Writing Great Scenes Megacourse | Barbara Vance | Skillshare

Writing Great Scenes Megacourse

Barbara Vance, Author, Illustrator

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29 Lessons (3h)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Scene Intentions

    • 3. Building Tension and Character Decisions

    • 4. Scene Beginnings

    • 5. Inciting Incidents

    • 6. Action Based Beginnings

    • 7. Exposition Starts

    • 8. Setting Starts

    • 9. Scene Middles

    • 10. Dramatic Tensions Thwarting the Character

    • 11. Dramatic Tension Danger!

    • 12. Dramatic Tension Revelation!

    • 13. Dramatic Tension Power, Atmosphere, and Time

    • 14. Scene Endings Overview

    • 15. Endings The Grand View

    • 16. Endings Zooming In

    • 17. Scene Transitions

    • 18. Surface Action and Subtext

    • 19. Point of View

    • 20. Character Development

    • 21. Setting, Emotion, and Mood

    • 22. Pacing and Length

    • 23. Scene Analysis How To

    • 24. Scene Analysis Example Part 1

    • 25. Scene Analysis Example Part 2

    • 26. Scene Analysis Example Part 3

    • 27. Scene Analysis Example Part 4

    • 28. Practical Application

    • 29. Final Thoughts and Class Project

17 students are watching this class

About This Class

In this course, we will look specifically at developing great scenes. The class is designed to teach you to analyze scenes you love so you can determine why they work, thereby taking those lessons and applying them to your own work. This empowers you as a writer. While guidelines about how to write are helpful, and we will cover many of them, every writer breaks them in his or her own ways--often to great effect. It is therefore better to learn scene components and how to assess them.

Among the things covered include:

  1. Defining a scene
  2. Breaking a scene into beats
  3. Creating Dramatic Conflict
  4. How to make interesting character decisions
  5. The various ways to start a scene
  6. Writing dramatic scene middles -- increasing tension
  7. How to end a scene
  8. Scene transitions
  9. Point of view
  10. Character development
  11. Emotion
  12. Setting and Mood
  13. Pacing
  14. How to analyze a scene
  15. How to put it all together and plan your own scenes

The course also includes a detailed chapter analysis in which we break apart scenes from "A Little Princess".

I recommend downloading the Chapter Analysis document and reading it prior to watching the literary analysis videos.

Hope you enjoy! Please do leave comments or questions.


