3DS Max for beginners : 3D modeling fundamentals | Widhi Muttaqien | Skillshare

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3DS Max for beginners : 3D modeling fundamentals

teacher avatar Widhi Muttaqien, CG expert & entrepreneur

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      3dsmax UI


    • 3.

      3ds Max UI (2020)


    • 4.

      Viewport navigation


    • 5.

      Viewport Navigation (2020)


    • 6.

      Create vs modify


    • 7.



    • 8.



    • 9.



    • 10.

      Transformation settings


    • 11.



    • 12.



    • 13.

      Surface normal


    • 14.

      Basic scene management


    • 15.

      Layer management


    • 16.

      Units and measurement


    • 17.



    • 18.

      Aligning objects


    • 19.

      Common problems


    • 20.

      Primitive vs editable


    • 21.

      Introduction to Editable-poly


    • 22.

      Subobject selection


    • 23.

      Edge modeling techniques


    • 24.

      Cut & Slice techniques


    • 25.

      Border modeling techniques


    • 26.

      Poly modeling techniques


    • 27.



    • 28.

      Project: Round table


    • 29.

      Project: Dining table


    • 30.

      Project: console table


    • 31.

      Project: Toilet


    • 32.

      Introduction to Spline


    • 33.

      Spline vertex types


    • 34.

      Spline modification


    • 35.

      Spline Boolean operation


    • 36.

      Cross-insert and Weld


    • 37.

      Extrude modifier


    • 38.

      Lathe modifier


    • 39.

      Bevel profile modifier


    • 40.

      Project: Mechanical pencil


    • 41.

      Project: Hammer


    • 42.

      Project: Accent chair


    • 43.

      Next step


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About This Class

[ UPDATE: If you are using 3ds Max version 2020 or above there is a new version of this course called "Mastering 3D Modeling in 3ds Max: Basic Level". Here is the link to the course https://skl.sh/2ZKJfiK ]

Master the art of 3D modeling using 3DS MAX in just a few hours. Take your first step to enter the 3D computer graphic world with this carefully designed course.


Who is this course for?

This course is designed for complete beginners so no prior experience is needed.

The skills you learn from this course will become the foundations of our next course where we learn more advance topics.


What you will learn?

 First we'll cover the fundamental stuff in 3DS MAX such as the UI, transformation, object creation and manipulation. Then we move on to different 3D modeling techniques from primitive object, polygon based modeling, spline based modeling until we learn how to use subdivision or NURMS for modeling. We'll cover a lot of exercise projects designed to develop your skill step-by-step.


After completing this course you are recommended to take the next step course “Interior rendering with 3ds Max and Corona” where we deepen our knowledge further on lighting, material and rendering using Corona rendering engine.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Widhi Muttaqien

CG expert & entrepreneur


Widhi is an entrepreneur in creative industry. He has master degree in information technology and business management from Bina Nusantara University. Beside doing business he is also a lecturer in computer graphic related disciplines in President University Indonesia and Lasalle College International.

In his more than 20 years of experience in the CG industry he finished hundreds of projects with clients from all over the globe. He has been producing thousands of CG images and animations. His deep passion with computer graphic leads him to dive into 3D visualization, animation, game development, video and motion graphic.

