Your German Grammar Course Part 4: The Past & The Imperative | Esther Hartwig | Skillshare

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Your German Grammar Course Part 4: The Past & The Imperative

teacher avatar Esther Hartwig, Take your German to the next level!

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

8 Lessons (32m)
    • 1. Introduction: The past

    • 2. Important verbs in the past (Präteritum)

    • 3. The past of modal verbs (Präteritum)

    • 4. Perfekt

    • 5. Perfekt with separable verbs

    • 6. Introduction: The imperative

    • 7. Giving orders/instructions and making requests

    • 8. Exceptions in the imperative

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About This Class

This is the fourth part of a German language course that mainly concentrates on grammar. It takes all subjects on step by step, each lecture building up on the previous lectures.

It contains easy to follow explanations, examples, and practice parts.

This course will look at all sentence elements and how they relate to and depend on other elements. I designed this course to provide a good understanding of how German as a language works. This knowledge should give you an advantage as you go on with your studies because many rules or exceptions will seem less random.

Instead of spending too much time on rules as such, you will learn to see the underlying patterns of the German language. Many different topics will rely on the same patterns, so if you see those, studying German will become a lot easier.

This is also a good course to brush up on your grammar and of course, you can pick up some vocabulary on the side.

Meet Your Teacher

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Esther Hartwig

Take your German to the next level!


I have been a language instructor since 2007. I have taught German and English to private students as well as in a business environment in Argentina and Germany. In 2017 I started teaching online. My goal is to provide useful, understandable, compact information and create aha! moments for people who study German. I hold a degree in Educational Science from the University of Hagen, Germany.

