 28. Creating a Seamless Pattern: To better utilize the additional features of repeat grids, I'm going to draw a couple of elements. And from these, we will create a repeated pattern. I am thinking of creating an autumn pattern with a couple of leaves and maybe acorns. So for this, I'm going to start with the blob brush and make sure we have a nice autumn color. So probably some orange color like this would work well for the leaf. And I'm going to increase the size of the brush. I am going to draw a very simplified version of an oak leaf. So I will just draw this side and then go next section and then maybe one more up here. I will also rotate this slightly to the left. And then just like before, I will turn this into a symmetrical object by using mirror repeat and drag them closer to each other. Now, moving on, I am going to draw another line with the pencil tool. Just set up the color to be black and simply use a stroke with which I can draw here in the center and increase the thickness by using the quick menu. And then maybe draw a couple of additional lines coming out from here. Maybe one here, another one on the other side, and then one more on the right side. So there's our first leaf. We can even group these together. But maybe I'm just going to select these three lines that I created. Adjust the cap to be round on all sides and also maybe increase the thickness just a little bit further. Now, we can select all of these together and group it. So it's just easier to move it around. And I'm going to duplicate this whole design by tapping on the quick action, drag it to the side, double-click on this, select the shape in the background and change the fill color to maybe read. I will also transform this leaf just to change the shape slightly, making it a little bit more unique. And then flip it around horizontally from the Align and Distribute Panel on the right and maybe add a little bit of rotation on it as well. Now we just need to draw an acorn for which I'm going to use the Ellipse tool and draw the first shape here by double-clicking on this, we can switch to the direct selection tool and select these two points. Move them up a bit just to create a more similar shape to an acorn and then draw another ellipse on top of this. And to be able to use the color here from the previous leaf, I am going to select that shape on the left, tap on the Fill Color and click on the plus sign. So now it is added to the swatches panel. Now we can easily assign the same color on this detail and double-click again on it and adjust these two points to create this detail. And maybe also just use the transform feature to align it closer to the shape that we need. Now, all we need is to use a similar shape to what we already used on these leaves. So I can even copy it by going into the Edit Feature, choose Copy, then tap somewhere outside and paste. Now we can move this up here, rotate it, and align it to the top. And finally, we might just need to group these together to make it easier to move around. So that's one group. We have another group here and another group there. Now it's time to turn all of these together into a grid. So I will select the three groups and from the repeat options, let's choose grid. And immediately we have our pattern, which we can increase in either direction. But more importantly, we can come to the grid repeat settings here in the Properties panel. And we can change the grid type to brick by row, which is going to alternate the elements. So instead of repeating it exactly in the same way, now we can see that the acorns are not lined up vertically, but there is a shift between the rows. And we can do the same thing vertically. So this is Brick by Row in a vertical shift where again we can see things are not lined up horizontally, but there is that jump up and down between the acorns, for example. For more variety, we can also choose to flip the rows around, which means that every second row is going to be in a different orientation. This is, again, easy to see on the acorns, for example, one vertical row is pointing to the left, the next one is pointing to the right. And for even more variety, we can add vertical flip to it, where once again, every second column will be upside down. The best thing about Repeat Grid is that we can still come back to our original elements, double-click on it, and then start moving them around and see the update live happening on all the other tiles. So let me just zoom out a bit. Start moving this leaf around. And you can see everything moving around. And thanks to all those sophisticated settings for tiling, including the brick by column and the two types of flipping. It really feels magical when we're doing this. All of the Repeat Grid options in Illustrator on the iPad. Non-destructive, which means that you can always come back to them and make adjustments, even spacing them out or adjusting their values from the properties panel. Don't forget that if you ever wish to make individual changes to each of the tiles, you can also expand the whole pattern by using object expand. The only disadvantage of doing this is that you will be losing all the repeat functionalities. And we still have one last type of repeat option to cover in the next video. The most interesting one in my opinion, the radial repeat. 29. Radial Repeat: In this lesson, I'm going to use the same elements that we created in the previous video and show you another very useful function to be able to copy and paste items from one document to another. So first of all, I'm going to double-click here just to be able to get inside this grid and select the original elements by holding down the touch shortcut. Now that all three of them are selected, I can go to the edit options and choose Copy. This is going to copy them onto the Clipboard, which allows me to go into another empty document. And then once again from the edit settings, I can now choose paste. If I check my layers panel, it will tell me that these are not in a repeat grid anymore. But I can also see that this acorn needs to be grouped together. The grouping was just something I lost on the way. So now that we have these three elements ready, I can just set them up in the direction I need them. And now, similarly to before having all of them selected, I am going to choose another repeat feature, in this case, the radial repeat, with which we get a circular pattern. And here we have a couple of useful control options. First of all, we can increase or decrease the amount of instances within our pattern. We can also increase the size of the whole illustration. But probably the most interesting adjustment is this circle here with which you can control the scatter of these patterns so you can move them further away from each other, create a little bit more spacing. And then now we can maybe increase the amount of elements a bit more. If you want it to keep a part of your repeat empty, you can just use these arrows here and open up either this side or the other side. This could work really well for adding some type here at the bottom in case this is part of a logo or a radial design. And just like with the repeat grid, you can steal, double-tap to go back and make changes to individual items. You can move these around, even change their colors or orientation or size, since everything is completely non-destructive, working with patterns, as you can see, has never been so intuitive and fun. 30. Selecting Colors: In this chapter, we will take a closer look at how to work with colors. First of all, now whenever you select an object, you can either assign a field color or a stroke color. Both of these options will give you pretty much the same options. Apart from gradients which are not allowed for stroke attributes, they can only be assigned as Phil. And we will discuss gradients in a lot more detail. But first, let's take a look at the color wheel. By using this, we can choose a hue on the wheel itself, and we can choose the brightness and saturation of the selected color in this square in the middle, we can also quickly revert back to black or white, or also remove the fill color by tapping on this icon here to use an existing color from the artwork, you can use the eyedropper tool. Once the little color picker comes up, you just have to drag it over the color that you wish to use. And once you let go, it will be applied to the selected attribute, like we've seen it before. You can also swap the fill and stroke attributes very quickly and easily, just simply by swiping over them if you prefer to select the color a little bit more specifically, instead of using the color wheel, you can also use the sliders or the hex code. The hex code is for web colors and you would need to know the exact code for a color. So for example, for black, you can just use zeros or for using white, you can use six f's. But this is not really the most convenient way of picking colors. So instead of this from the drop-down, we can switch to either CMYK sliders, which is a great way to selecting colors for print illustrations. And by the way, remember whenever you create a new document, you always have the choice to decide the color mode. And this is actually currently not something you can change later on. So in the settings I can see that the color mode for this particular document is set to RGB. However, whenever I create a new document, I can start off with CMYK if I know that the illustration I'm working on is created for print. Now coming back to the sliders, we also have the RGB sliders, of course. And besides that we have HSB, which is hue saturation brightness. These are extremely useful as well. So just like before, we can set the saturation and the brightness. But then we also have the hue here on the top. And last but not least, you can also choose to work with the gray scale slider, which will give you a range between white and black. Now to get back to a more suitable color for this pumpkin, I'm just going to select the hue and the saturation and brightness. Now that we know how to select colors, in the next video, we will learn how to work with swatches. 31. Swatches: Using the color picker in the toolbar. Besides selecting colors, we can also save them as swatches. You can choose to use the default grid view or you can switch to List View where you will be able to see the names of the colors and every document is going to start with a couple of default colors, depending on whether you are using RGB or CMYK documents. And in case, let's say I wanted to add this orange from the pumpkin. All I have to do is to just tap on, Add swatch. If I wanted to rename it, I just have to tap and hold and choose Edit. Here I can actually specify whether I want this color to be registered or saved as RGB or CMYK. And I can change the name by just tapping here on the top. So I will just type in pumpkin. And that also two options for the color type. The default one is processed scholar, but there's also a spot color. Now if you have a spot color in the document, that means that whenever is going to be printed, it should have that colored besides the usual CMYK inks, this can make sure that you get a perfect match in print to the color that you specified. But whenever we're working with spot colors, it is best to actually choose them from color books, which I'm going to show you in the next video. Besides these, there's also an option to choose whether you want this color to be global or not. If I keep global option on what that means is whatever this color will be applied, will automatically apply by changing the color definition. Let me show you how this works. So once it's saved, notice that there is a little triangle next to the swatch thumbnail, which means that it is a global color. So now if I draw another shape using the same color and even de-select this. But then going back to the color itself, choosing edit. Once I go into the sliders and start adjusting it, if I save my changes, it will update all of the instances wherever it was used. If you don't need a swatch anymore, you can also just tap and hold on it and choose Remove. Which even in case of a global color, doesn't mean that you will be losing those colors from the actual artwork is just simply not going to be listed in the swatches panel anymore. So in the next video, we'll take a look at selecting colors from Color Books and from CC libraries. 