See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: Salam aleikum. My name is Sweetie Ma talkin. I am the CEO off exposed Treaty and blasted court game studio. I am also a lecturer in several universities here in Indonesia. My main focus is in computer graphic disciplines. These scores is designed for anyone who never used three D software before, so no experience needed to take this course. We will start by learning the three DS max user interface, how to never get the few port creating and manipulating objects in terms, off transformation and information. Using modifier. We going to learn the difference between primitive first off creditable objects. We're going to refill the important concepts off three D software in general and those that are specific to two DS max. After learning the since years, we're going to move forward to treaty modelling techniques. The first technique. We're going to learn this polygon based modelling techniques. We will cover norms, behavior and how to use it to add more details to our treaty models. After that, we're going to create some three D objects to practise the techniques. After mastering the polygon based modeling, we're going to move on toe spine based modeling. We're going to reveal the Basie handle concept in spine editing. How we can use modifiers toe conferred spine into geometry modifiers such as extrovert bear , Full profile lath, etcetera. After we understand the basic concepts off spine editing, we're going to create so fraught three D objects using supplying based modelling techniques we discussed before these scores will be the foundation off more advanced courses, such as this car's interior rendering with three DS mix and Corona, where we will deepen our knowledge in lighting, material and rendering, and some post processing in for a shop that is all from me. I hope this online course will be beneficial for you or Salam alaikum. 2. 3dsmax UI: in this video, we're going to learn about the user interface off three DS max. Something to take note is that the U I or the user interface off three DS max is customizable. So when you see other people user interface, you might find them a bit different from your user interface. And that is totally okay. For example, you might notice right away that I have a light color user interface and that your user interface maybe in dark color. This is because our intentionally changed the user interface to bright color. So it looks clearer in the video, although the user interface is actually easier on the eyes in the long run. But if you still want to change the color to looks like mine, you can goto customize Lord custom you I scheme and then peak Amy dash light. I thought you I file after that, you may need to reset your three DS max toe. Apply all of the changes if you decide to stay with your dark colored you. I then that is totally fine also. Okay, Now let's discuss the user interface up here. You will find the main you is this standard among Windows based application below it, you will find the main toolbar In this main toolbar, you will find the most common tools for working into the as Max such as the move to rotate toe and scale toe except below the mean toolbar. You will find the ribbon. For now, we're not going to use the ribbon and this panel actually taking some space on our screen. So we're going to hide this panel. In order to do that, we can click this talk or even button up here in the main to battle to turn this back on at the letter time. You can click this button again. OK, now, at the left side, you will find this few port like about 10 which, in my opinion, not very useful and also taking too much off the screen space. So we're going to hide this also. But before we do that, I'm going to show you what this panel is actually for. This panel is used to change the few ports layout, for example. We can click in this arrow button and click this layoff, and we have other lee out in our few ports. But again, we will be using maximize, minimized few poor Togo lot. So changing few port layout like this is not very important for us at the moment. To hide the spend all we need to switch back to our standard quite few port and just right click in this line symbol and turn off these few port layout taps. Checkbooks. Next is the scene Explorer. This panel is new to two DS max 2015 and in the prior versions, we actually have this in separate panels. We can call this panel using this button, which is called Manage Layers up here For now. Let's just hide this panel. We can do this in several ways. One way to do this is by dragging this panel's bar like so and hit the X button. Okay, now, the few parts, the few ports are like windows where we can see our three D world from different angle. By default, we have for few parts. This is the top report. We can see the top label in here. This is the front few part the last few port and the less one, which looks a bit different from the rest, is the perspective few part. We're going to discuss more on few ports later on down here, we can find the timeline, but into the s mix. We call it Track Bar. The track bar is used to play skee frames for an emission because we're not learning any animation in the scores. So we're not going to touch this yet. Don't. Here we will find Max Griff stuff status, transformation, values, key frame tools, playback tools. And this area is for few port navigation. We're going to discuss off this in time lead. Wrong. At the right area. Off the screen, we will find a command panel. So this big panel are called command panel. This command panel is actually divided into several sub panels. The create piano, where we able to create new objects. The modify panel where we can modify existing objects. The hierarchy panel where we can set up before point linking rigging CETRA, the motion panel where we can set up and manage animations. This is the display panel where we can control how three DS max display objects and less. One is the utilities panel, where we can find some helpful functions in different categories. Some off these panels, we're going to use them in later association. 3. 3ds Max UI (2020): in this lesson video. We are going to learn about the u i or the user interface off three DS Max. One thing that you need to know is that three ds max you I is customizable. So when you see other people's you, I you might find them a bit different from your you I or the standard you I and that is totally fine. For example, you might see other people has, like, color team and that you're you. I may have this default dark color team. Although dark you I is actually easier on the eyes, especially in the long run. But if you do want to change the you I to the bright color team, you can go to the customize menu up here and into slowed custom. You I skim after that, a window will open and you can pick this aiming like about you I file and then click open. After that, you may need to restart your treaty s mix toe. Apply all off the changes for now. I will use these the fault dark. You I Okay, now let's discuss the elements inside three DS max up here you will find a menu. This menu is probably the most standard thing among Windows based application. Even in Mac and Lennox, most applications will have this kind off menu on top off them below it, you will find the main toolbar in this main toolbar. You can find almost all off the common tools when working into the S mix such as the move, tool, rotate, tool and scale tool, etcetera. No. India's main toolbar. We can see the projects panel. We're not going to use this panel, so let's hide it to do that. Notice. We can see this. Lines just right. Click on it, then turn off these projects. Check box. You may notice data use 7 20 p resolution to record this video. It is why some off the main toolbar buttons are hidden. You may not experience these if you use high resolution such as full HD resolution. But if you do need to work in small resolution like mine, you can move your mouse cursor over the toolbar area and then hold the middle mouse button and then direct like this. This way we can see an access the hidden buttons below the main toolbar. You will find the ribbon. For now, we are not going to use the ribbon and the spinal actually taking some space in our screen . So we are going to hide this panel. In order to do that, we can click on this toga ribbon button up here in the main toolbar. If later you want to show it again, simply click again on this button. Okay. Now, at the left side, you will find this few portly or tab, which is, in my opinion, not very useful and also taking too much off the screen space. So we are going toe height. This also. But before we do that, I'm going to show you what this panel actually can do. This panel is useful to change the few port layout. For example, we can click on this character button and click on this layout. As we can see, we know half different, few portly out. But again, we will be using maximized minimize pupil Togo. So this is not very important for us at the moment to hide this panel. First, we need to switch back to the standard few port by clicking on this button. Then just right click in this line at the top off the panel and turn off these few put layout steps. Checkbooks. Next is the scene Explorer the Spano is useful to displayed. Lease off our objects in a scene in several different ways. In theory, we can show and hide the scene Explorer by clicking on this button up here. But in three DS Max 2019 this button has some strange behavior. If you click on it, it will open another scene Explorer. So now we have to seen explorers. I don't know if this is considered as a buck or not, but to fix this issue just right, click on this line and then click this scene, export or check box in here. Then you can wreck this one to the left area, or simply right, click on the title bar and then to stock, then laugh. Now we can show in height the scene explorer using this button up here next. This large center area is the few port few pork is like a window where we can see our three D world from different angles by default. We have four few ports. If you look closely at each off this few ports. We can see the name off the few port label at the top left corner. This is the top few poor where we are looking from the top direction. This is the front few port, which basically looking at the front side, and this one is the left few port. And finally, the last one, which looks a bit different from the rest, is the perspective. Few poor. We're going to discuss about few port navigation more in depth. In the next lesson, we can maximize a few port by pressing out W. But first you need to move your mouse cursor toe the few port that you want to maximize. For example, if I move my mouse on this perspective, few port then hit out. W the perspective. Few port will be maximized. I w again so many My sit back. If we move our most cursor on this front, few poor area and impress out W. Then we get our front few port maximized. Don't. Here we can find the timeline, but in three DS max, we call it the time slider. Essentially, the timeline is used to scrap the time pointer and place TI frames for animation because we are not going to learn any animation in this course. We're not going toe touch this panel. If you want to hide this timeline, we can right click on this line and then click on this time Slider. Next. Don't. Here you will find Max Script console status. The information values que frame tools, playback tools. And this area at the far right is for a few port navigation. We're going to discuss some off days when the time come, inshallah, At the right area, off the screen, we can find a command panel. So this big panel is called the command panel. This command panel is actually divided into sofa Rosa panels. First is the create panel. This is the panel. We need toe access when we want to create new objects inside three ds max. The second sub panel is the modify panel. This is where we go. If we need to modify existing objects, then the hierarchy panel where we can set up if it Boyne linking rigging, etcetera. The motion panel where we can set up and manage animations. The display panel where we can control how three DS max display objects. And the less one is the utility spinal, where we can find some helpful features in different categories. 4. Viewport navigation: in this video, we're going to discuss about few port navigation. First, I will create some tea pots in the scene and plain object. Now, I know we haven't discussed object creation, but this is not the point off this lesson. So just bear with me now to never get a few ports. We can use several methods. The first method is by using mouse and keyboard combination. The second method is using the few cube and less method is by using the navigation tools at the right bottom screen. We're going to learn to use the mouse and keyboard combination method because it is by far the fastest method to navigate around a few parts. When you're using few Cube, you need to move your mouse first to the age of a few parts like this. Also, if you are using the navigation tools down here, you need to move your mouse even further. These two methods can still be useful in a situation where you couldn't find a standard three button mouse and you're forced to use your laptop track bed, for example. Other than the scenarios, it's recommended to use your mouse and keyboard computation because we're not going to use the few cube. I will hide the few cube first. To do that. Click on this plus sign on the left top area off the few part fue que and click on short a few cube. Now you can see the few cube are all gone or hidden to show it again. You can use the same method, but I will leave this hidden in my user interface from now on. Okay, let's begin our lesson with dragging or painting. The few part depend a few parts. We can use the middle most button Now. Many people don't realize that they have a middle most button because it's actually hidden in the scroll wheel. So if you click on a scroll, were you actually clicking? Using the middle most button again, you need to press the scroll wheel, not rotate it after you press and hold it. If you direct the mouse, the few port will pen from to zoom in and out. The few part you can rotate the scroll wheel back and forth, so scroll forward to zoom in, scroll backward to some out. Another method to zoom in and out, but with more precision. You can use the control us out last middle most button at the same time and move your mouse back and forth so you see by now how important it is. You see the middle most button for navigating the few port into DS max because off this, when you're buying a new mouse for two days, max Usage dis make sure that it has a middle most button because there are so many type off mouse out there and some mines just design not having a middle mouse button. So it's something to be aware off. Okay, less one is rotating the few part. For this. You can only perform it on the perspective. Few part press out and middle most button and then move around your mouth. Notice the few port will wrote it. You might be asking, Why shouldn't I do this on other few parts? Well, because if you do this on another few parts, the few port will change. Toe oughta graphic few park. This looks like perspective you part, but notice it doesn't have a new vanishing points to switch a few part toe perspective or the left you port or any few port, you one. Actually, you can click in these tax, which is the second title off the few port and choose any few poor type you want in this case, I'm changing this back to the left. You part. Okay. The next lesson is about maximising and minimising few pot to maximize on active few part which is indicated by this your frame. Simply use the shortcut out w These will maximize that corn few part to fill the entire few port layout. Now, to switch back toe the court layup, we can simply hit out. Plus w again. If you don't like using the keyboard shortcut, you can use this button, which is the most bottom right buttons on the screen and works exactly the same ass pressing out and w the last thing we're going to discuss in term, off you port navigation, which is very important, is zoom extent. If we select an object and click this zoom, extend button. Oregon used Z for keyboard shortcut. The few port will automatically zoom to that particular object. If nothing is selected, pressing the zoom extent or pressing Z, we'll make every object in seen to be zoomed by the people. This is helpful in the scenario where, for example, we wrote it and zoom away from the origin and we just kind of lost in space. If this ever happened to you, just press z your feet. What? We resume back to do objects you are walking on before few fortification is a very important skill. And you need to master these first before moving on toe. Other stuff in this course. Okay, if you look at this third title at the perspective, few part, it says realistic. This is actually a mode off. How to DS Max will display your three D objects inside a few parts. If you click at it, you can change this to another mode like shade consistent color facets. Why the frame clay So on and so forth for me, I like to walk in shed mode as it require last GPO processing noticed by default. It doesn't create shadow and any soft ambient occlusion on a few parts. And also when working in three d modelling process, I always turn on this age fishes option so I can clearly see the ages that make up the geometry 5. Viewport Navigation (2020): in this lesson video. We're going to discuss about few port navigation for us. I will create some tea pots in the scene and a plane object. Now, I know we haven't discussed object creation yet, but this is not the point off this lesson. So just bear with me for now, okay? Do not forget. The few ports we can use suffer all methods. The first method is by using the mouse. The second method is using the few cube. The third method is using the steering wheel and less method. It's using the you I buttons which are located at the right most bottom screen. Let's see each off this methods one by one. In this video, we will cover the first method and in the next video, we will cover the other three methods. The most method is by far the fastest method to navigate around the few ports. So you should always speak. This method is your first priority. Okay, Now, before we begin for this method toe work unit, a mouse with a scroll wheel or a middle button. If you are serious in three d, I strongly suggest that you invest on a good standard mouse with a scroll wheel, it will say a few tons off times compared to trying to never get the few port using the few cube or with other methods. Now, when you purchase a mouse for working with three D, just be aware that there are some mice products that don't have any scroll wheel or middle most button at all. You really shouldn't buy this kind off mice as they won't help you at all. When using Tree DS max, let's begin or Unification lesson with dragging or painting the few port who penned a few poor we can use the middle most button. Now. Many people don't realize that they have a middle mouse button because it is actually hidden in a scroll wheel. So if you are a pressing down the scroll, well, you actually clicking using the middle mouse button again, you need to press the scroll wheel down, not rotating it after you pressed and hold it. If you drag the mouse, the few port we open around now unit were understand. We are doing navigation here, not transformation, meaning these objects don't move at all. It is how we see the object that it's moving okay to zoom in and out the few port, we can rotate the scroll wheel back and forth, so scroll forward to zoom in and scroll backward to zoom out another method to zoom in and out, but with more precision. You can hold the control and the Archies together and then click and wreck with the middle . Most button back and forth. Four to zoom in and backward to zoom out. Okay, finally, to rotate, or or with the few poor forest. Less method. We can only perform these on a perspective. Few poor Moody's hold the all key and in the middle, most button and just move around your mouth as we can see the few port we rotate. Okay, now you might be asking, Why should I do this on the other a few parts? Well, because if you do this on the other, a few ports, the few port will change. Toe. Orta Graphic. Few port. This oughta graphic Few port looks like a perspective. Few port, but notice it doesn't have any vanishing points. So switch a few port to perspective, you on the left of you or any views you want you can click on this tax, which is the second label menu and used any few poor type that you want from this. Listen here. We can also see that the left you shortcut is l from few is f but on few is B and so on. Currently, we want to revert this view port back to the left of you. 6. Create vs modify: in this video, we're going to discuss the difference between create panel and modify panel create panel, which is this one is where we can create new objects into DS Max while the modified panel which is this one, is where we can modify existing objects. I will repeat again every time we want to create new objects, any type of objects we should goto create panel. And if we already have an object and we want to modify it, then we should goto 25. If you look at the create panel, we can actually see some panels. These panels represent the type off object you want to create. This one is geometry soprano, but we can create geometrical objects such as box sphere, cylinder, etcetera. This one is shapes sub panel where we can create a vector shapes us as line rectangle circle, etcetera. This is our panel issues where and we need to create light sources. This one is for creating camera and so far we're going to discuss this step by step later on. Right now, we're going to focus on geometry force. Okay, If you look at the geometric panels, notice it also divided into several categories in a form off these drop down lease. There are standard primitives