1. Introduction: Hi, everybody. My name is bordered Dance and welcome to this course about writing and analyzing great plots. If you've watched some of my other videos on plots, you know that we've talked about the grand structure of a narrative that has a beginning and middle rising action toe crisis and a climax and then a deigning wall, and that this is that traditional way we think of writing stories. But within that grand, overarching story, we have smaller segments, and some people would call these acts and sequences and scenes. There are all kinds of definitions, but the point is that narratives, novels or screenplays or plays have in them an element that we would call a scene and a scene is actually an historian miniature. It has its own beginning, its own middle own conflict, its own end own little crisis. So we want to take all of these things that we know about a grand narrative and then say, Well, how do we actually see this played out when we write a scene? Because there's a very intimidating place between the start of your novel or film and the end of your novel unfilled and very often when we're writing, we have a sense of the story that we want to tell. In general terms, we sort of have an overarching concept of it in our heads. Sometimes we have that more detailed and more solid sense of what's going to happen. But sometimes we don't. And it's our responsibility as writers to come up with the right moments to share with a reader, to get them to have the emotional impact that makes them feel engaged and makes them feel the tension and the fear for the protagonists and the joy. When the protagonist succeeds in all of those things, when we think of the huge climax that happens in a narrative, that isn't a huge climax unless we've properly build up to it through smaller scenes. But it isn't interesting. If every scene only builds, say, gets better, better, better or worse, Worse, worse, We want every scene to fill us with a new kind of dramatic tension, so that while in a grand narrative we have an overarching dramatic tension that's building up, building up, building up. We actually are going through constant phases of tension release, tension, release. What's she going to do Oh, that What's not going to happen now? Okay, so we we want to constantly be building this. That's what seen building is all about. And so what we want to do is how do I have a variety of scenes? How do I choose the right scenes to show? How do I show those scenes? Hundreds. My scene Have a beginning and a middle and an end. All of these things we want to look at today I have two primary goals for you. For this course, I'd like for you to walk away, not only feeling comfortable with writing your own scenes and getting started down that road, but also to be able to analyze scenes. If you've watched my other videos, then you know that I am a big proponent of not being stuck on writing rules. Rules guidelines are wonderful. I don't believe really in rules. I believe guidelines now in grammar, I believe in rules. But with storytelling guidelines are helpful there. Based on theory. If you've watched my plot 101 video. I've gotten into this and we talk about the value of theory and writing, but it also can be very restricted and we can often feel like we are tied to these rules. And we say to ourselves, Well, I know these are the rules that I'm reading in the narrative writing books and blog's and classes that I'm taking in, but that doesn't exactly that. What I was thinking off for my story and very often which he find is that the great works of literature actually break with rules all of the time. So it becomes very important for us not to just be able to look at writing rules and adhere to them, but to analyze the scenes and the stories that we love, break them down and see why they work and how they work. It's like a tinker who can open up a watch, see all the pieces moving around, take them out, look at them and then put it back in. If you could do that, then you know why the watch works. So I want you to be an independent narrator. I want to be an independent storyteller who can go and say what I love that film. I love that novel and go analyze it and have the tools with which to do that if you can do that, then you can take the things that work for you that you like and put them in your own writing in your own way. So those are my two goals for this class. This class is broken down into four main sections. It's a big class. I will say This is part two of a plot building Siri's that I have. If you have not watched my plot 101 course, I highly recommend that you do that. You don't need to have watched that course to completely benefit from this one. But this one does build on that. So there are concepts that I won't be going into detail here because I will assume that you have watched that course and that you have sort of taken that information in. This is in itself a big subject, and so I've broken it down. The first section that we're going to look at is port structure, the skeleton beginning in middle and the end, the architecture of coming up with your scenes again. Each scene has its own little still block it, and so we want to look at that architecture. You will see similarities, quite a number of them between a scene architecture and the same grand architecture that we talked about in plot 101 However, it's important to think about that architecture specifically in the guise of a scene, because there are so many scenes in your narrative, because those are such a building block for you. So that first section we will take quite a bit of time on looking at. How do we build a strong beginning, a middle and an end to our scenes so that all of those scenes relate to one another and to the plot itself in a larger way will reduce and get rid of any of the excess scenes, the excess action, anything that is drawing energy away from your story because it isn't actually related to that larger plot. The second section that we will then look at or elements of a scene. So things in a scene outside of saint the beginning, the middle and the end that are actually important aspect of a scene that we want to consider when we're writing one. These include things like setting mood, character, emotion, pacing all of those elements that are present in your beginning, your middle and your end. But we want to sort of pull back and then look at them each as their own. You'll notice in sections Wanted to that there's a sense of overlap not in that will be repeating information, but that all of these things are so tied together. That really to talk about one thing is to talk about another in a different way. But when we look at a scene and when we look at scene analysis from these various angles, it's sort of like going into a fun house or something, and you have all the different mirrors will always mirrors show you different facets of a story, and so we want to be able to look at that and see all kinds of passage of it. The third section is going to be a literary analysis. This will be an extensive literary analysis and every chapter. The chapter is from Francis Burnett, a little princess, and it's actually a very strong, fabulous chapter and was an amazing book. If you've never read it and it's a pivotal scene in the story and so we're going to take the things that we talked about imports one and ports to this class and then analyse that chapter that's going to help you so much. Because not only will it help you to see the depth and the ways in which you go about analysing a scene or a story, which you can then take and apply to your own stories, But it will also really help give specific example to the advice that I'm giving you here because it's great to talk about guidelines and talk about advice. There is nothing. There is no replacement for seeing it actually played out, So that's the third large section of this class. The final section is going to be a wrap up, where we also talk about your course project and the resources available to you so that you can then go and take these tools and not only write your own scenes, but go and analyze the stories that you love for yourself. A brief disclaimer here and one that I make in virtually every story plot course that I do . I'm going to talk about things here. They are guidelines. They are not rules. As I said before, I do not want you married to rules. I want you to understand the theory, understand things that work. These are good tips. They do work. But also again, people break them all the time with great success. Now, does that mean you just throw it all out the window? No, but no, that for everything that we're talking about here, there are exceptions, and so your story might not necessarily completely fit into some technical aspect of a guideline or advice that you get, but it's still helpful to know about it and to help situate your story. Because again, if you want to break a rule that's lovely, which can't really break a rule that you don't know exists or a guideline that you don't know exists, says Important as storytellers, as plot builders that we actually get our heads around this I have to say there are two other courses that I really do recommend that will help support which you are about to watch, and that would be developing a character profile class as well as my course on character value and conflicts. My course on character value, decisions and conflicts and making difficult decisions is so much about conflict and dramatic tension, which is a lot of what this course is about. So that is actually going to get into even more detail on some of the things that we will talk about here. If you are in fact interested. I do want to say just briefly about myself. I've been teaching storytelling, writing creative content development for a great number of years to with just fantastic or artists and storytellers. So it is such a gift for me to be here sharing this information with you. I will say up front that I do have a website, all of my own, and you can see my social media links and my website, and I hope that you will go and check me out there and look at all of the resources that I'm building for you and follow me on social media. Keep up with my website and I highly recommend that you sign up for my mailing list on my website. That is a great way for me to keep in touch with you about all kinds of things that are happening and classes and resources and anything I can do to help you on your adventure. and becoming a great writer. I do have advice on how to watch this course because it was a great way to get the most out of it, and that would be one. This class has downloadable class notes, and what it is is the we're going to be talking about so much. It's such a big topic that I have class notes for you that sort of help you keep it all in your head, and I recommend that you down there, those and you have them in front of you while you watch this course, you will very likely want to right now notes of your own and doing so in sort of an outline structure that track tracks you through the course will help you a great deal. The other thing that I highly recommend is that you do download the literary chapter and read it before you go through the videos all about the analysis of that chapter. I have that chapter for you to download if you have a little princess, if you have that book or what not, you're certainly welcome to follow along in your book, but I actually recommend downloading the chapter as I have provided it for a number of reasons. One. Because while I do that and I reference certain page numbers or paragraphs, it will help keep you exactly where I am in the document, and it will really help you to have that in front of you. Why you're listening through again. You could watch that literary segment and still get a lot out of it. But you won't get nearly so much as if you sit down and read the chapter. It's not a long chapter. It's highly dramatic. It's a wonderful chapters. I think you will like it. The other reason to download that is that you will note that on the down low chapter that I have, I've made a lot of notes. It's really important to sort of get a sense of, Well, you know, what sorts of things does someone look for when they're reading a chapter? And what kinds of things does someone mark up? Always remember back when I was hidden school spend younger than I am now, Um, I remember the teachers would say we want to do active reading, so you need to go home and read chapters 10 through 15 and do active reading, and the teacher would come around and sort of You have to hold your book open chief of through your book and we like to the DJ highlight. Did she mark things? And so all around you the morning that the teacher was going to check your active reading, I remember students left or right just randomly highlighting things and underlining in. Nobody knew what active reading was so active. Reading is actually such a helpful thing to do and say The B download that I have for you actually has all kinds of notes and things that I've marked on it that I think will help you. I'm someone who writes all over my books. If if I have a book that isn't written in, um, yeah, right in everything. So I have a few things that I don't writing because I just have a special memory with the book and I don't want to work it up, but loads of my books actually are just scrolled over. So I want you to be able to see that. So I recommend downloading those things and getting ahead of the game and reading this chapter before you watch the literary segments. Finally, I would just say that if you enjoy this course, please do leave a review and leave comments about it. That's some helpful for other students to know, and it's extremely helpful. Me and continued to make content for you. Also leave comments in the class description. I am here. I am ready to engage with you and help out, so I hope you'll be a part of the community. Having said all of that, let's dive into the next video and talk about some of the overarching concepts about seen building about tension, building about dramatic choice. 2. Scene Intentions: all right. Seeing building. As we said, a scene is basically its own little mini plot, that stone beginning its own middle rising action climax. Damian, What in it? So we're talking about making lots of little dramatic morsels for your readers to eat while they go through your book. They're all different kinds of ways that people right, And so sometimes when you write, you won't necessarily always know the direction your story is going to go, and sometimes when you write, you will have a strong sense of that. I don't want to get into detail here on how to handle each of those types of writing. I got into that more at length in my plant, one on one course. But I do just want to say that, um, I'm going to be talking now about really doing some extensive planning. I recognize that doesn't always happen in the way that you write. Sometimes writing it's just more going along and happened stands and discovering the story as you go. But I do think that actually planning and doing some of that preliminary riding is extremely helpful, and so that's what we're going to be focusing on here, which means that one of the first things that you want to think about when you were choosing whether to include a scene as well as well as when you're writing a scene are just kind of determining. What are your plans for the scene? What are your intentions toward your goals for this scene? I have said numerous times in my classes that you have to fight for everything that you put into your stories. If it doesn't have a reason for being there, it has to go, no matter how much you love it. And a good reason isn't just that I really like this scene or oh, I just I just I thought that imagery was just so right now. If it doesn't relate to the plot, it doesn't advance. The character has to go. So it's important to ask yourself what is my purpose? What are my intentions? Ford this see? So you want to ask yourself, What does my character want in this scene or need in this scene? Or what does my character plan to do in this scene? Now I will cabbie on that. A lot of the things we're going to be talking about are very proactive character. That's not necessarily always the case. There are scenes in which things are more happening to your character and your characters in more of a reactionary state, and then there will be seen through. Your character is more proactive, so that will change as you go through your scenes. You'll have more scenes for your characters, proactive and reactive. I mean, the character would be reacting to things all throughout the scene, but in general, a scene might be more of the characters doing something, making decisions. And then you really might have some scenes, as you'll see in our literary example what they're just There's a lot coming out, the character that they're just mostly being forced into a reactionary state through that scene. So, no, that variety is there. But when you're considering that proactive nous really asking yourself, Okay, this is about my character in this scene, knowing that this is its own story, with its own beginning to anymore, right? It's got its own goal, its own climax. What does my character need right now? What is she trying to get out of this scene? So you want to say in this moment, what are my characters most immediate desires? Because there's the grand desire of your character for your narrative. Proto wants to get the ring into Mordor or something like that, but that's built up of a lot of little immediate desires, right? I might have a grand desire to get the promotion, but throughout the story my immediate desire might be, I'm really hungry and I need a salami sandwich. So we're talking. When we talk about seen development, there's a lot more immediacy to the goals and what? Not that your characters dealing with what you determined for yourself. Okay, the most immediate need desire, etcetera off my character for this scene is X Y Z. Then your next question for yourself is all right. When I'm designing the scene, what's the opposition? What is getting in the way of that scene? Is there anyone in this scene who can help her reach her goals and and finally, always be asking yourself? Does this relate to the grand plot? So there's all sorts of questions you want to ask when you're trying to come up with your intentions for that scene, asking yourself these kind of questions is going to help you not have seen in your narrative that are not germane to the plots that are sort of activity scenes, not proactive dramatic action scenes. Always remember when you're thinking about your character intentions. Those intentions lead to complications, which lead to reactions that are basically new intentions. So I might have an intention of going to the shop and getting a salami sandwich. I go to the shop to get the salami sandwich. They're out of salami, so that's that's my complication. I can't have that salami sandwich, but it's a salami sandwich that my boss really wanted. And I don't want to go back to my boss and tell him that there's no salami sandwich. So now I have a new intention of my new intention is to somehow get two blocks down to this other delicatessen and get a salami sandwich there. I'm trying to get back in time to make the meeting, to see how it's like I had an intention. I had a conflict now heavy new intention, action, reaction, action. So once you kind of established for yourself an intention for your character, you don't want to go that long before you kind of toward it, and that's what's interesting to us. If we go along too long with the character who's really getting his or her own way, just swimmingly, that's not very interesting. So you want to sort of say to yourself, All right, I know my intention going to establish is now let's get in there and message shop. 3. Building Tension and Character Decisions: the most basic building block in a scene is what in screenwriting would be called a beat, and the beat is basically an exchange of an action and a reaction. And so a beat is something that it's not necessarily momentarily, a beat can go on for a while, but it's it's own action reaction and beat changes when the action changes, when there's a change in feeling and new meat is going to start when there's a behavioral change. So, for example, if you've got a little child throwing a temper tantrum in a shop, and her mother is pleading with her and cajoling with her and just doing one thing up to the next in this pleading, cajoling way to get her little girl to stop her temper tantrum, that would will be one beat, right? Because the girl, the actions, the little girl throwing a temper tantrum and then the reaction is her mother just pleading with her, offering Candies, things like that, all of these kindly ways that she's trying to get her child to stop being basically a brat . And so what's going to change the beat is when the mother decides I've had enough of this picture. Daughter up takes a daughter out. There's a behavioral change happening there, so you could have sort of a section of action that is going on for a while. But it's long as it's this. It's singular action reaction. That's all one beat. And that's important to kind of keep in mind as you're thinking about your plots and you're thinking about building action reaction into your plots that knowing that that's the basic building block we're working with here. When we think about these beats and we think about action and reaction, what we realize is that just like our own lives, characters are constantly going through having to make decisions for narratives because we're condensing emotion, we want to choose the decisions and the difficult moments that are most important that are most dramatic when you think about your own life. Our days punctuated by moments that we would say with that same or significant moment, I got the promotion more significant moment. Someone hit my car more significant moment, as opposed to, say, the decision of white bread or wheat bread. Now, depending on the plot, I don't know white bread or wheat bread might really matter. But if we're just sort of normal and we're not blue ignition, we don't care about weed a white. It doesn't really matter. Like mad men who made a decision, we moved on. We have all those kinds of decisions, but with a narrative you're purposefully taking something that ordinarily would be a nim Oceana experience over a week, a year, maybe a day or whatever, and you're just your