Writing Letters and Emails | Derek Smith | Skillshare
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11 Lessons (1h 18m) View My Notes
    • 1. Introduction to Writing Letters and Emails

    • 2. Letter or Email

    • 3. General Letters

    • 4. General Letter Examples

    • 5. Formal vs Informal

    • 6. Cover Letters

    • 7. Cover Letter Examples

    • 8. Complaint Letters

    • 9. Complaint Letter Examples

    • 10. Recommendation Letters

    • 11. Recommendation Letter Examples


About This Class

Writing letters or emails is an essential part of modern business.

No matter the reason for writing to someone, there are numerous conventions that need to be considered.

This course shows you these conventions.

You will learn about:

  • standard letter and email rules
  • the difference between formal and informal tone
  • how to write cover letters
  • how to write letters of complaint
  • how to write recommendation letters

There are also examples of the various types of letter, both good and bad.


1. Introduction to Writing Letters and Emails: Hello and welcome to this skill share course on letter and emailed writing. In modern day communication, especially in business, you can't get away from writing to people where the letters or email and this course will help you with that. So we'll look at all the conventions of writing standard letters, how they're supposed to be formatted the way you start and end them. And, and you may think that some of these conventions were a bit arbitrary in a big city. But unfortunately, they are important than they are actually adhered to. And especially if you're in an exam situation, you really have to make sure you get every little comma and so on, correct. Whereas you would just lose marks if saying the writing part of the exam, you're asked to write a letter or an email to someone. That in addition to the two general standard letter or email formats. We also look at the difference in tone between formal and informal. We look at a very important aspect is cover letters. So if you apply for a job, you'll send a cover letter with your CV. And this really has to be good because the first thing your potential employer will look at. We also then go to look at other examples, letters of complaint and recommendation letters, which also an important part of any application process. And the good thing about this is there are also examples of each type of letter, both good and bad. And I must admit I did have a bit of fun writing the bad examples because what you need to read them to see what I mean. As was all skill share courses. There's Project in it, so you've got some chance to answer some questions based on the content of this course. So if you upload that our corrected, check it and give you feedback. As usual, please feel free to ask questions if anything is unclear and enjoy the course. 2. Letter or Email: In this lesson, we'll look at the similarities and differences between posted letters and email. But it used to be said in oh, not so long ago, maybe 30-40 years ago. That email was for informal communication and letters were for formal communication. However, these days the boundaries between the two are very, very unclear. As an example, you can apply for jobs via email. And applying for jobs is really a very formal form of communication. However, there are some forms of communication. For instance, or thank you, or condolence letter or romantic messages where emails aren't really suitable. And a letter really does give that personal touch because there's similarities. So these days, letters and e-mails can be formal or informal. And while letters can be handwritten, they can also be printed from a computer and sent via the postal system. And both are actually considered to be legal forms of communication. However, there are more differences. What are the main differences? Is the emails have a have a subject field. Let us don't. I'll see you can send one email to many, many recipients. Very easily. You can forward emails as well. And you can reply to emails and keep the original email in the reply. And if you don't delete them, you have the whole conversation available if you need it. Now the difference is speed for emails arrive very quickly, often just a few seconds later. Whereas posted letters can take one or more days to arrive, hence the name snail mail. And especially if you are posting internationally can take weeks to arrive. And also something to point out is that handwritten letters don't have a spell checker. That's you. Emails are also very inexpensive to send, whereas letters can cost a lot more. Emails can also contain attachments, say a PDF file. And if you are sending that brochure to someone who'd have to print it out and put it in. The post era cost a lot of money to print and to post. Of course, on the downside, emails can also contain malicious attachments that you don't want, such as viruses and worms and other sort of malware. And if you receive a letter, you need to be at the premises to receive it or have a postbox there. Whereas an email, you can receive it from anywhere in the world at any time, usually just from your phone these days. And you can also easily Edison email before you send them. Whereas if you're writing a letter, it's not that easy. And handwritten letters really need more planning and forethought. You will notice that most of the differences we've mentioned are of a technical nature. Now there are some cases where the personal letters preferred, as we explained with a condolence letters, romantic letters, thank you letters. But in most cases, it doesn't really matter whether you send a posted letter or an email. These days, there is no real difference between the two. So please bear that in mind. This section, we've mentioned letters, but it all applies to emails as well. 3. General Letters: In this lesson, we'll look at some general rules about letter writing. But there are conventions when writing a letter. And these may sound totally arbitrary. But these are the conventions that are used. And people will notice if you don't stick to them. And among others, is includes the following aspects. We have standard header information. We look at how to address the letter, will look at the formatting of the content. And we looked at how to close the letter. All business letters follow a standard header information style. And it really doesn't matter what type of letter it is, whether it's a cover letter for a job application. If it's a letter of complaint. Any any professional business letter will have this header information. You'll have your name and address, phone number and email address. You'll have the date that the letter was written. You will have the recipient's name and address. And this usually goes on the left side of the page. But if you want to, you could also put your details on the right-hand side of the page. So here's some examples of the header letter. It could look like this. On the right here we have your information. So name, address, telephone number, email address. And on the other side, on the left, we have the date. And then we have a blank line. We put the recipient's name and address and a similar format to that on the right. Fit for your address. Have another blank line. And