extended primitive component objects. So and so far it is what to mention that when you install plug ins, they provide new type off objects. The least in the subcategory will be even longer, and you will have more options to work with. Okay, now, let's focus. Understand that primitives The techniques to create an object in three DS max is very depends on what type off object you want to create. Let's start with the simplest method, which is click and drag. Pick this fear button. Notice how this button become active and then click and drag, then release in the perspective, few part and we have a new sphere created. Now pay attention to this bathroom as long as this button still active. Whenever you click and wrecked and release again in a few port a new sphere, we always be created for you. So you are in this mode off, creating fear to exit from this creation mode simply right click ones on your mouth. So this is important to remember that to exit out off a certain mode into DS Max, we can use rightly. Okay, now let's try this on plane object. Click the plane button and click drag, then released to create a plane. We can also do this with teapot, click black and release right click ones to exit the creation mode. The second techniques, which require more interaction, is by using click than direct, then release, then direct, then click ones the finish. For example, Let's create a box, click the box button and click drag on a perspective. Few part now. The first click drag will create this base area off with and length. There is no hate yet after we release the mouse button. Now we're moving on to defining the hate off the box. We're not touching anybody now, just moving the mouse up and down to define hate. Noticed the head can be negative, so it goes below the ground after we are satisfied with the box Hate click ones on the mouse and there you go. We just finished creating one books, and as always, you are still in creation mode, and if you want to exit, you need to right click ones. We can try the same technique on cylinder. Also, click on a cylinder Click director defined the base release. Move up click ones and we have a cylinder. Okay, now, this will be the last technique we're going to discuss in term off object creation. It involves suffer clicks after the first initial click and drag. So let's just try these on atyou, so click on the two button click drag in a few port. This will actually define the first radius or the outdoor ideas off the two. After we release, we need to define the inner radius by moving our mouths back and for after we click ones, we can move the mouse back and forth again to define the hate off the to then click ones to finish the process. So by now, I believe you already understand how object creation walks into the S mix, and I recommend you to explore other objects by yourself by creating many types off objects in standard primitives. And also, if you click on the category pulled on lease, you'll find extended primitives such as Head Ra Force, not jumper box set. Right now. Let's move on toe the modified panel. If we go toe modify panel while no object is selected. I noticed the modify panel. We're not throwing any perimeters, but if you select an object by clicking one off this object in a few part noticed the modified panel, we'll show the parameters off that object. So basically, modify Panel is a contextual panel, meaning that it shows parameters off currently selected objects and will remain blank if there is no objects like that. So, for example, I select this box and we can see the parameters off the box in modify panel. We can change the length, the width and the hit off the box in the modify panel simply by click and wreck this spinners. Now, if I just this fear notice we no longer see the length do with and hate parameters off the box right there. We see the radios in other perimeters belong to the sphere object. We can change this again by click and wreck on a spinner to change. For example, the radios off the sphere. If we are doing modeling or lighting most off our time perhaps 90% off it is actually spent in modify panel because creating object is quite fast. But tweaking and modifying objects takes longer to finish, and this is where we actually do most off the work 7. Selections: to select an object you need to be in one off. This modes the select object mode, move mode, rotate mode or scale mode. To select an object, simply click on an object, and that object will become selected toe and select or is like an object. You can click on empty space in a few part, or you can also use keyboard shortcut control. D. If you forget the shortcut, you can always go to the edit menu and look at this area. Notice you'll find select None in here, which control de as this orca. Also, we learned from this menu that we can actually see like all objects in the scene you see in control. A. We can infer selection by using control. I shortcut. All of the sword cuts will be useful for us later on, especially when we are in modelling process. Okay, if we have a non object selected and we want to select more objects, we can hold the control button and then click on other object, and that object will become so like that. Also do this again, and more objects will be selected if we want to de select an object away from our existing selection. We can use out and click on the object, and that object will be on select. So again, press and hold control and click toe at the selection and press and hold out and click to reduce from selection. To select multiple objects, we can use click drag on empty space to create selection region like this, and every object within the area will be selected. You can do this also a combination off control in our keyboard shortcut. Let's say we want to add these objects to the selection. We can hold control, click drag and now they are selected also. On the other hand, if you want to remove this from the selection, we can hold out and click and Recto create this region and now we can see these objects are longer selected. OK, now let's look at this button. This is a total button for window mode or crossing mode when creating region selection. So what is actually the difference between the two well in crossing mode when we click drag to create the radiance selection, every object inside the region and objects that are touched by the raging border will be selected. But in window mode, notice on the objects that are truly inside the region will be selected, so that is the difference between window and crossing. More by default, the selection region is set to rectangular, but we can actually change this behavior notice in his upper area. We have this button that looks like a rectangle. Now, if you click on this button, you can select different type off selection mode. The circular one will change the reagent to circle, so when we click drag to select multiple objects, we can see the reagent. It's circle rather than rectangular as before. Next is the fence region mode, this one behave like polygonal lasso tool in for show to select, you need to click drag first and quick release and quick release, and so far to create the selection radio. If you want to finish, you can double click and the selection will be made. The next one is the last or agent mode. If selected To create a selection region, you must simply click and hold and then drag to draw the region back. So after you release the mouse button, the selection will be made and the less one is pain selection mode, it walks like a paintbrush well, instead, off creating pains, it will create multiple selections. So if you click and hold and just move your mouse across the few port like this notice, every object that is touched by the coarser will be selected again. I need to mention that these modes can be used in conjunction with control in our keyboard shortcut to add our sub strict selection, as we mentioned earlier. 8. Transformation: in this video, we're going to talk about transformation. So what is transformation? Transformation is basically a broad term in computer graphic that includes position, rotation and scale. Ah, broad term, because transformation that exists only in three DS max. But it actually exists in almost every graphics software out there, whether it is to the software or three D so forever. Okay, let's start with position or movement to move an object into DS max, we need to be in movement, which is this button up here. You can also access it via shortcut w on the keyboard are you can right click toe, open the court menu and just move from here. When we select an object, noticed this colorful aero appear on the object. These arrows are called transform gizmo and is there to help us moving our object. To move the object along the X axis, simply move our mouths over the Red arrow, which indicate the color off the X axis and then click and drag notice. Our object cannot be moved except in a direction off the X access. It will not move along the Y nor dizzy access. The same principle applies to the green Aargh where we can only move to the Y direction and also apply to the blue Arrow, which is the Z axis. In this mode, we cannot move the objects. Why are X direction? Okay now, sometime we want to move objects in a plane, for example. We wanted to move along the x and y playing. So how can we do that? We can do this by grabbing the small elbow that connects the X and y. Pero doing this will make both why and acts access active at the same time so we can move this object around along the x and y plane. And again the same concept applies to Z and explain. And it also applies to Z. And why plane before we move on, noticed there is a small rectangle in the centre off the gizmo. This rectangle is actually used to constrained of movement toe a plane, but it's not using any of the access. Instead, it uses our eyes or rather the orientation off our official camera. In the few port, as the movement plane sometimes refer, toa the screen plane using this rectangle will move the object freely relative to our few or our screen orientation. Now let's move on to the rotation mode. Togo to the rotation mode. We need to click this button up here. You can use or cut E on the keyboard, or you can right click to open a quart menu and simply click this rotate button down here. Now that we are in voted more. Notice how the transform gets more changes to rotation Transform Gizmo, which looks like a bunch off colorful circles on our selected object. Until now, you probably already guess that transformed this more can be a quick feedback that inform us in world transformation. More were actually in the circles. I'll ask right away that we are in rotation mode. The circles were almost the same, like the arrows we see before in most mode the blue one, for example, with constrained rotations so that it uses the Z axis as the rotational access. Something also applies to why access, which is the green one. This will constrain the rotation toe. Why access and less one, the red one, which will constrain the rotation on Lee toe X access. You might notice that we also have this big white circle, and this is actually used to constrain the rotation. You've seen the screen space or it uses our eyes orientation asked the rotational access. Now what if you want to rotate, object freely or we thought any constrain Well, we can do that. Also, this move your mouth at the center off the gizmo without touching any other access constraints here cause and then just click hold and wreck around. We can see the object now wrote that freely as we direct the mouse. Okay, Now we're going to discuss the scale mode to access the scale mode. We can click this button up here. You can use our as the keyboard shortcut, or you can also use the court may new by right click and choose scale down here to scale the object. Uniformly, you need to select the inner triangle, which is this one and click director mouse. Now you can see the object become bigger or smaller as we move our mouths back and forth. If you want to scale only at certain access, for example, the X axis. We can grab the red one on Lee and scale it out like so and we can see the scale happens, only the X axis. The same concept also applies to the Z axis. It also to do I access. We can also scale on the X Y plane by grabbing this elbow which connects the X and y axis notice. The scale happens only on the X and Y plane, and the same concept also applies to the Z explain and also the Z y plane. Okay, now let's draw our attention to this area down here where we can find X y and Z values. And let's go back to the most mode. For now, these values actually tell the court in that or the position off the object in three D space notice. If I select the object and move this around, you can see these failures changes. Now if we are in the rotate mode, what you will see in this area is actually the rotation value off its axis in degrees. Notice. When I wrote it around the Z Axis Z failure changes according me. Okay, Now, if we are in the scale mode, these values are actually in percent age, so 100 for each access is the normal failure for scaling 100 means there is no scaling happens on the object. Notice. If I scale out this object on the X axis on Lee, we can see the X scale failure will become larger than 100%. Sometimes you need to show or hide the transform gizmo. You can Togo this on or off by going to the few menu and click this show transform gizmo button sometime. You also need to make the transform gizmo bigger or smaller. Well, you can do that, actually, by using the minor ski and the equal key on the keyboard, which you located on top off Electra peaky and brackets key press miners to make it smaller and press equal to make it bigger. 9. Pivot-point: every object in three DS max has the center point. They are called Pivot Point. If you use transformation tools such as move, rotate or scale, the location off the transform gizmo is actually located at the objects before point. The position of the people Point is very crucial, infer information, especially if we're doing any kind off rotation to the object, because when we wrote it, an object that objects befit point will act asked the rotational access. When we need to change the perfect point, often object. We can select the Object Force and then goto hierarchy, beef it and turn on this affect effort on Lee Button. The bottle now becomes active, and in this mode, anything informational changes on the object will not affect the object itself. Rather, it will affect only on the paper point. So, for example, if I move these, nor does the object is not moving on Lee. The people point move after we're finished, then forget to click this button again, and now we're back to the normal more so and remove the object. The whole object is moving along. As before, let's say we want to create a simple door which has a hinge. Join it side. I'm going to create a box for this and make it so. It's almost looks like a normal door. Okay, now, if we try to open the door with rotate more, notice how the door opens up. You see it's center as the rotational axis triggered in the side area. To fix this, we need to reposition its preferred point so it is located at the site off it, not the center. To do that, just like we did before, make sure the object is selected and then goto hierarchy people and then turn on effective Onley mode. Now go to the movie mode and slide this pivot point, so it's now located at its side and forget to deactivate this button again to go back to the normal. But now, if we go toe the rotate mode and try to rotate this object, you can see it's behave much like a normal door. Now 10. Transformation settings: transformation can be reforms to a lot of things into DS Max, for example, I have this teapot. Now I'm rotating this deport, so it's tilted like So now when we go to move more notice up here, it says, If you this view means that the information is reference to the few port co ordinate, which is in this case, is this Z The X and Y are professing like this now if I change this to local reference coordinate system and this drop down lists noticed, the transformer gizmo is changing and following the Objects rotation. Now there are a lot off re friends coordinate systems into DS max, but when I use a lot are few world, local and barren. The few coordinate system is basically the same with world system. When we are in the perspective, if you put But when we go to the front or side few, we can see the X always facing right and the why always facing up like this you see in the world reference scored in a system we always follow. What we see in the perspective you part the local is based on the object that we are currently selected and the parent reforms co ordinate system basically useful when we are any meeting, hierarchical object, or if we are inside a subject mode and want to transform based on the objects level. Local co ordinate. Now I know we haven't talked about some object at this level, but at later videos we were, so they should make sense to you soon. The next thing we're going to discuss in depth is thes type in co ordinate down here. When we are in, move more. For example, changing this value for a simple Z value will get reminder. Hate position often object. Now look at this button down here. This buttons function is to talk a bit in absolute mode and offset more. If this is not active, those coordinates work in absolute more meaning that they are sowing the exact location off the object in three D space. But when this button is active, we are in offset mode and noticed these values in here are showing on the zero when we type , for example, 10 in the input field. The object is not in 10 units high. Rather, its move 10 units from its previous position So again, If I said then again in a Z input, it will move this again. 10 unit upward and the values we always go back to zero again. When selecting multiple objects, we can set the center off the information using this drop down lease up here. For this example, I just the rotation tool in just the first option, which is the use before Point Center. Now, when I wrote it, these objects noticed they will rotate on its own axis individually. If I said this toe, you selections enter and rotate them. Noticed the objects we rotate as a whole, and you see the center off the selection as the center off the rotation automatically, the rest one. If selected, we'll use the center of the world or the center off the few port as the center off transformation. 11. Modifier: before we begin our discussion about modifier. First, let me explain to you about the two user interface element inside the modify panel. This pulled on lease is called the money. If I release, it contains a list off modifiers that we can use on the objects in seen. And next is thes big area. This is called the modifier steak. This is where we can see lease off modifiers attached to a currently selected object. Okay, so what? This modifier modifiers are special functions or properties that can be attached to an object modifier. Canal took the ship off the object, manage its texture, make the object, follow other objects and many other functionalities. Just for example, I have these teapots are picked this one and go to the modifier release. And then I'm going to apply mouth modifier on this teapot. Now let's draw our attention to the modified state notice we have melt on top off the teapot. If we pick the other teapots, we don't see this melt modifier on them. We can see it's only teapot in the modifier stick. These concludes that a modifier is unique to the certain object that is being a bite, too, because it's like only this teapot when adding the mouth. So only this teapot has the mouth modifier. Now we can add more than one modifier on an object if we want to. For example, I'm going to add lattice modifier on the second teapot. Let this modifier will confirm any ages, toe cylinder and any vert assists those fear. So we have something like this, and then on top of it, I'm going to add another modifier, which is a twist modifier. As the name implies, this modifier will twist the object. Now we can see we have to modifiers, which are lattice and twist attached to one object. Let's go back to our force teapot. If you look at the area below modifier stack, we have different parameters than the original people. What we have here are the parameters for the melt modifier, not the teapot primitive object. So we can tweak, for example, how much the object has smelled extra trying. What actually want to highlight is that the parameters off the original teapot is actually still exists. We can click any steep, partly is in the money fire stack, and now all of the parameters off the teapot show up again. We can change, for example, the radius off it and other stuff available in here. And when we go back to the mouth, money fire, the changes that reflect instantly. So we learned that this area down here will change according to the list you pick on the modifier stack. And we also learn that most modifiers are applied to the objects in a nondestructive way. In other words, mostly we can always go back and change stuff later on, I said, mostly because there are some modifiers that will break if we go back and forth and change the objects below it. Okay, if we want to delete the money fire from an object that say we want to get rid off this melt modifier, we can simply click this trash, Aiken. And now the modifier is taken away from this object. Sometimes when we're walking on base object or on a modifier below other modifiers. But we want to see the final result instantly on a top modifier stack. We can actually do this by clicking this button, for example. We can see that I can change the radios off this teapot while see the end result off the modifier steak after lattice and two is applied for this object. There are so many modifiers available in three DS max, and there will be even more modifiers aided if you start installing plug ins to your three DS max application. I encourage you to explore these modifiers yourself