condensing it. That's what makes stories so powerful. But you want to. Then within that right, your condensing, all of that. Well, how'd away and all of this year that my story is about? Let me go find the really big decisions. So let me just get rid of all the little ones and pull out big ones and focus on those. Another way to look at these decisions are is turning points right, because when we make a decision, something's changed. When the mother desires, I'm going to stop offering you chocolates, and I'm just gonna pick you up and take you out of here and discipline you. That's a change in behavior that's a turning point. And again, just like in life in your narrative even though it's a condensed, more dramatic version of something that it would be in the CIS are really, really life. Your narrative itself is going to have more potent turning points in less potent turning points, if every a turning point in your narrative. Indeed, in, if every scene in your narrative was just and this high ratcheted intentional of the time, that's that's there's no relief in that. You want to remember that you're not only trying to build up tension, you've got to give your readers relief. So relieved doesn't just come from building up tension and then releasing and then building it upright again right away. You want to have variety. You want to have scenes that are little more building up unless building up and some scenes where we're just getting more information and establishing this thing over here. But we don't necessarily need to have this ha dramatic moment, so I hope that was definitively helpful. That noise. So you want to You don't give your regions that varieties just know that beets are in their scenes are all about tough decisions. Those tough decisions are made three beats that are basically action reaction and those action reactions are essentially turning points in your narrative, where your character is constantly trying in the attack, drawing a new thing. So as we think about that and as we know all right in my narrative, I want to make sure to choose the interesting bits, right? The interesting bits. How do I necessarily always know what an interesting bit is? Sometimes I will. But maybe sometimes I won't. Which means there is something very, very important that we need to remember about decisions, since that's what your character's making. And that's what these turning points in John and that is that an obvious decision is not an interesting decision. If you tell me, Barbara, you've won a prize and you can either have $10 or you can have a $1,000,000. Take your pick. That's an obvious decision. Maybe not for some people, but it's kind of obvious for me. I'm going to take the $1,000,000 if it's all the same. Otherwise, and that's not an interesting decision. It's just obvious what makes a decision interesting if it has stakes, if I stand to lose something, what's the opportunity cost of my decision? A decision That's interesting is one that as a reader, we look at, we go. I'm not sure what she's going to choose. That makes a decision interesting. In general, a character is going to do what is best for her. That doesn't mean that a character won't act in the best interest of someone else. Frode Oh, for example, in Lord of the Rings is constantly making the decision that's best for the team at the expense of himself. But he's he's doing that for the greater good. You know that that sort of his mission, his M o through this story and in some ways that that does serve him. That is the best thing for him. It's what he's been tasked to do. But in a given moment, right, that's that. That would be the overarching thing that photos doing but in a given moment, photos making the decisions that help him that best help him help others. So if the night riders are coming by photos, not going to say whom toe hide, we're not to hide, he's just going to hide right. That's the best thing for him. So in general people are going to choose what's best for him. That might mean that they make choices that are bad choices. Someone might go steal something. But that's the best thing for him at that moment, he thinks, even if he thinks it's wrong, he thinks this is still what I need to do. We don't walk around in our lives going. This isn't the best thing for me to do. I know my work is that way, But I'm just turn left. No, we're always this loud, even thinking, doing whatever we think is best for us in the moment. So we have to know that's the default of our characters, a dramatic choices. When that happens, it makes us pause. That makes us go. I have to think about this choice. This isn't easy, and there are a couple of different generally kinds of things that happened that make a choice a dramatic one. The first is that the decision is between two irreconcilable things. You want both. If you watched my course on conflicting emotions and values to go back to that example here is a father. He wants his promotion at work, but he wants to spend time with his son and build that bond. He wants both. They're in conflict. He's got to make a choice or come up with a compromise or something that makes that difficult decision. So you want both. You can't have both. The other side of that would be too bad things neither of which you want. And you just have to choose the lesser of two evils. So instead of wanting both of those things, you say, I don't want either one of those things, which is least bad. So there's a kind of the two that generally your dramatic character decisions are going to fall into one of those two buckets. Import of what makes thes so dramatic is that we learned so much about a person from how they react to adversity. That's true in real life. That's true of ourselves. And when you think about life in yourself and you look back at your own past, you often find that the tough moments in life that hard moments what that's where you grew the most. So you changed the most. Those really things actually shaped you into the person that you are. That's so true of your characters as well. So you know it's easy to be a nice person and a happy person and all of that when lives just roses, it's much more difficult when things aren't going so well. And that's true of your characters. So we as readers, are very interested in seeing how your characters behave. Given these tough decisions, not only what tough decisions will your character make, but how do they handle that? All of this is what's actually happening in a scene. And again, I want to reiterate that Ah, lot of these books talk about very proactive all of the time, but it's not necessarily so. These things can apply to a character is just being forced into a more of a reactive state for a portion of the book for some of your scenes, equally applies, but this is what's going on a day scenes just to recap before we start getting into the beginning. Middle and end scenes are about change. They are about character decision, these changes and decisions of action reaction that your character has to make. Generally, you would call that a beat, and that's that's the heartbeat of your scenes and then eventually of your narrative as a whole. So we want to say to ourselves, All right, I have to make a scene. That scene is all about beats of action, reaction, action, reaction between my protagonist antagonist, any of my main characters. Now I just have to think about what those beats should be. I know those beats should be something dramatic and not just dull and boring. I know it needs to be related to the Grand A plot. I know that at the scene level, those beats are going to be more about my immediate needs as opposed to the overarching ground plot. So given all of that, let's now move to looking at the scenes themselves. And let's just start with how we start to see. 4. Scene Beginnings: all right, starting a scene. This is where you lay the groundwork. If its first seen in your story completely, you're going to do even more that I'm not going to get into detail here on how to actually totally begin your novel or your screenplay. That's his course, all of its own. I want to look just specifically how we begin a scene, although everything that I say here about beginning a scene would apply to starting your novel or your screenplay or narrative. Otherwise, this is where you lay your groundwork. This is where you situational reader or your viewer we need to lay of the land. We need to know what's going on. I need to know where my positioning is, where the characters are, what's happening. You want to set this up fairly quickly in the beginning of your scene, but you don't want to overdo it. Don't feel like you have to introduce every scene detail, every character detail there in the beginning, because what happens is if you just sort of shoved at me. All of this information up front, you can stand to run out of energy. Later, you'll run out of steam so yes, set me up. Yes, get me going. But give me just enough to get the action started because you'll slow down the momentum of your scene. If it's just too much setting up, setting up setting up, you want to get me into the action and then reveal as much of that extra information through the dialogue through the action or through exposition, sort of interspersed throughout, as opposed to just front loading everything too much. It creates an uneven story. It slows down the beginning, and again you will sort of run out of energy later on down the line in the scene. What you want to avoid is having the readers stored and be guessing too long about where is this going, like what's the bit here with this? And what happens is if you just have sort of conversations going on too long or seemingly non dramatic action happening, or if you've ever had the experience. If you go to a film, you're like, What are we doing? Where is going? If you have a feeling, then that's a point at which they just haven't gotten to the dramatic action. We haven't seen any kind of action reaction beat that is engaging us. It's interesting to us. We will lose interest. We will skip a head or we'll just put the book down, which means you want to get your characters onto the page and into the action as pretty much as soon as possible. Now some stories will have Mawr exposition and more setting up than others, and that can also be dependent on the type of narrative you have. If you're world building and doing fantasies and things like that, sometimes you will end up having more set up so it can depend. But in general, you really want to get. We want to know you characters. We want to get to know them. So you want to set that up. And even with even in a big way, am a scene in the middle of your story, right? The beginning of that scene. We want to know what's going on with the character. We still want this same lay of the land. We want to be situated, a new You're constantly, constantly having to situate your readers so that they know what's going on. So again, at the beginning, when you're writing your scene. It's so helpful to know your goals for that seem to have run down that list of intentions that we were talking about. Because if you know, your intention is to reveal something dramatic about your characters passed at the climax of that scene. Then at the beginning of the scene, you can start embedding hints or things that maybe we don't pick up on when we first read it. But then, in retrospect, we go. I'm gonna go back and re read that because I didn't notice that over there. But it makes sense to me now. It makes sense to me now, right? There are all kinds, little things you do, little cues that you would make knowing the intentions of your story. 5. Inciting Incidents: always ask yourself what is the most important piece of information that I want this scene to reveal? What do I want my readers to take away from this scene? So there's the what is my goal for the characters in the scene, right? But then there's all city. What is my goal for the readers up the scene? For example, if we have a scene in which the night riders are coming off to Frode Oh, and he has to hide and let them get past him and then he could come out, then he's safe and he gets to the inn or something like that, right? So the goal for photo in that scene is to not be found out. And to get to the end for the readers, what's our goal? Our goal is to walk away with a sense of just how serious photo situation is. Maybe this is the first scene in which we've seen the Night riders, and we knew this was going to be dangerous. Yes, wrote a week we got it. It's dangerous. We know we've heard of the or so not writing whatever, but then we see them and we experience what it's like for photo hide from them. And so your goal for the reader is yes. Well, that's what Froedtert to do. But I want the readers to really know how serious this is and how afraid photo is and you just exactly what he's facing through. The rest of this story that's you go for the reader that's going to influence the beats you choose. That's going to influence how you write this, right? I mean, we could have the same scene. Photo hides for the night riders goes to the end. But you're writing from a different perspective your righting with the perspective of the night riders. And you say yourself, Well, I want my Regis to understand just how hard it is to be a Knight rider when someone puts the magic ring on and disappears. How how tough that makes your job as a knight rider. But people are hiding that they put on the ring and you can't find him right. So, well, then now my focus is my point of view is different. My tone is different. Everything's changed because my intention for the reader changed. So I always want to say when you're looking at these beginnings and you're trying to figure out well, how do we want to design this scene? I don't know. What do you want for your protagonist and your other characters? What do you want for your reader? Which means you're thinking about both action and emotion. What's happening out here? What's happening in here and in here? You need to know it's a stake in the scene in the photo example. It's his life, so that's what's at stake in that scene. But you need to know what's at stake. If my job is at stake because I'm not going to get the right sandwich for my employer, are not going to get back into meeting in time, then that's what's at stake. But you have to know what that is, because how otherwise are you going to build up my tension about the climax of that scene? If you don't know what's its take, that's how you end up with seen that kind of waffles and never finds a climax because you don't build to one. You can't build to something if you don't know what you're building towards. Otherwise you're just putting in beats that don't actually of relevance. So you have to know what the goal is so that you can actually build to it. So go back to that list of intentions for your scene and walk through those because knowing those, it's what's going to help you set up a strong beginning if you watch my plot. One on one course we talked about inciting incidences and points of attack can by a point of attack is what's in a large narrative. The point of attack is what sets the rest of the narrative in motion. That thing happens in the queue. Everything else in the narrative is a reaction to that point attack. But that can also be true at this scene level. So what is theme when you're thinking about the beginning? What is the thing that's going to kick off the rest of the action in this scene? Because while we might have little mini action reaction, action, reaction, action, reaction, right, a husband, any white of an argument, he says something. She says something back. He response to that. She responds to that and this argument gets ratcheted up. Ratchet up, right. What was the inciting incident? that caused that fight, which eventually led to him packing his bags and walking out. What was the inciting incident? Maybe he found a letter in her bureau when he went in to dig around and try to find a nail file, and the letter said something that offended him on, and that's what happened. Well, that would have been the inciting incident. So when you're thinking and planning at your narrative, you have to say, all right is the beginning of my scene. What's the incident that's going to kick off the rest of the action for this scene? That's the story. That's the dramatic action stores. You don't want that in signing Instant to be too far away from the sort of the scene itself , because the scene will probably may very well start before that. But that inciting incident is where it really gets going. So let's now go get a few different ways. We can start knowing that sort of theory of starting what ways that we can start a narrative 6. Action Based Beginnings: first way that we can think about starting a scene is just action. You've heard it a 1,000,000 times. Just get in there, get the action going, get it stored hit exposition slows the narrative down, and it doesn't mean you can't start your scene with descriptions and exposition at all. This happens particularly at the beginning of a narrative, the beginning of a plot not very scene, but of the whole thing. But it does slow things down, so you could have seen that just jump right in and start with action, Another different kinds of action. There's action that is explained that we understand. We know it's we know why it's happening. But there's unexplained action and unexplained action actually has more energy in it than explained action, because it's causing more tension in us. We have more questions because of it. If I'm at home and my husband walks in the door and he says, Let's go, we need to leave right now and I already know that he's late for the airport and we've got to get going, then does that seem have energy because we're jumping right into the action? Absolutely, it does. But if I'm at home and I don't know why. My husband just came in and said, Let's go, We're leaving right now. Which one's gonna make you go? Oh, more right. It's the one where we don't know. The same is true of the reader. If we have two people having a conversation, they're talking about something, and it's very clear to us that they're talking about, Ah, Heist and they're going to steal a painting. And here's where the painting is and here's who owned it and here's how much it's worth and all of that. Is that interesting? Because we just jumped into this conversation of two people planning that's doing a very famous painting. Absolutely it ISS, and it can be a great way to store to see. But it doesn't have much energy and dramatic tension and suspense as a scene in which we hear two people talking, we can Yeah, this is the highest. But I'm not quite sure what they're stealing, and I don't know how much it's worth, and I don't know necessarily where it is. I'm only getting bits of the conversation. I have enough to give me an idea of what's happening but I don't have everything, so I jumped into the action. But it's not all explained to me, and because of that, it has more energy, more attention to it. Let's open an example. Marie stared at the necklace. It was wrong. She knew that if she had another choice, she would take it. But she didn't. Quickly. She picked the necklace up, slipped it into her purse and turned to the door. So there we have an explanation of what's happening. It's a very short sentence, but you see how we're explaining. She knew it was wrong. She didn't want to do it. She didn't have a choice. Even in just little detail like that, as opposed to this next example, Marie slipped the necklace into her purse and walked away from the count without looking back. 20 more steps. 