then we start the letter or the salutation as it's called, dear whoever. And there are rules concerning the salutation as well. So if you know the name of the person, then address them directly by their name. And depending on how well you know them, you could also use their first name if you have a somewhat say, informal relationship. If the person you are writing to has a doctor title and politeness says that we should use it. Unless of course, this is an informal way or referring to them by their first name. And you wouldn't. But in a formal situation where you're using their surname, if they have a daughter title, please use it. It's only common courtesy. And if you don't know their name and use something generic. And it might be the overwriting, say, a job application, and you don't know the exact person who you will be reading your letter. And this would be a situation where you would use something generic. And you can use or emit a comma after the salutation. There's no rules that says you have to worry. You don't have to. For instance, dear Peter. This would be the one where you know the person by their first name. So you would use it in an informal setting. Dear Mr. Aston with a comma. Dear Dr. Brown with a comma or the generic one. Dear Sir. Stroke madam. And if you're wondering why mr. has a full stop and doctor doesn't as a little clue in the brackets after it. The MR With the dot is the US version and the one without the dot. The full stop is the UK version. If you want some more information on this, please check out the punctuation section on full stops and you'll see a bit more information on this. We do have some guidelines about the content of the letter. So you really need to make your letter easy to read. And this means avoiding unusual phone, strange formatting, or even word art. Please don't use those in your professional business letters. They really are not required. And also make good use of whitespace. So that means adding maybe some returns so that the paragraphs have a bit more space around them. It makes it easier to read. In other words, avoid a wall of text. A wall of text is a really, really bad idea, as we will see. And there are conventions that we use when closing a letter. So we look at these now. For instance, did you start with the name of the person or the words Dr. Brown, mr. Brown, Mrs. Brown, whatever. If so, then you need to aim your letter with your sincerely. If you used a generic sir, madam or, or advertising manager or some descriptive term that isn't a name, then you end your letter with yours faithfully. Remember the start when we said after the salutation, you can or can't, you know, you can use a comma or you can optionally of missing out. Well, this has an effect here. And if you use a comma after the salutation, then you need a comma after the yours faithfully or yours sincerely. If you didn't put a comma after the salutation part, then you don't put a comma with the faith videos and series very zen as above, so below. And if you knew the person well and use their firstname, you can end the letter with something less formal, such as Best regards, Best wishes, Kind Regards, and that type of thing. I will repeat. This seems very arbitrary and unnecessary and you might be tempted to think, who cares. But the person reading your letter will notice if you get some of this wrong and it won't put you in a good light. So take a minute to understand this and use these conventions. And you will benefit from it. 4. General Letter Examples: We now look at some examples of letters so you can see the rules in action. We would like to point out that these really are just examples. If you need to use in front of your own letters and please use them as templates. You are very welcome to do that. Adapt them to suit your requirements. For the sake of simplicity. And some things have been emitted and such as say the content. This is an example of how the header could look. On the right-hand side, we have your name, telephone number, and email address. On the date we have on the left-hand side, the date will leave a blank line. But the recipient's name and address and a similar format to the way yours was written on the right. Another blank line. And then we start with the salutation, dear, whoever they let us for. This would be a typical header example. Could the content now, we set, make good use of whitespace and avoid walls of text. And we'll look at the next few slides. We will see some good and bad examples. And you should see the difference. It should be really clear. And in this few slides, we've emitted the header to keep to focus on the content of bad content. Oh, that's the Wall of texts that we were talking about. I don't know about you, but if I receive a letter or an email like this, I just don't want to read it. It's ugly. There's no formatting as being written as one continuous paragraph. It's just ugly. It's horrible. Please don't do it. Nobody likes reading a wall of text. So if you notice, and you can pause the video if you want to read it. But the next slide, as an example of exactly the same text, just formatted differently. And this is our good example. And then we see we have paragraphs with whitespace around it. It's far more pleasant and easy on the eyes. It's just much better. So please check the to avoid this wall of text. Use whitespace, huge returns. But nice little paragraphs and the person reading the letter or email will thank you for it. And some of these examples without the content where we look at the salutation and the closing will have Dear Mr. Carter, Clark comma, and some content. And because we used his name, we end it with yours sincerely. And you'll notice as a comma after Clark and a comma after sincerely. So they match. We leave some space for your signature and then you would write your name underneath. But another example there, Dr. Peterson noticed no comma. And the content of your letter. We've named him, so it's your sincerely, but no comma space for your signature. And then your name in text. Dear Sir or Madam. Notice no comma. And the content. And we haven't named the person. So we use yours faithfully. And because there was no comma, we again have no comma, space feel signature and then your name and text. And another example, Dear Sir or Madam width, the comma content of your letter. We haven't named them so users faithfully with the comma because we use a comma after it. Space for signature and your name. That you might be forgiven in males and letters for not obeying the comma, comma rules strictly. But you won't really be, it will look strange if you say Dear Sir or Madam yours sincerely or Dear Dr. Brown, yours faithfully people was, it will be weird for them, especially native speakers. There probably overlook the comma, comma pairing. An exception to this, of course, would be if you're in an exam and if you're doing an exam and you're asked to write a letter, then please obey all these silly rules to the letter. Otherwise you will lose points. So now look at a couple of informal examples. So dear Sally, comma, content, best wishes, coma, and maybe leave a name for your sign it, John, because you're on first-name terms. Or another alternative, DR. andy, with no comma content. They Kind Regards leave