because the more modifiers you know, the more option and speed you're gained. Working with three DS max. 12. Duplication: in three DS max. We can clone or duplicate objects using several methods. First, using phone function in many or court menu second by pressing, shift and move or any other transformation is using array function. There are other methods, but they require more in depth knowledge off three DS max function, so we're not going to discuss them in this lesson. To duplicate object, you see the clone method. First, you need to select the object and to scone from the edit menu or in a quart minu by right clicking in here a colonial window will appear asking you to whether you want to copy or instances are reference it for our just just copy. You can name it here, but for now, I just live it like that and just hit the okay button. And now we have a new copy off the original object at the exact position off the original object. Okay, so now let's go back to the difference between copy and instant and also reference if I go on this again and just instant instead and move it in here. These two objects are actually the same object, but display twice by three DS max. What I mean by that is that when I select one off them and change the perimeters in the modify panel, notice the changes also apply to the other instant off the object Now Instance Inc and help us save memory, especially if we are working with mass amount off objects in scene like, for example, for a scene with thousands off trees or city scene with hundreds off buildings and cars. Because although instance created objects have their own turn formation video, Smacks will store the based geometry in one memory space. We can tell an object is being instance she hated by looking at the ball tax on their modify list. Name notice. This one is not bald because it's independent. If you want to make an instance, hated, object to become independent or unique, you can right click in here and just make unique. But for this tutorial, I'm going to live it as it is. Okay, now, what about reference references? Much like instance, but their intention ated toe a certain level off modifier stick, for example. I call this object again, and now I just reference Move this to here now notice when I go back to the original object and at twist modifier and add some deformation to it. All of the instances and the references will also applied it to its modifier. But when I goto the reference object and add a modifier, let's say a band modify here. It only applies to this object only. So basically, when we look at here, the instant only happens to this level. It's where this line recite noticed. The ball packs billowed line up here, this object is freely to have its own modifier. Another way to duplicate, which you will often see me doing is by using the shift key while doing any type off the information. For example, pressing and hold chief while moving the object like this will bring up the cologne we know and you conduce any type off duplication in here Instant, for example. But I will be focusing on other thing in this example, and that is the number off copies parameter. If I said this to five for example and hit OK, notice, I will create five copies based on the first distant you create. You can also use the shift key with scale in rotate toe to duplicate object. But I will let you try this on your own. Okay, Now we see that with number off copies failures that we can have multiple duplication take place at once. But how can we control the fix amount? Off distance, for example, We want a distant to be 50 units from one object to another clone of it. This is where Ray come in handy. Let's pick this object and click those menu, then array on the upper area. There are two column groups the left one. If you want to specify the incremental value from one duplicate tonight of duplicate the right one, if we want to set the total Fairview off all off the duplicates for now to select the left one and said it toe 50 for example. As you can see, we can also play around with the rotation and scale changes if you want. Oh, but I left this for you to explore yourself at the left bottom part. You can specify the duplication type as we discussed earlier. And then in this area, one d means the duplication will happen. One way we can select this preview button, so we can see what the final result will be. If we set this to two D and set the count to three and slight the Z fail you to about 35. Notice how it creates a plane off. Duplicates less. If we set this to three D array and said the count of three and said the wife value toe 50 . Notice how it creates a volume off duplicate objects. Click the OK button, and until now you can see how powerful right to ease to quickly fill up the space with duplicate objects. 13. Surface normal: If we create a plane object, we can see that it looks solid. Both the top and bottom view off it. Now if you're coming from old Persian off two DS max or if you use game engine before you may already know that in computer graphics, a mash or polygons for face always facing toe on direction, this direction is perpendicular to the surface or, in other words, it creates a 90 degree angle from the surface. This direction is called the normal direction off a surface. So again, if we find the term normal in three D application, usually it means the direction off which a surface is facing. Now, going back to our plane object in here. The normal sore face off this plane object is up to the easy access by default. But you hardly see because both side off the surface looks solid. This is because the back face schooling is not on on. To turn this on, you can select the object, right click and just object properties. Go to the general tab and turn on these bake for schooling Check box Now notice. When we see the plane from the bottom, it looks invisible we can see clearly. Now where is the normal direction? Off this plane now there are some benefit turning on the back Fast bowling on First, it helps you to reduce your systems. GPU load Second, it helps you to identify where your objects normal because some game engine have distant on by default. Third, it helps you to the certain model in task without error. Thes errors happen due. Toa flip normal for it helps you to model an interior scene without the distraction off the wall object you can turn on or turn off Beck for schooling as you please. But if you want to the S Max by default, always turn on black first cooling every time new objects are created, you can set the preference in customized meenu preferences few parts and turn on this back for school on object creation option. If you want to flip a normal often object, you can add normal modifier to it again. This effect cannot be seen if the back for school in Eastern off on that particular object , for example, I just this pain object again and at normal modifier noticed the sore face now facing down another example. I have this box. I need to turn on back for schooling first, then add normal modifier. Noticed The box looks a bit strange Now this is due to the entire surface is off. The books are facing inside. 14. Basic scene management: if you are working with a lot of objects inside, three DS Max will soon realized that we need ways to manage our objects effectively. A good scene management will lead to a faster development time and better collaboration with your team. There are many methods that we can use to manage our scene, and we're going to discuss some off them in this video, probably the most important, but often neglect that scene management practice is naming conventions Every time we create an object, we should always rename them appropriately. In the modified panel. For example, naming all the three objects in the scene with three as the prefix name can help a lot when we need to select all of the three objects in the scene. Later, you can use any naming conventions as you please, as long you will understand them later, and your team also will understand them. If you already have good naming convention, we can easily select objects by their names using the search by name. Feature in three DS max, which is located at the Edit menu. Select by name are you can always use H for a short cut. These real open a special seen explorer window in which you can immediately type in the words you are looking for. Because the tax cuts are already at the search input box up here, for example, that's type three and everything with the first name. Three will be highlighted. Click the OK button Now they are selected. Okay, now what if the name off your objects has two or more words, and what you are targeting is the second order, not the 1st 1 Let's say you have objects with naming convention like blue car green car, red car, etcetera. How can we select them? You see the select by name feature. Then well, we can use the wild carp, which is an Asterix symbol. This Asterix symbol represent any words in the search term, so every type Asterix car it means any words followed by car as the ones we are looking for . Sometimes we need to hide or on high three D objects so we can see certain areas in our seen much better to hide an object for selected and then go to a display command panel and click height selected. You can hide multiple objects at once if you want to one hide objects that is currently hidden. You can either click these on hide all button one, hide everything, or you can also use the in height by name button to select and and hide objects by their names. Beside the display command panel. You can also access height on high features through the court menu by right clicking with your mouse button notice. We have some option in here, although not as complete as the display command panel that we see before. Another useful technique that almost identical to hide and hide feature is the isolation mode. I used this technique very often in my works. So what is isolation? More exactly? Basically, when use isolation mode will hide everything except objects, You could only select that when we exit the isolation mode, everything will be back to where it waas, including the few port angle. For example, I just this object and to go toe isolation mode, you can either go toe tools. May new. I saw that selection, or you can use our Q keyboard shortcut. Or you can click the small Aiken that looks like a balloon, or what I usually do is just right click to access the court menu and just I solid selection. So we are now in isolation mode to exit the isolation mode. You can click this button again, or is the court menu right? Click and juice and isolate. 15. Layer management: the next important technique in sin. Management. ISS layer For those off you already understand for shop, you might think that the layers into DS max is similar to the layers in for a shock. Well, they are not in for a show. The ordering on the layer is very important as it will define how the image composition looks. In three DS max Layer is only used to grouping objects based on their characteristic, so we can organize them easier. For example, we can put all of the trees in one layer called three. We put all of the cars in a layer called Khar People City. More deals in layer called people except from later. If you want to hide all of the trees, for example, it's very easy. Just hide the three layer, and everything in the three layer, which are three objects, will be hidden now, in a previous fashion off two DS max, This layer management is a bit different, so I can only recommend you toe searched for documentation about the Layer Manager based on your three DS Max version. Since three DS max 2015 the Layer manager has marched with the scene Explorer Toe open Later, many general in a new scene Explorer, we can click this button. Now we have this floating window is floating. We know actually can be Doc by right click on the title bar and just dog left or right if you want to. But I'm going to leave it floating like this as we only access it occasionally. Okay, The scene Explorer have suffered modes. The two main modes are layer mode and hierarchical mode. Now just make sure it's on layer mode in here. To create a newly year, we can simply click this button up here. Then we can rename it to any, namely one. Now. We must be careful when creating a new a year. Do not select any layer because it was like a layer, which highlighted with this yellow color and then hit the create button. The new layer will be mastered inside the previous highlight. It layer. Nested layer is layer inside another layer. This is life folder structure. In our hard drive, we can ness layer inside layer multiple everybody, so just to remember to select nothing. First buy cooking on this empty area, then click the create new layer button. If you want to create layer at the top left, or if you want to move a nested layer to another layer, you can do so by click and drag and release it on top off the other layer. If you want to make a layer, go to the top level or not nest that anymore. You can highlight the layer by clicking on it, then right click and choose unless to delete a layer. You can again highlight a layer by clicking on it, right click and just delete. You can delete any layers. They do not contain any objects, but you cannot delete the zero default layer as it is. The basically year into the S mix to walk with objects in conjunction with layers. First, we're going to discuss about the active layers. Okay, now look at this layer in here. We test this blue Aiken rather the great I can like the rest. This layer is called the active layer. Active player means that whenever we create a new object, that object will be created and put inside the layer. So, for example, I'm creating a new teapot here and noticed the teapot will be automatically become the member off this layer. Now what if we want to change the active layer? You can simply click this icon and now this later become the active player. To move objects from one layer to another is very simple. Just hold and drag and release the object on top off another layer and the object is moved to the new layer. Okay, Now, if we already manage are seen with layers, what can we do with them? Force? We can hide and and hide them very easily Just by clicking these lightbulb icon, we can also freeze them by clicking on this, I can hear the time freeze in three s Max is just like locking the object in space so user cannot select um or make any changes to them toe unfreeze them back. You can click the freeze. I can again. You can also do all sort off stuff like setting them to whether venerable or not, render rebel, make them look like box or not. And you can actually set the things that you want to control by customizing the columns in here by right clicking on it. Jews configure columns and to use this, you can click and direct from this 40 window. Let's say I want to add color column, click and wreck And now we have a color column To get rid off this, simply click drag again, back to the configure columns floating window. Now the color column is taken away from the scene Explorer or interface. 16. Units and measurement: Every time we create an object, let's just say a box. We find that each off the perimeter, use some sort off measurement. There are values off length with and hate in the box. But what are the units off this measurements? Is it in centimeter? Is it inch or one? In this video, we're going to discuss about units and measurements inside three DS max. The most important setting to define unit into DS Max, is the system unit set up? We can access it through customize menu units it up system union set up. We don't need to change all of these settings down here. All you need to do is just change this Booed on lease to do units you want to use, for example, centimeter. Usually when I'm working with interior scene, are you centimeter And when I need to work with large scale seen such as buildings or aerial view, I change the you need to meet her after you are done and click the OK button now to DS. Max will consider every unit in seen as centimeter. Although, as you can see, the dimensional values off this box are not showing any units behind it. But it is in centimeter. If you do want to see or to show the units behind each failures, you can do that by again. Going toe. Customize me. New unit, set up and use metric in here. And you, centimeter. Now we can see all of the values will display its unit behind them. You might be wondering what if we change the display unit two meters. What happened then? Well, if you change the display, you need to meet her to the S. Max will automatically convert the values to the corresponding display unit. We can see now the box dimension values become one meter where before it waas 100 centimeters. Basically, we can conclude that the object sizes in arson will not change when you only change the display unit which is in this panel in here. But if you change this system unit set up in here, all of the sizes in our sin will change. So again, this is very important for us to remember. Usually when I create a scene setting up the system unit set up is the first thing I do before anything else 17. Snapping: There are many snapping modes into the S. Max. In this video, we're going to discuss position snapping and rotations napping. First, let's talk about position snapping. If you see here at the main toolbar, there are many types off position snapping available in today s Max Tony snapping toe 0.5 T snapping and three d snapping Before we discuss anything first, right click on this button in snap type. Make sure everything is not active except the fair tax check box in three D applications. Vertex means point, so this option will ensure that the snapping happens between for theses on Lee. Okay, now move on to the next step, which is option Unchecked. The option at the bottom, which say's enable access constrain. Make sure it's uncheck this option when turn on, will consider access constraint when snapping objects. Position. For now, we don't need them, so we let this uncheck for now. Okay, now let's talk about the differences between two D 2.5 D entered the snapping, this snapping. We let you snap objects that are exactly placed on the same plane, and you usually want to do this into the A few parts such as stuff you part from our life, you poor not the perspective. Few part. For example, I have these three plane objects. Two of them are placed at the same plane, which is zero z axis. One of them is floating above the others. Notice if we go to talk to you part and try to snap, you see the to the snap. This can only happen to the two planes which located at the same sick ordinate. The ones that are not at the same level will be ignored by the snapping. Max is the 2.5 b snapping this snapping mode were snapped objects in space as if they are in the same level, although they are. For example, when I drag this one, look how this object snapped to the other plane objects as if they were at the same level. Usually you want to snap in 2.5 d mode, also into the few parts. Not in perspective. Few port. The last one is pretty snapping. You can do this both into the few parts or in perspective. You part in three D snapping mode. Object will snap toe. Other object not only into the few, but also will move the objects in space to the exact X, Y and Z cordoning off the target object. For example, If I move display an object using the three D snap, we can see that this plane object actually moved down toward the target. To make this easier for you, I usually only used 2.5 d snap and through the snap and almost never use that to the snap and then used 2.5. The snap went into the few ports, such as top few poor front, few port or left you port and use three D snap. When in perspective, few port to turn on or off positions snapping mode. Use keyboard shortcut as on under snapping war to mention is a rotation snapping when we wrote it on object notice. We have many numbers after period. What if you want, for example, wrote that an object at exactly 90 degrees This is where rotation snapping comes to play By clicking this rotation snap button up here, or you can use a fore shortcut. When we wrote that an object, the value will be a whole number, not float number like before by default. It is said so. Five degree in Cremin. But if you want a different value, you can always change it by going to this button and right click. In his option step, change the angle failure from five degree to another value that you want. 18. Aligning objects: in this video, we're going to call for a line tool, normal align and a new object placement available in three DS max 2015 and the autograph. Let's say we have these two objects and we want to put this object exactly on top off this object for click or select this one. Remember, we need to select the object that will be moved, not the object that will be the target. OK, now click this line button and then click the target object. We will see this line selection floating. We know like this the X and Y and Z position check box in here. We'll get the mind whether the line process will change the x, y and Z cordoning off the object or not. For example, if we want this align only affect the position along Z axis, then you can uncheck the X and Y position. For now, we turn all of this. On next are the colon object and the target object columns. What this current object means is actually the object we select the first time and the target objects is the object we click less one this radio buttons down here better mind what part off the object we actually want to align for. Now live it toe paper points, Click the OK button and now we have this object at the center off the target object based on their paper point. OK, now we're going to move this object to be exactly on Pop off this object again, make sure the object is selected, click a line and then click the target object. And what we want to do now is to turn off the X and Y position check box up here. So now we only have the Z position active and then in court. An object