10 two, and she was on the sidewalk, the sun glaring in her eyes. Do you see how just taking out small little things just small bits of the sentence made that more intense? We don't necessarily know if she's happy about it or not. We don't know her circumstances. We've just jumped into the scene where this woman's clearly stealing something, but we don't know why she's stealing it. We don't know how she feels about it. We don't know anything. So little. Tiny changes, just of your words in a sentence or two can have an enormous impact on how dramatic that tension is. Sometimes the action you start with will meet seemingly less dramatic, like a conversation. Sometimes it could be something really loud, like an earthquake or a fight or something like that, and we're really thrown into things. Either one of those is fine, but you want to think about what's happening after it. For example, if you're going to start with a lot of really intense action, how in that scene are you going to dial me down from it? You have to know how it's going to dissipate. And if the scene stores with action, that's more low action. How are you going to increase the energy of etc. Always think in terms of energy in terms of, you know, dissipating energy or creating energy when you do your action, it's very important that when you want an action based seen, it needs to be true to your character. You might have a character who is not exactly the most action type person. That doesn't mean you can't have an action based scene, but you need to stay true to the character cannot break that for the sake of something that you think is dramatic because again, drama and plot is totally tied to character. If you break character, you have made something that's unrealistic that won't hold up. 7. Exposition Starts: another way to start your stories is just that narrative exposition beginning that we often think of when we think of actually the very store of the story itself. Exposition and narrative beginnings to scenes are perfectly fine. They are not bad, but too many of them can be problematic. You really want to reserve them for just hearing their knowing that it. It does slow this story down to have a scene like that, and when you have too many scenes that are just like, let me tell you about this, let me tell you about that. It can actually slow things down again. I want to say people break with this all of the time, and that can still be a magnificent work of literature. John Steinbeck's East of Eden, he does is actually quite a bit. He has his segments that kind of wax on, and I'll be honest. I find those scenes bit slow. I find it does slow things down, but it's still a magnificent work of literature, and he doesn't well, then he writes beautifully, which makes you stick around for the exposition because it riding. It's so beautiful. But it is that people do do it, but you just want to be careful because people can't be electric to when you do when you're choosing, which seems to make exposition, which seems just kind of make narrative. These things are fabulous for condensing information. You can say a lot in a paragraph or two or however long your beginning is, or even a few sentences much faster sometimes. And you can us having to watch that totally play out as a narrative. So while in general when we read exposition that slows the moment down, it can speed the story up by your having taken away things that you would have to be shown over quite a length amount of time that you can then condense in your summaries. So that's actually a really great use for that. And so when you're thinking about your stories and your scenes, think about the things that you don't actually want to show. Say I don't really want to show this not much. Robert. Summarize that bit and then use those leverage. Those scenes for your your exposition beginnings because again you don't want too many of them, so being strategic about where you put them will be helpful to you. I also don't recommend having too many scenes that store with that all lumped together. It's better to kind of spread. Spread those out those little Sprinkles in your story and not the kick itself. These beginnings can also be really intriguing when you're trying to sort of convey a bit of information that will later really set the action in motion for the story. So it's not actually action itself, but it conveys what's going to really happen in that scene. So a couple of examples of this the landslide had left the house uninhabitable. That's very simple sentence, but it says so much. You're starting with that that can set into motion everything. I mean, that right there says to you this scene, very likely. The characters are gonna be walking through it picking up blast, trying to find old pictures, everything. So just that one sentence there's a summary sentence is not an action based stort, but it's it's going to propel me into the action. It's giving me the information I need to go into the action. So when you when you start with experts, she doesn't have to be long it could be longer. It could be shorter. But in that weight setting into motion something that's happening, let's look at another example. Sometimes blindness can be a blessing, they said, especially for someone like Sandra. Think about how much is in this. We're going to assume that Sanders Blind. We don't know that yet because it seemed distorted with it, but we're going to assume it is. But then we have to say, Who's they? Why are they saying that? Are they just lying to themselves? What's what is it about Sandra that you would say this woman blindness is a blessing for her? Can you imagine? There's so many questions raised by that sentence? It's actually such an intriguing way to store its exposition. But it just the tension just got raised because I have so many questions because of it now , compared to the 1st 1 both are great stores, but the 2nd 1 raises so many more questions that the dramatic tension just went up so much because of it, and another final reason that I think it can be really helpful or a good place to put kind of the exposition type of beginning is you know when it's really important for us to know captors thoughts and intentions. These could be more cerebral stories like Jane Eyre, which he looked at plot one on one. So we talked about that there. But when you can't reveal the character's thoughts and emotions in action, when it's just really something up into her head, that's a great place for that. And also just when they literally can't. If your characters mute or deaf, where their child and don't have the language yet with which to express themselves, those can all be places where exposition. Actually, it does a great service. Your story. 8. Setting Starts: Another common way that people often distort a scene is by talking about the setting, and this can be such an interesting way to set the tone that mood off the scene that you are writing indeed often setting can be a character all of its own. And some authors are are really good about this, and they just right. They just write setting so well. And so you find that very often in their works setting is actually kind of a character, so that when you start your scenes with it, it is actually like starting with the character, thinking about stories like even Warton, even Fromme, where the winter is so present, or this story walk about where we really are learning all about like a desert. There's which they're setting up for us, this sort of stark store landscape that's going to be so much of what is always the antagonised in the story. Even books like Harry Potter and the Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, in which scenes in those can often start about setting because your world building and so you will have totally have numerous scenes in a Harry Potter or line the which, in the wardrobe that it's their introducing the Hogwarts to us or Diagon Alley or something like that. And so very often a scene might begin, actually, with the setting in a situation where you have so much world building to do even a book like Great Expectations, which is just I love that story so much a significant number of the scenes in that can start with setting because Pip finds himself in so many new situations, and he might be that, you know, sitting on his family is Tombstone or he's in his sister's house. Or he's then over at Miss Havisham Mansion or Ease in London. He's all over the place. And so setting play such a role in that story that you you do find that scenes are set up toe where that's how they decided to situate you is first and foremost situating the reader via setting. Remember your situating the reader. So if you start with action, your situating the reader, sort of with the character right and what he's doing, um, exposition. You might be situating the reading more with what people are thinking or what have you. And then with setting which could include time, period and things like that mood. You're situating the reader more geographically, more physically, so we're always thinking How how do I nestle in the reader to the plot that we get the plot going? How minus ling my reader into it. If you choose to start with setting, really be vivid with your details, really, Get me in there. Don't be nebulous. If you're going to choose your setting as a character and want to really start with it, you need to make it interesting. So use the details. Use century language. Use the setting to help set the mood for the story. If my setting is a busy street in New York City, is it a great cloudy day? How are you going to describe it? Describe it as a dim, dark, cloudy day or bright sunny day. We'll talk a little bit about mood later on. In this course, I'm not quitting. Get into depth with it here, but think about how mood would affect your setting. This thesis. The scenery can literally reflect the characters. Mood right? The character might being the pork, and if she's in a happy mood, she notices the flowers that she's in a bad mood as she knows this. Is that the trash that's not in the trash can? So you can. You can use the setting to actually reflect the emotions in your characters, especially when you're considering point of view of your stories. I want to take an example of this in literature will take it from a little princess were actually reading the chapter called The Diamond Mines again later on. In this course, this is actually a different chapter called in the attic. So just to set the scene here, uh, Sarah Crewe, a young girl, I believe probably in this scene. She's maybe nine years older, 10 at most. Um, but she has just found out that her father's died and he has no money. And she's gone from being the wealthiest girl student at this, a school for girls, um, to the poorest. And now she is living and sleeping in the attic of school, run by the terrible miss mention, and that's where we pick this up. It was not until long afterward that she realized her bed had been so hard that she turned over and over in it to find a place to rest, that the darkness seemed more intense than she had ever known, and the wind howled over the roof among the chimneys, like something which wailed aloud. Then there was something worse. This was the certain scuffling and scratchings and squeak ings in the walls and behind the skirting boards. She knew what they meant because Becky had described them mid rats, mice who were either fighting with each other or playing together once or twice. She even heard sharp toed feet scurrying across the floor. And she remembered in those after days when she recalled things that when she first heard them, she started up in bed and sat trembling and, when she laid down again, covered her head with her bedclothes. Do you see how in this scene so much of what is described in the scenes actually showing its impact on the character so you could set up a scene and just set it up? But you can also use setting to start your seen by bringing your character into it. And in that way, the beginning of the scene is is about setting. But it's about the character we learned so much about Sarah and her experiences through the discussion of the city. This could be a very powerful way to not only establish the scene for the reader, but also to do character building, kind of all in one fell swoop. So those are a variety of different ways that you can think about beginning your scenes, having looked at all of those, let's jump on now and talk about the middle bit. 9. Scene Middles: There's no precise point in a story that says, Here is the middle. It's not like that Middle is just not the beginning. I hate to be so vague, but when we think about the middle, when we think about that, that generally tends to be the biggest portion of the story. And it is all about building dramatic tension. Now it's important to remember that dramatic tension is not conflict. We need conflict in a story. Dramatic tension is the potential for conflict. So while we need that conflict, a story isn't interesting. If we just have conflict, a story is the building up of tension. There will be conflict there will be released from detention. But we need to slowly just feel. I mean, that's what the whole arc of the story is, right? We're building to a climax. The tension is building. You can't build tension if we're just always in action. State tension builds because we go. What's she going to do? What's going to happen? Is she going to make it? That that's what builds tension? So you're middle portion of your see. You want to say to yourself, just okay, what do the bad things wouldn't have My character. My characters goal is to get that salami sandwich for his boss, but they're going to be out of it. And what's the tension? The tension is, Will you do it? Will he get the sandwich and get it back to his boss in time so that he doesn't lose his job and hopefully gets that promotion? That's the tension, which is not the action. Tension is not suspense. This is an important distinction. Tension comes because we can see possible ramifications or we can't even see what's going to happen before the character does. And we're like, all right, in a horror film or something like that were like, Don't don't open that door. Don't open the door because we know what's going to happen if she opens the door. That's dramatic tension. Suspense is when something's kept from us, which also creates tension. But it's just kind of a different kind of tension. Suspense is us saying Who did it? Someone shot Bill, who shot Bill, and that's this question. We have to answer that suspenseful, but it's not the same in the dramatic tension that really relies on us knowing something bad is going to happen or that maybe something good will happen. But it's where we can start to see that don't get too bogged down on the words. It's just that I really want you to understand that they're two different things. So suspense would us be, would be us saying, Is he going to get the salami sandwich back in time? Is he going to make it? Is he going to get his promotion? That's all suspense. We don't know that information is withheld from us. Dramatic tension is where we see the potential for conflict, where we see the potential for there to be a problem. He gets there and he gets in line and we see there's a long line. That's tension. It's combined with suspense, but the tension comes from us going Yup, saw that coming. So how can we go about making dramatic tension? We can do this numerous ways 10. Dramatic Tensions Thwarting the Character: the first in generally most all based one, is just to thwart the protagonists goals and delay gratification of what they're looking for. So just put a monkey wrench in their goals for themselves. When you do that, you're putting fear to the reader that the characters, goals and desires might not be met. We're saying, Whoa, I don't know what's gonna happen. Is he gonna get his promotion now, remember, if I'm going to see you on the edge of my seat and Koji, I hope he got his promotion. I'm not going to do that. I don't care about your character. So all of us that we're talking about about building suspense, building tension and then releasing it hinges on the fact that you're Regis even care about who your character is, Which is why character so important I've said it before. Basically, all of my classes character employees are inextricably, inextricably linked. We have to like your character. We have to be attached to him or to her or the dramatic tension just won't be there the same way. So, um, thwarting that characters goals can be a great way to make me tense because I want good things for him, even though I actually want bad things to happen to him, because that's what makes the story interesting for this to work. We have to know what's at stake. If I'm watching the protagonist, who I like, rush over to the deli and try to get a sandwich, I might sense that he's rushing, but I don't feel the tension unless I know that. His boss said. If you don't get back here in 10 minutes with my salami sandwich, I'm just gonna get promotion to build because he's here, you know, sort of like the devil wears Prada, where it's just you is ridiculous things, But we have to know what's at stake. So if you're going to thwart the intentions of your protagonist, it's not enough to just say My protagonist wants to get a salami sandwich, and I'm going to throw a wrench in that I have to know what's at stake. If it doesn't happen, that's where the tension comes in, so withholding a goal, you know, delaying the gratification of a goal is a really interesting way to build that tension. You remember just keeping something just out of reach, just out of reach. You know you have scenes and books or stories were like, Oh, they were so close they almost had it. If you've ever watched golf and someone puts the ball and you know, if the ball is like three feet from the the whole, you're like Oh darn! But if the ball is like right there and it circles the ribbon that it doesn't go and you're like, Oh, it kills you who know? Because you were so close. So you thinking about that? Even Think about, Okay, I'm going to thwart him. By how much am I going to thwart him? And how close did he get? And again, you want variety? You don't want every scene to be the golf ball circling the whole. Give that variety, but just understand. What I want you to take from it is that there is. There are ways to create the tension, and then there are. There's a range, there's attention range, and you have control over that tension range based on how you know how close we get, How close he got to the goal. How difficult the challenge. Waas, How big the stakes are. All of these things affect attention around it, so you actually have a lot of little tools in your toolbox to make that attention happen. There's another kind of withholding we could have. We could withhold a goal like the sandwich, but we could also hold any motion that creates tension. You think of examples like Flaubert's Madame Bovary and Nuts we have seen in that where her husband, Charles, he loves Emma and she totally with holds her emotions. She totally with, holds her affection from him, and that creates tension. I mean, think about your own life. If someone you love, withhold their attention from you or you are in an argument or something like that, think that can upset your day. The same is true for your characters, so you can just create a lot of attention just by withholding emotions that they might wish to have. This could be love. This could be approval. So there are different kinds of emotions that I might desire from someone I might want someone to be proud of me and they're not. I so think about what those are and then think about the ways that could be withheld and the degree to which they could be withheld. And then you have to say, Well, how much does that matter again? What's at stake? How much does my protagonist care that that emotions being withheld from them, that could will create considerable tension in a scene And again, these thes matter? Because we're looking, you have so many scenes to build in your story. It's there all kinds of ways. You can do this tension some you'll use some you won't. It will depend on your plot, but but know that these are the tools that are out there. You would also withhold information from a character, maybe one count, to know something that another character doesn't that puts them in a power struggle. The person who knows information has more power than the other one, so that's going to create considerable tension as the characters proceed through it. You'll want your protagonist to get in on the game. He needs to know this needs to figure this hour. If he doesn't, he's going to be in a bad situation, he, he might say to himself. Well, I just signed up my name to join this wonderful crew, and we're going to go off and find treasure on Treasure Island, as many of those people do. That's really neat. Except what they don't know is that launched on silver and, like, raging horde of the pirates that they've signed on the docket to be. Members of the crew are actually pad guys. We know it, but the good guys don't. So there's tension there because we're sitting there waiting for this to play out. We're like, Hey, you're on the ship with, like some of the baddies and the bad is the pirate world and you have no clue. But we know So there's a ton of tension happening there. And then there's just literally object withholding, which is sort of like the salami single. This the sandwich thing was a goal he was reaching for, but just withholding of an object, which is also a goal. But you think of people mining for gold and they can't find the gold. Or there was. I remember it was a holiday film with Arnold Schwarzenegger in it, and I forget who else there was like one toy left. They were trying to get it for their Children at Christmas time. They were both competing for it. Um, and the amount of attention that you have from that This would also be true of two men competing for a girl. They both have this thing they want. They want her love. They want to be the object of her affection. They're competing for that. All of these things are ways that use withholding something from your protagonist to increase that tension. Let's now look at increasing tension through danger. 11. Dramatic Tension Danger!: as we mentioned earlier in this course, you think about people's true colors coming out when things are tough on day. One of the most obvious and fast ways to ratchet up the tension in a scene is to put your characters into danger. And there are numerous ways you could do this, the obvious being physical danger car seen. Or they're climbing up a mountain that they might fall off or anything like that. So you have physical danger at your disposal. But you also have other kinds of danger. You can have emotional danger. You can have emotional dangers, such as being blackmailed or being in an abusive relationship, so you can have you put them where their their bodily harm might be done to them. But you can also put them in a place where they're being manipulated or toyed with in ways that are having severe detriment to their hearts of their minds. But you also put them in social danger, political danger. You think of political thrillers and things like that where they are, whether it's reputations are at stake or jobs, or things like that social settings that can put them in danger. So again with With this, when you think about danger, when you think about withholding, you want to always remember what's at stake in a political, a situation. What's dangerous politically, what's dangerous emotionally. So I mean, we always know what stages if you're hanging off the side of a mountain. But the situational aspects, the social aspects, are going to totally depend on your plot and on what's dangerous for your character in your situation. So you're going to really want to hash out and your larger goal when you think about trying to plot something out and plot out a scene in which this scene is all about this character being in danger. At this moment, you might have several scenes that do that, but but but not all of your scenes well, so I mean, for example, if you're writing a political thriller, you might have seen something. Protagonists is physically in danger because there are bad forces out there trying to do him end or something like that. But there can also be scenes in which he's navigating the room with other senators or something, and he knows some of these people are completely not on his side, and he knows that he has got to make sure not to talk with the wrong person because the information gets into the wrong hands. That could totally mess up this big thing that he's planning over here, in which case we've got this very tense social situation that's also political and about navigating. We know what's going to happen, where the bad things that could happen if he gives information of the role person. So you'll have seen that do all kinds of different things. He might be in love with a woman in that, and emotionally that's a strain on him as well. All of these things might be happening to your character in different ways. So think about the ways that what's going to really set them in it off kilter and in a dangerous, upsetting place you might find in one scene. Numerous aspects that we're talking about are true when it comes to creating dramatic tension. For example, the sandwich thing right? We're withholding from him. He has a goal. We're slowing down his ability to get that goal, so we have tension there. But that seemed could also be dangerous socially for him because what's at stake is his job . So you can have tension that's being comment through different ways that all are ratcheting it up as a whole. Just just keep that in mind that you know how she had to pick one of these. There are numerous. Exit your disposal and they could easily overlap. Let's now look at another way to create tension in your middle sections of your stories, which are just about dramatic revelation. 