32. Color books and CC Libraries: At the bottom of the swatches area inside the color picker, we have two additional options. First, color books, which are spot colors that you can use in your documents. And as discussed in the previous video, these are perfect in case you want to preserve colors that you are seeing on your screen. And you want them to be perfectly recreated in print and in case you want to get the colors right, It's also recommended to get these color charts. This particular one is from pen tone. And whenever you find a color that you like, you can just search for it. It's called here within the color books section. So the chart I'm using is the Pantone solid coated, which has over 1300 colors in it. So once we go inside it, it will take quite long to find that specific one that I'm looking for. However, if I tap on the Search option, I can just type in 716, which leads me straight to this beautiful orange color. Now, notice that the swatch thumbnail now not only has a little arrow or fold on the bottom-right corner, but also as spot. And that actually means that this is a spot color. So just like I explained before, besides CMYK inks, whenever this illustration is going to be printed, they will have to also add that specific ink cartridge, which can make the illustration more expensive or cheaper in case that is the only color necessary. So let's see what happens if we select it. It will be applied to our illustration, but also it's automatically going to show up in our swatches panel, any type of swatch that you create and use in your documents on the iPad, of course, will also translate to the files on the desktop. So once you open this cloud document up, or even if you save it as an offline version, they will always be stored and saved inside the document. And last but not least, you can also select colors from CC libraries which can be created in any of the Adobe applications, including Photoshop, InDesign, or even the video products. So you can find these here at the bottom. And I actually have a CC library that you can access for this course, which includes already all the colors for this particular illustration. Here I can find the pumpkin, pumpkin shade and pumpkin light colors from CC libraries will always be synchronized between applications. So they are almost like global colors. But instead of just sinking within a current document, you can use them across all the Creative Cloud applications and mobile apps. I highly recommend to work with CC libraries, not just for working with colors, but also for storing graphical assets and character and paragraph styles. The only downside currently is that you can't actually create CC libraries within Illustrator on the iPad, you can only access the ones that you created on the desktop applications. So now that we've seen all the different ways of choosing colors, in the next couple of videos, we will be focusing on working with gradients. 33. Linear Gradients: As I mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, for Phil, attributes, besides solid colors, you can also use gradients. So once you are in the color picker area on the top, you have to switch to gradient. And it's going to give you three different options. In this first video, we will learn about working with linear gradients, which is the first icon. This automatically is going to give you a horizontal linear gradient, which can be controlled with the annotator on the canvas and the settings in the color picker on the left. So let's see what happens if I start moving this color stop around. We can see that the spread of these two colors can be changed and also the direction of them. And while I have the green color stop selected, I am going to change the hue on it just to get a nicer transition. So now if I move it around again, we can see how we can control this easily on the canvas. If I want to change the other color which is currently selected, this orange one, I can also just adjust that, maybe make it brighter just to get a little bit even more contrast between the two colors. Now if I want, I can also control the balance between the two colors with that little line in the middle. So I can have more of one color or the other. And we can even stretch the color stops further outside. That way we can get a smoother transition if needed. And to add an additional color stop, all we have to do is to tap on the annotator line. Once that new stop appears, we can again assign a new color on there. And just like before, we can move it around, we can get the other colors closer and we can still rotate the whole thing around very easily if you want to. You can even change the opacity of color stops. So here, for example, the yellow one is currently selected. I can just tap and drag the opacity slider to the left or to the right. So that's going to increase or decrease the intensity of the color. But remember, whenever you are adjusting opacity, you will actually be seeing whatever is behind that object you're working with if you want, you can also delete color stops that are not on the left or on the right edge. So in this case, if I select this blue one here, I can just tap on the trash can icon and we will go back to the original two-color stops. Just like saving solid colors, you can actually save gradient color swatches as well. Whenever you have one selected, just use the add swatch option that we've seen before. That way it will be very easy to reuse the same settings on new objects. So in case I draw another shape here, illustrator will automatically assign the previously used attribute. But if we want to revert back to a solid color, we can just go to the color picker and switch on the top to solid color and then select one of the previously created normal swatches. So now that you know how to work with linear gradients, in the next video, we will look at the differences when it comes to working with radial gradients. 34. Radial Gradients: Radial gradients work very similarly to the previously discussed linear gradients. All you need to do to start using them is to simply switch to the second icon on the top of the color picker area. And just like before, we have the annotator with which we can control the balance between the two colors. And notice that now we also can control the size of this circle, which is going to give us the radius or diameter for the gradient itself. Now we can also select the center point of the gradient, and with that, we can easily move it around within the object. And additionally, we also have this little circle here on the top with which we can change the shape of the gradient. So instead of a perfect circle, we can create something more like an ellipse. Once you distorted the shape, you can use the outer color stop to change the direction or orientation of the gradient. And just like with linear gradients, you can also easily add new colors on the annotator and select the color you want to work with from the left side. So besides these new controls settings, It's actually going to work exactly the same way as the linear gradient. And again, it can also be saved as a color swatch simply by just tapping there. You will see that clearly that this new one is definitely not linear but radial gradient. And if I want, I can easily apply it on any other objects. Once again, just simply selecting it and applying it on a field or attribute. And if you want even more freedom when you're using gradients, you can try the free form gradient option, which I'm going to show you in the next video. 35. Freeform Gradients: The third category of gradients can be again found here on the top of the color picker. So once we select the third icon, which is the free form gradient, you will start with a few random color stops on the actual object. So instead of an annotator, you have these little pins that you can move around. And just to see how it works, I'm going to select this one at the bottom and change it to a very different color. Now, moving these two colors around already shows you the freedom, but it gets better once we add a third color, because that is something that you won't be able to do with a linear or radial gradient. So in a way, I will be able to set up something like a triangle here. So if I just tap on the right side, notice how the new pin is going to inherit the previously selected color. And there is that gradient triangle that I just mentioned, but I can easily move these points around. And it looks really cool as it's transitioning between the other two colors stops. Now if I want to make a color more intense, I can also increase the intensity by increasing that radius around it. So now it's going to be more dominating. And each of these color stops have also an opacity feature that can be reduced or increased. Once again, remember that this will mean you will start seeing details behind this object. And if you don't need a color stop anymore, you can just simply delete it. Working with freeform gradients is great fun. However, you won't be able to save them as swatches. But in case you want to reuse the settings on another object, there is actually a very quick way of doing that. So once again, we have the three color stops and all we have to do is to go to the little scissors icon here on the right, which is the Edit menu where we have the copy appearance option. Once we've done that, we can select another object, go back again to the same menu and choose Paste appearance and just make sure you select Fill Color. You can also copy the stroke color in case you need it, but the fill color is the important one here. And you will see that we got the same exact free form gradient applied. So if we want to take a closer look at it, we just have to open the color picker and there are the individual color stops which we can make changes to. And that is all I wanted to show you in this chapter. In the next one, we will be learning about typography features of Illustrator on the iPad. 36. Type Basics: Similarly to Illustrator on the desktop, there are two different ways you can add text to your illustrations. Both times you would have to use the type tool which has an alternative, by the way, for vertical type. We will come back to that in a second. But for now I'm just going to use the main tool with this. If you just tap somewhere on your screen, It's going to create a point type. The main advantage of this is that it's very easy to resize and move around, but it is only recommended to use this for shorter amounts of text, like a title or a tagline. However, if you want to use more texts, like a whole paragraph, maybe in that case, you should still use the Type Tool, but instead of just tapping, you can click and drag to define an area type. Now you can see this works like text frame, which means that it's automatically updates the text flow depending on the width or the size of your frame. The properties panel actually tells you which type of texts you are working with within the texts container section. Notice that now that I have the area type selected, we see this icon here highlighted. And if I select the point type, we have the other icon selected. The great thing about that is that we can easily convert a point type to an area type or vice versa. So now these texts here that we originally created became area type. So it can flow easily depending on the changes of the frame. And then if I select this other one, I can convert that also to point type, which means now I will be able to quickly resize it and move it around. So just as a clarification, if you are using area type, these control points will be just to change the size of the frame, but it won't affect the size of the text. To be able to change the text size within an area type, you would have to use the font size option here. And you can just drag left and right. And when you let go, the texts will update in the current version of Illustrator, whenever you are changing the text size within an area type, it's not going to automatically adjust the frame to that new size. So a quick workaround is to quickly switch to point type and then back to area type. This way you can have the frame to the new text size that you adjusted to. As I mentioned at the beginning, the additional feature that we have is to create vertical type. Now once again, if I just tap on the screen, you can see it works very similarly, but it's just going to create the text vertically. And for these type of texts, we also have the option to change the container to be area type or pointer type. In the next video, we will take a look at all the formatting settings that we have here in the Properties panel for all types of texts, objects. 