space. John. Again, no comma mu comma. I admit it, it is a bit arbitrary, but that's the rule. So that's why we're doing it. 5. Formal vs Informal: In this lesson, we'll look at the differences between formal and informal styles of writing. So if we compare, say, the writing today with 200 years ago, you'll see that we're getting very, quite informally in our writing part. Even by today's standards, we still differentiate between formal and informal writing. Although we're basically saying the same thing, we use different words and phrases in each case. And this lesson looks at some of these phrases. And it shows the formal and informal equivalence. So how we start the Met letter or email indicates the tone straight away. And in the following table, the formal version is on the left and the informal on the right. And that will be like this throughout all of these examples in this lesson. Early start for instance, Dear Sir or Madam. An informal method might be higher. Dear Ms. Brown. You might informally say hello Sally, or Dear Dr. Phillips. You might say informally. Mm. So you see the differences between the way we start the letter in the salutation. So we're straight away. We're talking informal or formal. We then go to start the letter or email. And the first sentence is usually some sort of indication as to why we're writing it. And again, formal on the left, in formal on the right. Very formal start would be I'm writing to apply for the position of and I'll be honest, I couldn't really think of an informal version of this because doesn't really apply. Formally. You might write, I'm writing to make a reservation for whenever. And informally might say, can you fit me in on? Formal version would be I'm writing to ask for further information about. Informally might say, do you have any details about, and I hope you see the difference here is that the sort of formal or polite version is very indirect. So in the informal version, we're actually asking a direct question. Can you fit me in? Do you have any details? And the formal laws are more polite versus more indirect. And this is a common theme. In general English, politeness is that indirection is equivalent of politeness, and indirectness is not as more informal and are carrying on. I'm writing to confirm my reservation for informally. Just a quick note to let you know that I will be able to attend. I am writing with regard to the sale of an informally has the item being sold yet? Again, the direct question being informed and indirect being formal stroke pearlite. And the last one, formally. I'm writing to complain about. And then formally you'd say something like, I'm really unhappy about. Ok, so pause the video if you want to look through those a bit more detail, we'll carry on to the next one. We could also be replying to someone's letter or email. Might say formally, thank you for your email regarding and informally, Thanks for your mail. It was great to hear from you all. Thank you for your letter concerning the conference, blablabla, And then thanks for your letter about the conference. So we see. Thank you formally and thanks informally. And different words like concerning is more formal and then about is an informal equivalent. And they both said the same thing. And with reference to our telephone call on Friday, he might start informally saying, I just wanted to let you know. We also make a request or ask for information formally on the left here. Could you please let me know if you are available? Informally? Can you come to the event? Well, I would appreciate it if you could send me have very wordy indirect way of saying can you send me now the direct question. Oh, please let me know the price of the whatever item as opposed to how much are the things we're talking about. What would it be possible to arrange a meeting with an informally can we meet up with again, you see the sort of the level of indirection between the formal and informal. So even if we're asking a direct question on the last example, would it be possible to it's a very roundabout, an indirect way. I'm asking can we meet up with, you know, would it be possible to arrange a meeting with? And again, just having in mind that this indirection is more polite and formal. We might also give someone information if they've asked for it. We can say we are pleased to let you know that. And good news. The whatever is what we regret to inform you that he might informally say I'm sorry to say that. We are willing to arrange and informally we can sort out. Formally. We say we will be glad to send you. And in front of I'm happy to send you. Again. The contractions, By the way, on the informal is also a characteristic. We write it out formally in full. So you wouldn't say here, we'd be glad to send you rewrite out in full. We would be glad to send you, but in the informal version, we're quite happy to do contractions and replace I am with him as an example. And then a very standard sentence at the end. Should you require further information, please do not hesitate to contact us further. Quite a wordy way of informally saying, let me know if you need anything. You might also be writing to someone to make a complaint. I'm writing to express my dissatisfaction with we weren't happy with we regret to inform you the actual payment I didn't go through was rejected. Your payment didn't get approved. Or I would like to receive a full refund is the formal and wordy way of saying informally, I want my money back. Another reason for writing to somebody might be to apologize to them, maybe as a reply to a complaint of this. As a please accept our apologies for the delay. Is our sorry the item arrived late. We will ensure that this does not happen. Again, very wordy and non contracted form of saying informally, it wouldn't happen again, promise with an exclamation mark. And I am sorry to say that I will be unable to attend something. I won't be able to. Sorry about that. And this last sentence really shows the lack of contractions to, I am sorry that I will be unable. We write it all out in full when we're being formal and we make nice contractions, well-being informal. We are also send emails with attachments. And in these examples, if we're sending, say, a physical letter rather than email, then just replace the word attach or attachment with enclose or enclosed. So please find attached the file you requested is a very formal way of saying here's the file you wanted. Or if we maybe received an attachment and it's a format that you you can't understand or you can't read. You again, have the program for you. So I would be grateful if you could re-send the attachment in so-and-so format. Rather than just informally asking, do you have the file in science and format? Again, you see the difference here between the indirect and the direct. So the informal, we asked directly, do you have the file in this format? And in the formal, sort of polite version, we write, I would be grateful if you could resend. So it's more it's an indirect question or I am it touching my CV for your consideration and say I've attached my c phi for YouTube. Or if you are sending it as a written or through the post as it were, has an application you might say, I am enclosing are having closed my CV for your consideration. And as in as