said this to minimum and the target objects at the maximum. Click the OK button, and now we have the minimum part off the current object line perfectly, with the maximum part off the target object at the Z axis. Next is the normal align. The normal align enable us to place a certain object to another object based on their surfaces. For example, I have this box that looks like wall Well, let's just assume that this is wall and we have this other smaller box in here, and let's just assume that this box is a painting. Our past is to position the painting on the wall, and we can do that. You see Normal Alliance tool to do that. It's like the painting object force. Then click the normal line button. If the button is not feasible, you need to click and hold the line button first, and you will see the normal align down here. Okay. After that, click an area or a sore face on the painting. You want to align? Think off, it asked the area. You want to add glue on it so this area will be not feasible. Later on, we can see this blue arrow pointing out perpendicular from the surface, then click a surface on the other. Object for this case is the wall. To place the painting on. You also see an aero, but this one is green, perpendicular to the wall, so face and when we release the mouse button, the painting is now placed nicely on the wall. Another way to align object is by using the auto great feature this feature available when we are creating a new object into the scene, for example, I have this scene consists off multiple boxes, and right now I want to create another walks but attached to the surface. To do that, go to create panel geometry, then click create box button and click this out. A great option in here and orders. When we hover around the scene, the mouth speaks. Stop the surface automatically. When we click direct on the surface, we can create a new books. Align automatically on the surface. You can do this also for teapot, for example, the select in place tool is a new toe available in three DS Max 2015. It allows us to place object on surface based on their objects. People point Z or up direction to use it. First, click this select and place button. Click and directness teapot and move it along the sore face. Notice how the teapot will follow the most position while automatically allying itself with the surface below it. The big difference between the stool and the normal line tool is that you need to make sure first that the paper point is at the right location. If you click, drag this fear, for example, it will attach to the surface like this. This is because the people point off the sphere is located at its centre 19. Common problems: when using three DS max as a beginner, I often find myself in a situation where three DS max behave strangely. Not necessarily because off bugs or error, but because I accidentally press keyboard shortcuts that I'm not supposed to do and having experience in teaching to DS Max for quite some time. I find this problems, of course, often with my students. So I decided to create the specific video about common problems usually faced by beginners when walking in three DS max. So whenever you find problems with today s makes letter on, don't forget to check this video out and see if it can help you. The first problem we're going to discuss is locked selection. Whenever we touch the space bar button in our keyboard, the locks election will be active. In this mode, we cannot slack or answer like objects in the scene, except what we already have selected before the turn off this lock selection, we can click the spread, look Aiken or hit the space bar a button again, and now the selection process will be back to normal. So again, if you find yourself cannot select or un select objects in seen be sure to check this icon at the bottom screen and make sure it's turned off. The next problem that beginners usually face in three DS max is accidentally pressing control. See, while it is true for most application control, see issues for copy objects in three DS max control. See, it's not used for that. Instead, it is used to create new camera based on the Koran. Few port few. So, for example, when we are looking at this object and press control, see suddenly are few poor cannot be rotated anymore. Now, to fix this, we need to do two things. Force Select this title that say's camera and change this back to perspective, then brought it. The few port around you will see a camera that we create before and just selected and hit the delete button. Then press zee zum extend a few part back to what we are working on. The next common problems is the expert mode. This happens when we accidentally press control acts, notice when this has happened, the command panel and lower panels are hidden. If this ever happened to you, just press this button or cancel expert mode or press control acts again, and now everything will be back to normal. At some point, you may want to hide the transform gizmo, or even your trans on gizmo may be hidden for whatever reason, and you want to show it again. In a previous three DS max version, the keyboard shortcut acts it's used to show or hide. The transform gets more now in three DS max version 2015 which I currently use, The defaults or cut is change to show our high transform gizmo. Now we can go toe few menu show transform gizmo. 20. Primitive vs editable: What really s Max mean about primitive objects? Are objects that is firstly created and still contain parameters off how it is created inside the modified panel, for example, on creating this sphere and when I opened mortify piano. While this object is selected, we can still change the radius, the segments, the hemisphere failure in any other staff. Down here again, this is called the primitive objects. So now what is irritable object irritable objects, objects that already lost all of the parameters when it was created. But we can access it's up objects and open more possibilities to customize objects using many modeling functions into DS max. Basically, when you need to model custom objects beyond simple geometry, you need to confront the objects into an irritable objects. For example, I'm making the steeple, and when I go to modify panel, we can see all of the parameters off the teapot is still available. The teapot is still a primitive object. Now, to change this to a inevitable object, you need to convert them toe irritable. Holy object. To do that, simply rightly comfort to comfort to irritable Polly. Now you may be wondering why irritable, poorly object and not at the reputable objects type well, The answer. This question will require a dedicated lesson simply put for now, that irritable Polly is the most corn and the common method off modeling, and it is supported with hundreds off modeling features that you can use once we confirm it . Toe irritable Polly. We can then go to modify panel and see that although we cannot access the old parameters, we can no access to the sub objects which are for tax or for theses ages, borders, polygons and elements. And we also have all of these tools to help us in three D modeling give you a clue off what irritable Polly can do with your object. I'm going to turn this teapot to something else. Let's say I want to add a mouth in here. To do that, I can go and select these vortices and then move these like so and we can add ice. Okay, police teapot. So, like these two purposes and move them up, select these two and then move them back a bit unless I can select and wrote that the spout element and reposition you see the move toe so it looks like a strong rather than a spot. As you can see in the small example, you can create any type off custom objects imaginable after converting that object into an irritable Polly object. 21. Introduction to Editable-poly: starting from the section, we're going to discuss modelling techniques using irritable Polly objects. First thing we need to understand is the concept off. Some object itself into the S Max. So what are some objects? Subjects are components that make up an object. If we remember Mathematica lesson back in elementary school, a cube, for example, has component off points and we have lines connecting those points. And when lines are close together they will form a plane now interred Air smacks creditable Polly object works exactly the same way. Let's say I am creating this teapot and converted to irritable Polly object when we open. Modify panel notice We have these sup objects, icons. We have far packs or far theses ages, border, polygon and Allah men you might notice. Also in the modifier stack, we have this plus sign and when we click this, it actually expanded to subjects type that we have in here Also so again, every object that has some objects can be seen in the existence off this plus sign at the left off its name in a modifier steak. Okay, now let's talk about for tax or far theses for text or author theses are actually points in computer graffiti, especially in three D Software's points are called FairTax. 30. Sees is the plural form off the world for Tex. So we called them 30 assists when we have two or more of heart attacks. When we leave this for tax object mode, we cannot juice, object or any other sup object by default except for tax or a fart. Assist on Lee begins like fair tax by clicking on it or multiple. Farkas is by creating Mark you selection using click and wreck on a few parts, like so we can move the fantasies, rotate them and even scared them. Okay, now, when we switch to age more, we can also like age or ages. Instead, off Earth assists ages are basically lines. If we compare toe mathematic lesson we have before the same principle applies to the H more is that we can select them and then move them or rotate them or skilled Um as we like. The curse of object are called border now. Borders are actually ages, but they exist in the border. Often object or around the holes on the object. Notice the lid off the tea pot is separated with the body so we can select the ages around here as border. Next is the polygon. A polygon is a plain area form by ages that are in closed loop again. The same principle applies in polygon board. We can slack and do all sorts off transformation on them, less of objects inevitable. Polly are called elements. Basically, they are polygons but exists in one group. In this teapot example, we can select the lid as a separated Allah. Men also the body, the sprout and handle are also considered as elements of object. Okay, Now we're going to discuss a very important concept in two DS max regarding the objects and some objects. When we are inside a certain sub objects, we cannot choose other objects. But the current subject off that object notice. No matter how hard I try to select this other object, it will not be selected Just like other objects. You need to go out for us from the subject more back to top left or object mode. To do that, you can simply click again The active subject I can in here or you can also right click and choose top level in the court menu. Now we can choose object as before, today S Max bullfights many ways to never forget and access stop objects. First, you can use these icons in a modified panel like we did before. You can also use the hierarchical menu on the modifier steak. Another way to do this is by using the court menu. If the object we select it's inevitable, pally object when you rightly you can see at the top left area and a quart menu, we can select Subjects mode and the stop level button to go back to object mode. The fourth method off navigating to sub object mode is by using keyboard shortcut pressing Key number one on top off letter Q. We can access the FairTax mode. Key number two is for each mode. Tree is for water mode, Far is for polygon mode and less. One is five, which we can use to junk. Two elements are object mode. Now, when we're inside the element mode, for example, to go back to the top level mode, simply click the key number five again, and now we're back in top level mode. The less lesson we're going to discuss now is about attaching and detaching objects. Let's just say that we have to combine these two teapots into an object. We can do that by selecting one off them, and Jews attach and click on the other object. Now that other object become part off the Koran object. Remember to right click ones to exit the attach mode. Otherwise, every time you click on an object, that object will become attach. Now what if you want to do the opposite or we want to detach a certain part often object, so it becomes separated. Object. To do that, we need to be a polygon or elements of object mode. Select party. Want to detach and click this detach button? Because a new object will be created to DS. Max will problem us to name that new object. As you can see, this has now become separated object, and we cannot select any part off the subjects in his object anymore. 22. Subobject selection: in South Object moored. We can also use control, anarchy toe ad and to reduce selections, for example, in polygon mode. After selecting this one polygon, we can hold control and select by clicking one by one or control and direct the selection like so toe. Add more selection while pressing out selecting our mark. Your selection will reduce the already selected polygons. You can use this not only in polygon mode but with any other type off subject selection, such as fairtax age and so on. Sometime we need to select only part off the sub objects that is facing our eyes, and we don't want to select any part that is not visible or located at the backside off the object. For example, when we select using mark your selection like this notice, these selects everything in front and in the back off our object. Now let's un select these and turn on this ignore back facing option in here notice. When we select with click and drag, only the front part is selected, and what is not feasible or located at the back side will not be selected. The next selection techniques we're going to discuss is selecting using by angle press whole. When this option is turned on in here, we can specify the angle pressure that really s Max will use to grow or spread selection automatically. When we set this toe 30 degree, for example, and select this polygon. Every polygon near the polygon will be selected. Also, if the angle formed by the polygon is slower than the anger threshold, which is 30 degree in our example lower in this threshold will contract the selection result as less polygons for under the degree tres hold to spread and to contract selection from existing selection can be done using the shooting and grow method. For example, I select this one polygon in here, and by clicking this grow button, more and more neighboring polygons will become selected also as the opposite. You seem the sharing button. Less and less neighboring polygons are selected. Next is the ring and loop feature. These features are mainly used in H mode. When we select one age like this and hit Lupin here, notice all of the ages that are connected serially will be selected also. But if we select one h like this and hit the ring button. The ages that are placed parallel to that age will become selected. Now. The menus off this ring and Luke is actually for modeling feature using connect and using jumper. All of this will be discussed in a later video in polygon mode. In a fair tax mode. Ring and Loeb selection do not exist, but we can simulate it using shift Click Method, for example, in polygon mode, I select this one polygon and then holding shift and click in here. Notice all of these polygons become selected. We can also do this on vertical orientation, and you can also do this shift click method in for tax mode to simulate ring or loop selection. The less of objects selection technique that we're going to discuss is selection. Conversion took one for selection from one subject type to another subject type. We can use control plus click method on the subjects. Aiken. Let's say I have this one polygon selected, and I want to move the for tex mode while preserving the selection. Normally, when we go to a certain sub object mode, the selection is independent from another subject selection. But when we are inside this polygon mode and we want to go to a fair tax mode. But with these fantasies that belong toe, these selected polygons becomes selected in for text mode. Also, we can press and hold control and click on this third export, Aiken. And now you can see these further seas are now selected as it was in polygon mode. Another method is by using Schiff and clean. Using this method on Lee, the border selection will be transferred. For example, I'm picking these four polygons and hold shift. Then click this Fairplex Aiken, notice only the border off the selection transferred to the Vertex mode. 23. Edge modeling techniques: in this video, we're going to discuss some off the irritable Polly modeling features for age and border Stop object mode. First is connect again. We're discussing each mode, so be sure that your object is irritable Polly Object and the H modus accordingly active. Okay, now connect issues to create new age or age is based on the center off currently selected ages. To make things more clear, let's say I select this age and also so far ages like this. Now when I go to modify panel and click a neck, or you can also right click and hit connect in the court menu. New Ages are drone from the Centaurus off the ages Previously selected If you want more control after selecting the base ages, click on the Connect setting, but in here are in here in the quarter menu, and now we will have more options to work with the segments. Letter. Mind how many h loop you want to create the pinch that in mind, how close or how apart each off the age look created. The slide will survive. The age loops off the right or left in reference to the center off the ages. Select that previously. If you want to finish, just hit the okay button or, if you want to cancel, click on the cancel button in here. Something to take note about Connect is that it is very often to use it with the ring selection function. For example, if I want to make New Age loop around this part, I can click these age ones and hit ring and then connect. Now we have suffered all age groups in this part. Notice also, the settings we adjust before is still memorized by three DS max, and they are used again to define. The newly age is created with the Connect Command in age Mort. The Create Command is used to create New Ages from existing for Texas. To use the create command, click create in here in a quart menu. So now we're in the age creation model. In this mode, when weekly and release and click again from one for tax to the other, it will create a new age After finished, don't forget to right click ones toe exit. The age create mode. Demand function off jumper is to slice like that ages. Usually we use them in corner area to make it less sharp or use them in conjunction with norms to make the result corner become sharper. To use John for first, we need to slacken. Age or age is like so, then use the charm for in Here are you can also use squat menu, then move the mouse on top off one of the age click drag. Like so we can see Now the ages have spliced from one each loop toe to age loops. John for also have more options. We can access it through the setting button in here or in here at the court menu. We can set the amount in here, and we can say the number off ages you want to produce in here, usually John, for issues together, although not necessarily with the loops aggression function. For example, we can select this one age Lou, and now we can turn for this like so when we are working with complex object sometime, we do want to reduce the ages from that object. One way to reduce the ages is by selecting them and hit the delete button. The problem with this technique is that the polygons attached to the age will be deleted. Also creating holes in our geometry. If this is not the result you're looking for, we can use the remove command. Now remove Command will delete the age, but if the structure can be maintained, it will not delayed the surrounding polygons. Okay, this is good. But when we remove multiple ages, for example, a whole H loop the remove command, we'll still leave the Farrah theses on the geometry. For example, I picked this age, Lou, and he'd remove button notice. When I go back to for tax mode, we can still can see all of these further assist in here. 30 assists that have only two ages connected to it are not recommended and should be avoided. So to fix this, I'm going to undo this first. Okay, Now, instead, just pressing the remove button. I'm going to press and hold control. Then please remove button Now, as we can see when we're back to for tax mode, the model is much cleaner than before. As those double ages focuses are all gone 24. Cut & Slice techniques: other methods off ending ages to our objects are by using cut and sliced tools. There are at least four tools to do this, and we're going to discuss all of them in this video, just a gentle reminder that the section off video is all about irritable Polly object. So make sure that you do have an indictable polly object to work with. Cut is across up objects tool that can create ages from FairTax ages and polygons. Cross of object means that it actually available anywhere. Whether you are in object mode or in Vertex age and other subject mode to use got simply, click this cut button or from court menu. Click cut in here. We're now inside the cut mode in cut mode notice. When we move around the mouse, the cursor changes Espejo over to certain subject area. When we hover on top off our packs, the coaster changed a fair tax cut mode. When we hover over ages, it will change to this age cut mode and when we are on top off polygons the course or changed to something like this, so basically it automatically detects anything beneath our mouths. Carson. When we click on author takes. Then on this age, notice how it creates this line. Now we can continue doing cut. For example, I