37. Text Formatting: Whenever you select the text object, whether it is a point type or area type, you will always get some additional new topography quick actions appearing underneath them. The first one, of course, is for changing the text itself. You can access this by tapping on the keyboard icon on the left. Or you can also just simply double-tap on the text. If you are using a Bluetooth keyboard connected to the iPad, then you can immediately just type the text in that you wish to work with. Or if you don't have a keyboard, then you can use this quick menu. I'm just going to type in something and then click away to accept the changes. We already discussed that for point type, you can easily increase the size of the text by using any of the control points without distorting the text. However, you can also scrub over the second icon in the Quick access area, which is again going to change the text size. The difference between the two methods is that if you are using the bounding box, you will only get as size hint on the right. While if you are using the Quick Access area, you can actually see the point size changing, which is a little bit more accurate way of adjusting your text. The third icon is for changing the letter spacing. We can spread out the texts or have the characters closer to each other. The next icon is a similar feature, but for vertical spacing, It's called line spacing and it works better for paragraphs or area type. So once again, if I start dragging this to the right or left, we can see that it works like an accordion. The next icon should be familiar from the previous videos. That is to change the stacking order so we can pull texts in front or move it behind of other objects in the illustration. And if we change the color of this text, we will be able to see it better. Let's just say now I can move it here and we can see that the title is behind the paragraph. But if I use that icon and drag it to the right, now, it came in front. Since we're doing this, let's just also change the font to something a little bit more substantial, which we can do from the text area here on the right in the properties panel. So let's just maybe try this text or another recent one that I used, which show the stacking order much better. So now we can definitely see that the point type is in front of our area type. This is again something that we can check in the layers panel. And we can also change the stacking order there by once again, just tap and hold and drag and position wherever we want to place the text. The next icon is to move text around, which again is the same as we had it before with the other type of objects and all the other icons should be again, familiar looking, duplicating and deleting. When you're working with point type, you might need to divide your texts into multiple lines and you have to do this manually. Because once again, remember, this is not a text frame, so it won't automatically adjust and create a flow in the text. So to be able to do this, we have to go back into editing the text and then choose the keyboard at the bottom as well. If I just tap in some guy here, I can just press Return. That will break this into two lines. There is actually a quick access icon for line break here. So you can see it achieves the same thing, but it might be a little bit faster. So you don't actually have to go all the way into accessing that keyboard action. Let's switch back to the properties area. And here we can adjust the alignment of our paragraph. So currently we are using a left align, but we can change to center align, right alignment, and even justification. Justification would be easier to see if you are using the area type. So once I set that up, we can see it adjusted the tax so it completely fills in the frame. However, this is creating so-called reverse within the text, these big gaps which you should avoid. So it's always best to increase the width of your text frame if you start seeing these appearing or alternatively, you can also reduce the size of the text, which is also a good way of eliminating reverse, depending on the font you are using, you will be able to also switch between sentence case and all capitals with this icon here. Or you can also use small caps, which is still going to have a visual difference between the capital letters and lowercase characters. But instead of using the lowercase characters, it is actually using capitals but in a smaller size. Besides this, we also have options for underlining texts or crossing through it. And of course these can be also edit to individual parts of text. So if I just highlight texts here and go back into Properties, now I can just crossover or underlying the selected word within that text object. It is possible also to change the color of individually selected characters. So if I go back here and maybe change this to black, now we have two different colors within the same text object. The fonts that you can choose from are all Adobe fonts. And you can also download and start using new fonts by simply tapping here at the bottom on more fonts. Here, you will find different categories. And these are actually really useful to quickly narrow down your search. So let's say we are looking for a script font, something that's more hand lettered. We can just choose Marker, which will work quite well with this text adventure time. And maybe let's just select this one here on the top. Once you start using a font, it will be automatically added to your list. And you will also be able to see it in the recently used fonts here on the top. If you're looking for a specific font by their name, you can also search for them here on the top-right corner. So I'm just going to type in machine and immediately we get the result. So I'm just going to choose this one. And whenever you are changing to a new font, you might need to come back and just adjust the letter spacing and line spacing to make sure that it works well with that new selected font. In the next video, we will learn about another really cool typographic feature to align text on a path. 38. Type on a Path: To create Type On a Path, First of all, we will need to create a path. This can be created with any of the drawing tools, whether it's a shape tool or the pencil or the pen. For now I'm going to use the pen tool and just simply set these to have a stroke attribute, No Fill Color needed. And then I'm just going to create a nice S curve here. Once it's ready, we can select our point in time while holding down the secondary state of the touch shortcut, I can drag this straight onto the path that we created. This is a very handy shortcut. However, there is another way to do the same thing in case you forget to use the shortcut, having the two objects selected, the text and the path, we can go to the Type panel here on the right and choose type on path. Sometimes when you are using this method is going to do a better alignment of the text, even though it takes maybe a little bit longer than using the shortcut. Once you have your text on a path, it's worth checking the formatting of the text. And usually I would recommend to use center line. However, you can also adjust the text to align it to the left or the right. But we'd center alignment. It will be easier to make changes. So you can access the end point within the path with which you can position it further to the left or right. And you can also do the same thing from the left, adjusting the start point. However, if you drag the start point down, you can also change the alignment of the text to be below the path. Instead of being good above. I'm going to undo this now because it will be difficult to read the texts upside down and having it here, we still have the option to change the letter spacing just like before. Also still have the quick access for the text size, which is very useful. It won't change the size of the path, just the text on the path. And in case you want to adjust the path itself, you can tap on this icon here in the Quick access area and just adjusted on the fly and see the changes on the text. Again, I just love how this happens on the goal as I'm making changes. And of course I can also move these points around. Now, as I mentioned in the beginning of this video, you can also use shapes to be the container or the path for your text. So let's see how that works. I'm going to use an ellipse, start drawing and actually hold down the touch shortcut to keep it at perfect circle like this. And then I'm going to use the same text. So I will just double-tap to select it all and use the Quick Access area here to copy this text. And then just simply use the Edit menu on the right and choose Paste. So this can very quickly create a duplicate without being connected to the path. And just so we can see the circle better, I'm going to give it a color just temporarily and also maybe increase the thickness of that line. So now that we have these two elements, we can again either use the touch shortcut or select the two objects together, going to the Type menu and choose type on path. When you are using a closed shape instead of an open path, you might find it a little bit more tricky to set things up, but essentially it works exactly the same way. So you will have two options for adjusting the start and end point of your text. And in this case, you can use the same icons to shift the text from being outside of the shape to be inside the shape. So it's a simple drag into or out of the shape to adjust that. And I think inside the shape would work better, especially if we want to use it with this illustration here above. Now, let's zoom a little bit closer. Maybe we can also resize this circle, which automatically resizes the text inside it. And I think in this case, we have to also resize the text a little bit. Otherwise, it just gets too curved. And although this is a shape, we can still go into adjusting the path if we wanted to, by selecting the same icon we used before. And maybe select this point here at the bottom and just drag it up a bit. If we hold down the touch shortcut, we can make sure it only moves up vertically. So that way we can have the curvature set up slightly differently. Now, if we want to go back to adjust the text again, just use the type tool and again, use the endpoint and start point to drag them inside the shape. So something like that, I think work quite nicely. Now we can maybe just increase the texts a little bit more and we can maybe move it also slightly down. Now, we will be returning to this artwork later because we still need something in the middle. And I'm going to walk you through a full character illustration in the next chapter. But for now we still have one more thing to learn about texts. And that is the outline option, which I'm going to show you in the next video. 