we started the letter with formal or informal, we also end the letter with formal or informal. So they, they match. You say, I look forward to hearing from you soon and informally, I hope to hear from you soon. And then we have various, these last two lines are a bit sort of interchangeable. We usually end with yours faithfully or yours sincerely. If you remember from the general letter lesson, we use yours faithfully. If we don't know the name of the person, use your sincerely if we have named the person. So you might say, best wishes, kind of gods take care of anything like that. And if you've named the person, you could also use best wishes, Kind Regards and take care. But you might also say, thanks chairs with love, say right into your mom With love from direct or loved Derek. Any of these last two lines as sort of interchangeable according to the context and who you're writing to. 6. Cover Letters: In this lesson, we'll look at the important topic of writing a cover letter. Cover letter is sent to a company with your CV when applying for a job with that company. And the whole point of a cover letter is to persuade the reader to look at your CV. The cover letter should be short and to the 0.1 page only. And you can apply for posted jobs or internal positions where you can apply speculatively. And there are conventions when writing a cover letter. And of course we will look at all of those in this lesson. To the main purpose of a cover letter is to persuade the reader to look at your CV. So when a job is advertised, the company usually receives hundreds of applications. And the poor HR purse as human resources or personnel, he's really looking for any reason to throw the application to the wastepaper basket. And you may think this is not true, but it is. I know people in HR, they want one person for the job and they received 200 applications. They look for any reason to narrow it down to a manageable amount. The cover letter should be short and to the point. And you can often achieve this by using shorter versions of a phrase instead of the full long version. So here's a few examples. Instead of writing, in order to just write two, I am capable of, right? I can due to the fact that can be replaced with because a considerable number of and be replaced with many. And with regard to can be replaced with regarding or about. And in this way, you maintain the same information, but you reduce this size of the letter. And you need to make your letter easy to read because you really only have a few seconds. So avoid unusual fonts and formatting and especially Word Art. Make good use of whitespace. Avoid these dreadful walls of text. Please see the examples on General Letters for more on this. And only include the most relevant information. So you're not reproducing your CV. You're giving them a little taster to make them want to read your CV. To highlight one or two professional achievements at most two. And provide at the end a clear and confident call to action. And we'll look at examples of these. We have to be aware of conventions when writing cover letters. This includes the following aspects. So we have the header information. We have how to address the letter. You have the content, are you what we write? And we have how we close the letter. Now rather than repeating the same information from another lesson, if you need information on standard letter headers, please refer to the general letter lesson for details on standard letter headers. This is no different here. Because a cover letter is still a letter. And all the rules and conventions from normal business letters apply to cover letters. So have a check on that lesson if you need to. So if at all possible, addressed your letter to a specific person, if necessary, phone that company and ask the receptionist for the name. You might also have a name, but you're not sure whether it's male or female? For instance, names like Leslie, Jamie, Alix, or Taylor and could be males and could be females. You don't know. Another thing you can do if you're not sure, as you say social media and see if you can find the person there. And their profile photo should be helpful in determining whether they're male or female. As again, as a last resort, phone the receptionists and just ask also, does the person have a PhD? I adopt a title and if so, then please use their doctor title. This shows respect and it can only be positive for you. If you can't find a name or the receptionist won't help you. I've had that situation before. Then just use a general salutation such as dear Sir or Madam. Now the company might have several open vacancies. So it's up to you to help the person reading your letter by clearly stating the position that you're applying for. As in I am writing to apply for the position of software developer as an example. So this will enable them to pass your application onto the appropriate department or person. So you're helping them. If you make the reader waste time to find out why you've sent this letter. They may just end up putting it in the bin. Okay. So help them and they will appreciate it and help you. Maybe you know, somebody that company, my friend or relative. But feel free to mention them if you're sure they were put in a good word for you, and obviously tell them or ask for their permission first. And also check the job requirements and the advert. I've seen too many people. Say I've applied for 200 jobs and I haven't got anything. And when you ask them details about it, if the job mentions the word computer there Apply for it whether it's relevant or not. And then the people reading it, of course say, Well this person is not suitable. They don't have any of the skills or experience that we mentioned. Just the fact that the word computer came up. So check the requirements and make sure that you do fulfill the requirements and that you are a good match for the job. And again, please refer to the general letter lesson on closing details. Because as we said, a cover letter is still a letter. An older rules and conventions of closing the letter applied to cover letters. And we've said you can apply for posted jobs i in a newspaper, on a website. You can apply for an internal position which is in the company or currently width. We can apply speculatively. So there's no advert, you're just writing to them and hoping. And all of these different types of application or cover letters have similarities and differences and we'll look at those now. If you're applying for posted jobs. This is quite possibly the most common type of cover letter. All the previous format conventions that we mentioned all relevant for this type of job application. Also a very important use, a serious email address. As an example, Sexy Beast at gmail.com is not as serious email address, okay, if necessary, make one just for applications. And also if you're in a current job, don't give him your current company email address. Till sending emails for Xunzi says backwards and forwards. They're very often these are logged at the server and you don't want to advertise your current employer that you're looking for a new job. They usually the last ones to know. And also to look at the example letters in the next lesson to, for the type of thing we mean how well you might be applying