12. Dramatic Tension Revelation!: the middle piece of your stories is a great place to reveal unexpected information that we didn't know. As long as that information actually pushes the narrative Ford and keeps it going, dramatic information isn't dramatic unless it has supreme impact on the character and who the character is and what the character will do after receiving that information. So if the character doesn't really change because of it, it wasn't dramatic information to begin with. But the middle section is a great place to reveal these sorts of things in your stories. On absolutely brilliant example of this is in great expectations, where you have the scene in which Pip learns that this wealthy benefactor who has been responsible for his ability to move to London to become a gentleman scum pits become very full of himself, dies Ho. I was gentlemen, and I'm just so above the poverty's poor, uneducated little boy that I once waas. He is very proud now and Pip fix that this mysterious benefactor who has made this happen is, in fact, Miss Havisham, this wealthy woman he met when he was little boy, and she's a wealthy lady. She's use a lady of means so he thinks he thinks that's where it's coming from. And there is this incredible scene in which it's revealed to him that actually, no, the benefactor is the convict at the beginning of story who is poor and ugly. He's uneducated. He's is like, totally ostracised from society's. He's still on the lam, and this is the man who's been funding this for pit and to the sitting here in a room, looking at this convict who he is inside, just hates him and just wants to get rid of it. And then the conflict reveals that, and you could hear a pin drop. Are you kidding me? I've been so proud, like this wealthy woman's been financing me, and in fact, it's this person. It just wrecks it. It just destroys everything he was thinking about himself and where his new life came from . It just is a moment of smashing his pride and what you see after that scene. I mean, he's humbled. This is the humbling that we have known Pip needed, and he got it. And he makes a change, and you see that and what happens is not big revelatory moment. It sets into motion a whole new set of actions. So when you have a big revelation, um, that could be supremely dramatic. But the drama really comes also from the fact that it pushes the narrative forward in a new way. The character makes a change, something new happens. That revelation has to offer the potential for much more drama. Now, revelations don't always have to be bad news. That can be comforting news. They could be great news, but it still should make a change. Something has to change because we caught that revelation. All right, in this next video, I just want to go over a few other smaller things about how you can build dramatic tension , just small things that you can add into your scenes that will help you build that tension up. 13. Dramatic Tension Power, Atmosphere, and Time: other things that you can do to build attention in your narrative include things like power shifts, in which somebody suddenly gets the upper hand. It generally will manifest itself through some kind of revelation of information or something like that. But but shifting the power around in your story from one character to another can create total sense of new tension. To go back to Exposition Exposition can totally create tension. We talked about it earlier in the terms of starting a C. But when you condense a lot of information into a small amount that again that speeds of story, which can create tension. So just a brief example of this. By evening, he had walked every street twice but had found nothing but a red balloon that was probably not hers. So we get the sense that this gentleman is looking for someone, probably a child. We totally reduced. We haven't seen him walk around all over the place, but we have this haunting idea that's haunting sentence in which he's tracked all over the place. He can't find this child, and then he's finds this little red balloon waffling away all on its own, and it's probably not even hers, but it's a reminder to him off her really dramatic sentence really makes us go. What's happened to this child? We don't know what you've condensed the time that increases tension. And again, as we said earlier, not explaining everything, not telling us why everything's happening. Let characters do things and not explain it. And let us have to learn what's going on. That creates such tremendous tension in a story and a scene. And finally, always remember that every seen either creates a new complication or adds to an existing one. If you finish a complication and you don't start a new one, then the energy's gone. So we are always on. They're creating a new issue or compounding one that is already there. So those are just some bits of the dice and ways and and again, this is a lot to take in. So I just just speak to complications for a little bit here, some of which I've said before but is worth repeating. Complications are about what's at stake. It's not a complication. If I don't know what is at stake, I don't care about it. If I don't know what is at stake. You must always know how this scene and this complication fits into your larger plot. You can't just put it in schools, back to intentions. You must know why this scene matters, because those complications in your scene, if they're not directly connected to the overarching issue and conflict of the narrative, I'm not going to care. In the same way the reader really is going to sit there and say, What? The point of this, it's going to feel a little bit like a dye aggression. I talked about this in plot 101 So I'm not going to get into flush details here. But you don't do your plot a service if it is not tied to it. There are absolutely very successful stories that do have die aggressions, and it does work. But you need to be careful about that because it really can slow it down. And they can be chapters that people might like your book. But they skip over that chapter, tending to because it's just not. They don't see that Jermaine Sub It's finally, and this is so important about complications. Do not complicate your characters lives unnecessarily. You cannot just throw complication in because you just feel like you need it. That complication must relate to the plot and it must be needed. You We wanted to feel realistic. And if you just go overboard or it's not necessary and you just start compounding things needlessly, it feels almost laughable. It doesn't work. So make your complications realistic ones, even in a fantasy book. Make the complications realistic. Make them Jermaine. Don't overdo it. Don't do it unnecessarily. Okay, beginning middle. Let's talk now about how do we end Asi? 14. Scene Endings Overview: The conclusion of a scene, as you might imagine, carries a great deal of dramatic weight. You've just put your readers through all this tension. You've built them to climax. It's been a lot, so this is a moment for them to breathe. Give them a chance to digest everything. You want us to have these moments of resolution so that we can pro cess everything that happens and prepare us for the next scene and the next tension that you want to give us. So we've just We've just been through a lot in this scene. Let me process a little bit. This is also helpful for your characters who need to settle into said new situation. And by this I don't mean that every scene has to be this formulaic. Okay, now it's settling time. What not? But but that's this is a breathing moment. This is a moment for your characters as much as for your readers, and you can give you a range. Is this sense of sort of rest and conclusion in different ways. You dial down the emotion, dial down the drama and help give me some scope. So by the way that you write. And by the things that you write, you're queuing the reader that Okay, we're taking a pause. Now we're taking a taking a moment. And so that's up to you as the writer to signal and to provide for your readers and your characters their different ways. You can do this. I want to Just kind of talk about two is and the people talk about the super ways. But either pulling out of the story a little bit or or focusing in on one small piece of this story and either one of these pulling out, pushing in kind of help you end given scene. 15. Endings The Grand View: so that's a first It What happens if we just kind of pull out? What sorts of things can we do? How can we end a scene? You could kind of dial outward and just sort of describe the landscape, So we just we've had a ton of drama and then we're just gonna kind of pull back and describe the homes that night and the sky was quiet and the stores were out and the only light came from Sarah's window. I think you know, we might a little stronger with Sarah, but then we sort of way pull out. And this is very true if you look at, say, filmmaking right because of the beginning of a scene and film, very often situate, too. We see buildings and then we see be building with the character. When we go inside the building, where the characters that we go into the characters office so visually the film has to set us up. You'll also see where in films very often we then kind of pull out and we look at the city . So it's this same idea of zooming out on setting and just giving us a moment to kind of reassess the landscape because that landscape might have changed. We might be in a different place now than we were at the beginning of the scene, even if we're in the same city or Hamlet or whatever. Pulling out and letting me sort of re situate myself geographically can help me just re situate myself mentally and emotionally. You could also, in a sort of dialing out, zooming out situation, have some kind of physicist philosophical musings of the character. I have to say, I this most of the time does not work in my in my experience, teaching. It's very hard to make this work in a way that's not sound pedantic. It's just tough. I think it's a very difficult thing to pull off. I think it's possible have a character sort of wax philosophically on something. But if you're going to do that, I think you need to keep it fairly brief on and, um, you need to make it not feel like you're preaching to your readers. You run a high risk of doing that, but it does. Work has been done to great effect, and it's definitely something that you can employ in your writing on. The only thing that you could do is just kind of be conclusive about some information, just providing readers with some information that you've been withholding from us, but that you finally give us some finality about whether we finally know who her father is or we finally know what she's going to do if there's a real solid finality to it that can provide a relief as well. 16. Endings Zooming In: The other option is to sort of hold up a magnifying glass to one piece of the story or a character or inaction, and let me focus in on that. That can also actually be a way to dial things down and make things feel more conclusive. This could be an interior monologue in a character's head in which they're kind of summarizing what just happened. That's different than a philosophical waxing with the dial out, where characters talking to the reader or another character. So they're talking outward. I'm talking about something up in the character's head where they're just kind of processing that she couldn't believe he was dead right. You've sort of summed up the main thing that happened in that scene, but it's in her head, so it's reflective, and it's a way for us to come back over it through the characters mindset. You could also have it in this case, be revelatory dialogue. If you have us situate ourselves very closely on just a conversation at hand and you want to end the scene with I'm your mother or something like that and they never knew it, then that's revelatory dialogue. We end right there. You're like, Whoa, Okay, that's a way to end. That's the way to end with more dramatic tension. That's not going to slow your story down. If you end with revelatory dialogue, your ending your seen in a state of severe tension which can be great, you don't have to have again. I was You don't have to. All your scenes go down to this nice slow ending. Not at all. You want that variety constant variety to everything, So just know that this is a place where that's going to speed things up. And to that point, another kind of ending to see that has a lot of drama would be cliffhangers. Just any kind of a cliffhanger. Interesting, great way to end a scene. Don't overdo cliffhangers. But they can be also a very interesting way to end a scene. So having looked at beginnings, middles and ends, and understanding that within each of those, they're comprised of all these little beats of action reaction, action, reaction that you catch is going through, we want to Then just look at how do you transition? So you have all these scenes that you're building. How do you and what are the ways you can transition from one scene to another scene 17. Scene Transitions: as we've talked about. When you store it a scene, your job is to ground your readers. So where is my character now? What are her challenges now? What is she facing? Some of what we touch on in this section about transitions is going to relate to what we talked about about seen beginnings. Because when you transition, you're starting a new scene. It is kind of a beginning, but I want us to think about it from the angle of the fact that it's following something else. So when we think about answering these questions, but okay, New scene, where's my character now? How do we transition from where she waas to where she is? He could do this in a variety of ways. One is to talk about the time of day or the time of year, or what? Not something to convey the passage of time, and you can do this in a variety of ways. One would just be now to summary. Two weeks later, he was on her doorstep. There you're conveying passage of time. We know it's been two weeks. You've summarized it through narrative, but you could also do it through dialogue Where have you been? She cried. It's been four hours, right? So same idea. You've just conveyed a passage of time, but you've done through dialogue instead. Likewise, if you don't want to do expedition, you don't want to dialogue. You could actually conveyed through setting. So saying something like the ice cream was completely melted. It was now a bowlful of green soup with chocolate bits. We don't necessarily know how long it takes ice cream to melt. I suppose it would depend on how hot the day Waas, but you've conveyed a length of time by describing the change in an object in the setting itself. So any of those ways are going to help you sort of set up a change from one scene to another. This scene is this far removed from the scene that you just read when you use setting, by the way too sort of demonstrate time change, I recommend keeping it too short a bit of time. It's very difficult to successfully do. A five years later, he was on a doorstep. You're like, Wait a minute. That was a bit of a jump that could be a bit much, but but smaller segments of time that works better. Lord segments of time. It generally doesn't work. It feels too removed for the reader. Another thing that can frequently change from one scene to another, his location. So you might have to set up for your readers and a whole new place again. As I've said before, when you do this any kind of way with setting, be livid about it. And don't just be vivid in your descriptions of it, but use it to convey something about the character. Bring your character into the setting. What are her opinions about setting? How does she feel about it that you don't necessarily just have to say that it was a cold and wintry day? He would say. That was cold and wintry day, and she pulled her scarf up over, knows to keep it from feeling because she lost feeling of it or something like that. Don't forget also that you can include mood in this. If she's in a happy mood, she might pull the scarf up over her nose with the skip in her step, and if she's in a sad mood, she just might really feel a piercing wind on her face, and she's really negative about it. So if you're going to demonstrate the change from one scene to another in terms of the, um, the location with the weather, he includes your character in that to speak of mood. Mood is a great way to transition from one scene to another. Again, you're re situating your your readers. So to set it in to set it mood and tell us, Okay, this is different than the one thing you just had can be a great way to do it. Let's look at an example here. See, you had a little girl whose home is, like, really usually very happy, and she's activities always playing around their toys everywhere, and it's just a happy, happy home. But you want your seen to store it, and you want to introduce sense of foreboding. Then, ah, great way to do that won't be a sentence like this one. Where we would read it was quiet. All she could hear was the grandfather clock ticking away as if nothing had happened. The room looked odd with her toys away, unlived in cold, so she's being reflective here. She's reflecting on what has happened in the previous scene, and yet we are also being introduced to the new situation that set place because of that previous scene, and all of that's being set in tone of mood. This can also be done by dark clouds, foreboding clouds or a sunny day or something like that or the wind blowing. And there are all kinds of ways that you can sort of set the tone with weather and mood. Another way that you can talk about transitioning scenes can be point of view, so you might have one scene. That's the point of view of the protagonists and then the next scene, the point of view of a different character completely. And so you're just Faulkner does this with scenes just changed because now we're in someone else's head. And if you do that, you want to really make it clear to your readers whose head were in. Unless the goal of your narratives not to do so, which would absolutely be true for William Faulkner. So you want to decide how accessible you want your story to be. If you want your story to be more accessible, you don't want us sitting there reading an entire chapter, not sure whose head were in which you can absolutely do with Falconer. Sometimes, um, it's great, though. He's so great. But, um, I know your intentions, but no, that that's another way to transition from one scene to another. You set us emotional and you've seen and we know where in one, because now we're in someone else's head transitions. They're totally connected with seen beginnings. But when we look at them, you know you want to really keep in mind what you're transitioning from when you create a scene beginning you're not creating that scene beginning in the vacuum you're creating that scene beginning based on the scene in front of it, just like when you create that scene ending, you're setting up the scene after it. So you you've got to know not just what this scenes beginning middle and end, but where from whence does my scene come and what's going to follow it? You want to set that next scene up properly. You can't set it up properly unless you don't Let's have a good ending for the one scene that you're in at the moment. Okay, It's so much that is all of the segment we have on the architecture of a scene, these these building blocks of beats and beginning and middle and end. And what do we do in each of those things? What I'd like to do in this part two of this class is looking additional elements that are involved in a scene. We talked about all of these already in the sense that we've worked them into this discussion of beginning and middle and end. But we want to then government and just really focus on some of these. So we will begin with character and we will begin with looking at surface action. What's happening on the top, the action action and then the underlying action, the subtext to a scene and indeed, a story. 