39. Outline Text: Similarly to the desktop version of Illustrator here on the iPad, we can also outline text. This can be useful if you need to make specific changes to the outline of certain characters. But remember whenever you are using this feature, you will be losing the text formatting capabilities. So this is still an editable text. I can tell that by the quick action menu here below it, which has all the typography features that we covered in the previous videos. But now if I go to the Type menu on the right and choose outline text, this is going to turn each of the characters into vector objects. And if we go into the Layers panel, we can actually see that this is a group. There. We have each characters created as compound paths. Now, we will be covering what a compound path actually means. But for now, all we have to remember is once we created an outline text, it means that we can easily adjust any details. So for instance, we can select any of these characters and just using the selection tool, we can move it around, rotated and so on and so forth. I would normally use this feature for refining connection between characters, especially in case of hand lettering, sometimes you might have not a perfect alignment between two letters. So here, if I just double-tap on you and double-tap again, I can access the anchor points and select the ones that I need to work with and just simply drag it in place. So now I can maybe move this a little bit further down. And already we have a better connection there when I tap away. Now, it feels like these two characters were meant to be together as just zoom out and see if there's any other details that we can fix. But I feel like that was the only character pairing that was weak. This is also the perfect way of customizing text. So once again, if we come back to this letter that we just moved up, fire, just move it back here. I can just adjust it slightly. I will double tap on it. I can select these anchor points here and smart delete them. Now select these points on the top and drag them up a bit. Now let's zoom back a bit and see what we achieved. So all we need now is to use the blob brush tool with the same color. Just draw a nice long line here above the text that are endless possibilities. Once you start combining all the features we learned about texts, objects, and all the previous videos about drawing and editing parts. In the next chapter, we will be covering a couple of more advanced features, like the shape builder, clipping masks and compound paths. 40. Pathfinder / Shape Builder: There are certain features in every illustration that can be easily drawn by using shapes and combining them together, instead of relying on tools like the pen tool or the pencil. In this video, I'm going to show you how to draw these Cloud simply just by relying on shapes and the shape builder feature in Illustrator on the iPad. So I already have the Ellipse Tool selected. And with that, I'm just going to draw a couple of shapes. I'm not going to make it exactly the same as we can see it in the background, just roughly following the original sketch that I created. And there's another big one that we need to place down here and maybe just move it up a bit. Let's just select this one, move it slightly to the right. And then let's create a rectangle on top of all of this, maybe by using a different color. And let's draw it here at the bottom. Maybe just move it slightly up. So now we can select all of these shapes together and go to the Combine Shapes menu on the right, which is already going to give us a quick preview of what would happen if we use these basic actions like combined, all Minus Front, intersect and exclude. And these are the Pathfinder actions that we can also find on the desktop version of Illustrator. However, my favorite way of combining shapes is always to use the Shape Builder, which we can also find here on the top in this menu. Once you are in Shape Builder mode, you can very quickly remove the details by simply just drawing over them. And if we zoom a little bit closer, I can just cut off these bits. And then if I draw over all of the remaining shapes, I can also connect them to each other just to make it easier to see what happened here, I'm going to undo this last step, get back to editing the shapes and switch all the shapes to outline by swapping the fill color to stroke color, and then go back again into the shape builder feature. Now, if I just connect them all together, you can see how it all becomes a single outline. I highly recommend to use this feature wherever you can because it can really save you time and also keep your paths really neat. Because thanks to the fact that we started off with simple shapes, we will have the minimum amount of anchor points necessary to create this detail. However, if you feel like it can be simplified even further, don't forget that we have the simplified option here in the creek access area when we are using the direct selection tool. And by clicking on that, I feel like it managed to get rid of maybe a few more additional anchor points without affecting the appearance of our path. When using the shape builder, sometimes you might end up creating compound paths, and this is a feature that we will be exploring in the next video. 41. Compound Path: When using certain actions in Illustrator, you might end up creating compound paths. It's important to understand why these appear and also how to work with them. So in this video, I would like to show you two instances when compound paths will appear in the layers panel. One of them is when you are combining shapes. So for example, if I put these two ellipses on top of each other, select them and then choose from the combined shapes Minus Front, with which I can cut the smaller circle out of the larger one. This will result in a special group which we can see in the layers panel. It's actually still two separate independent objects. And we can even see the original color of the smaller lips. Now if I start moving this around, I can cut different parts of the larger circle. And if I want to change the interaction between the two shapes, I can still come back to the Combined Shapes, feature and switch from Minus Front to combine. All. These still keeps everything intact so I can steal selectively move objects around, and I can still switch it back to another mode like the minus one that we've seen before. However, if we switch to the shape builder tool and draw over this section here in the middle. This is going to create a different result. So inside of this group, now we will see a compound path. This is essentially a combination of the two ellipses, but instead of them being separated into two separate objects, now it's a single object and usually there is no point of having this inside of a group. So I can just get rid of that grouping. Now if I double-click on this object, I can still accessed individually or the anchor points. However, it is not as easy to move that small ellipse inside of the larger one anymore to be able to do it. Now, I will have to one-by-one select these anchor points and then start moving them around. And if I drag it all the way to the side, it will again create a different appearance as we've seen before, inverting the outside area. There is also another important restriction which applies both for compound paths and the combined shapes options. And that is, you will only be able to use a single color. So in this case, if I change the color, It's not going to change only the selected details color, but the whole compound path will update accordingly. Another instance when you might end up creating compound paths is when you outline text and your characters have counters inside them. These are the little empty details within certain characters like R, P, and B. And I just chose these characters randomly. So it's not an actual abbreviation if you have been wondering what this actually means. So if I go to the Text Settings and choose outline texts, you will see that everything is now turned into anchor points and outlines. But more importantly, if we open this group, you will see that all of these objects are actually individual compound paths. And there's one last thing worth mentioning that if you wish to release a compound path, you can also do that by selecting the object and then going into the object menu, you will find release compound path, which is going to separate all those details inside this object. So the counters inside it now are separate objects which we can move outside and see all the components of the original compound path. Don't worry if you don't find this topic that exciting because most of the time you won't have to worry about compound paths is just something that happens in the background. It's more about the technical aspect of it that's worth being aware of and understanding the limitations that we discussed in this video in the next lesson, however, we will be covering a very important feature which most likely you will be using often in your illustrations. It is the clipping mask. 42. Clipping Mask: We already drew a couple of details for this illustration. This time we will be focusing on the mountains in the background. And I'm going to show you how to use the clipping mask feature. So first of all, I'm going to use the Ellipse tool and just draw a big ellipse here and try to align it to that original sketch in the background. And then I use the pencil tool to draw these additional details here. I just roughly try to get close to it. Have to be exactly the same. And then I close it up like so. Now let's select this shape here and switch between a stroke to fill color and maybe change the color as well, too bright green or so. Let's do the same thing for the other shape and have a darker color than the one on the top. And now it's time to create the clipping mask to keep that shape on the top contained within the big ellipse that we created first. But it is very important to remember which shape is going to be your mask or the container. And in this case, that's the ellipse. So whenever you want to set up a clipping mask, you have to make sure the mask itself is always sitting on top of everything else. For this, we can use that quick access menu here at the bottom. Just drag it all the way to the top. Now select these two shapes together. And then from the Object menu, we can choose Make Clipping Mask. What happens is that we lose the color on the mask, but we will retain the color on the object inside the mask. However, if we open up here in the layers panel, the clip group, we can actually select the ellipse, which is used as the mask and assign a color to it again while still keeping it active as a mask. So the cool thing about setting up these type of special groups called clip groups, is that anything inside the mask will still be easily editable. So I can move this detail around and see where it is best placed by the mask itself is going to automatically hide the details outside of the container shape. We can have multiple objects within the same clip group and they will all be affected by the same mask. So if I just draw another ellipse here and change its color, make it maybe even brighter. Notice how it automatically is masked out and kept within the same clip group. Anytime you want to remove an item from a clip group, you can just drag it from the layers panel and move it outside or just a similarly, you can drag it back in there. Another thing that's worth remembering is that we can also adjust our mask so I can select the ellipse itself and maybe switching to Direct Selection tool. I can move these two points higher, up or down to get a different shape for this mountain. And last but not least, you can also very quickly release a clipping mask if you feel like you don't need it anymore by using this icon here in the Quick access area. So this is only going to show up whenever you have a clipping mask selected. So the amazing thing about this workflow, again, is that it's completely non-destructive. And even though you are creating a special grouping between objects, you can always expand it and still have the original details completely accessible. I'm going to undo this last step and keep these shapes together. Maybe just delete that last object on the top to resemble my original sketch more closely. In the next video, we will learn about another very useful feature called Outline View, which can be extremely helpful, especially when you create more complex illustrations. 