for an internal position in the job or the company you're currently with and hear a lot of the addressing problems won't apply. Because almost certainly you'll know the person who's supposed to receive your letter is a colleague of yours. But you should still state clearly the position that you're applying for. The rest of the body of the letter will concentrate on the relevant work experience that you have at the company. And your contact details would be slightly different. So you would then use your company email address and your internal telephone extension as part of your contact details. We can apply speculatively. In this case, there's no specific job you can mention at the start. But you should still state this sort of job you would like to have. And again, you can't match your skills and highlight them based on the job advert because there isn't one. So instead, you imagine the type of job you would like to have. And you point out your strongest skills that would apply to this hypothetical job. And there are companies who don't advertise positions. Maybe it's because there would be advertising every week and that just looks bad. Or they get enough speculative applications that they don't need to advertise. So there's a company that you're interested in, feel free to send them a speculative application. And you should also state why you think that you would be an asset to their company. And again, please use a serious email address. No silly ones. It just makes you look and serious. 7. Cover Letter Examples: In this lesson, we'll look at various examples, both good and bad of some cover letters. And these are really just examples. Of course, please use them as a template for your own cover letters and feel free to adapt them to suit your requirements however you wish. And for the sake of simplicity and clarity, we're concentrating here on the content and the header information has just been emitted. It's a standard letter header information anyway. But here's an example of a school leaver applying for a job as he's seen ad she seen advertised. So start demos to Clark. I'm writing to apply for a software developer trainee vacancy that was advertised on your company website. Please find enclose my CV for your consideration. There's a very clear right from the start, the person reading this knows why they're receiving this letter. If you look around on this, you might see advice from people saying, don't do this because they see this 1000 times a week and they just want something different. But then if that's something different, causes them to waste their time, I don't think that's positive. So depends on the job. If you're going for somewhere, I can really creative type of job, then you might want something different. But if, if it's not, then please help the person by stating clearly why this letters being written, it will help them. And now as a school leaver, Of course you don't have a load of experience. You can fall back on and tell them why this experience is valid and suitable for the company that you're applying to. So you have to use other positive statements. So you might say you been following the company closely and you believe that the company culture is really suited to somebody with my motivation. And then you might say, I was captain of our school football team, which shows I have the will to succeed and understand the importance of teamwork. And then you say you have a general interest in Hobbes and mentioned something specific. So that just shows a bit of a general interest in computers. And you thank them for their time and consideration. Look forward to meeting with you to discuss my application further. So that is the call to action that we mentioned in the previous lesson. Four to meet, to discuss my application further. And we started with a name and a comma. So you write your sincerely comma signature name. So pause the video if you want to look through these a bit more or a bit more closely, and we'll carry on to the next one. And this is a similar example, but it's someone with experience applying for an advertised job. Again, Mr. Clark, I'm writing to apply for the marketing specialists vacancy this appetite on Saturday in name of publication, please find enclosed CV. If your consideration, again, a very clear statement of why this letter is being written. Now, as an experience, you can highlight some of your professional experience and how it would be suitable for the company. As a marketing specialists within five years of professional experience in market research, consumer data analysis, swot tests, and AB tests. Sure, successful marketing campaigns. I am confident I would be a valuable asset to your team at name of company. Swot is a marketing thing stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats as when, when you're looking at competition. And AB testing is variations to see which of the two options performs the best. It's all standard marketing stuff. Then carries on to highlight specific professional achievement than his current position. And you get a digital promotion campaign for the company's new line of whatever product that raised the total engagement by 11%. And it contributed substantially to the department's annual sales figures. To us, something specific. Then we have the call to action. So firstly, you thank them for their time. Should you wish to discuss my application, father, I would welcome the opportunity to meet you in person. So that's that's the call to action. Again. Named the person. No comma yours sincerely. No comma signed and name. And again, pause the video if you want to read through this a bit more closely, when I'll carry on to the next one. And here's an example of what a recent graduate might write in their cover letter applying speculatively to accompany him. It's Clark. I'm writing to inquire if you have any software developer vacancies in your company. Is my CV. Again, a nice, clear statement of intent. The person knows why this letters being written. Recent graduate don't have tons of experience, but they might have been say, working student. They might have done summer jobs, they might have done things which you can highlight here has this person does. And I say had extensive vacation work experience in office environments, retail and service industries. He's added skills and ability working with different types of people and could easily fit into a team. They then go to say, okay, a conscientious person who works hard and pays attention to detail, keen to learn from others quick to pick up new skills are lots of ideas, enthusiasm and came to work with a company and a great reputation or high, high profile like your company, again, is it a big groggily, but you've got to put some thing, and this is something you could put in. The excellent references would be delighted to discuss any possible vacancy with you at your convenience. Call to action in case you do not have any suitable openings at the moment. I would be grateful if you keep my CV on file for any future possibilities at SAMHSA. Further call to action saying if there isn't anything, please think of me. And your sincerely comma signed name. And if I want to pause the video to read this through again, these do so. We have now a speculative cover letter