18. Surface Action and Subtext: All right, So now, onto port to in this class in this section, what I want us to do is look at some of the narrative elements of a scene now. E. We things we talk about here we will have talked about in different ways in this first section of the course. But we're going to then take it and sort of focus in on a variety of things with a scene. Quite frankly, each one of these little nuggets that we talk about could be their own course. But it's worth us talking about each one of them and how they sort of add to the scene. Because while for the for the sake of talking about a scene was separating structure, beginning middle and transitions, etcetera from things like character and setting and mood. The truth is that all of these things are are happening together, and so you can't necessarily separate them to try to do so and get to whatever is the core of a story would be sort of like trying to peel an onion and find the core. You know, you take off layer on layer. Then there's just no onion left because the onion was all of the layers, so it's sort of the same idea. What I'd like to do is start with talking about service action and underlying action, the main plot and this subtext, because when we craft a scene, we can't just think in terms off what is the action that's happening in this scene? We also have to think about what is going on underneath the action, and a lot of what we talked about structurally in the first part of this course is very geared to the after action that's happening on the scene, but that actions completely influenced by everything that's going on underneath it. So it's just very important as writers and as people analyzing scenes that we don't just look at a scene and say, Well, what is happening in front of me or what other things that characters are saying and what other things that characters are doing? We also want to say what they really thinking, what really getting like what's actually going on here because there's two things are often a little bit of a conflict themselves, and that's part of what makes an interesting story. We want to look at characters. We want to look at settings. We want to look at events and say That's interesting that they're doing that. But why are they doing that? And do we really feel that way and what the goals. So when you're thinking about what your story is going to be and what is happening in this scene, when you think about your seen intentions and you think about the actions that your characters are going to take, you also want to think constantly about what's going on up in character's head because the things that character does, they might have a goal in their head that they want. And they're trying to achieve that goal with their actions. But maybe that isn't actually terribly clear. So, for example, say I go to the hardware store and I go and I ask someone who works there. Can you tell me where the nails are? Please? Well, I'm not actually going to the heart of restore because I really want nails going to the hardware store because my fence is broken and I want to fix it so my immediate actions going getting nails, but my purpose is something different. So while your immediate action of someone might be going to the delicatessen and purchasing a sandwich, that's their immediate action. But the underlying intention is preserving their job, and that underlying intention is going to influence how they do that immediate action. So you always want to be thinking about the underlying drive for what your character is doing and also the thoughts that your character has. We're going to be looking at a scene in a little bit here in which miss mention, who is this quite frankly, terrible? Woman who runs a girls school is also nice to Sarah Crewe when Sarah Crewe is her store pupil, and so she'll speak to Sarah and she'll say certain things, and she'll do certain things for Sarah. But the underlying subtext of that, in the underlying vibe of Miss mention, is that she absolutely detests Sarah. Sarah really unsettles her, and so she's constantly having to just keep it, keep a lid on her. Just this taste for this little girl, so that plays itself out, and it's so important that we see that percolating in the narrative, basically from the moment that she meets Sara and it just it's this underlying thing that is just bubbling up until the point at which it actually comes spilling out of miss mention in the singly will be looking at. So while the action of everything preceding the scene that we look at is Miss mentioned, giving Sarah what she wants praising Sarah and all of these other things, whether Sarah wants it or not, the underlying feelings of miss mentioned art of total distaste. And it's your responsibility as the writer so that this scene is impactful when it comes bubbling over to not only give us the actions that Miss mention actually is doing, but to also develop those underlying sentiments. So, really, consider with every scene, not only what is the immediate goal off my character, Miss mentioned to praise Sarah and half sour like her or something, But what's the underlying thing that is happening? Because very often that underlying thing is what's going to push a climactic moment into being and make it something full of energy. So you really want to think about that? You also want to think constantly in that subtext. Back to that question off. How does this scene So the greater narrative What is the underlying purpose of this scene for that over our two story? Also, we want to really think about just when you're doing this, the fact that there's an outer conflict happening. And then there's an inner conflict happening so a character might have this out of conflict . Photo might have the outer conflict off dealing with the night riders and orcs and all of these adversaries coming at him. But he's also got the inner conflict of the ring and what it's doing to his soul. It's eating away at him. You will very frequently have characters, particularly protagonists and what have you, who have an outer issue that they're dealing with. But what makes them interesting isn't just that there's this outer issue. It's that we see the inner conflict to them that's so critical again, we can see bad things happen to people all of the time in this story, we might sympathize with it. We might say that terrible, but what makes us actually care about it is that we care about the character, and we can't really do that. If we don't see understand enough about them to appreciate the conflict that's going on in the lives. This doesn't mean you have to just wax on psychological about all of your characters. Some stories do this more than others. Jane Eyre, which we look at in plot development. One a one. It's very much that way. We have a lot of time up in Jane's head. It's a wonderful story. We spend a lot of time with her emotions, but there are stories that are far more action oriented, and we don't spend much time with those people emotions, and that's totally all right. But we still have to know emotionally and mentally what they're struggling with. It can't just be physical. So think about that external struggle. Think about the internal struggle. Think about the immediate actions that are happening and then think about the actions underlying those that are actually making those actions happen. We don't act without an underlying intention behind it, so you have to know what both of those are. In the next video, I would like us to talk about perspective in point of view and the effect that this can have on a scene 19. Point of View: point of view is so critical when it comes to a story. The perspective that that story is told from has a tremendous influence on your narrative. It is going to dictate the scenes that you choose, the things that we see, the conversations in the actions that were privy to the mood and the opinions about the things that we see. So perspective is absolutely everything you need to think about what you want to reveal to your readers. It's not enough to just say, Here's my story. You want to say, What do I want to show my readers and what do I not want them to know? Justus. When we're actually plotting a scene, we might say I'm going to leave out this very interesting piece of information until several chapters down the road to build up that suspense and have my Regis sitting there going. What's happening? What's happening with the same thing is true with point of view. You might want 1/3 person Amish int narrator that can skip around to every single character as that narrative feels fit and tell us exactly what those characters are thinking and feeling. That is a way to just really lay it all out there. Give full power to the author to just say, This is who that this is what she's thinking. This is what he's thinking and just kind of lay it all out for the reader. That's actually the perspective that we will be looking at in the accepts from other princess. We will go over, but actually you might want to say, I just want third person Limited And again, this is totally its hold course. But in brief, you might say Third Person Limited. And I just want them to see everything from Sarah's eyes, in which case there are a lot of conversations we won't know. So if Miss mentioned, as she will and you will see has a conversation with a solicitor in a room and Sarah's not in the room, how am I going to know about what happened in that conversation will know you have a whole different plot. You have a whole different series of scenes. You have to figure out about how how Sarah learns about that conversation and what she ever knows about it. And we, in the third person limited perspective, are going to know very little about it as opposed what we will see, which is we get to see that whole conversation because it's on missions. So think about the tension you want. You reached a have that way. That creates an incredible amount of tension for us not to know that. And if it have been 1/3 person limited perspective, it would have really pushed and pushed us into Sarah's shoes in a unique way. We would have connected with Sarah in and I don't want to see a deeper way, although I do probably that's true, but certainly in a more immediate way because we're literally experiencing everything that she is, and nothing that she isn't too that the same wondering Zin. The same questions and gaps in her knowledge that she has are the ones we have. We are right there with her. You could also have a first person perspective, and that's going to change things that's going to have a tremendous amount of emotion and opinion put into it, which is absolutely also put into the others. This person can really you're getting on interpretation as well. And so it has its own mark on a narrative and on a plot. So don't just think when you're setting up your story in the beginning and figuring out what it iss well, what do I want my plot to be? What is the position you want your reader in? Because that is going to change everything. In the next video, I want to touch briefly on character development in scenes. 20. Character Development: I have touched on character development in several other courses, so I'm going to keep this brief here. But I do recommend that you go and reference all of my other courses on character development because those will help you so much when it comes to a scene. There are two things that we really are looking to happen when it comes to developing our characters In general, we want our characters have some new piece of information or experience that they are responding to and ideally, some kind of opposition or struggle that they are responding to. But as we've said, it's that good, bad action reaction that they are dealing with. So consider always when you're building your seen. What is my character responding to? What is the new information that my character has that is going to make her make a decision ? We make decisions when were given new information on we come to some kind of conclusion. So you want to know what those are for your character when it comes to thinking about a character's motivation that's going to be made motivated by numerous things. But two large ones are going to be what the character wants as we've talked about, but also very much that characters history, who that character is. If it character has grown up with certain influences, she's going to behave differently than a character who grew up with different influences. So who character is, how they were raised, what the past was, what jobs they had, what experiences they've had justice in our own lives. All of those things dictate the decisions we make That is totally true of your character, which is why it is incredibly critical that you know who your character is. Character and plot are inextricably linked. You, you absolutely have to know who your character is, and what you want to do is design a character who's trades are plot driving traits. I have a complete course on this. I know I keep mentioning my courses. Building a character profile course is going to help you build a character who's trades are absolutely connected to the plot. You do not want a character who you have just assigned random traits, too. You want to character who's trades are very natural and very organic, and that those trades actually drive the plot forward. So consider your characters past. Consider your characters previous a previous experiences, the ones that she has had prior to this story ever happening. And ask yourself, How are those things going to influence my character? This is what's going to make your character seem genuine, and it's going to help your readers keep in the groove and focused on and engaged with your plot. Once we start getting characteristics that don't feel riel, don't feel organic. That's going to pull your reader out, no matter how compelling your story is. Remember that just as in our own lives, your characters always going through change. They're going through seasons in their lives, and they're going through change through things that have happened to them. So what sorts of things can change for a character from scene to scene or within a story? Thes could be believes, beliefs about politics, beliefs about life, beliefs about what it family means, or what it means to be any relationship or what is right and wrong. Kinds of beliefs like that can change. Behaviors can change. Character might go from being very greedy, like Ebeneezer Scrooge, two. Very selfless and carrying of the people around him. Stoop behaviors can change, your beliefs can change now. In general, once you're believes, change your behaviours will change because if your beliefs have changed into behaviors, haven't it is questionable that you believe actually did change attitude might change positivity negativity towards something. Ah, characters. Allegiance might change in a scene. A character might go from being loyal to his Boston being not loyal to his boss. So who you're situating yourself within? Aligning with yours yourself with can change characters. Appearance can change from one scene to another. Think of a very obvious one being Cinderella and how the fairy godmother changes her and transforms her into a beautiful princess for the evening. And likewise, as we've talked about many times by now, just your character's motivations. They're all kinds of ways that your character can change. But it is important that you give your character the opportunities in your story. To do that, you have to open up opportunities for your character to make those changes. This is what crisis and conflict is all about. We're going to stick with something we're doing, even if it's not good for us until something makes us change. So it's just like any of us, we might not like doing something, but it might be good enough until we're forced into a change. Then we have to sort of test drive a new behavior and see if it works for us. This notion test driving behavior. It's so important. Don't feel like in a scene that your character necessarily is going to go from doing something that not a good way or whatever the old way. And then they'll do something the new way and the new ways suddenly so much better Let your character test drive traits. This means test driving that sometimes they're going to try things that don't work. It's not interesting if your character, every time you carried to try something new, that new thing works. That's not interesting, and that doesn't generate the kind of engagement and growth with your character. So let your character try different things and go well. That didn't really work. And, well, that doesn't really work, because that's what's going to make your character interesting. Always remember, your character, when faced with an issue, is going to choose the easiest way out. Most of the time, they're going to choose what they think is best for themselves now might very well have a character who goes. I know that this is the tough road, but my Dr for what's at the end of that means so much that I'm willing to go down that tough road. But just in general, in our lives, we're going to say there's a brick wall I could walk 2000 miles to the end of it to get around it or oh, I look, I have this handy little bomb. I think I'll just put it there and blow a hole in the wall and I walk through it. Now What's your character going to do? A little blow A hole in the wall. They're gonna walk through it. Remember that? No, you can't tell them. Therefore, try the easiest thing. Well, the easiest thing might have its own roadblock, so don't give your character things too easily. This scene building that has to happen has to be a Siris of yes, your characters working towards this MIGA goal. But between here and there, our failed attempts not just new conflicts, but failed attempt. So keep that in your mind because that's what's going to help you really develop character . Having said that about character, let's take a few moments and talk about the setting off your scenes. 21. Setting, Emotion, and Mood: setting the stage for your scenes is such an important port of making a successful, seen and indeed and a successful plot. The scene grounds your character. You put your character somewhere, and therefore it is so essential. As we've said that you make your settings vivid, you make them detailed. Depending on the kind of narrative you arriving, you will have to give more detail or less detail. If you're building your own fantasy world, you're going to have to give us more detail because it's a whole new world, and so we don't know how anything works. So you're going to spend a lot more time world building than somebody who's writing about sort of modern day age. In a place where everybody knows about likewise historical, you're going to probably have to spend more time explaining things to make that come to life. So definitely the era and the times of your plot is going to dictate how much time you actually have to spend on making that scene come to life. But when you do that, that kind of engagement with the scene and that that allows York your character to engage, and so your character like, let me forget the reader character can't engage in a nebulous world. Your character needs specific things to react to, to interact with, to have opinions about. And so you want to make sure that you are building those into your story. This does not mean that you have to write a book in which you spend a tremendous amount of time on setting. This could be something that you just give us in drips and drabs in the descriptions that you use. Um, this is certainly true of figurative language. Simile and metaphor can go a long way with that. I have class on that as well, on figure to language simile, metaphor that would be helpful here in describing setting. But you could have a very flushed out character who lives in a truly nebulous setting, and that is just not going to help you one bit. So, for example, you could have a character who is very flushed out, and he lives in a town with some sort of nondescript buildings. We don't know the era. He works in a shop. He lives nearby. The shop. That's all we know, or you could have that same character living in New York City in 1945 during World War Two . They were excited Delicatessen off 21st Street. He walks to work from his apartment in Queens, and he passes by pastry shop, where he gets a coffee and a powdered sugar donut every day on his way to work. The sugar always gets on his trousers, and he has to be careful toe wash before he starts working with the meat at his job. Do you see how, in the specific instance the setting itself actually influences the actions of the character? Because we specified where he lived? We know how far he walked because we specified that he gets a donut with powdered sugar on it in the mornings. We know that he gets it on his trousers, that he's caught it on his hands, and we know that he has to wash his hands everyday. The delicatessen you could. You can take that and you can shape that into something with your story. But we couldn't have that kind of detail, and we couldn't flush our character out in that way if the character didn't have the setting to react to. So we see in the instance where the setting itself actually helps us define and develop the character. This is essential for your scenes. Give your characters things to react with, to react to, to used touch, toe hold to see to feel you don't have to deliver it all at once. Again. It can come out in little drips and drabs, but you want that there will make your your story and your scenes more powerful. Now that's take some time to talk about emotion and mood. Most of what we talk about with emotion here we've really discussed before, but it is so important to know that we don't feel emotion for a character because we see a tear in her eye that's not going to make us connect. What makes us feel emotion for a character in a pivotal scene is that you have built us up to that emotion throughout all of the scenes that have come before it. We care about that character is crying because we know her wants, and we know she's not giving them because we know how she feels about things because we've seen her struggle. That's what makes us care. I used this analogy before I think in another class. But it's just like a wedding. Ah, wedding is a day filled with emotion. There's so much emotion about wedding. But what makes a wedding emotional is not the dress. It's not all of the trappings. It's not the expense. It's not all of the people. What makes a wedding emotional is that those two people promising their lives to one another have had all of this time before it. All of these little moments of love and a sacrificed that have brought them to the moment, which they want to commit themselves to one another. It's all those little scenes, all those little moments that make the wedding matter. And of those didn't exist, the wedding wouldn't matter. So when you think about building emotion into your scenes and you say, Well, I want us to be an emotional scene, you can't just say Okay now, sometime for emotion, bring on the tears. Know what's actually happening? Is your building power emotional power into that scene before it happens so that what happens is when we get to the emotional scene, even though something truly emotional is happening as it will in this camp in the little Princess? Exactly. We will look at we feel it keenly because we know everything that's come before it. So as you're thinking about your scenes and you're saying to yourself, that's going to be an emotional scene that's going to be a powerful scene. Ask yourself how on I going to build to that emotion in these other scenes that come before it because these other scenes might have their own goals. He might have other things going on, and that's fine. But through through language or through reference, just two drops of things. It doesn't always have to be a massive, you know, expensive energy and text time to build to it. But just over the course of it, you're slowly building up to it. You know, you're just kind of embroidering it in a little bit as you go. How are you going to do that? So I know what these emotional scenes are for you, but then make sure that you build the emotion in prior you get me emotionally