43. Outline view: When you end up overlaying a lot of objects on top of each other in a more complex illustration, it might be slightly difficult to access certain details. In these cases, it might be worth temporarily switching to the outline view, which you can find here on the top-right corner. So switching from preview to outlines is going to give you a better look at all the details used in your illustration. And then sometimes even refer to this as X-ray view or x-ray vision because it really helps you to understand how certain details are created. So for instance, here on the top we can immediately see that there is a clipping mask used. So if I switch back, we don't see the hidden details on the mountain top. But if I go to outlines, it immediately becomes obvious that the central detail here was created exactly the same way as in our previous lesson. However, these other details here on the right and on the left show that these objects are actually made up of individual parts and stroke attributes assigned to them. So if we go back to the preview mode, it looks very similar to the other detail. But when I select them, we can see that this is an individual line with a stroke attribute assigned to it. So just remember, the outline view can be very useful to understand the structure of an illustration and also to spot mistakes that you might not notice when you're working only in preview mode. 44. Handover to Desktop and Version History: Thanks to the seamless integration between the iPad and desktop version of Illustrator, whatever you create on your iPad will be automatically accessible on the desktop as well. We already covered this in the first chapter of this course. So I'm not going to go into detail explaining it. However, there's one thing I wanted to mention that is if you want to make sure that you get the most up-to-date version of an Illustrator file that you worked on on the iPad. I recommend to first go back to the home screen on your iPad before opening the file up on your desktop. So once again, it is easier to show you than to explain it. Here we have the little llama illustration and let's just say I want to move this cloud in front of the llamas had not an ideal way of creating the composition. But for now, let's just say this is what I want to continue working with on the desktop. So I'm going to go back to the home screen here on the iPad, which will immediately refresh this file and synchronize the changes into the Cloud. So now if we switch to the desktop version of Illustrator here in the cloud documents section, I can see already the thumbnail updated, which means that if I double-click on this file, it will be the up-to-date version that I created just now on the iPad. If I then decide to make changes here, maybe move the Cloud to the side and also maybe change the color of this cactus to a darker green. Now, if I want to continue working on the iPad, I just have to make sure I save this file. And also I recommend closing it before opening it back up again on the iPad. So back on the iPad, we can see the thumbnail again updated. I can just tap on it and all the changes are visible. So the Cloud is on the side and the cactus is updated to that new color. Also, don't forget that you have version history, which you can access both on the desktop and on the iPad. So if we go back to the home screen here in the additional options under view version history, we will be able to revert back to any of the saved versions. So let's just pick one of these versions here, which will have the different color on the cactus. And if this is a stage that I would like to refer back to in the future, I can even market with the little bookmark icon, even gave it a name. Bright color. And marking certain stages in the process can really help to come back to them later, because here on the top, you will be able to find them easily. And also at the moment, any unmarked versions will be deleted automatically after 60 days. This time limit or restriction might change in the future, but still, I recommend starting to use Mark versions in case you want to preserve some important previous states of your illustrations. 45. Quick Export as PNG: Illustrator on the iPad has a Quick Export option to create PNGs separately from each of your art boards. So if we go to the Share option here on the top right, we can just choose Quick Export as PNG, which will tell me immediately that there will be three images created. And there's a lot of quick actions here. I can do saving the images on the iPad or print them, or even save them to Pinterest. However, we also have additional tools that we can publish these images to, like Photoshop on the iPad. So if I tap on that, we will receive these images as new documents within Photoshop on the iPad. And thanks to the PNG format, they will automatically come in with the transparency information. So there's no white background, meaning I can easily combine this illustration with any background I wish to use. The only downside of this handover between Illustrator and Photoshop on the iPad at the moment is that only the first PNG will appear inside Photoshop. So if we go to our home screen, there won't be any additional documents created for the other two missing art boards. To get a better result, you will need to use a different file format from the share options, which we will be covering in the next lesson. 46. Publish File Formats: We already seen in the previous video how to use the Quick Export as PNG function. But above this, we also have the Publish and Export options. Currently, we have five different file formats available here, out of which three are vector file formats. That's the illustrator native document file AI, than the Acrobat native file format PDF, SVG, which is scalable vector graphic that can also be used on the browser or in a web environment. And then the two roster or pixel file formats, PNG, which includes transparency, but it can only have a single layer. And PSD, which is the native multi-layered Photoshop file format. I'm not going to show you each of these individual file formats, but if we just choose PSD for now, at the end, I would normally send this either to Photoshop on the iPad or add drop it onto my desktop computer. In the next video, we will take a look at another exciting published feature called the live stream. 47. Livestream: If you wish to share the way that you're working with people online and stream your actual illustration process live. You can do this from the export options by just simply choosing start a live stream. The stream is going to appear on the hands and it's worth giving it a title and the description. And before going live, you can decide whether you would like to only stream your screen or also the front camera of the iPad and the microphone. So these can be deactivated easily by tapping on these icons. And there's also additional options here where you can enable or disable the chat feature. And also in case you just want to test out the stream of before going public, you can disable the public on Behance option. In case you are interested to see other people's live streams. You can go on the home screens Discover tab where you will find artists currently streaming and also recent live streams that ended when clicking on See all on the top right. You can even sort them by feature or the most recent ones. Even if you are not a professional illustrator, it is great to leverage the Adobe Behance community to learn and get inspired by each other's techniques and illustrations. 48. AI Coediting: First of all, just to make it clear in this video, we will be going through a collaborative workflow between me and my friend George, working on the same Illustrator file and using multiple devices. So first here we are starting on George's laptop and he is going to invite me to collaborate and work with him on this illustration. So all he has to do first of all, is to make sure that this Illustrator file is saved as a Cloud document. That means that the file will be stored in his cloud storage connected to his Creative Cloud account. And then he has to invite me as a member for this collaborative project using my Adobe ID email address. So switching over to me, I got an email with the invitation, and now we are on my iPad. I'm just going to have the Apple pencil up there just to indicate what kind of device we are on here, all I have to do is to go to your work section within their choose shared with you. And here we will see immediately that the files are sinking and the Illustrator file document just appeared. So let's open it up. And of course it's going to have to download the files first. But I'm getting a warning message that George actually is currently editing this file. And since currently these collaborative feature in Illustrator is unlike Adobe XD is live co-editing. We have to make sure we're not working on the same file. At the same time. I have to ask George to close the document on his laptop and then immediately I will be able to open it on my iPad. So I'm just going to make a couple of changes here, just minor tweaks on the elements used in the background. And also by using the layers panel, which by the way, also got much easier to work with in this latest update for Illustrator on the iPad, I am just going to select the main color for the bison, and I'm going to match it to the color of the tail. And by the way, it's also worth mentioning that just like Georgia invited me from the desktop, it is also possible to invite other members from the iPad. And even though I am not the owner of this document, I can still invite other collaborators to join the party. Of course, George is always going to be the owner and he will be the one in charge of managing the file and also the access privileges that are assigned to other creators. So the last step to make sure that the changes I've done on the iPad updated in the Cloud document is to tap on the little arrow on the top left. That way we go back to the home screen and you will see the thumbnail also updating. Now once again, we are back on George's laptop and you will see the little thumbnail updating indicating that there has been some changes made to the Cloud document that he shared with me. Now because I have don't have it open on mine iPad. He will be able to open it on his laptop and continue to make some changes and refinements. So we again are not working at the same time when this finally, it's important to mention that it is not