from someone with professional experience. He doesn't know the name of the person. So start Dear Sir or Madam. Again, writing to enquire if any software developer vacancy in your company. Here's my CV. So again, a very clear statement of why this letter has been read. I written. As you can see how relevant degree in computer science, several years experience as a software developer and banking and retail sectors. I believe I've been asset to your company. This person's obviously looked and seeing that they also do software for either their banking and retail sectors. Can conscientious person by FabLab. And I'm keen to continue my professional development and came to work. The communists had a high reputation. So again, there's no advert that you can specifically tailor this letter too. So you put general details and things that would be suitable for the job. You would like to have. Similar call to action as by the recent graduate. I'm happy to come in and discuss any vacancies if you don't have anything, please think of me. Now, Dear Sir or Madam not named. Know calmer. Yours faithfully. Commerce. That's correct. Signed name. Again, pause the video if you want to read through this a bit more detail, I'll carry on to the next one. I want for internal promotion. So you know the person who you're applying to, your probably on first-name terms with him as a colleague of yours. So dear Sally. And here you are. You base your application on your experience with the company as a loyal employee of a company. Excited to formally apply if the sales manager position in the marketing department, and then aware since starting a sales rep company three years ago, have acquired the skills. Our department has seizes annual goals. This is highlighting your experience at the company. You highlight some more experience. During my time I've developed, I've improved, my, my department has an 8% increase in turnover. And very importantly here said, but I've done a little bit of sort of mini management. I've led like a project team or small sales, direct sales team, which is like a stepping stone to sort of official management. Shows because it's an internal on internally advertised job that read the requirements for the position and says, I match it, and I'm a good candidate. I've read the sales, I've read the requirements. I have the skills, I can do it. And again, we have this nice call to action, so you thank them for their time and consideration and please let me know if require any other information that will help you reach your decision and best wishes because you'd address to steer Sally probably wanted to sign it and then put your name as well. Again. Pause the video if you want to have a closer look at this, we'll carry on to the next one. Here's some bad examples of cover letters, and these are probably fun to reboot. Please don't use them. Again, we've emitted the header information with concentrating just on the content of the letter. And again, please don't use this as a template for your own job applications. It won't work so well with waffle, we said at the beginning. And get to the point immediately. So the person reading this letter knows why it's being written. And here's a good example of how not to do that. They're so madame, I'd just been from a brisk walk to get the newspaper and having made a nice cup of coffee, sat down to check out the contents of my newspaper. I read the headline articles first, then the sports. When I check my horoscope is said that the stars favored my career prospects. Anyway, I thought this was a good omen, so I decided to check out the job vacancies and see if there's anything interesting in my line of work. I saw several promising jobs being advertised, but you also looked to be the most interesting. So I thought to myself, why not send them an application letter and see what happened? I'll say, get to the point. Seriously, this is appalling. Do not do this. Again. Carries on with a bit more blood. Yours sincerely. Signature name. It's lovely formatted. There's great use of whitespace. Things are spread out nicely. To Sir Madam. Sincerely comma, he done that wrong. So if it Sir Madam, we should use yours faithfully. And if you put a comma, you also need a commerce. So he's got the salutation and the closing exactly the wrong way round as well. But the person reading this is going to spend time in their life reading through all this waffle and still doesn't know what job you're applying for and who I should pass his letter onto in your CV. And you think, no, this this is going in the bin. Yet, seriously, it's just dreadful. Okay. Now you can see why a clear first sentence or two, the reason for the letter is so important. And why I've done on this next one. Again, Dim is to Clark is I've taken one of the previous good examples and done this to it. And this is horrible. And you still got Mr. Clark, yours sincerely, no cuts. That's all correct. Leave space for signature name. But look at that body is horrible. This is a wall of text and I don't know about you, but if I receive a letter or an email like this, my desire to read this is about as close to 0 as you can get, is just horrible. So please don't do this. This is, this is the so-called wall of text. It's horrible to read, is ugly to look at. And it really doesn't motivate anyone to want to read this letter. So please make good use of whitespace. Spread it all out nicely as in the previous good examples. And you will see what a huge improvement is over this ugly wall of text. Please don't do this. 8. Complaint Letters: In this lesson, we'll take a look at how to write a letter of complaint. To a letter of complaint is what we write and wish to address any type of wrongdoing, offense, grievance, or resentment arising out of a product or a service. And complaint letters are used to raise your concerns about unfair things. Unsecure suitable outcome such as maybe a refund or replacement. And no matter the complaint, there are several common elements, which of course we will look at later. And the really important thing is when writing a letter of complaint is to keep a common professional tone. According to the Federal Trade Commission, there are three reasons to write a letter of complaint. Put your complaint on record with the company to help preserve any legal rights you may have in this situation. And to let the company know you're serious about pursuing the complaint. And it doesn't matter what you're complaining about. There are several common elements to these types of letters. For instance, a description of the problem. All the relevant facts renders the date, perhaps modelled and serial numbers. If it's a product or date and time, if it was a service, and information that is relevant. Also a suggested solution, what you expect as the outcome of your complaint. Receipts, what other documentation is also important? And again, a polite professional tone is important. Okay, the politeness a bit more in detail. We really need to stay calm and professional when we're writing complaint letters. For the person who is reading your letter is almost certainly not the person who caused the problem. And if you're angry, which is understandable, wait until you've come down before you write the letter, or you write the letter, and