involved so that when the emotional scene happens, I care. The point isn't to get me emotionally involved. When the emotional scene happens. The point is that I am emotionally involved, so I feel it when it does. Now there is something important to remember about emotion, and that is that in many ways, especially in your writing, emotion can be short term now. This isn't to say that you can't have character is just angry through the whole story. Not that at all. You'll have underlying feelings about a character of feeling. But I want us to sort of separate the words, emotion and feeling because that as writers doing that helps us to have to levels to our character. Feeling can be more long term. You can have a character who just has a lot of anger in his life, and that feeling is living underneath him and has for years emotion, ISMM or short turns. That immediate response, just like we talked about in all of these scenes, building from good to bad adversity to relieve right these beats the attention of change is always happening. Your character's gonna constantly be going through emotional change with that. That doesn't mean that under underneath it isn't this feeling of just general anger angry at his father. That's a feeling you might just have all of the time. We all have things like this in our lives. We will have things that in general we have a feeling about a relationship with our sister and she gets on my nerves. And but that has to be liked to the plot we wouldn't put it in. But I have a general general irritants with my sister general feeling of that irritants that lives underneath. But on top of it, I'm still going through my daily life. I'm still having emotions display in that. So you're not only it's no point, no point in putting in any feelings or emotions that are not Jimmy. So your feelings and your emotions should be jamais to the plot. But the underlying feeling will help you articulate the emotions and will influence the emotions that happen. For example, say the character gets irritated with her sister, lost her sister, bothers her on one of the things that her sister does constantly is, um, ask why not So she want sister might invite her out, and she said, I can't come. Why not? Rather than just letting it go, she might do it all the time. So then one day this woman's husband asks the same question, and she blows up in her husband. Will. The immediate emotion is anger at her husband, but the reason it happened is because she's got this underlying feeling of irritants at her sister that's coming out at her husband. Do you see how there's? There's a difference? You have to know the underlying the undercurrent, the undercurrent feeling that's happening and that is going to change how your character behaves. That undercurrent feeling is going to have help maintain a consistency that you might want that feeling to change in your character over the course of a novel you might not. You might just have this feeling that your character just really hates a certain thing and they don't change, and that's fine. But you want to differentiate between feelings and emotions. Understanding that emotions are short term is that things your characters in dealing with right now in the moment and that their feelings are deeper and extend for a longer period of time. Always remember when you are developing your stories and you're trying to make things go positive to negative positive to negative, that doesn't mean that you can't have more than one scene in a row where you go from a positive to a positive. But the reason that you don't often do that is because there's sort of this diminishing returns. If I haven't seen that's happy, and then the next seems happy and the next seems happy. Well, the first time that a good thing happened to the character, I'm like a good thing it happened. Then the next time I'm like, Yeah, that's great And then the next time, like a good you know, because it's so interesting, it's more interesting. It's like, Yeah, great thing, but oh, no. Oh, good, Oh, no. You know, that's what keeps us interested. So if you intend on having two good things happen in a row, then the first good thing that's yea, the next good thing has to be super huge. It's just gonna be big or else that's not really going to work. So remember that you're juggling those emotions with your carriages as well, and you want to keep the reader engaged by not necessarily giving your character good, good, good, good, good all the time about bad, bad, bad, bad. All the time. So it's remember that feeling and mood isn't on the way to say it feeling and mood often used interchangeably. Um, but they should be feeling the general feeling that character have. It's just going to color everything in the world. So, um, and it's going to change how the reader reacts to things that happen emotionally to a character, for example, if Sandra loses her job, but she's a totally upbeat person and she's really happy, and her general mood and general feeling of a story surrounding her is upbeat. We're going to go. That's too bad. But but centers? Okay, we're going to see or do something great. Yes, Sandra is totally depressed, and everything in her life is already bad. And the mood and feeling underlying Sandra is already in a very dark place than when Sandra gets fired. We're going to be like I don't know she all right. So again that that feeling or mood influences the emotion that's happening on top of it. All right, Finally, let's talk about pacing and length in your novels 22. Pacing and Length: There really is no formula for how long a scene should be. I can tell you generally it was longer than 15 pages. That's considered more of a long scene. If it's on, the short side is going to be less than 10. But the really there just isn't a set rule to that. And I'm very, I don't like for for writers to feel like they necessarily have to specify. That's a scene that's a sequence that's an act. What's important is that you just see it as a block, just as long as you see what is neither. The narrative block here and is your building in those ways. That's what really matters to. Please don't get hung up on how long something is now in general, the more long scenes that you have that slows the pacing down of your story, right, because if we think of a seen as being, that which it has so little climax like stress and then relief if they're short scenes. We have a lot of stress, really stress, really stress relief. So like who he wants, like an emotional exercise. But when there longer and it takes a while, then we have some stress and then it's really takes a while we build, it slows to story down. So when you're thinking about that when you're designing your scenes, it isn't enough just to say, Well, this scene happens, and then in this scene this happens. You have to say, Well, what's my pacing on this? How do I want the reader to feel here? You are designing these scenes trying to build up this tension. But if all of your scenes on this long thing that's going to how are you going to get your energy going, it's like not putting enough gas in the car and then trying to go 100 miles an hour. So you have to also think about the length of your scenes when you think about trying to build up tension in them. Because otherwise you might end up in a situation where you have this really impactful emotional 10th seed. But because things have just been kind of building so slow from one scene to the next, I'm just in a bit of a yawn phase, and I don't feel the tension the same way. So again, the scene lengths of what comes before and after and in the when you're in totally matter to building that tension. This does not mean that long scenes of that long scenes can be great. They are a wonderful place to actually slow the reader down and let them digest things that are happening. Let us breathe. We don't need to just go through emotional this every scene. We need some time to breathe those oaks Long Sean's a great for that. You might also end up with a scene that's longer. If you have a dialogue sequence that has to run its course that to be realistic, it just needs to go for a while. He won't be careful about those that actually can make a scene long as well. Short scenes are going to create the urgency. You want to be careful not to do too many of those in a row, either because in your story will feel choppy in the same way that you're riding would feel choppy if you had a lot of short sentences next to one another, so you really want to vary these, but the short scenes will make it speed up. They can be a great way to compare one character to another. So if you have one short scene, we're really focused on Fred. And then in the next short scene, we're focused on George because they're short. We can really juxtapose the two of them and see different things that are happening so it can be a way to juxtapose characters or situations very, very nicely in the next section. I want us to talk about how to successfully analyze scenes, have to take everything that we've talked about here and apply that to our favorite scenes in stories in film, in plays anywhere that we can find it so that we can break them down and figure out what we like about those scenes and then apply that apply those lessons to our own writing. This will help us set us up to analyze our own. Seen from a little princess 23. Scene Analysis How To: seen analysis is an excellent way. It's just it's literary, It's fun. I enjoy it so much, Um and it's a great way to learn a tremendous amount about how to write if you will read and analyzed the scenes from the perspective of a writer. So what I would like to do now is just run through things that we should be looking for when we analyze a scene. So the first thing that we would be looking at is defined in the conflict. This includes asking who or what is the driving force in the scene? This does not have to be a person. This could be the whether it could be, ah, hurricane coming. That can be the driving force. But what is the driving force behind this scene? If the driving force is a person, what are the actions he or she is taking and why is she taking those actions what she wants ? And indeed, what is getting in the way? The next thing you really want to do is no to the opening value as you're reading through it. So note where was starting from? Where is the character at the story of this scene. How does she feel? What is her situation right now? You just want to get a handle on who? The characters, what she's feeling, what her situation is. As the scene opens, the next step would be breaking that scene into beats, those positive negative changes that happened throughout scene. This is where we really examine those exchanges of action and reaction that will eventually build up to that climax and then down into a dating war. When you do this, you want to take special care with the initial actions of the scene at both the main action of characters and themes. Subtext. So you want to really take a note as you go through these beads to ask yourself, What is the actual action that's happening? And what other feelings underlying those actions? What you've assessed all of your beats. You then want to note your closing situation of your character, so starting situation, ending situation. Where is your character? We looked at this fairly extensively for an overarching plot and acts in plotting one a one . But we look to Jane Eyre there, and you saw the starting and ending values of Jane. Throughout these scenes, see what to make sure that you're doing that as well. Here. Did you character start poor? And now she's wealthy. Did she start sad? And now she's happy. Did she start in control? And now she's not. What? Where is she at the end, so that you can ascertain the change that has taken place. If you get to the end of the scene and you can't discern changes from A to B, then nothing's happened in that scene, and that's not relevant. Seen two story. Finally, once you have here is my starting situation. Here's my ending situation. Here are all the beads. You don't have to identify the turning point like What's the moment in all of this that a switch took place that really resulted in the change. All of your beads should build up to some kind of a climax, and you want to find what that climax is, and note that and then see, because that's where the big change happens. The beats are all little changes, little turning points where they build up to a big climax that you want to identify what that is, just like you would a normal novel beginning climax and it's the same idea. You want to view all of those for the scene itself? This what? We've reached the end of section two and we are now going to jump into the literary analysis. I highly recommend at this point, if you have not read the chapter for the Princess called the Diamond Mines again that you do that if you have not downloaded that chapter which I have for you in the class resources , I recommend you downloading the chapter that I have made. It does have markings on it, and it would be easier for you to follow along. Please, I really you don't have to read this before you watch this section, but oh my Oh my. Will you get more out of it If you do? Yes. So can't done that. Take a pause, take a breather. Go and read that chapter and let's come back. And we will just parse this chapter out 24. Scene Analysis Example Part 1: Are we ready to analyze a scene? I'm going to have to hold myself back because I could go on and on and on about this, and I wouldn't blame you for not wanting to listen to it all. So we're going to try to keep ourselves in a good time management place. But I do want you to see how in depth and how incredible it can be to really go through a scene you will learn so much. Now, I've already referenced this in the class, but I'd like to give you a little bit of back story on the scene that we are looking at and tell you about it. I chose this chapter for numbers of reasons. One I love this book I grew up with. This book is a wonderful book. If you've never read it. It is a fabulous fabulous book to it uses rules, but I kind of break some rules, and I like that about it. And we're going to look at that because I think it's helpful again. I always fearful for students who feel they have to kind of be married to rules that don't actually suit the narrative. They're trying to tell. So I think this will help dispel that. Three. It's total classic, and, um, it's a Children's book. So, uh, this scene, um, this chapter lends itself well in length and what not? It's just a manageable thing to talk about because it's not something like Lord of the Rings, which is very dense. And can the chapters could be very, very long. Um, so all of these make it a really, really great choice for us to look at. One of the other reasons that I specifically chose this chapter is because it is the chapter on which the rest of the story hinges everything before this chapter has been building to this moment. So backstory Sarah Crewe very wealthy little girl. Her mother died when she was just a child, baby, so she doesn't remember her. But she has a very tight bond with her father, and her father is a wealthy young man. He invested a lot of money. You give a lot of money to a friend of his to invest in diamond mines. And so there was this promise of not I don't think that they were already tremendously wealthy, but that Sarah was just going to basically be this massive heiress someday because she was an only child and her father doted on her and everything else. So that's her financial situation. Andi Captain Crewe, her father takes her to miss, mentions school for girls. For her to get an education. He can't really take care of her because he's going to be sort of away and not in a place where he can take her. So she sent to the school. Miss Mention is, as you will see, absolutely terrible. She's just on awful, awful person, and she runs to school with her sister, Miss Amelia, who is a weak minded woman and not too terribly wonderful, either. And then there are all of the girls at school, some of which some of whom, like Sarah and others don't. Some herself is an odd girl. She's unusual. She's very precocious. She is very, very mature for her age, and she's a nice person. She's, she's she's got a good heart, and she's educated, more educated, in some ways in Miss mentioned with which Miss Minchin does not like. So she comports herself very well and very elegantly and, um, as you will see in this far better than miss mention does, um she is an unusual girl, and we want to look at all of these things when we go through this scene. So I won't say anymore this point. Let's go through. I have mine in front of me. I you have yours in front of you. You'll see that I've I've just made happy little markings all over it because that's what I do. And we're going to talk about what's happening in this chapter. Now I will tell you again, I don't like hard and fast rules. You could look at this and say this whole chapter makes up its own seen one of the reasons that you can kind of do that is because for the most part, it all takes place in the same space. So I understand why people might say that I view this more as a sequence. So I view this as a sequence that has zone climax and is made up of little scenes that each have their own little climaxes, which you see Mark tone for me that I marked those sections that I think our little scenes that I would say then that this chapter makes on the sequence when we do this going to be talking about architecture, which could be talking about everything we talked about, Everything we've said. We should be looking at building into a seed we're going to talk about. So let's do that now. I'll stop telling you were gonna do it. We're gonna do it. Sorry. The first thing that you kind of notice when this chapter starts is again We want to know that starting point. We want to know the setting. Where are we? What's happening? Where is everybody who matters? Situation. Really? Miss mentioned. Sarah. Everyone. We want to set the groundwork, which the author does. We have a party right in the first paragraph. She is starting with. It's with action, but it's with description. So remember we talked about all the different ways you can stored. A seen this scene is starting in the middle of action where there's really walking into the party with the girls. But it's also so vivid. It's actually tremendously about setting and mood because of the descriptions that happened here. And this is one of I think the strong things about this passage that I remember, even as a little girl loving to read because the descriptions were so incredibly vivid that I I glommed onto that I loved it. So that's what we're opening with. We're opening with the actions. Um, we're opening with the last Dole and which is basically it's just a dole that her father, I wanted her to have this totally luxurious stole, and Sarah thought it would be last all she ever had. It's called the Last Hole anyway, So we have a sort of procession and everyone's coming in and miss mention the place Miss mentions, that is very. She's a very in a very stuck up place, right? She's like, I don't want to say she's feeling good about herself, but she's all right. I'm we're gonna make a bigger do about Sarah. And what have you that the underlying feeling from this mission is we know she hates Sarah , so we know that still percolating under here. We know that all this stuff that miss mentions saying about her. She doesn't play like Sarah. She's just saying this because Sarah is going to have you loads of money and she does already So, um, Sarah was lead in grandly and we kept Sara's opinions here, right? She felt shy. She's watching everybody stare at her and we get the feelings of everyone, right. So we have Sarah feeling shy. We have miss mentioned being all uppity. We have the larger girls kind of staring at her with the little girls who are all excited. So just in a sentence or two, we've set the stage. We know what's happening. Here is the action. Here's the setting. And here's how all these constituencies feel. Now, when we talked about analyzing scenes, point of view matters. And as you read through this, you probably saw that this is 1/3 person Amish int point of view. So we are privy to what everybody is feeling. So that is going to play out here for us. And it's one of the things that makes the scene interesting. Where you jump around, we get to know what everybody is thinking. And so we also have Becky. And then the main people in this chapter are going to be a miss Mention Sarah, Miss Amelia, Becky and then the solicitor who comes and visit. So we have five kind of being people. And Becky, Um, the servant girl is also there. And so we see miss mention kind of treating Becky badly where she says it's not your place to look at the young ladies. You forget yourself. Put your box down, Miss Mentions Treatment of Becky is actually very important in this scene because, as we know, by the end of its Sarah is now a servant girl herself. Sarah is going to be in the same position. Becky isn't only worse because Miss mentioned doesn't hate Becky quite the way she hates Sara. And Becky didn't from Miss Missions perspective spend a lot of her money that she feels Sara spent. So her ire at Sarah is particularly bad. But, um, we have these scenes. We see how Miss mention treats her servant girls. That is very critical. That when when we sit there and say, Is this an important action or not? That's an important action. Because once Sarah is poor, it's not like we go. Um I wonder how Miss Minchin treats a servant girl. No, We've seen how Miss mention treats Becky even before this chapter. So we know already. How bad it can be. And we also know that Miss mentioned hates Sarah so much that it can be worse than that. So these scenes in which Miss mention is treating Becky badly, actually have a tremendous influence on Sarah's fate. And the author has built that in for us, which makes Becky and actually very pivotal character, even in some ways where we would say she's not actually influencing the plot at this moment . Those interactions are happening between Miss Mention and Becky. Do help give us the Spence and the suspense intention that we want to really go forward and worry for Sarah when she gets into this poverty stricken situation. So you know, Becky obeys her, and Miss mentioned tells her to leave. And Becky is starting to kind of step aside because this is her life. And that's when Sarah comes in. And she says, If you please, miss mentioned since our suddenly may, it's Becky Stay this important on Page two, and its user says it was a bold thing to do. Miss Mission was betrayed into something of a slight jump, and she put her glasses up and she's glares at her pupil. Disturbingly, this is a moment of conflict. This Simone detention. This is the 1st 1 It's just a little one, right? And so we see that Sour is going to win. Miss mentioned wants things one way. Sarah wants things another way. Attention, Sarah Winds. Why does Sarah win? Because Miss Mission wants to keep Sarah happy. What's the result of that interaction? Miss mentioned Hate Sarah more. Sarah got away. Becky gets to stay, miss. Mention caved mismatched. Hate Sarah Moore. This is an important scenes. Well, we really see Sarah totally willing to stand up for Becky, totally willing to gracefully disagree with Miss mention, because we see here where she says, scullery maids are not little girls. And again we're getting constant thought bubbles for Miss mentioned on DWhite, not which that says it hadn't occurred to her to think of them in that light. And so just gracefully says. But Becky is so it doesn't say your role, even though she thinks it. She just approved with this mission. But she says, but Becky is it's her graceful way of saying, Well, maybe Becky's an exception. And so there's this. There's this conflict moment. It's a little one But as you know, there's going to be a big one down the road. So the's interactions between Sarah and Miss mention our building. 