live co-editing yet. It's more like passing the ball back and forth. Once George is done with his refinements, you just have to remember to close the document and let me know that it is now ready for me to continue. So now just to mix things up, I am back editing, but this time instead of using my iPad, I am going to open the same cloud document on my desktop computer. And thanks to the fact that there is a seamless transition not only between the creators, but also the different devices use. There shouldn't be any issues. However, here I have to mention that there is a little bit of a caveat. Sometimes if you have very complex Illustrator documents on the iPad, you might experience some crashes. That type of stability improvements are constantly worked on. So with every update, Illustrator on the iPad is getting more and more stable. So now I just save the document, close it and let George and all that he can take a final look at this awesome illustration that we collaborated on. As a side note, I just wanted to mention that the same exact workflow is now also available for Photoshop. You will be able to also invite co-creators and work on the same shared Photoshop Cloud documents. And in case you have a lot of shared documents both in Photoshop and Illustrator. The best place to keep track of all of these files is the Creative Cloud desktop application where you can easily find and manage them. And last but not least, as I promised, the other new feature that has been a highly anticipated one is the rotate canvas option on the iPad. And it is just a simple two-finger gesture that we're used to in other apps. But the best thing is that you can actually continue working in this rotated view so you can move things around. You can even start drawing. And whenever you want to quickly jump back to seeing your canvas in the original orientation, have to do is to do a quick pinch with two fingers and it will reset both at the rotation and also fit the canvas to your iPad screen. One thing worth mentioning is that guides and rulers will be hidden while you are in the rotated View. And unfortunately, this feature is not currently available on the desktop, so it's only for the iPad version of Illustrator at the moment, I really hope this will soon come out for the desktop version as well, because that would be a huge time-saver and we would make drawing in certain cases so much easier. I hope this video made you excited to jump back into Illustrator, either on the desktop or on the iPad to try out these cool new features. 49. Upcoming Features: At the time of recording this course, Illustrator is in its first version. However, you can expect frequent updates and new features coming out throughout the life cycle of this app. Usually a large amount of new features released at Adobe MAX each year, which is happening around October, November time. But similarly to other Creative Cloud tools and apps, you can expect smaller updates coming out throughout the year. If you are interested to see the upcoming new features on the home screen, you can just tap on this option here on the right, and you will get a list of the things that you can expect. But if there is something specific that is missing from this list that you wish you had on Illustrator on the iPad, then you can also just suggests that feature from here at the bottom. This Illustrator on the iPad masterclass, we'll kept updated with all the new features coming out. So you can expect every feature as a separate video lesson at the end of the course in a separate chapter. So stay tuned and keep checking this course for new content editor in the future. 50. 2022 New Features: I have to start with my favorite, the blend tool is now available on the iPad version of Illustrator, and it is very simple to use it quite similar to the way you would do it on the desktop. So what you need to start with these two separate objects selected together. And then from the menu on the right where you find the repeat features. Now we have a blend as an additional option. Once you select this, it will automatically generate this new blend group. And the cool thing is that here on the iPad you have actually much more intuitive controls to make changes to this group. So we can easily adjust the steps. So we can include more steps or less between these two shapes simply by just dragging that arrow up and down. But you can also quickly access the spine, which is that path between the two shapes. So we can easily move them around. And this almost feels like we are working with a 3D model. So when I turn this around, you can see it almost looks three-dimensional, but there's a lot more, of course you can do. For instance, you can select individual points, move them around and again, see all the changes updating live. So I can very quickly add a little bit more interest into these elements here. And if I want, I can even change the spine very quickly. So let's just use the pencil tool and draw another line. Then select the blend group and this line together. And then from the properties panel, we can choose the option Replace Spine. And now the blend between the two objects is created along that path that we created. And of course, by using the direct selection tool, we can also adjust that easily. And once again, feel like we're working in 3D. Another amazing new feature is called transformers shape. And this works best when you have groups within your illustration, like here, I have a group created for the head of this fox. And instead of using the selection tool, I'm going to switch to the Direct Selection tool. And notice that here at the bottom we have this new icon. And once I turn that on, we get the transform has shaped feature, which has first shows this really cool look at all the curves currently used in our composition. So every curve here is constructed as part of a larger circle. And we can see all of those circles showing up. But the coolest thing is once you start selecting things, let's say the ears. In this case, we will be able to adjust them together. So illustrator finds the similar shapes within this group. And in this case I can even use the Rotate View option just so we can see this better. We can very quickly adjust the ears. Also, this other shape on the ears or the whiskers. Again, if I click on one, all four of them are immediately selected and we can adjust their sheep all at once, straight away and even shapes like these evading a clipping mask, I can very quickly adjust, increase the size or make them smaller. And the same goes for the head as well, which is actually the clipping mask itself. We can very quickly adjust the shape, make it narrower or wider, and so on and so forth. And you can see that the changes I'm doing are automatically kept in symmetry, even though we are not currently drawing in symmetry. So that is again, thanks to this new feature, transforming things as shape will automatically maintain the identical sides are symmetrical sides. Now of course, you can always turn this off and then revert back to the default rate. The direct selection tool normally would work wherever you can individually select anchor points and make changes to them. Vectorizing raster images became much easier thanks to the fact that we have this new option here whenever you select a photo and this feature is using pretty much the same algorithm that we have for image trace on the desktop with all the options coming up here on the right, starting with defining what the source image is, whether it is a sketch, line art, logo painting, or a photograph, depending on which one you choose, the settings will automatically change and you can consider these as presets. Just remember, if you want to capture color information, make sure you go for painting or a photograph, since this was originally a sketch, I'm going to stick to these preset and you can see that in this case the color mode is logged into black and white. Then I can decide what I want the output to be, whether I want to create field objects or stroke. Most of the time you will get slightly better results with fields. And then with the rest of the options, you can refine the tracing result. So by reducing the threshold, for instance, we can have less of the original lines captured. It usually reduces the density of the lines. So we can go all the way down how it looks and uncheck when we drag it all the way up, I wouldn't want to use the highest or lowest value here because then it will completely turn everything black or white and by the way, Ignore White, as you can see here at the bottom, is automatically turned on, which is a very useful option. You wouldn't want to vectorize it any empty areas. And then the rest of the options that we have here, path corners and noise. Is really useful to refine details. If you increase path when corners you will get more smaller details captured. While if you increase noise, that actually does the opposite is going to ignore the smaller little details and it will simplify the vectorized result. In this case, I'm going to just adjust the value slightly and to be able to see what was the original image, we can always tap on this icon, which shows us the sketch or raster image, and then tapping on it again, we will see the vectorized version. And if you wish, you can actually keep the object in this state so you will be able to go back and refine the settings. However, if you want to make costume changes to the lines, or maybe you want to fill colors in this illustration, then I recommend to use the expand vectorization, which will be expand on the desktop version. And what this means is that now we can go in and tweak any detail freely, either using the direct selection tool or any of the other tools like the eraser for instance, with which we can very quickly tidy up the edges and maybe remove some details that we don't need. Don't forget that we use the default setting to generate fields instead of strokes. So most of the time, you can also use the blob brush tool with which we can very quickly adding additional details. Here I can connect some parts of the illustration like the hair and close up any gaps in the illustration. The good thing is that these are all going to be connected into the original shapes, so they are not going to be generated separately. One thing that I've been really missing in Illustrator on the iPad was the paintbrush tool. But luckily now we have this also added and we can select it from the toolbar. And even though we only have two categories currently out of the five that you would find on desktop. It's already a big addition. So we can use and create art brushes and calligraphic brushes at the moment, let me show you how this works. For instance, let's select an art brush, this one called dry brush, which by the way, we can also favorite and then easily find it next time. And once this brush is selected, of course, we can also select a color for it and then start drawing with it on the canvas. Similarly, the selected brush is an attribute that is saved with the stroke. So if we select it, we can go into the properties and we can actually find it here under the stroke settings. And we can always go back and change it to any other brush that we have in the document or the basic default brushes. And although we don't have pattern brushes yet, you can already sort of do something similar to it by creating your own art brushes. Here I have these cool Halloween themed patterns and selecting this first one, I can go to the Brush tool, click on the plus sign here, and choose New Art Brush, and then choose what type of scaling would I like to work with? In this case, I'm going to use proportionately and then saving the brush. Now, I will be able to start drawing with it once again, because this is