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1. Introduction: The past: in this section, you will learn about the past tenses. This will enable you to speak about things that have already happened, which is a big step forward in your language learning At this point, I will primarily show you how to use past tenses and spoken language. As in written language, it is a bit more formal and also a bit more difficult when you think about the amazing amount you have already studied in the feel of burbs. You know what lies before you, those same types of herbs just in another tense. So I hope you enjoyed working through them in the present, talking about the present. Do you know this one? Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. But today is a gift. That's why they call it the present. So had start your first history lecture in German. 2. Important verbs in the past (Präteritum): in German. There are two tenses to express the past the proletariat, um, and the perfect. They have different structures and we use them in different contexts. For example, the pretty little, um is mostly used in written language. But the meaning, the content of what you convey and either of those tenses is exactly the same. And spoken language with mostly used, the perfect. With some exceptions, Zain on Harbin, I used in the pretty rhythm also, when we speak, this is Zion in the proletariat home his small do vast ever z va s MMA via of Ivan you about Ze Baron. So that's I was You were and so on note that the first and the third person in the singular as well as in the plural are the same. This is a steady pattern in the potentate home. So that's something to remember. Here are some example sentences for design in the presence and in the pretty little it's been so Hausa. It's battle house. I'm at home. I was at home. Emma is fancy God in my about sponsor shot. Emma is 20 years old. Emma was 20 years old. Noah is in their Schuler no Ebola in the Schuler. No wise in school. Noah was in school. We can also add more specific information. It's my guess. Stansell. Hausa. I was at home yesterday. I m about Domus sponsor M. I was 20 years old back then. Noah not finished in the Shula. Noah hasn't been in school. It note that in English it would actually defer the tense. He would use different tenses to explain things such as yesterday. You would say I was yesterday, but he hasn't been yet. And in German we just used the same tense. Its value guest on guava not finished. Here's the pretty return for Happened it Hata do hottest. Yeah, Hatter Z Hotter is hotter via Hatton year. Hot it z Hatton. So that's I had you had he she it had and so on. And here's some examples for the present and the past with having has to kind father have just a kind father that don't you have a bicycle? Didn't you have a bicycle? That's up for hat? Look, that's up for Hatteberg. Look, the victim is lucky. The victim was lucky. Note that here we don't really use the same structure in German. We say have luck when we mean to be lucky. Okay? As it does up for hat. Look, that's up for Hata. Gluck, you haven't kind of site B A Hutton kind of site. We have no time. We had no time Try to transfer these sentences into the past. Just as in the examples you have seen this two in park. Are you in the park? Emma is finished after Abbott. Emma is not at work. Happens. He pulled Blamer. Do you have problems besides their pimp? Lish, you are very punctual. It's been a vast. I am surprised Seasons Egan eft. They are very annoyed. Noah had stress in their Schuler. No has trouble in school. You can add adverbs of time If you want to pause the video now and write down your sentences, Here is the solution. Vasto gets done in park Emma Bag Astonished after Al bite. Hatton's a guest on problema. You've got a guest on their publish. Is Fergus Danube? Abashed? Steve Allen gets tons Agon eft? No, I had to guess Done Stress in the Schuler. I ended the advert guest on records. Eso You can see the correct position off the adverb. Of course, you can use any other information off time, an affirmative and negative sentences. You can move the adverb of time to the beginning off the sentence. Just don't forget that when you do that in the second position, you have the conjugated verb and then the subject. So it's guest on by a managed off. The abide guest on body is accomplished. Guest on my issue Bashed guest on barons is a Reagan eft Keston hadn't washed Crescent a Shula. 3. The past of modal verbs (Präteritum): the regular version off the proletariat home works like this. First, you form the stem off the verb, as you probably remember from the present tense. That means removing the infinitive, ending from the verb Either n. Then you add the following ending for each person the first and the third getting the same ending for ish. You had tough for do test for as he s for via 10 for your Ted and for Z 10. The modal verbs belonged to the group of herbs for usually use in the primitive. It'll men German in writing as well as in speaking. Now let's see if you can congregate the mole verbs sullen and Bolen by yourself in the potentate, um, their regular. Pause the video and write down the conjugated verbs. Here's a solution for Solon ish result. Do Saltiest has older Z's alter s Salter views Olten resulted z Zoltan and Volen looks exactly the same only that the word now starts with the W V. It's voted vault ist and so on. In the next step, you can try and congregate more motile verbs. They work just like sullen on volen Onley that you don't use a home loud in the pretty rhythm. So the, uh, turns into all and who into a war. Apart from that, the same rules as before a flight pause the video to congregate, misson, cannon and dolphin and then compare them with the solutions that will come up next. Now here's the one for listen if muster to mostest air most of the most, as most via Muslim year Mustard Ponzi, Mostyn for Conan It's Conta do contest here Contras Equant s counter via content Your contacts when z Contin and the last one do often ish dwarfed er dude wolf test he had were after the drafter s draft via Drew FTA You're drafted Z dwarf turn Here's some sentences with modal verbs in the present tense via missin finished a Biden We don't have to work Noah vanished Lemon Noah can't swim Mandel in disastrous Inish Patton You're not allowed to park in the street years old or young. Semi often you're supposed to tidy your room. M Obama even flying in and in ski. No, GM Emma wants to go to the cinema with her girlfriends. If most male Obst Essen, I must eat more fruit. Constantia heaven Can you help her? Changed the sentences into the past tense. You only have to use the past form off the modal verbs. Everything else stays the same. Pause the video and write down your sentences. And here comes your solution Year Mostyn finished Arbeitman We're continents. Just women Mandra after in desire Strasse finished park in years altered, or yet some are Or Foreman Emma, vitamin D on foreign and ski nog in is most, um a lobster s, um, Qantas to your health. 