could again on this age, then on this fair tax. Then on this polygon, etcetera. I can even go beyond suffer or sub objects. And three DS max will handle dress to finish one cart operation simply right click ones. We are still in cut mode and clicking on the object. We're starting undercut operation, so to exit the cut mode, you need to right click once again. To be honest, I rarely used cut because three DS max introduced more stable cutting tool called Pain Connect, which we are going to discuss later. Using cut in my experience is sometimes a little buggy. Sometimes it create double fare theses and cock on area Children. So you sit with Ashish and always Jake. For Jerome, Entry integrity, after using the cut commander slice plane is like a giant knife where we can use to slice objects. Basically, it creates New Age is based on the intersection off. The object with the first will play an object to use it. You can be at any subject type for example. In fact text mode. Then click this slice by in button in here. When this is active, we will see this year low official plane that you can move around or wrote it around. The intersection with the object will create a new ages and can be seen as a preview in a few part. If you set this fight with it, you can click slice in here and then right click to exit the slice pain mode. Sometimes we want to localize the effect off the slicing toe, only certain polygons. To do that, we can select some polygons, and when we activate the slice plane, notice it only affecting the selected polygons. And when we hit the slice as the pre few shows, the ages appear on the selected polygons Onley. One feature off slice plane that might help a lot in modeling is the split option in here. If this is turn on when we slice an object with a slice plane tool, the object will become separated or spliced, so each will become a different elements. The third method are slicing is using the quick slice tool, this method almost identical to size plane, but the plane itself. Always directed from our eyes. Imagine that we have a very long katana sword that can slice anything to use. Quick slice quick, quick sliced button in here. So we are now in quick slice mode and click release on the first cutting point and then click again to define the second cutting point. Now the object is slice all the way as it was being cut by a very long katana, swore or laser, just like the slice plane tool. The quick slice, too. We can also use the split option to split object, and also we can limit the slicing process. Toe only a certain polygon area by first selecting the polygons and then do the quick slice afterward. Notice on Lee. The selective polygons are slice in this way. Last is the Pain Connect tool. These stool was originally available only as a plug in for three DS max called Malibu's After out Odessa. Acquire palette. Booze the to now become part off the graphite modelling tool or also known as the ribbon Soto access it. You can turn on the ribbon first and then go to the modeling tab. You can find it in here. It is called P Connect. When this button is on, every time we click and hold and drag the mouse on the object, it will create a just like this By default, it will cut from edge. Toe H took a tow. A vertex. We need to press and hold control on our keyboard. So, for example, I dragged amounts from here to here and here. Now, when I want to target a fair tax, simply hold control without releasing the mouse and move to the nearest for text. It will snap and a new age will be connected to the Vertex to exit the pain connect mode simply right click ones. And we are back to normal times formation mode. I usually prefer this method over the cut method mentioned earlier as it is very stable and behave exactly as we expected. Toby 25. Border modeling techniques: there are so far our modelling function we're going to discuss in borders off object mode. They are kept breach and shiftless move Function first is kept kept iss usedto close hole in our geometry. For example, I have this whole in store face to close it simply goto border mode, selector, border and just kept. Now the whole is closed. Breach is used to connect to borders with extruding geometry. To create bridge, we need at least two holes, and the best practice for using bridge is to make sure the amount off ages at the border is exactly the same. So, for example, I just this border and hold control and click the other border in here and now click bridge button in here are used the bridge setting in here. If you need more options, I'm going to use the setting button so we can see and discussed the option available for bridge. Now the segment is important to that. Remind how many ages the bridge will have. The taper is used to determine how fit or thin the center off the bridge is for other settings. I believe you can explore them by your own. The Bridge Command is available also in polygon mode to breach a polygon to another polygon and the bridge command also available in h mode. But it only works for a just that exceeds in border area. The less method that we can use in border mode or on ages there is located at the border area is edge extrusion. Using the shift plus move command, for example, I have this plane object like this. Now, when I pick this age at the border and press and hold Schiff on the keyboard, then move it. Done work. A new surface is created like so we can do this again and again to form a more complex surface from it. 26. Poly modeling techniques: In this video, we're going to discuss the floor techniques commonly used in polygon subject mode. The function off extrude in polygon mode is to extend polygons out off the surface, are into the surface. For example, Make sure you are in polygon mood first, and then select these two polygons. Click the extrude button in here, or you can also use extra button in a quart menu in here. Then move the mouse over the selector polygons and just click and wreck up and down notice . When we direct up the poly guns will be extra, that coming out off the surface and when the mouse is moved down, the polygons extruded into the surface. This, like any other modelling tools inside. Three DS max. The extra tool also have setting, so it can control the extrusion process more precisely to access it. You can click in here, or if you prefer the quote menu, you can access it in here with setting. You can specify the amount off extrusion with values. Now notice on top of the setting. We have this option group, local normal and polygons To explain this better. I'm going to select this polygon first and hit Schiff, then select this polygon in here. This will select the whole polygon loop. OK, now let's get back toe the extra setting notice in group More. The whole polygons are extruded together but makes the direction also uniform, which in this case not suitable at all. But when we set this to local normal mode, they extra together. But each polygons moved to its own direction. The last option is by Polygon, which will extrude each polygon separately. Inset is almost like extrovert in term, off the amount off polygons generated by the operation, but instead will not add any hate to the process. Instead, it will add some kind of frame toe the selected polygons to be more clear. Let's just like some off these polygons and right click, then click inset. We are in inset mode now, so when we click and wrecked the mouse on top off these polygons there, we'll string and from a frame like this now, in a setting, you I for inset. We can define the amount and also the grouping methods just like extra. But as we can see the option for local normal, it's not available as it will not produce hate like extra does. Next is the buffalo command. The bear full command is like extra and inset combined together in one operation to use the bear full command, we can either click in here are in a quart menu, Then the process off clicking and dragging the first time well defined head fail You dragging up will extract the polygons outside off its your face while dragging it down will make it sink below the surface After we released the mouth, the process is not finished yet. Now we can define how much the outline value which basically control the insect and outset from its base size moving the most up will make it offset and moving the most down will make it in set click once again to finish one process. Biffle also have setting you I when you can define the head, fail you an outline value. More precisely. Our last discussion in polygon mode is smoking groups. We can find a smoothing groups parameters down here. Okay, So what is sporting group? Basically, supporting groups control the surface muteness behavior from one party going to the others . Controlling supporting groups is actually very simple. Just remember this role Oregon's that have the same smoothing groups numbers we look smooth polygons that have different smoothing groups. Numbers will not look smooth. For example, that's look at this fear object this whole So face has smoothing ropes off one. That is why they look small. Now if we select all polygons and hit this button clear all notice our sphere now looks more like a disco crystal ball instead off a ping pong ball. This all due to the polygons are not part off any smoothing groups. Now let's like these four polygons and hit one in smoking groups. Now we can see these polygons looks more. This is because these four polygons have the same submitting groups number. Okay, now let's like these four polygons below them and hit number two noticed. They looks more through each other, but they refuse to looks more toe this group up here. This is because the upper group is number one and the bottom group is number two. Okay, now this is the last part. Off the roll polygons can have more than one smoking groups. Let's say we select this one. Polygon noticed the number one is active now hit number two. Also. Now this polygon belongs to group number one and also number two. So, as you can see, it looks more together with this group and looks mood. Also together with this group, smoothing groups is very important if you are working with low polygon objects, usually for exporting toe game engine as it can simulate and control smooth surfaces with fewer polygons for high polygons object objects with millions off polygons count, usually smoking group, it's not needed. 27. NURMS: norms, which is actually stand for non uniformed relational mash. Mood is mathematical algorithm to smooth out objects by adding more polygons to it. This figure should explain how nerves work. Toe three d model object in other through the application norms, a sometime referred as subdivision. So again, if you find words sub deficient in other CD application, they are actually norms that we have intraday s. Max. The benefit off, you see norms is that we can model the object in only a few polygons possible and later, after we finish, any to render can make our object looks more complex and smooth out using gnomes. Norms in two DS max can be accessed in two ways. Using the built in terms function inevitable Polly object. Or you can use terrible, smooth modifier toe adn arms to an object. Now there is another modifier called Nash mood modifier, which also contained norms. But it's recommended to use the terrible smooth instead as it is more efficient in term off memory usage. Okay, to turn on Durham's on irritable Upali object, you can either click this Houston ERM sub deficient in here, or you can access it quickly in the court menu up here. When we activate terms, notice how the object we look smoother and rounder. If you look at this eyesore line option in here and turn it off will be able to see the actual polygons created by the nerves algorithm to smooth out. As we can see, gnomes actually multiplied the polygons by four. If you look at this situation option in here, if we set this to two terms will be applied to times on our object. It means that the amount off polygons created now is four times multiple by for again from the original polygons. So be very cautious in increasing this situation value as it will crash three ds max. If you increase it too much, usually one toe to federation value is enough to get a good high polygons result to turn off norms. You can click this button again or is the court menu again? So basically it's a total button. Perhaps the biggest challenge for a treaty modeler is to understand how norms behave on their 30 models. In other words, if you want to create this German tree after norms apply, how do you are? You know geometry should be formed. More experienced three d modeler will have a better understanding off how the final object we looks like after nerves is applied to them. The bigger role to remember when using norms It's this The more ages close together, the sharper the corner will be to illustrate this rule. Let's go to the polygon mode. Notice we will have this arrange cage. This cage is actually the original German tree that we can work with now select for polygons on top and extrude. Now, while these four polygons are still selected, go to move more and move these close together because ages are close together in here notice the corners shaped by the norms are sharper. But when I moved this higher, the corner become rounder. Now I'm going to make this very cause and extra again with small hate. Now if you look closer, we have these three ages close together When we turn off norms. This is how our original object looks like. We turn norms back on and we can see the corner is very sharp when modeling using norms. Usually we add double ages to make it semi sharp corner and three ages at maximum toe make it very sharp. Another example. Let's say we want to make this corner sharper Now we can use John for forties to do that's like this age it loop and jump for setting. Notice how this corner become sharper as we make these two ages close together even more sharper If we add segments, Toto, making this corner toe have three ages goes together. 28. Project: Round table: in this lesson, we're going to create a coffee table based on the things we've learned so far, the table that we're going to model. It's more or less like this image in here. First thing first, we need to make sure the system unit is in centimeter. We begin by creating a cylinder. When modelling, make sure you choose to show age faces in here so we can see the topology off the object. We can see that we have excessive number off hate segments, so we're changing it. Toe only one for the sides. We actually need more sites to make. It looks motor. At least 36 sides will do. Now let's move our table to the origin or the center off the three D world. To do that, you need to be at move mode and zero out all of the X, y and Z coordinates down here. To do this faster, we can simply right click with our mouse button at the spinner. This will set the failure to be at minimum, which in our case is zero. When you are modeling, always make sure your object is at the center or at the origin as this will bring a lot of benefits later down the road, said the Hato. Only 4.5 centimeter and the radius to 50 centimeters. If you look at our image reference in here, we can see that the base plate. It's not touching the floor directly, so we need to bring this up a bit. Next, we're going to create the neck off the table. To do this, simply clone the object by right click and clone. Choose copy just the head toe 50 and radio store 15. Then change the sites toe 24 because it's not needed toe have as many polygons as the bigger one at the bottom. If you look closely to our reference, we can see that the corner is a bit transferred. The small detail will add a sense off realism to our object. As in the real world, most objects don't have sharp corner unless it is a knife are designed intentionally that way to remove the sharpness, we can select these ages in the corner and chum for it, but selecting them one by one, it's not convenient. We can use selection transfer technique by for selecting the top polygon And then, while holding control, click the H. Aiken. Now we have all of this age is selected brightly. Just jump for setting and just make it 0.3 centimeters. We can do this on the bottom part. Also for the upper plate. Just go on this bottom part, move it up So the opera surface is at Ron 50 centimeters. Hate scary the bit at the X and y plane. Now select the bottom part and juice attach and pick the neck and the upper plate. So now they are all combined together as one object. 29. Project: Dining table: in this video, we're going to model a dining table just like what we see in this image. We also going to use a modifier called symmetry later to make object becomes symmetrical. Before we start, make sure we use centimeter for the system unit. First, let's create a box. Make this object at the origin change the Z Value toe seventies in the meter. Now it changed the length toe 150 centimeters, and with toe 240 centimeters and hate to for centimeter. Next step is to create the table legs. If you look at the reference, there is an area about three centimeters. Align with tables or face at the top. We are going to create this area. First, go to the top few part and let's create a box with three centimeter with and length the hate. We're going to adjust it later. Next, we need to activate 2.5. The snap. Make sure the snap mode is in for Tex mode. Position the box so that the corner matches the corner on the tabletop. Then I saw that the object rotate it 45 degree, then converted toe irritable poli object. So, like these polygons and hit the lead now the next step is we're going to select these two ages then, while pressing and hold the shift button direct is age is to the left. So they are extruding like so to create a sore face from these two ages simply used the breach per man juice ring to select this barrel ages and just can accepting change the segment toe to place this first assist around here and then in polygon mode choose this polygon and extruded like so just this fact assists and move it dozy cordoning off seventies and the meters just the border and kept a close the hole Next as we notice in reference, each off the table leg has metal shoe. Now we're going to create something like this. First we select the border and hit cap to close the hole. Then in set this area around half off centimeter extruded around half centimeter also then bevel hit with zero hate, but with half centimeter outline extorted again with just a rough estimation. Then we need to adjust this again. So it is not penetrating the grown plane less. We wrote that this back minus 45 degree, so it's back to its original orientation. Before we move on. Let us first discuss about cement. Three mortar fire. We're going to use this teapot to explain the symmetry modifier so selected and go to modify panel and add cement three modifier to it right way. After we had symmetry modifier, we can see the teapot becomes symmetrical as the left side now is the same as the right side. If you want the left side who copied the right side, we can click on this flip option in here. Also, as we can see in here, we can use access other than the X axis. Ask the direction off the first your mirror. The symmetry modifier uses the people point by default as the location off the mirror, but we can actually adjust its position and orientation mentally. To do that, we can click in this mirror sub object and move this around. We can also rotate the mirror like so slice. A long mirror will make sure the object, our supplies and the world seem Properties bill well or combined for classes that are located at the mirror plane area. The last perimeter, which is very important to symmetry. Modifier is the threshold these threshold works together with the world seem to deter mined . How close, the for to say should be to be welded together. If the focus is distance at the mirror plane is closer than this threshold, then it will be welded. Otherwise, it will not be well that now let's go back to our dining table before ending symmetry modifier. First, let's adjust. The people point to the position off the origin. This is important because, as we mentioned before, the center of the symmetry modifier will use the pivot point as default at the cemetery Monday fire, then just the mirror sub object and rotate them minus 90 degrees. After we make something like this that's going for this toe, irritable, poorly object again toe flat on the modifier and make the memory usage more efficient, we need to jump for the ages. In this area, 3.5 sentimental seems to be a good value, extruded again, and the last step we're going to add another symmetry modifier again, and now our dining table is finished 30. Project: console table: in this project Lesson. We're going to model a console table at this image in here. We're going to discuss a new modifier called Shell in this lesson. Okay, let's begin by creating a box. And as always, we want to move this to the origin position Is ik ordinate to be at 75 centimeters, set length, toe 60 centimeters and with toe, 220 centimeters then set the hate to be roughly at a centimeters. The next step is to create the legs. We do that by cloning this box force choose copy confronted into an irritable Polly object and then let's adjust their polygons so they resembled the difference image that we see before next. We need to delete these two polygons. Okay, now, before we're moving on, let's discuss about shell modifier Force. First let me create a box with some segments, then just this side and erase it and also decide. Okay, Now I have this thin sort of face all the way around using shell modifier. As we can see here, tennis or faces that don't have any volume will become thick. You can use the outer amount in here to produce thickness at the outer surface. Off the object are you can also use inner amount of reduced sickness inside. One more important option I usually turn on is this option down here called strengthened corners. Notice. If this option is not, check the thickness across. The surface