not set up as a pattern brush, it's going to always just repeat the same amount of elements that was saved or regionally in the group that we use to create the brush read. But I'm sure the pattern brush option is also not far away. And the Illustrator on the iPad team might make it also more intuitive, similarly to what they've done to the repeat features previously. Another thing worth mentioning is that now we have rulers and guides. And the cool thing is, besides using the rulers to add the guides, you can also turn anything into a guide, which means that you can even have shapes or diagonal lines setup as guides. In this case, for instance, I can use the pen tool and following the angle in which we have this text, we can draw a line. And then while that is selected, we can go to the object section and choose Convert to guide both this one and the other. Horizontal and vertical guides we added can be accessed from the layers panel. They can be also quickly and easily locked from the precision panel. So if I want, I can lock all the guides or when they are unlocked, we can also of course move them around and let me just move this guy a little bit further up here. And then using the paintbrush tool with the calligraphic brush that has pressure dynamics assigned to it, we can easily start drawing these decorative lines that will loosely follow the guide. Of course, when you're using more precision tools like the pen tool, you can also snap to these guides that you create similarly to the desktop version of Illustrator. Now, you can also place Photoshop Cloud documents directly into your Illustrator cloud documents. And whenever you do this, notice that there will be a little chain icon on the top left. And you also have additional options for the links here on the right. So you can relink them, update them, or even embed them if you wish to break the link to the original Photoshop Cloud document. And since we have a photograph placed in here, Let's just try to vectorize option once again. And this time let's set the source to photograph, which will definitely take longer to process since this is a high resolution image. And once we have the result of the tracing, you can zoom in and see the results. And notice that in the settings we have an additional option called colors, with which we can control how many levels we wish to introduce. And the original 255 was the maximum. But by reducing it down to something like eight, we will get a much more simplified version of the original photo. The lower this number is, the closer it gets to a monochromatic color palette. And last but not least, don't forget that you can also now share illustrated documents directly from the iPad. You just have to invite people need an Adobe ID and then they will be able to give you feedback on your work. And their commands will show up live as you are working right here in the comments section on the right side, where you will be able to respond or even mark some comments as resolved. 51. MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Introduction: Now that you know everything about Illustrator on the iPad, it's time to have some fun and put to practice all of those techniques that we've covered throughout this course. The task for this creative project is to create a set of icons for Halloween. And you can use the illustration that I included in this document, or you have to do is to simply trace over them by using those techniques that we discussed. Or if you wish to jump straight into just coloring. I also have all the vector outline is ready for you in the same document. And in case you don't want to work hard, you can even find the final colored illustrations ready for you to be able to create a pattern from them. In this document, you will also find already a repeat grid created. So the task is to create something similar to this, but preferably from the illustrations that you create yourself. Before using any of the repeat features, I always would recommend to create duplicates of your final elements. Because otherwise it might be a little bit tricky to get to them. But as long as you are using duplicates, you will be able to create all kinds of fun illustrations and mess around with features like the radial. Repeat, have fun with this project and don't forget if you are stuck with anything. Just go back and watch the videos where we already covered everything that you need to know to be able to create this. 52. MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Tips Part 1: Before jumping into the Halloween project, if you want to get some additional advice. In this video, I'm going to cover the more challenging parts of the illustration project. So one of the things that will save you quite a lot of time is using mirror repeat on the symmetric or details like the bat, the pumpkin, and the cat. Whenever you use this feature, you will have to start drawing your first-line either with the pen tool or the pencil. Once you have that, switch to the selection tool and then apply the repeat. So we select mirror repeat and then use this little circle here at the bottom. We can move it to the right side. So that way we have already the symmetric or setup and we can switch back to the pen tool to continue drawing our shape. So in this case, I'm just going to tap on that last anchor point to remove the free handle and I can drag the next curve out. Use the secondary touch shortcut. If I want to move this point around, maybe somewhere around there. Again, tab, click and drag, tap to the side and drag. And then we will be finishing this by tapping on the last point. Now, whenever you are closing a path, you won't be able to finish with a curved line unfortunately. So what you need to do is to use the direct selection tool. Just select that last anchor point and turn it into a smooth point. Once you have that, you will be able to set up the curve that you need. And if you hold down the primary touch shortcut, you can split the handles and set it up in the position that you need if you want to continue drawing in symmetry, just always make sure you select the path that was originally created in this repeat Group. And then if you switch back to another tool, like the pen tool or pencil, you will be able to draw and still work in the same repeat object. Also, don't forget that when you are done creating a symmetrical illustration detail, you can always expand it to be able to make changes to it. And this is the feature you can find in the object menu. Expand. Once you expand a repeat group, you should always go into your Layers panel and get rid of any unnecessary clipping masks and also groups. For example, here I can just select this group and remove the clipping mask with this icon. And also from the layers panel, just select that empty path, drag to the left and delete it. So let's see this once again. Here on the left side, we have again a clip group. We choose this icon here to release the clipping mask and then select that empty path on the top, drag it to the left and delete it. When it comes to drawing details like this one, where the left and the right side we'll have to eventually meet in the middle. You should also use the following technique to be able to work with it easily. I'm just going to draw the mouth as well and the teeth. And maybe even the eyes by using the circle tool and just swipe up to switch it to feel color. So now this mirror repeat here in the layers panel would work well if we didn't end up using additional details like the eyes. But now if I use a different color, you can see that those details will disappear and there is no actual way to get to them because everything is compressed into a single object within the layers panel. So what I recommend to do is instead of coloring this mirror repeat item, it's best to actually expand it just like before with the wings. So if I come to the Object menu and choose Expand, we will again get a group within which we will have to clip groups. First, we should do the same thing. Remove the clipping, delete a clipping path. Do the same thing on the left side, remove and delete. Now using the selection tool, I can select the two parts that create the silhouette or outline of this object. And I can use the Shape Builder Tool to cut off any unnecessary details like these here at the bottom, and then go back to the same menu and choose combine all to merge them together, but also to make sure it becomes a single individual path, it's best to use the convert to path option at the bottom. If you've done everything correctly, this would result a single path within a group. You can still remove the group itself. And now it will be much easier to assign any colors to this object. And as long as you move it in the right place, you will still be able to see all the additional details. Now in case you have details like the mouth, which again created this overlapping detail here, I recommend to actually rectify this by using the direct selection tool and just adjust the points around, or maybe even just delete the other side and then adjust the points until you get something similar to the original detail. Remember always to simplify as much as you can. So even like this unnecessary anchor point here, I can easily remove with the Smart Delete option. The same thing applies to this outline here in the center, we have an unnecessary anchor point, which I would remove. And that way we get a much nicer round curve there for the head. For smaller details like these on the head, I would actually draw them outside of the mirror repeat option. And don't forget that you can always assign round shapes on these open paths by using the properties panel, round caps. 53. MAIN PROJECT - Halloween Pattern - Tips Part 2: Whenever drawing with the pencil tool or the Pen tool, I would always recommend to concentrate on the outline of an object. So create a single line that captures the whole silhouette itself. And then if there's any additional details, draw these separately. This is going to make things easier, especially when it comes to coloring. So if you have any details like these here for the arms of this ghost, I would draw them separately and then later group them together. Same thing with the skull. Again, I'm going to concentrate on the outline and I just use the pencil tool, create a closed path. And then normally I would simplify the path by using Smart Delete removes some anchor points where it's unnecessary to have so many in one place. I can do desk here on the top as well. And you can also select the whole path and use simplify path to do this even faster. It does essentially the same thing as smart delayed, but on a larger scale. And also don't forget that you can use the direct selection tool and the secondary touch shortcut to be able to move anchor points along the path. This can also be very useful to get these remaining points in the right place. So after simplifying the path, you might want to do this just like before with the ghost. Here again, I would recommend to do all the additional details as separate shapes. And don't forget, you can use Shape Builder and the circle in this case to create the eyes. Now I'm going to very quickly color this now that we have everything set up as separate objects, this is very quick and easy. And also, if you remember, we talked about blend modes in this course. So you can use the properties panel and set and selected objects blending to screen, to create nice highlights. And you can use multiply for shading or for the shadow details. Certain details like the cross is probably best to be created which shapes? So instead of relying on the pencil or the pen tool, you can just use rectangles and circles and rely on the smart guides to align them to each other. But then once