4. Perfekt: we will now move on to the perfect, as this is the tense that we use with almost all other verbs and spoken German. The perfect consists of two parts, one auxiliary verb and one main verb. The auxiliary verb can design, or Harvin. This is the one that gets conjugated in the present. That auxiliary verb that's the one that you congregate if we use haven't or resign depends on the other verb. If it is a verb off movement like G in common, lawful go, come walk or a change of state like Haensch laughin or stab in to fall asleep or to die. We use Zain with other verbs we use having the main verb takes on a special form called the Party Seats Fight. There is only one version for each verb, so it is the same for all persons. Here. You can see some examples off sentences in the path picked. It's been some park. The government. I went to the park. Emma is snitched, so they're fired. A common M. I didn't come to the party isn't on a hybrid stone. Google. Often we walked half on hour for 4/2 on hour. It is guest on as Sped Anguish, laughing yesterday He only fell asleep late. Once I can Aryan forward, it's the storm. Our can re bird has died. The regular party it seats by is formed like this. First you need the verb stem again So you remove the ET en or in ending. Then you add the prefix get and the ending t. These are regular party seats. Fivers Who, Uh Milon Eisen Coffin. How often? So to hear, To paint, to travel, to cook and to buy. Try to form the party seats by You can pause the video now to do so. And here are some example sentences that use those regular party seats. Survivors Noah had guessed standard Ganson tack Musique hurt No, I listen to music the whole day Yesterday it's harbor. I'm built for Disco Mart. I have painted a picture for you. V isn't only gone Savella organized. We have traveled the whole world Z Harbin fill in school coughed. They cooked for us. Ones of an Afghan have and this house could coughed. Our neighbors have bought the house If a verb has a regular or an irregular party, tips by form is not connected to the irregularity in the present tense, for example, drinking is regular in the presence but has an irregular party. Six. By as you can see on this slide, irregular party tits. Five herbs also get the prefix gate, but they're stem my change. They ended e n like their infinitive, I guess. Um, good Tonkin the sri even eaten drunk and written verbs that Onley haven't end in the infinitive usually have a regular pocket six vice. So verbs that do not end an E end Justin end. But apart from that, you have to study each party. It's it's vile of each burb. You have to know if it's regular or not. If you study verbs like this, you will probably have the best outcome. The infinitive is, of course, important in order to know well, the word and then the stem off the verb, the ending and also because it is used with motive Herbs. The third person singular in the presence will give you the information if the verb gets a vowel change or not, and the parties it's fine is the one you need to form the perfect 5. Perfekt with separable verbs: There are two more types of verbs we have to consider when using the path thick verbs with the prefix and several burbs. Verbs with the prefix can be as regular or irregular as the ones we have looked at so far. The difference is they do not get a G prefix. They just keep their own. Here's some examples. Bazan to visit resort half Indon to invent a fund. So I guess in to forget fair guess, um, so this one actually stays the same in the party ticks fight. But sure, Ibon to describe the Sri bun. Okay, so here you can see that sometimes you have a change in the stem. The zoo, for example, is regular, but the prefix is always the one that the verb originally has. It doesn't get a key here. You can see the difference between verbs without and with a prefix. And I deliberately picked verbs that look the same or that are very similar. So you can see the difference clearly. Here, Hat Zion and Schlissel Resort had Zeina 800. So the 1st 1 is he looked for his keys on the other one. He visited his parents a hat. Zion and Schlissel Girl Fund in a hat. I negotiation Air funding? Yes. Found his key. He has invented a story. A hot and void sugar. Guess um hot Zayn and Schlussel for guessing. He ate a bread roll. He has forgotten his key. Their hut on and belief machine. A hot desk avoidable Sweden. He has written a letter. He described the building so you can hear. See good resort resort Those other words Szu Han to look for something and the zoo han to visit. So the content has nothing to do with each other. They have nothing to do with each other content wise. But Szu Han comes up in both. But the prefix is different. Same with gift. London air funding. The 1st 1 is from Finland. The other one from here. Finn done. Gessen fair Gessen. One is s in the other one fair guessing This ribbon is from Schreibman. Bush ribbon Describe And here's the good news. You've probably spotted it already. If the non prefix verb is the same as the prefix Ferb, just without the prefix, they will have the same stem and ending in their party sits by as much as they have the same conjugation in the present tense. The same is true for separable verbs. Separable verbs have a special party. It's it's fight. They keep that up reverb. And after that comes the G and then the stem and the ending either regular or irregular. Here are some examples I am Karl from to shop. I am good Coughed on orphan to call on girl Often I inch Diagon to get on a train or a bus . I am just Egan. I'm five in to take off up good Sir Ivan. And here put the same verbs and two sentences so you can see them in context. A hot at best. So s and I'm get coughed. He bought something to eat a hot miss guest Unarmed un go often He called me last night. It's an insult My understanding he got on the train that supersport English Africa far on the train took off on time We would practice the perfect as falls I will give you sentences in the present and the party it's it's fight off the main verb. You then changed the statements about the present into statements about the past. Don't forget that you have to choose the correct auxiliary verb Having design Here are your sentences is here in the start. I'm going to town Young coughed design a familia Young is cooking for his family. Peter coughed on out all. Peter buys a car mark Dash! Lyft asked. Sped fine. Macduff falls asleep on Lee late on Next. Martin fresh leaf. See? The next morning she over sleeps Lena Fig Estephe Boucher for the only visit it. Lena forgets her books for university. Daniel. Least a spoon. No animal. Daniel reads the book again. A national does lift else. Hannah turns the light off, paused the video now and write down your solution. And here the sentences. In the past, it's been in the stock. A gunman Young had to design a familiar go coughed. Peter had an out of work health. Muktar is esque speed, anguish, laughing. I'm next. Morn