will not be uniform as it gets dinner when it comes to the corner areas. OK, now, let's get back to our table, just the leg again and apply shell. Modify error. Set the inner amount to two centimeters and just remember to make sure the strengthen corners down here is active. Converted toe irritable quality object again toe flat on the modifier stack and then select the upper polygon in said it on extra days a bit, So it's touching that I brought up. Next we need to select the tabletop. It's like attach and click on the leg. So now they are part off one object. The last thing we need to do is to add symmetry modifier, and now the table is finished. Now you can add chan for toe the corner off the table if you wish to make it more realistic . But I'm sure by now you already understand how to do that. As we have discussed this in earlier lessons 31. Project: Toilet: in this video, we're going to create across it from start to finish using Bear four chan for and Norms. The basic goal for this tutorial is to practice the nerves concept we have learned before. For start. Let's create a cylinder century that the origin make the radius toe 30 centimeters. The hit sick Mento only one and hate toe one centimeter only. Also, we make the sites toe only 10 sides because we're going to use norms later to smooth out the three D model, conferred the cylinder toe inevitable or the object, Then select the first X mode and select all of them using control. A. Then use the scale toe to scale this up on the Y axis to make it a bit stretch or upside. Like so. Okay, now, by using only bear full mode, create several bear falls. So we have something like this. If you fail at your first try, just undo and keep trying using before at first, dust feel a bit hard to do, but after several prize, you should get a hang off it. Please refer to the video section about. Therefore, if you need toe after you're satisfied with the form. Goto the left few port and select this next volley guns and move it back and direct this fertile sales to the front like so now the cost that we want to create is about 50 centimeters. Hate, because the great size is in 10 centimeters. So it's about this hate tweak, some 30 assists if needed to make it more proportional. Okay, now we want to make the top and the base neck sharp later when in terms mode. So we need to double these two age groups. So, like these two ages and hit Look, then chan for it, so they double like So now let's move on to the top off the closet in south it, then extrude it down. Then that's create larger whole by using their full again. Now, in this point on, it's very hard to see the inner area off the closet. Since the exterior is blocking our few toe offer companies, we can use the see through option toe access it we need to right click and choose object properties down here and then check this see through option in here. This will make the object looks transparent and a few parts does, making it easier to model the inner part off it. Bear Feli again several times. Now make the polygon looks more circle by scaling it in. Why access? So it's about this size. Then continue Bear Feli again like so, then carefully again, all the way and make it smaller. Now, in this position, we want to make the polygon a bit rotated like so Then, before we begin bear falling it again, click this lock selection so we will not select anything else on intentionally Biffle it again and brought it it a bit like So now we're going to create the water thing for our closet to do this. That's like these three polygons in here. Move it along the y axis and then click Make partner in why Access notice? No, this polygons become threat perpendicular to the y axis. Select this three ages in here and bring it down a bit. Now let's like these three polygons again and extrude, um ones both at them for the five degrees and moved them up about this position. Extract them again and they noted them again. 45 degree quick the position of it and then before them again. Twice. So we have something like this. Perhaps we need toe Take this party guns back a bit so it looks more balance. Okay, now we have the base geometry finished. But when we norms this object, notice how these corners are two rounded To fix these First we need to turn off the norms. Then select these three ages inside first loop and Chan Father, now the outer ones. We should like this age and this one and all of these ages. Okay, Now loop again then, champ. For now, we norms this object and said the iterations of deficient toe, toe toe make it even smoother. Now we have a nice looking cause that 32. Introduction to Spline: Starting from this video, we're going to discuss modelling techniques using Sline as the base object. So what is actually supplying? Well, if you use Adobe Illustrator before or escape or use path inside for a shot before you have used spine before For those off you who never used them before, you don't need to worry because we're going to discuss this from the very basic off it. Okay, spines are a bunch off emphasis or point connected with curves. These curves can be straight lines or can also be bending curves each off the fair. Theses can have control handles so we can control the shape using them. The difference within vector drawing and spine into DS Max is that inter DS max the pharmacists can have X, Y and Z coordinate values while in illustrator are in escape. They only have X and Y as it is basically to the application. Just like geometry objects. Spine objects can be primitives and can also be irritable, insidious max. The irritable type off spines are called irritable spines. For example, we can create a circle by going to the create panel shape, spine circle, just click and wreck on a few port to create a circle. When we go to the modify panel while the circle is selected, we can still change the radios, but we cannot access the sub objects off it as it is still a primitive objects to convert toe inevitable. We can rightly confer toe and juice irritable spine. Now, as we can see, we can access for foresees and address all objects off this plane. Another example. We can create, directing or and go to modify Bernal. We can still change the length, the width and the corner radius off it. Now, after converting these to inevitable supplying object, we can now access its sub object. The same concept also applies to other spine in here, such as ellipse, arc donut, etcetera perhaps only once flying object is different from the rest. And that is line because when you create line object, it will be automatically become inevitable. Spine object Watch. When I create a line like this and go to modify panel, I can access the sub objects and other swine. Anything features right way. Okay. Now, before we move onto the next video, there are two things we need to know. First is the rendering setting, and second is the interpolation setting by default. When you try to render spines there will not rendered are not feasible in the rendering result. If you want to make spines visible in the rendering, we can set this in the rendering panel in a rendering setting. We can enable this both in rendering and in few port flying will be display as it was geometry. When this option turn on, we can now set the spine display whether it will be displayed as the radio base, which basically looks like a pipe are. We can also be display as rectangular base, which makes it looks like a wall. If it is said to radio, we can set the thickness sides and angle in here. If it is said to rectangular, we can set the length. Do it except rap interpolation. Roll out the steps. Failure controls how many Futural points will be created to accommodate the curvature off the spine. If I said this, for example, zero notice, no curvature is created as there are not enough points to generate it. Higher value means muta result, but more resource intensive, the optimize setting we reduced the future points automatically when the spine is straight and the adaptive mode in here will lead to the S makes automatically adding visual points and reducing it as needed. Non uniformly notice when adaptive is on the steps and optimize option are disabled. 33. Spline vertex types: to create a free form shape. Usually we used the line tool. We can access it through the create panel shapes spine line. For now, I'm going to use the top few port because when working with spines to the few, port is much more suitable. Okay, Now, before we start doing anything notice in here we have initial type and direct type. The initial type means what type offer tax you want to create. When you do click and release the direct type means what kind of her tax created when you do click and drag. We're going to talk about the differences between corner smooth and busier later on. For now, you just need to know that there is a setting in here before we even create the line. Make sure the initial type is said to corner and direct type is said to be easier. The setting works exactly the same S pento in Illustrator or for the shop. Okay, now watch when I click and release and click and release the fertile sees I created become corner that's making the lines between them straight. But when I click and direct like this noticed the first assist created around. Or we can say the lines between the purposes become curved to finish us plein. Simply right Click one's noticed this blindness finished, but we are still in line mode, so right click again once. If you want to exit the line creation mode, let's say we want to create a heart shape. Go to the line mode. Click in here. Click drag in here. Click in here. Click Drag in here and click again at the beginning. Off the path. Two DS max will ask whether we want to close the spine. Jews, yes and explain becomes close spine. Try this exercise before moving on, and if you failed at first, try. Just keep trying, and you should get better and better every time you retry a little tips when creating a shape with the line tool. When you want to go back one step you can press backspace button on your keyboard. After creating the heart shape, you can try creating different shapes as you like. Next, we're going to learn how to create sharp curves who do this? We can use the out button toe bend handle while creating the line, for example, I will create some random shape in here using line. Now watch how I click Drag in here until we have something like this. Then, while still pressing the mouse button, press and hold the art button in the keyboard. Notice how this next curve becomes sharp, This technique maybe a bit hard for you to use at first, but almost every CD application are using this method. So it's better for you to learn to do this by practicing a lot, because again later it will be a skill not only useful into DS max, but also transferrable tow ard RSCG applications. Okay, after you are comfortable, we did. We're going to create a more complex shape, which is an eagle had Aiken first click in here, Click Direct like so then hold out and move it to this position. Now release the mouse button and the out button, then move and click in here. Next, we're going to create the next feathers. Click drag in here, press out again and move and click in here. Now just click and really several times at this point, click drag out release click dragging here. Click Dragon here also, then press out, Move it like. So now we're going to create the hats. Feather, You seen the off again? Click drag. Unless just click on the beginning point to close the spine. Now we have a Neagle head. I can, if you still cannot create good results using this method, that is okay. Just keep practicing as most people do. Need a lot of practice is using this method until they can master it. Next, we're going to discuss different types off our theses in spine and how we can change or comfort them between one to another. I create this random shape and go to modify panel and Goto for texts up off Jake mode. When I pick this one for tax in here and right click notice how this option in here say's that it is a corner Now, when I changed this to smooth the FairTax now become smoother. If I change these two busier, look how this fair tax now has handles and we can control these handles around notice This handles kind off buying together and form symmetrical lines. If I change this too busy a corner now this handles can move freely from one another. So to sum up, we can say this slide in here. The easiest way to memorize this is by remembering the world Basie, which actually was named after a French scientists who developed the algorithm. When we see the base here, it means it has handles. So corner, a sharp smooth is not sharp, but both off This do not own any handles. Now, on the other hand, the busiest smooth, the busier corner can be sharp and both have handles Toby on us. I almost never use Muth as it is very hard to control the spline. Using this for text type and also in many CD applications, the smooth type is actually not available. 34. Spline modification: first, let's create a donut ship and then converted to edit the boats. Plying object. Now we're going to discuss different types off subjects available. Inevitable spine. First is the fair tax, which we already discussed some off it features in the previous video. Vertex is basically a point in three D space. Next is the segment. Segments are almost like age is inevitable, Polly, but in spine segments can either be linear lines or it can be bended curves. The last one is explain. Spines in here are on independent structure off ages. Inside, one object in this shape object. For example. We actually have to spines this one and this one. Okay, Now, after we have a clear concept about the subjects in spine, we're going to discuss the spine modification techniques. The first spine modification technique we're going to discuss is that defined command, this refined command ISS used to add more far theses into our shape. To do this simply click refined in here are in the court menu in here and then click anywhere on the spine. New for tax will be created at the position we click. Next is the insert command basically insert is much like refine, but it will add for tax ones and then reposition it before adding new ones. The insert command will keep adding new far theses until be right click to finish it. Okay, to show you what I mean, First click insert in here and then click in here and so on notice we can reposition the newly created for tax, then click ones to create another FairTax next to it. You might notice that the next for tax is this way. Not this way. This is because spine actually has flowing direction. So we know that this pipeline is flowing to this direction. Okay, Now I'm going to create a random shape. You've seen line object when we create a line object the order off the fair tax create that will define the flow off the spine. So when we used insert, it will follow the direction. If you want to re first the flow, we can go toe spine sub object, select the spine and then click this refers button notice that is one special far attacks that has yellow color. This yellow color is an indication that it is the first Fairfax and the starting point off the flow after we refers it. When we insert notice we have opposite direction from the previous. The next technique is raising for tax to arrest for tax. Simply choose the FairTax or far to seize hit the delete button in the keyboard. Wanting to keep in mind is that deleting fair tax will not cut off the spine, but the leading segments will cut off the spines. So again, if you are in segment mode and hit the lead, notice, the spine become cut off. Our next technique is connect Connect a man inevitable, supplying its a bit different than inevitable. Polly in Spines Connect is used to breach to further assist with sick men, for example, we have to end. Curtis is in here. Select the Connect Command and click and hold in his for tax, then drag it and release it on top off the other fair packs. Now these two further seas are connected with the new sick men. Next is the filet command. Sometimes we need to make corners become round. This is where filet command comes in handy. Click the feeling button in here and click drag up on this for Tex. Now we can see this. FedEx become spliced and produce around the corner. Now, if you want to make it more precise, you can just select the FairTax or fantasies and type in here the fairly off the rounded corner length. This value will deter mine. The laying from the original FairTax toe one off the spiced for tax, as we can see in this light if you want to feel a like before, but the result is flat and not creating around the corner. We can use junk for instead. Now again, we have a command with the name off town for also inevitable Polly. But what we discuss in here is John for in irritable explain, the concept is almost the same. To use jumper. The process is identical to fill a leak on John for Button to enter charm for mode and click and hold off for tax and then dragged the most up. Or you can use the type in value at the right side off the button by selecting the fair packs or far, Cassie's First, The last technique we're going to discuss. Ace outline basically outline is doubling the segments along US blind by adding additional segments inside or outside off it to make it more clear. Let's just see the example off it. First, you need to be in spine mode. It doesn't work in their attacks or segment mode, then select outline in here and click Hold drag up or down on this plane s feeling and John for commands. We can also select a spine force, then type in the value India's input field. The value can be positive or negative, depending on the direction you want to achieve, whether you want it to be inside or outside, The less option we can set in outline command is the center option in here. When this is on, the outline process will be uniform inside and outside, based on the original spine. 35. Spline Boolean operation: one way to create complex shape is by combining several shapes to form a new shape. These method is called bullion, but before we use bullion first we need to learn how to attach and detach shapes. If, for example, I have this circle and rectangle in here which are different objects, we can attach them so they belong to a single object. To do that for select one off them for example, the rectangle and converted to edit double splint, object and juice attach and select the circle. Now these spines belong toe one object. If, for example, you want to retake a spine first goto spine mode select for example the circle spine and Jews detach in here because we actually creating new object from the test process to DS Max will ask for the name off the new object. For now, I'm just going to cancel it and move on to discuss Boolean operation. Boolean operation works like this a united would be so it will be like this. A substrate by B So it become like this and last a intersect with B So it become like this . Okay. Now, to deter mine, which one is the ace blind and which one is the beast? Flying in bullion operation is very, very important. The spine that is going to be the A should be selected first and then select the operation you want to do whether it is addition substructure in our intersection. After you choose, for example, subsection, then select the bullion button. When this button is active like this, we need to click on any spine that is going to be the B object. And now Boolean operation is finished and we can see the result off it on our object. Wanting to keep in mind is that bullion works on closed spines, so be sure to check this first before doing any Boolean operation on spines objects. You can use the connect function to close open spines, or you can also click this close button to create course spine automatically 36. Cross-insert and Weld: Besides bullion, we can use other methods to create complex shape from other shapes using cross insert and well, for example, we want to preserve the line in the curve up here from the circle. Now bullion operation cannot handle these as the line is not close spine off course. We can make the line to become a rectangle first. But in my experience, when the curve is too complicated, Boolean operation just failed and cannot process the spines correctly. This is the situation where cross insert will come in handy. Okay, now back to cross insert before we even use cross insert. Make sure that the spine is in the same plane. So if, for example the line is up here, these will not work. OK, I will undo this first and back toe the top few part. First we need to be in for tax mode than click on cross insert button in here. Move the mouse over the intersecting lines. Noticed the mouse cursor exchange when the intersection is detected. When we click in this intersection, it will create two fair theses, one for the first line and one for the others blind. So what we see in. Here s one for tax are actually too far Theses on execs in position. Okay, now we're going to do the same thing with the other intersection. Now go to segment more and delete all off these segments we don't need. Now we have something like this. These are actually two separate explains notice. When I go to spine mode and move this around, they will move independently, I under this first. So it's lining back to its original place. Now, to combine these two first assists, we can use the world function to do that goto for tax mode and simply select these two by using Mark your selection like this notice in here we can see the three DS max telling us that there are too far theses actually selected in here. Now click on the world button in here and now these viruses are world and become one varteks. Now we need to do this also with the other offer to seize in the left side after this process. Now this shape is one connected spine. Okay, Now you might be wondering what are these numbers at the site off world and cross inside Do well these numbers are threshold off. How far the fair foresees in the line's position. If the first assist distance are lower than