then you come down and you go back and edit it. But don't write an angry letter. It will be counterproductive. But don't be angry or sarcastic. And definitely don't make threats. Depending on the content. If you start making threats, you could end up with police knocking on your door if they make a complaint about your letter. And don't write toy uppercase. This is called shouting. And it definitely won't help. 9. Complaint Letter Examples: In this lesson, we'll look at some complaint letter examples. We would like to say these are just examples. But of course you can use them if you have to write a complaint next to yourself. And feel free to adapt them to suit your requirements. And for the sake of simplicity, we're concentrating on the content only and the addresses, headers and so on have been emitted. So please check the lesson on general letters. If you need some help with that, with a header. An example of a product. How we start Dear, so Madden recently bought a freaks from your company, not satisfied with the purchase. Here's my receipt. This wasn't a random purchase. The person who had read reviews and bought one, a fridge that was highly recommended. Unfortunately, when it was unpacked them as scratches and dents, which is not what you expect from a new product. And it seems as previous owners. And he said they've taken photos which can be emailed if they wish. And then goes on to say that they don't have any way of returning the fridge. And to point out, they actually paid extra delivery for it and request to be contacted so they can arrange delivery of a replacement for age and to collect the damaged item. Yours faithfully. Take adventure, name. That's quite a nice complaint letter. All the relevant information is enclosed. The tone is professional. It says what you want at the end. And it's all a nice short letter. That's a good example. Again, pause the video if you want to read it through in detail. And here's one over, say a supplier. Complain about our last deliver printed brushes and says We regular, loyal customers. We've always valued the product quality and delivery speed, but the last delivery of bushes did not meet our expectations. It says Firstly, they arrived two days after the promised delivery date, which causes problems. And secondly, the quality was not good. The edges are not cleanly cut and the colors are not aligned correctly. And they've sent back and examples so they can actually see for themselves what the person means. And since we know you can do better, please give as a credit note for this order. Was faithfully signature name. In this case, they don't want the bushes to be redone and resent the delivery dates past. They don't need them anymore. Edges. Put them in the bin and not pay for them. And again, this is nicely laid out. Good use of whitespace, nice professional tone. All the details of their pause the video if you want and just read it through to check. Another example. Have customer service likely to complain about poor service from call center staff says, I thought had a simple query on my account and phone customer services on date at time. And after lengthy wait in the queue that we all know that I was finally put through to an input the name of the employee. N goes on to stay that she didn't address my question and started asking for a lot of unnecessary information. And when asked why this data was necessary as personal data was necessary, became very confrontational, started misunderstanding the intention and twisting the words. And all in all, it was very unpleasant. And I'm considering moving my account to another bank. Then goes on to say that I'm sure the call was, was recorded. So they should check the recording and convince themselves that this really was poor behaviour and suggests maybe giving this person de-escalation training as required. Now there's no cause to say I want this person's sacked. I want this person discipline just obviously 10K training in a certain area. Yours faithfully name, signature name. Again, it's a nicely laid out complaint letter or the salient facts are there, gives a way of finding out and confirming this. And it's a nice example of say, pause the video if you want to read it through at your leisure. And last example of a good one in a restaurant. Complain about our last visit. So often enjoy coming to the restaurant. We've recommended the restaurant and several people have also found it to be a good recommendation. They enjoyed the food, the servers, and the location. But our last visit, whenever that was, changed our mind. And then goes to describe the horror. What happened. We're waiting at 20 minutes before they actually went to find someone to take the order. When the food finally came out, they're missing the side orders and the food was cold. And I took another 30 minutes to get some hot food. After weeks their weight another 20 minutes before someone cleared the table. And all in all, it was a very disappointing meal. And he said The experience was not good. And they hope you are to look into the matter and prevent it from happening again. Those faithfully signature name. But in this particular case, this is a a loyal customer who just happened, have had a bad experience. They haven't asked for, say, a free voucher or anything like financial reward. But they might expect to get something like that to make them come back again. And just to see that it really was a one-off. Maybe there was some new staff, maybe staff were ill. Could be a 100 reasons why this happened on this day. Maybe the restaurant will tell them that a poverty apologize and maybe give them a voucher. But again, it's nicely laid out. It doesn't go into huge detail, but it does explain what the problem was. And it looks like it was a just a bad experience. Again, pause the video if you want to read it through. At your leisure. That was a boring bet. Nasa got some fun examples. These are bad examples. And once again, we've concentrated on the content and Mr. L, all the header stuff. I'd probably shouldn't have to emphasize it, but please don't use this as a template for your own complaints. Okay. This was fun to write. I hope you enjoy reading them. They're so madam, I bought a packet of your cheese and it wasn't good. What are you gonna do about it? Now is faithfully Jim. Not a lot of information here is that what GTD by When did he buy it? Where did he buy from? What was the problem? There's no information here. The letter is formally correct. Dear Sir, Madam comma, yours faithfully, comma. It's all fine. Jim. Jim, what? These type of letters you will need a name because they want to write back to you maybe. And just signing it Jim is not very helpful. And again, it's just what is the person who receives this supposed to do with this letter? I wouldn't know what to do. There's no no information, no details. It was just lazy. And now have a bad impolite. Again, please use this for your own complaint letters. Dear idiots. All your staff morons. What do they actually have a brain cell cell to share between them? What's holding areas apart? Shit. I specifically told the pathetic excuse of a human being that you call a sales assistant. But the space for the TV was at most a 120 centimeters and he assured me that TV would fit in that