you have them all set up, you can select them all together and use the shape builder to quickly join them and create a single object from all of these shapes. So remember, you can just draw over details to combine them. And once you have the object created, you can just draw over the parts that you want to remove, like those little details inside. And we can always refine the object at the end by using the corner widgets on selected anchor points to create more round corners. And then even depth can very easily be created by just duplicating the whole object and set it in the back with a different color. When it comes to keeping lines contained within shapes, don't forget to use clipping masks. Just make sure that the bounding shape or the container is going to be on top of everything else. Once you have everything selected, just choose Make Clipping Mask from the Object menu. Or you can always go back, make changes to the mosque itself, or move the objects around. You can access pretty much everything inside your clip group, so it's completely non-destructive. And even the whole group itself can be moved around and changed in the stacking order. And finally, it just as a quick reminder, whenever you want to create patterns, used a repeat grid, and make sure you have all the items selected that you wish to include in the pattern before you get started because it is very hard to amend or add new items inside it. But whatever item you included, you will be able to go back to by double tapping on them and then start making changes, moving them around, scaling them up and down, rotating them and even changing their stacking order. Most likely you will have to keep going back and forth, adjusting the spacing both vertically and horizontally for your pattern until you get things right. And then when things starting to come together, you can use the properties panel to adjust the alignment of your pattern. So remember we have the grid type which we can set to Brick by Row or Brick by Column. And this just gives a little bit more variety. Then don't forget also to play around with different background colors. Because you will be surprised how much difference it makes when you find the right color for your pattern. 54. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Llama Land Illustration: Since we use this example quite often in the course, you probably already been thinking about recreating it yourself. So if you were itching to do it, here is the file that you will be able to work with within which we have the sketch on the left side. And you can lock this, reduce its opacity, and then trace over it. And also you have a reference for the colors that I've worked with. Since these are vector objects, you can also select them. And even if you get bored halfway through and you want to borrow some of the details that I created. You can combine these with your own illustration. Good luck and have fun illustrating this cheeky little llama. 55. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Light the Way Composition: The aim of this project is to create a composition similar to what you can see on the right side as a reference with all the items that I prepared here for you on the first art board, It's a concentric illustrations, so you will find the radial repeat feature very useful to create all of that detail on the edge. And you should use two separate circles for the text. For the texts on the top, let your ideas and then other one for the light, the V part of the text. You won't be able to use a single path for this because the alignment of the text is different on the top and on the bottom. Also for that nice glow in the background, I recommend using a radial gradient, maybe with a lower opacity on the edges to create that nice fade. And you can also experiment using some blend modes like overlay or color dodge. And in case you want to get rid of the guides or hide them, you can do this from the precision tab, simply just turn off guides. I intentionally kept the text very boring and set to Arial. But when you go into the Properties tab, you will be able to choose the font that you prefer to work with. Good luck and have fun recreating this composition. 56. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Sloth Illustration: Who doesn't like a slot or an illustration or vessel off? Well, I'm a huge fan of these funny creatures and I've done this sketch long time ago. And I actually also created the vector version of it on the desktop version of Illustrator. But I have this example here ready for you to get started on. You can either use the vector version or the original sketch to trace over and create your take. You don't have to slavishly follow every line and every detail. These are really just references for you. And if you want to find the colors, just like with the other projects, they are already saved into the swatches. Or you can also find them here on these objects outside of the canvases. I really hope you will enjoy working on this cute illustration. 57. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Celtic Cross Design: This project will be perfect if you want to practice working with shapes and the shape builder. But there is one important feature that might be hard to find in the course. So I wanted to point it out to you. So in case you want to create rings, which you will need for constructing this chaotic pattern. You will most likely want to use ellipses. So let's just draw a perfect circle. I'm holding down the touch shortcut. And I'm going to increase the thickness of this, which is going to be that thickness that we will need. I am going to change the color, just have something similar to what we see on the left side. Actually, we need this on the stroke and we don't need a fill color. And this is the key technique. So even though you are creating or starting creating a stroke and with that defining this ring, you also need to add an additional stroke outside of that. And the only way you can do that is by going into the object menu and choosing Create Stroke outline. When you do this, your original stroke will become a fill. So notice when I selected this again, now it is a field color instead of a stroke, and we won't be able to change the original stroke width. However, if we increase this value, now, we're adding an additional stroke outside of it. And we can set it up to black, just like on the illustration on the left side. So with this technique, you should be able to fairly quickly recreate the artwork on the left side, which in case you need a hint, it was created with the combination of three identical rings. If creating this is not that challenging for you, I recommend to look for other references of interesting Cathy Cross designs that you can turn into vector artwork. Good luck and have fun finishing this project. 58. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Wolf Constellation Composition: In case you are planning to practice the mirror and radial repeat options, this project would be a perfect mom for you to work with. Since you will need the mirror. Repeat for the geometric wolf had in the center, Y for all the other details, the stars, moon, and circles outside on the edge, you will need to use the radial repeat. You can trace over my original artwork or you can also use this image of the wolf had, which I used originally as a reference to create your own version of the geometric wolf. Portray, good luck, and have fun illustrating. 59. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - You Are Just My Type Design: For this project, I recommend using the Type Tool and create the text in the composition. So in this case, I'm just going to type in you as an example. And then let's choose an appropriate font for it. This antique Olive looks quite good one. It's best to use something a bit more bulky for this type of illustration and to be able to create the wonky placement and rotation of each of the characters. Here on the iPad, we don't have touch-type feature yet. So what you will need to do is to outline the text by going into the Type menu and choose the feature. This is going to create separate objects, compound paths for each of the items. And this is going to allow you to move them individually, even scale them and rotate them freely. You don't have to follow every detail exactly that you can see in this sketch. Feel free to make changes, use different colors, and even add additional details if you have some creative ideas. Good luck and have fun with this illustration. 60. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Friendly Fox Illustration: Since we had a fair amount of Fox drawings and sketches in this course, I thought let's have a project creating a cute, minimalistic Fox illustration for this particular artwork, you can work mainly with the ellipse tool, with the few exceptions where you might want to use the rectangle tool, but you don't actually need to use the pan or the pencil at all. So this is all about using shapes and the shape builder tool. The colors are already here on the art board, so it should be fairly quick and easy to recreate this. If you want to trace over the original details, you can just lock the reference layer and maybe even reduce its opacity and then start working on that separate new layer above it. Good luck and have fun creating your version of this cute little fox. 61. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - YES Lettering Composition: This is a fairly simple project which can help you to practice working with paths. In general. The only unique technique here that you might need at the very end is to be able to delete or remove from the path to be able to create those gaps. So for instance, if you have a path like this, or you have to do is to use the eraser and delete that section in the middle. I hope you will enjoy working on this composition as much as I had when I was preparing it for you. 62. ADDITIONAL PROJECTS - Vampire Illustration: You might recall this example from earlier in the course when we talked about the difference between vector and pixel graphics. Now, the project is clearly to turn this pixel art work into a vector illustration. It is quite complex and there's a lot of details, but you don't have to recreate everything like the shading highlights is not necessary. However, of course that is going to make it look even more interesting if you are patient enough to add all of those details. And likely the other projects, I have the image set up on a separate layer so you can easily reduce the opacity and trace over it. And I recommend looking the tracing just again to be easier to work on top of it. And it's best to work on the separate layer which I already prepared cold work here for the colors I used in the illustration. Just use the swatches. These are already included in the document. Just once again, to save your time. Good luck and have fun illustrating. 63. Conclusion : Congratulations on completing this course. I hope you found it useful, inspiring, and enjoyed the whole learning experience. Although this is the end of this course, it is only the beginning of your creative journey. Now it is your time to create amazing illustrations using Illustrator on the iPad. And I would love to see your work when sharing your artwork on any social network, please tag us with the hashtag. Yes, I'm a designer so we can check it out and maybe even feature it on our own channels. For inspiration, tutorials and useful resources follow us on YouTube, Facebook, instagram, Pinterest, and Twitter. Also, don't forget to check back as we are continuously adding new lessons to this course whenever new features are introduced. Thanks a lot again for joining me on this course, and I hope to see you soon on another one. Goodbye.