had C slash Lassen Lena had if a Boucha for the only hesitate Ferguson. Daniel had a school, no high and my legalism Anna, her desolate stauskas cited. And now we will mix it up a little. Remember when to use the creativity. Um, and when the perfect here are your sentences. Pita is staying guns intact. So housing Peter is at home the whole day and was feeling salmon. He has to study a lot. L East Boucha. His reading books s hyped Suzanne and Facile known. He's writing summaries. Lien Evelyn's Kino Gehen. Aber Peter had lighter kind of site they know was to go to the cinema. But Peter, unfortunately doesn't have the time. Yeah, I'm next attack. I know this stick approval. He has an important exam the next day. Baggage bait and spent. He goes to bed late a Margon shtick, a through elf. In the morning. He gets up early. The proof. A list feeling about pita the state. See the exam is difficult, but Peter passes it. Pause the video and rewrite the text in the correct past tense. And here's a solution. Peter Body in guns and Tax, the house and most of feel down and had Boucher delays in had so Zaman fasten on machine lean avoidance. Kino. GM about Peter had a lighter kind of side. A hot I'm next intact on a fish stick. Approval. It's just bid and spent garden. I'm. Morgan is the threw off Christian Deepu Funabashi Lick about. Peter had super stand 6. Introduction: The imperative: you cannot go through a begin of course in German without learning how to order people around. This lecture will be about the imperative imperative in German the language structure that you use to give orders. But of course, you can use imperative for a variety of situations. Giving an order is one way to use it. Another one is making a direct request. We often use polite forms to make requests, but sometimes when speaking to people we know well, family members, friends or colleagues we just asked them directly to give us something or maybe to close the window. And it wouldn't be considered in polite. We might also find ourselves in a more pressing situation where there is no time for long wind ID. Would you please, if it doesn't bother you, most likely in an emergency situation where there is help needed. If somebody needs to call the police, the fire department or a doctor, or if we shout out a warning, watch out. Be careful. That is when we use the imperative. Since in German we can address people in three different ways to war Year and Z. We also have three different structures of the imperative. Of course, I also included the most important exceptions. But don't worry. There are only few, including the usual suspects, Zain and hum. 7. Giving orders/instructions and making requests: Conan Zamir, Hessen, Constantia Henderson Continue heroism Z musonye, Hessen Do most me heaven. Yeah, Mr Henderson, Hennes and Xenia His still Mia hissed you, Mia. These are always to request help. You can use moral verbs or simply ask s no question. Or you can use the imperative to simply say help me. The imperative for the formal you is very simple. It takes the same structure as the yes, no question. He only changed intonation instead of asking health. And Xenia, you say hesitancy. Mia, try it yourself. Tell a person formally to call a doctor, give you directions and to come in. Here's how you say it. Orphans. The ill announced sidings immune and big Komen ze have fine. If you speak informally to more than one person, your personal pronoun is eel. Compared to a simple statement you has mia, You just dropped the personal pronoun to form the imperative hissed Mia, tell a group of people to call a doctor, give you directions and to come in. This is how you say it, Wolfe tone and adds psyched mid and big come to Caroline now the due in Part IV. The statement is who hit if smear here, You also dropped the personal pronoun due to form the imperative. But additionally you remove the S T ending from the verb and you get Hilfe Mir. Apply this to our three examples we say who find an abscessed sigh, commute and big come headline. When we talked about the present tense, we mentioned some verbs getting an extra e namely the verbs off which the stem ends in D or T, such as our beytin or Baden. This principle also applies to verbs off which the stem ends in a constant plus in M or n, such as innovation in to calculate or at hman to breathe the extra e that the second person singular gets in the presence is kept in the imperative. So you really just need to remove the S t from any conjugated verb. Here are some examples and imperative I'll buy Tony Still feel Don't work so much. Botanists don't bathe So long Art McGlashen Macy breathe steadily National doesn't off minor recalculate that once more 8. Exceptions in the imperative: you saw in the last lecture that verbs that are not quite regular in the present tense in the presence follow the same rules in the imperative as regular verbs. One of those works was hit often, which gets a vowel change with a second and third person Singular and the other one waas Ah , the group of verbs that get an extra ease, such as al biting bad and so on. So when you use those in the imperative, there is no difference to using other verbs in the imperative with the door form, because he just dropped the door and the S T ending and everything else stays to say. Now there's one exception from that structure, and that is verbs that get a vowel change in the second and third person singular from ah to the on loud. Yeah, those verbs do not have a name loud in the door. Imperative. So when you have a verb like Lao, often in the presence that's do life's but in the imperative the room loud goes back toe are, and then we say Louth. Another exception is the verb Zain, but that is only an exception with do and Z So the formal and informal you with do we say Xai? And the formal imperative is Zion. How do you say bitter lies? Design? Please be quiet in the imperative for all three persons do year and Z like this side fertilizer for Do Zeit fertilizer for year. So this one doesn't change. It follows the regular rule and with a formal U Z Zion Z Better Liza having is only irregular when used in the do imperative, it turns into hap. So we say half good old. When telling a person to be patient, we will practice the imperative a bit. Turn these request bits into direct requests for Z year and do bitter dust fenced. Ashley's um please close the window. Detroit Suman shut the door. Bitter Does list hours Mom, please turn off the light. Yes, flash often sleep now. Nichd Putin sign. Don't be angry. Pause your video and write them down in all three forms. Here's the solution for the formal Z Imperative Fleece NZ Bitter dust Finster, Manzi Detroit So my hands a bitter does leashed else. She laughed. Easiest science finished mutant. This is the either imperative. Fleeced Pittard, Us Finster, Matty marketed as least House. She laughed. Jetzt cyclist Coutant and the door Imperative. Schley Spitter! Dust! Finster! Marty! True map. It'd us list else. Flashiest Zionist wouldn't.