space. Imagine my dismay when I discovered that the TV didn't fit in the space. I've included a photo of the TV and the space to even the thickest of you can see what I mean. I demand my money back and I demand that you fire the illiterate and innumerate shit for brains that wasted my bloody time. Yours most pest off Bobby Elliott. And this is of course, a very bad example for many reasons. You don't go, you will gain nothing by writing this type of complaint letter, no matter how satisfying it may feel at the time. The DEA idiots, bad start. It's laid out nicely, is good use of whitespace. But that's not helping us here. You've got things like what's holding their ears apart. You've got the question mark, exclamation mark, question marks together. There's bad language in it. They're shouting there lots of uppercase for the whole verb exclamation marks in the middle. Sarcasm, and I've included a photo of the TV and the space or even a thickness of you can see what I mean. There's other implying that they're all idiots. You can demand your money back. Maybe the TV is probably not faulty, but they should take the TV back if it's not being damaged and demand that you fire. And then you insult the person and shout some more. You can't demand that someone is fired is not going to happen. The question is, what would someone do when they receive this letter? They were probably sticky on the coffee machine walls, Ravana law fat. They might just throw it in the bin. They might take it to their manager who also roll his eyes, but you're not going to achieve anything with this type of letter. So again, enjoy it for the sort of the fun it is and the bad example that it is. But please don't use this for your own complaint letters. 10. Recommendation Letters: In this lesson, we'll take a quick look at how to write a recommendation letter. So what is a recommendation letter? So electrode recommendation is a document that you write for someone that shows their abilities and character traits in a positive light. Says very often for someone who's looking for a job or is trying to get into university. The purpose of the letter is to provide a firsthand account and specific examples of how your co-worker accomplishes projects and supported your company and team of three. This is a case where someone is applying for a job. Some are inclined to university will have slightly different content. And it should also demonstrate how your colleague will contribute to the new position or succeed in the school or university that they're trying to get into. And please note, recommendation letters do not need to be long, okay. People reading them are also busy. Again, a recommendation letter. Please look at the general letter lesson for details on the header, the salutation, and the closing parts. And in this short lesson, we'll just concentrate on the content here. Because after all, a recommendation letter is still a business letter. So all the rules and the general latter lesson will apply here. They start off by introducing yourself and explaining your relationship with the person that you're recommending. And you want to include sort of one or two specific examples of their accomplishments. You also need to give your contact details so that you can be reused for any questions or clarification. And of course, again, keep it short. Sweet. But importantly, please don't exaggerate. Be honest. Firstly, it wouldn't really look plausible if you praise them excessively highly. And if they do believe it, the Paul guy when he gets into his new job is going to have such high expectations that it might well be difficult for him to actually meet them. So keep, keep it honest if it realistic. And short has all the We need. A word of warning is that we are making sort of an official written statement that will be kept. And if, when you think about it and you're really honest with yourself and you really can't recommend someone, then it's best to decline the letter writing and tell them you can't do it is better to do that than to lie about it. Because your reputation will also get damaged. If people catch you lying on recommendation letters to your reputation is on the line as well. 11. Recommendation Letter Examples: In this lesson, we'll look at some recommendation letter examples for these really are just examples. So please feel free to use them when you are writing your own recommendation letters. And of course adapt them to suit your requirements as you see fit. And for the sake of simplicity and clarity, the header details have been emitted. So please check the general letter examples to see how they would look at general a basic recommendation letter. Start off this, I'm Adam. I'm writing to recommend full name for whatever position they're looking for. I have known him her name since a certain time. As a good friend, coworker could be boss. Or as you're explaining who you are and your relation to the person. We then go to say something positive about them. That they're honest, loyal, hard-working, some positive quality. And that based on your experience, you can recommend them for the position they're looking for. You give your contact details in case you have questions. You finish those faithfully, you sign it and write your name first. A very basic example that really covers all the points you can elaborate if you want to. Don't have to be on a pause the video to read it through again. Orbit slower, please do. I'll carry on to the next one. Now. This would be for someone who's trying to get into university, is I'm Adam writing to recommend Native person for the academic placement they're looking for? I have known the person for a number of years or months and explains that they were a student in my class. So you'd explain who you are. You are one of their teachers. Again, we write something positive. We always known them to be dedicated student hardworking, something positive but true. And then you can also elaborate a little bit on something specific. And here it's a project where they did something positive. You again, elaborate the details or specifics. And based on our experience together, I can confidently recommend them for this academic placement is my contact details in case of questions. Faithfully, sign it. Your name. This is one for academic entry. If you want to pause it and maybe think of what you would put in for specifics, please do and we'll carry on to the next one. Now. There's a character reference, sightly different. I write in this character reference for whoever it is. I have known this person for however many years or months as a friend, colleague, neighbor. However you know this person, these are just examples. And you explained something positive that from your experiences person has positive qualities such as to their honest, they're kind, they're easier to work with whoever you feel fit saying this. And then you give an example. When this person did something that was very positive and showed their fine character. Contact details if you wish to discuss their character further, signed faithfully, and so on your name. So this is where a character reference. Again. Pause the video if you want to read it through slowly and think about how you as flesh it out. These are the examples for recommendation letters.