this threshold, Dwell will happens when we hit the world button. Otherwise, to DS, Max will ignore it. Same concept also applies to the cross insert in here. 37. Extrude modifier: spines in three D modeling are used to help us create geometry at the end. One way to create three D object or geometry from spines is by using extrude modifier. This modifier will add depth to our spines. First, I'm going to create a question mark logo using line and circle. First, let's create the upper part with the line tool. Click in here. Click drag, click Direct again clean sleep, then several click drag again following the path, then click and click close this plane. We can adjust this again as we like, until we are satisfied with the result. If you are still having trouble with creating spine, I suggest you to watch this plant introduction video again and just practice a lot. Now we can add circle at the bottom and select the top ship again and choose, attach and pick the circle. So now they are the same object. Now to the extract modifier, go to modify plan now and find extra modifier in the modifier. Drop down this by default. The certain modifier will have the amount failure set to zero increase this value by click and directly amounts. *** We can see now our spine already become a three D object. Now the segments fail. You in here is used to determine the amount off segments along its weight. The kept check boxes in here letter mind whether the start in the end will be closed or not . The morph and agreed, are used to make invisible ages at the caps. Now I usually use the default, which is more as it will produce cleaner result because the ages are infeasible. If you want to see the difference, we need to add an adit mansi modifier first at the top modifier Steak notice When I said toe grades to DS Maxwell at these invisible ages on top, I never find a good use for this invisible grade, so I never use it. And let's just switch back toe mark again for the output. Just set them to default. As you mentioned earlier. The patch and nerves are older methods off modelling, which are not used so much anymore. Incident industry nerves, by the way, is their use in the manufacturing industry using specialized software. If you are a three DS max user, patch and nerves is not your best solution. No days and The rest is about texture mapping, which we're going to discuss at later videos. Okay, now, before moving on, we need to discuss an important concept in spline modeling called Nest. That's plein. Now. I just made his name up to explain the behavior off course, spying inside another close explain to show you what I mean. That's create a rectangle and add some circle at the center of it. Now they should not offer love each other. Okay, now watch when I add an extra money fire on it. Notice day we look something like this. As you can see, a closed spine inside another closed spine will generate holes. If we add another close explain again inside it, it will become solid again again to wrap up this video lesson. Let's create a simple ago that looks like this. First is the circle. Then we're going to create the air sign using simple line. Click in here. Hold shift, Click in here. Notice the shift button used to make the line straight. And until we have something like this now both off, these shapes are different objects. We need to attach them first, so now they belong toe one object. Now we can select the circle using splints up object mode and you see the outline toe. Add some thickness to it. Now, on the s sign. First we need to make sure that these pharmacies are corner type because filet operation not suitable for any other fair text type. Okay, now, just feel it is out. So we have something like this. Go to Splain mode, select this plein, and then just do the outline operation. But now we turn on the center option down here. The last climb modification. We're going to create its brilliance, obstruction, choose the inner circle and then defined a subtract option in here. Click bullion button and choose the s sign. So now we have something like this. Add extra modifier, adjust the amount. And now we have three D letter s sign logo like this. 38. Lathe modifier: The second modifier for spine based modeling we're going to discuss is the late modifier. These modifier. Well, hurry forth a spine profile to form a three D object. You can think off it like a ceramic maker, creating vases using our revolving table when creating late profile it's based practice to follow these rules, first created from bottom to top Second, create the profile at the right side of the object. Three mainly used the front few poor to create a profile. These simple rules is not muss, but if you follow them, it will avoid you from additional works later. Okay, now, for example, I want to create a bowel. To do that, go to create panel shape, line and start creating the bottom part off the profile. Click here here and then click dreck like so not a click drag and finish this until we have a shape like this. If you are still not satisfied, it's OK. We can just go to modify panel and take all the fair to see so we can have the ship that we want now. Let's at the late modifier noticed the Leith modifier. We wrote it and former to the object. But by default it's using the center off our shape as the rotational axis which in our case is not suitable. Click in this mean button and noticed the traditional access is moved to the minimum point , which is correct for our case. Okay, if we zoom into the center area, we can see some artifact caused by far theses taking each other in one place out. Avoid these. We can choose to turn on the world core option. And now the Sandra fantasies are all welded as one Vertex. The next thing we want to change is the amount of segments in here. Currently it is said to 16 which is the default. We want at least 36 SEC men, so we have a smoother result. Okay, what we should do with this hole at the bottom. Well, we can kept it later after weaken forties to unedited herbal, poorly object. Or you can also add edit Polly modifier and to support their type and select the whole and just kept This will fill the hole with polygon. We have a lot of settings in later modifier, but I believe you should already able to explore them by yourself by now. 39. Bevel profile modifier: The last supplying based modifier we're going to discuss is the bear full profile modifier . This modifier works like the extra modifier as it at thickness toe a spine, but it uses another spine to profile. It's extrusion ship, so basically it requires to splints, for it works. First, it's the baseline, and second is the profile spine. The rules off making Biffle profile are identical to late modifier. First used front few port to create the profile to make it easier to manage later. Second, we need to create the profile from bottom up. If it is not close supplying profile for close plying profile, it can go to any direction. We're going to discuss this later on. Create the profile as it will be at the right side, off the base object. For our example, we're going to make a painting frame first. We need a rectangular based object, so let's create a rectangle in the perspective. Few port set the length toe 100 centimeters and with toe 170 centimeters. Okay, now let's create the profile. Remember the rules we need to create these in the front few port. It should be at the right side off the base object, and also make sure we create it bottom to top. First click in here, then in here and so on. I am creating corner type for all of the fertile sees as they are suitable for our model. In this case, make sure the overall hate off the profile. It's not hired in five centimeters for reverence. This greed is said toe, 10 centimeters by default, so try to be at least half off it. Now that it's done, select the base object and juice bear. Four. Profile From the modifier lis. Nothing happens yet, as the before profile modifier still has no clue which spline should be used as its profile . Now click on a pig profile button in here, and while this is active, click on a profile object now are painting. Frame is done because before profile is a modifier, we can always go back to the rectangle based object and change the size off it. Or so the connection within the barefoot profile and the profile spine ISS life. What I mean by that is that we can go to the profile spine object and make some changes, and these changes will automatically and instantly affecting the bear. Full profile result. Okay, we just create an object with unopened spine profile. We can actually build object with close spline profile. Now this is useful when creating objects like sealing profile, floor plain and any other similar objects. For example, we can reuse the same base object, which is this rectangle, but with a new ceiling profile. Go to create pain, are just line and start creating the profile. From this point, the overall hate should be about 10 centimeters. Click in here for a shift, so it straightened out. Click in here again and then do so for Ochlik like this and at the center. We want to create the concave area so we do clear and direct, like so, create several clicks again and closed the spine. Now go big toe perspective few part and choose the base object, which still uses the all profile. Now click on the pig profile button and pick the new profile. One thing we noticed right away is the result off the way for profile now has a void in the center. This is, of course, due to the close supply nature off the new profile. I hope these two examples clearly show you what therefore profile can do for you to remember to keep practicing. You see the methods we've learned so far. 40. Project: Mechanical pencil: in this project lesson. We're going to create a mechanical pencil using to let modifier and then continue with Tebow. Polly modeling. Okay, Now let's go to the front few port and start creating the profile. As always, start at the bottom and move all the way to the top. This area will be the tip area. This will be the body part, and this area will be the back part off it. Remember to your shift key on your keyboard to make the line straight. Okay, Right now we can see our profile is not proportional yet, So we need to go to the modify panel and start moving around the fare to seize, so this should become more proportional. We don't have any refunds for these. And we also don't use any kind of measurement. So it's a good time to practice our sense off shapes and measurement by just using our eyes . Okay, now, I guess the ship is good enough. Next we add late modifier adjusting access. We can do this by going toe. It's access off object mode. And while this is active, we can move these left or right until we get the shape we desire off course. If you want to go back to the irritable, supplying based object to tweak the shapes, we can always do that. After we are satisfied with shape. We can confirm this object to inevitable poli object. Notice. Now everything is flattened up in modify panel. We don't see the line based object nor the Leith modifier anymore. OK, no, let's like these two polygons at the site that are the same direction with the X axis and then extrude them like so after that, the two polygons at the bottom off it and extract them again. We can adjust this with move toe. If you're still not satisfied with our extrude length before we are finished, we need to do some tidying up force. We still have holes at the bottom and at the top. So goto border mode and press control A. This will select every border in the object, then hit kept close all of the holes than the last one. As we can see in here, the surface areas moving group is not correct. Now I'm going to show you a faster way to fix mooting group using angle threshold first Goto polygon mode. So, like all off them, you can use marquee selection or just press control A and go to smoothing group section down here. Notice there is an auto smooth button down here now. This value at the right is the angle tres whole. If he said this toe 45 degree, which is the default value, it will automatically smooth out. Every polygon that from angles lower than 45 degree polygons that create angle higher than 45 degree from their neighbors will be given different smoothing groups and making it look harsh. Now we have a better looking model off mechanical pencil. 41. Project: Hammer: in this project, we're going to create a simple hammer. You sing irritable Polly object and norms feature. First, let's create a box like so to make our books uniforms. At first, let's change the length of 50 the with the 150 hate to 50 units. Then let's make the with segments toe three. OK, now let's move or object to the origin. To do that, we can go to move mode and zero out the X, y and Z value down here by right clicking on the spinners Now confirmed the object to inevitable police. We can use the modeling tools available for irritable Polly object. We're going to defy the process into three steps. The first step is creating the hammer, head and body. The next step is creating the hammer clause and the last one adding the handle. First, we're going to create the head simply using the bare photo inevitable Polly Goto polygon mode and click in here and do careful like this. If you failed at first, try just undo and try again. To use Bear for using the mouse on Lee is a bit tricky, and you do need to practice to get the hang off it, so don't feel discouraged if you failed at first time. Just undo and try again until you get it right. One thing to note is that the ages in this area is intentionally doubled so later when using norms, it will become sharper than the rest of the Sioux phase. After finishing the head area, we can reshape the body area first. Let's select this eight for theses at the center and use the scale to scale along the Y axis to make a tika at the X axis toe. Make the center area longer for the handle and a bit adjustment of easy access to make it a bit higher. Okay, now we should have something like this. Next step ISS, adding the clause. First, let's move this age upwards of it, then defied this polygon into two polygons by using age selection. Select these two ages, then right, click and just connect. Now we have the polygon in here split into two polygons and should be ready for the claw extrusion now for the claw extrusion who can use bare full are extrude and move and scale to tweak the shape but that will be time consuming, so we're not going into that route. Instead, we're going to use better and faster solution by using the extra long spine technique. To do that first, Goto front few port and create a line for the exclusion path. Remember to create the line from the base to the tip off the flow and not the other way around 4 to 5 segments should be enough for our purpose because we're going to use norms at later time. This line can be raised later. Its main purpose now is just to guide extrusion. Now let's go to the polygon mode. And so, like only despotic gun right click juice extrude long spine settings in here. Nothing happens yet because we haven't configure which spine we want to use. Now click this button and just the line that we create before Jansa's segment Toe five and pepper amount toe minus 0.9. Then press enter, so the tape is almost sharp. Then click the OK button finished the extra DeLong's Blind Command for the other polygon. Next to it, you can use the repeat feature your selected rightly and just repeat three DS max will repeat the last process to the currently selected object and that just make our life easier because we don't need to create everything again from stop. Okay, now, if we right click and just norms notice how much the corner is to round and we need to make them a bit sharper to fix that we can use the champ for command. But first we need to select the ages that need to be Tom for so go to age mode and select these ages. Then hit loop. Now we have all of these ages like that now, right, click and choose jumper settings John for this with one unit value and then click the OK button after we have this ages jumper. When we norms days, we will have the hammer objects move out of the corner is a bit sharper and more defined. The last step is reading the handle off the hamburger To do that first at the top of the hammers body, we're going to select the polygon id inset and do suffer or before so we have something like this. Remember, we're adding these double ages to make the corner area sharper where norms apply to it for the bottom part. We can do inset several times and then bear full four times like this. Right now, the handle is too short, but that it's okay as we're going to reshape it with the move to simply go to the front few part and while in move mode just dragged a fart assist so they look like what I have in here. After finished tweaking, the fair theses turn on terms again, and now our hammer three d model is finished. 42. Project: Accent chair: in this project. Listen, we're going to learn to create a simple chair like this image we're gonna be using Irritable Polly modeling shell modifier and norms for the body part and for the legs were going to use blind based modeling feature with rendering setting. Turn on before we start, make sure the system unit is set to centimeter. First, let's create a plane object. Let's change it. Segments toe three by three, then change the length toe 50 centimeters and with toe 60 centimeters set its X and Y coordinates to be at zero. So it's entered in the world space then changed Easy access hate to 50 centimeters. Next, we're going to duplicate this by pressing shift and move it in here, then rotated. So it's almost perpendicular with the original. Now both off, these objects are separated and so we need to pick this one conferred toe irritable, poorly object and then attach and click this vertical one. Now we have only one object goto for tax mode and tweet this for to see so it looks more comfortable to sit on for the top area. Make sure the first assists are not higher than one meters Now. One meter is the head off this dark Agreed in here. So like this Polly guns and move this a bit down work and this polygons and moved this backward a bit like so to connect the two parts. So, like these ages. Okay, Now use the bridge command. Okay, Now we can see these corners are sharp and we don't want tohave sharp corners like this. You can use John further, but this jumper is in Vertex mode. We haven't talked about this year, but for text John, for inevitable Polly works the same as the chance for inheritable supplying. So let's just see how it works. Goto for tax mode and click jump for in here and then click drag this far attack. So it looks like this also this one up here, the next thing we need to do is to add shell modifier to it said the outer amount to zero and said the inner amount toe 1.5 centimeters conferred this again to irritable, partly to threaten out the modifier stack. Now, when we norms days notice, we have two rounded corner in here to fix that first turn off the norms Togo and then go to the H mode and select the age at the side. Then juice ring. Go to connect, setting and said the segments toe to and use the pinch failure and just direct this or the ages at the corner are very close together. Maybe around 80 we'll do this. We'll shopping out the result off the norms later. Okay, now just nervous This So we have something like this. Next are the legs. First go to the left you port and start throwing a line like this and then select these too far theses and filleted them out. So it's about like this and go toe the rendering setting and turn both off These checked boxes said the taken is to be 1.5 centimeters and said the sites to only be eight sides. Okay, now, let's adjust the hate a bit, so it's not penetrating the ground plain greed and move this to the left side and adjust the top purposes. Hate. So it's not penetrating the top part. Remember, Although this looks solid, this is deal Justus Plying object. Okay, now let's confirm this to inevitable Call the object. It's like these polygons and make sure the snap and go is active. While brushing Schiff, rotate it 90 degree like this to scroll onto element and click the OK button. This will duplicate the polygons and have the duplicate result rotated like so. And then we scale it down a bit and move it. So it's located around here. Next, we're going to create the robber fit. So like the Spolli guns again. And while crushing shift, scale this down at the Y axis and scale them out uniformly like so keep adjusting it, using a scale tool until we have something like this. Now you might notice that you have holes in here, so make sure we go to the border mode so, like these borders and had kept close the holes and so, like this whole part and make it like so for a shift again and move it to this position. Click OK, and we have finished the left leg to create the right leg. We can use the symmetry, Modify it Now, before we add cement re modifier, we can change the preferred point to the center off the world. So goto hierarchy beef, in point of fact, differed on Lee. Make sure we are in move mode. Then change the X coordinate to zero. Turn off the effect before only mode again. And now, at the symmetry modifier just Z and flip It asked these objects look according that are based on the last few port before. Okay, basically we are done now. You can attach these to objects together if you want to, but I will leave this as it is for round. 43. Next step: Congratulations. You just finished the cars. I hope you enjoy every bits off information I provide in his course. As much as I enjoy making it, I believe with this course you already be a job ready person in three D visualization industry. But to become a great three D artists, there are still tons off stuffs that you need to learn. We've only covered some off it in his cars. I'll be creating more courses in the future in shallow. So follow me to get updates about my courses, if you like. And that's it. I hope to see you guys in my next courses assalum aleikum.