25. Scene Analysis Example Part 2: one thing that I would like you to notice as we go through. This is which character we spend the most time with and whose head we are in the most. And it's Miss Mitchell. This chapter, which is all hinges. I mean, that the drama and the emotional strain is all Sarah's. First and foremost, she's the one who lost her father and is now poor. She's our protagonist, and yet this scene focuses more on miss mention than anyone else. So you have to ask yourself, when you read a scene like that, What is the effect of that? And why? Why would the author do it that way? Why, when you think you would spend the most time on Sarah to be spend it on miss mention? So it's just let's think about that. So she lets Becky stay, but he's so grateful. But Miss mention, of course, has to save face. So she's well as a favor to you will do this. She doesn't want to just cave cave. I'll do this, but only because it's your birthday. She shunts Becky off to the side, right? Becky goes away and the party can begin. You would think, but Miss Mission now has to make a speech, and we have this moment where she just comes on. She kind of waxes on about Sarah about Sarah's wealth in this way. That's totally embarrassing to Sarah, and you get a reaction from some of the girls like Lavinia, where says, Dear Sarah, and you get to tell that there are other people in the room who don't like Sarah. But we also get Sarah's perspective here. What we see is miss mentions focus because with Miss Minchin thanks so that speech and talks about Sarah, she's not saying it's sour. The nicest person isn't sire. So great is that she won't she, she says. A bit of that, But it's all about the money. Did you know Sarah's wealthy? She's going to be wealthier still, some day it's all about the money. This is important. We have to know how important money is to miss mentioned because she's about to lose a lot of it. So just like we have to prep our readers to worry about Sarah because we know how badly Miss Minchin treats servant girls. We have to appreciate when when we get to the scene where Miss mentioned finds out that she's out hundreds and hundreds of pounds, not thousands. That's not going to be terribly impactful if we don't realize how intensely Miss mentioned wants money. This is not the only place I mean we've been. It's been building up to this, but we see it here. Miss mentions all about money, and that's all sour means to her, which is another important points. She doesn't have an emotional connection to Sarah. I personally like, Oh, I care about this little girl she doesn't. It's about money that Sarah is a commodity to her. And we see that in this speech, which influences how Miss Mentioned reacts to the bad news about sours father's death and how she treats Sarah. But we also see how Sarah feels specifically about the same subject. And this is, where were we? We have on Page three. When Miss Minchin talked about money, she felt somehow that she always hated her. And, of course, it was disrespectful to hate grown up people. This isn't a wonderful line because we get what we really feel. Just how much sour is a little girl? Sour is totally aware of the fact that she's a little girl, but she also has these thoughts. She's not perfect, and it would not be helpful for us if Sarah, which is pristine all the way through Sarah, doesn't like miss mention either. Particularly, she doesn't like Miss mentioned when Miss Minchin talked about money because Sarah can feel it. I mean, Sour can feel it going. I'm on the commodity to you. But what part of what makes this such a realistic sentence is that she is still a little girl, even though she's precocious and Children don't necessarily always have the language with which to convey specifically what that feeling? Which is why I think this is such a brilliant lives. She was feeling she just hated it, which talked about the money. Now, as an adult, Sarah, she might have been able to articulate why, but right now it's just a general feeling of just cover the money. What is the deal? And so she's she's a young child and that this makes that a very realistic, realistic reaction. So Miss Mission makes a speech, and it's just tiresome. Andi, everybody thank you for coming to my party. Thank you, Sarah. and it's this very formulate thing that they have to go through. And then we have this section where Miss mentions is very pretty. Indeed, Sarah approved suspension. That is what a real princess does when the populace applauds Air Lavinia. And so she puts down another child. She tells Lavinia that the sound you just made was extremely like a snort. If you're just your fellow pupil, I beg you, express your feelings in some more lady like manner. So what we see is that Miss mentions brood to not just Becky. She's not a secularized, even to her students. And when What builds in this and has built up to this point is actually how inappropriateness missions behaviors are here? Is this woman running this girl's school that is supposed to help teach girls to be young women with good manners and miss mention has none of it. She has none of the self control. She hasn't manners. She is absolutely not what she is trying to take these girls to be, which we shall see even more so as we go, then Miss mentioned leaves okay, and we have a mood change. The instant she swept out of the room. The spell her presence had always had upon them was broken. The door. It's scarcely closed. Before every seat was empty, the little girls jumped or tumbled out of there's the older ones wasted no time in deserting. There's there was a rush toward the boxes Sarah had been to over one of them with Delighted Face. And then we get this wonderful scene where Sarah's opening her packages and everybody's oohing and awing. This total mood change happens. And this is so important, because that tells us as readers, that it tells us a lot about the girls, you know and how they really feel and the effect that miss mention has on them. So you get the sense that okay, now we could have a party. Now that Miss mentions going, we could have a party, and we've been building to this moment, right, because they have it. The over has had a walkin like one of the girls, and we've had to sit there just like everybody else came as mentioned. Yes, I know Sarah's princess and we were waiting, waiting, waiting. What's it been building toward what's in the boxes? That thing back the first sentence. What happened? There was a procession and they brought in these boxes, and we are dying to see what's in them. So we get to this moment was like Finally, Finally we get to see what's in the boxes. And when we talk again about writing and how you want to reward your readers, you're gonna set them up for something you want to deliver. We've been building to this and and the author completely delivers because we get these wonderful descriptions of the last doll that a child is just gonna love the rich, the rich detail of that. We get this brilliant description of the Dole, and so it's It's its own little climactic moment we've been building toward this. I really want you to notice this about this scene, because we tend to think of climaxes is always being a bad thing, but they're not. The climax in this case is opening the doll and seeing everything. But then, as this scene starts to kind of come to an end as this little moment comes to an end, we have a foreboding, and it's so important them in the bottom of Page four and Sarah's supposing about the Dole and suppose she could be human could talk. Lavinia, who does not like her, says, You're always supposing things Sarah signed. No, I like it. So which part? It's like being a fairy. And then the Vigna says it's all very well to suppose things. If you have everything, Could you suppose and pretend if you were a beggar and lived in a garret? And here we have this foreboding. We've never read the book, but we don't know where it's coming. It would be one of those moments that we look back on and go there. She she was starting to set me up for that and so really thinks about it. Stops what she's doing, and she said, I believe I could if one was a bigger one would have to suppose and pretend along the time . But it might be easy. So in what Lavinia said in what Sarah said up to that point, know what Sarah has said accuse us into what she's going to have to do for herself to survive all the difficulty she's about to face. This next line tells us something bad is about to happen because That's when she that's what it reads. She often thought afterward how strange it Waas. That just is. She had finished saying this just in that moment, Miss Amelia came in the room. That's the sentence that says she's about to. Things are about to get that. That's a sentence. And Miss Millie says, your solicitors here, Miss Mention needs the room. Let's move you somewhere else to have refreshments. Becky slides and hides into the table, and then we start What would be the next sort of see? So we've set it up, right? You talk about transitions. How do you set up to the next? See the transition? Is Miss Amelia coming in saying All right, girls solicitors here. We need this room. You go over here. This is where we really start to build the tension of the problem. And we see it right off the bat because Miss mention comes in and that solicitor does not look happy and Miss mentioned doesn't not seem happy either. She's unsettled as well. He doesn't sit down. She's like, Please be seated and he doesn't sit down. Onda, um he goes on about the expense of the dole and again. We're all have been miss mentioned said. At this point. If the first thing we were up in a lot of different people's heads. But right now we have drilled down and we are just focused on miss mention, and that makes so much tension because right in the first scene, we got to just it was kind of fun and we were learning. And oh, everybody is feeling this way. But here the solicitors come. He doesn't look happy, Miss mentions like What's going on? And we've We've momentarily pulled to a limited perspective on miss mention, which is creating more tension in the reader, because all we have to go on is what she has to go on, which is how this lister looks and he doesn't look happy. So we're It's really, really, really building up detention, and he just goes along and the pace here is quickened because we're in dialogue moved. So again, how do we build tension? We do it in numerous ways. We've pulled into a limited perspective. We hit the dialogue, but now we're going, it's it's speeding up its building tension, tension, tension and then he says the late captain crew. And there are the's punches that happened in this conversation that just sort of pop miss mentioned on the chin. And that's the first with the late captain crew. And it's where you go. Oh, and in fact, this mission does as well. Here, miss mentions. Talk to the gas. The late captain crew, the late you don't come to tell me that he's dead, man, this is the 2nd 10 right now. Oh, jungle fever. He died, and then he reiterates it. Captain, Crew is dead. It's like if you didn't get it on the late we said it when he was dead. No, we're gonna save again. Captain Crew is dead, and she just drops into her chair. Just Oh, my goodness. Gracious. And then if you thought that wasn't bad enough, we get the next punch down at the bottom of page six. Lost every penny. Oh, I mean, and then this is the one. I mean, because of suspensions, all about the money. So already she's, like, what? The late Captain Crew. But now it's the penniless Captain crew. Are you kidding me? And so we learned that Captain Crew has put all its money into this, and now he has none. And at the top of Page seven, in the first full paragraph, we get the impact of the news. We're still just in miss mentions Head. She's just had this bad news. We're seeing it. She's sitting down now and then, Just now, Miss Minchin understood, and she had never received such a blow in her life. Her show, People, her show patron, swept away from the Select Cemetery Seminary. At one blow, she felt as if she had been outraged and robbed. And that Captain Crew and Sarah and Mr Barrow equally to blame. This is a moment where we've had all this action Dialogue in this little paragraph were processing, which is like putting a policy. Here's what she's thinking. We're up in her head, processing this and seeing exactly how she feels. And she hates Sarah and Captain Crew, and she hates this solicitor. And then she's she's still processing this. Do you mean Sarah will have no fortune and then suddenly were out of limited mode. We go back into Amish int, and we start to see Mr Bauer with a shrewd businessman and felt it as well to make his own freedom from responsibility. Quite clear. So now we've pulled back. Once the news is out, we can start to get back in both heads because we kept that limited perspective there for this suspense. 26. Scene Analysis Example Part 3: and, um, he says she is a beggar and he basically says she hasn't a relation in the world we know of , which is an important fact. We talk about plots giving important facts while he has to. Obviously, the first thing we're going to think as well does she have a relative? He's preempted that no relative. And then he stresses it where he says, You know, this party is at your expense And Captain Crewe didn't even pay all of our bills. So we're being hit with the impact, right? We have the impact of the news where she felt felt outraged and robbed, and it just keeps slapping her in the face. He's like Yep, Hey, this party that's on you You didn't even pay us. And then she goes on to talk about the wardrobe in the expenses and the dolls, and we just see her going on and on and on in a very unladylike way, in a terrible way about these expenses. And so what we're seeing here is we're hit with this bad news. But then the aftermath, the impact of it keeps coming out, and what we see is Miss mentioned anger level just rising to where we're going to go. This is bad, right? We just We just see it getting worse and worse and she says Bottom of page seven. But what am I to do? And she as if she felt it was his job to make it right. He's basically like, I don't know, not my responsibility. That's your problem, right? And he has this moment where he says, at sort of the upper part of page eighties is I have nothing to do with that, madam, He said, Uninterested Lee Barrow and Skip, where they're not responsible. They're sorry that things happened. Of course, of course he's not sorry. And this is one of those important places where character says one thing and mean something totally different. Always remember, your characters should not always say what they actually think, because that's totally un interesting. So then we have these attempts from miss mention again to be rid of the problem. We always try to get rid of our problems as easy as we can. If you think she is to be foisted off on me, you're greatly mistaken, Miss Minchin gasped. I have been robbed and cheated I will turn her into the street. Okay, this is attempt one to get rid of the problem. But again, as we said, we will try different things and we will see that they don't work. And he says, Wouldn't do that, madam. It wouldn't look well, unpleasant story to get about in connection with the establishment. People bundled out penniless and without friends. And he's right, Dorin. That's not gonna work. Okay, says Better Keeper and make you suffer. She's clever. Get a good deal out of her. She grows older, and that's when this mission's like hot. Forget older. I'm going to get things out of our now. I'm not waiting till she's older. And then we have the sentence again, reiterating the impact where she says such money had she advanced was lost, it could not be regained. This next paragraph is an impactful one, as she stood there, breathless under his sense of injury that fell upon her is a burst of gay voices from her own sacred room, which had actually been given up to the feast. She could at least stop this. Remember, there's a party going on. You can just forget the party for too long. It's there. You want to keep it in front of them of the breach is head. And what a wonderful way to do that for Miss mentioned in the throes of all of this drama to suddenly hear the laughter of the girls voices. It's like, Hey, remember guys support, he don't forget. And it's what it's even more of a slap to her to have all of this happened. And then you hear this party and again when you're thinking about building drama into something, consider bad news of Captain Cruz. Death could have arrived on any day. It could arrived on a day when Sarah was sitting in the classroom with all the other girls in their French lesson. But it didn't. It happened on the day of her birthday, and not just any birthday but the birthday. That miss mention has gone totally all out on spending money on it. I mean, and that's what me you say. How do I make dramatic tension as much as possible If I know I won't take any girl and have her be poor poverty stricken, I think a really wealthy girl and make her poverty stricken and I won't just have her learn . She's poverty stricken any old day. All have other, and she's poverty stricken on her extravagant birthday. You mean this is just what makes it so, so dramatic? Can you tell? I love it. Um, And then there's this shift. Okay, So as she started to the door, it was opened by Miss Amelia, who, when she caught sight of the changed angry face, stepped back in the law. And this moves us into the next port of this scene. The solicitors left. We've had bad news, and now we have to figure out what am I going to do? And so in this situation in this scene did the Daily Watch. The ending of this sort of section isn't as calming, and the data more might be because there's still all this activity happening. But the climax is the learning of Captain Crew. It's like, Whoa, but this is going to be a longer Dana War from that, And we're still think the tension still building. So the data wall from the terrible news isn't there. But what's what's festering now is everything that's going to come at this point. The reader is like, Whoa, what's going to happen to Sarah? I don't know. Then we have this conversation with Miss Mention and what happens between Miss Mission and Amelia. She she's going to relate a little bit to Miss Amelia, but not a lot. And so what? What we're seeing here and part of what's important is that with the main characters in this chapter, we're seeing everyone's reactions to what is ultimately Sarah's bad news. We see this mentioned react with total and utter anger. We see the solicitor be quite removed and cold. We see Miss Amelia. He wasn't angry the way Miss mention is, but who's totally weak and just flustered by the whole thing. And then we see Becky's perspective, where she just kind of Wales, and it is very upset about the whole thing. Now, Miss mentioned a few things important to note. Here, Miss mentioned doesn't tell Sarah what's going on. She sends Miss Amelia off to do it, and we have Becky hiding under the table, and we have to ask ourselves, what's the function of having Becky under the table? It doesn't actually influence the plot. There's nothing that will come up to this chapter where it's like, Well, because Becky was under the table. This happened No. Why have Becky under the table? It doesn't. What does it do? It's not plot driving reason what it does. I think several things. I think that it gives us another perspective, a little girl's perspective off what happened? We've had adult interpretations and reactions to this bad news, but now we have a little girl's reaction to the bad news. It also keeps on incredible amount of suspense still there, because Katniss is a Children's story and Children might be reading this and a child at this point. Yes, yes, we want to miss mention Tell the news to Miss Amelia, but we haven't forgotten the Becky's there under the table. And so in some ways we're there with Becky under the table, which is a tense moment for a child, and it also lets us see how severely mis mentioned deals with people because she's quite cruel to Becky in this moment. So it's it's really the function of Becky. Under that table is just to offer experiences and reactions and demonstrations of miss mentions, own bad behavior and Becky's week behavior as well. And so that's what you have there now. Significant also as we go on in. This is going to be why we never see the scene where Sarah is told about Paula's death. Which brings us to I'm on page 11 now about four paragraphs down, which is where sort of scene three for me kind of begins at least this next section. It begins Miss Minchin and never looked quite so still and hard as she did when Sarah came to her a few hours later in response to a message she had center again. When we looked at transitions, we said, How how would all the ways you can do this? And one was time? And that's where we have the same transition. It's a few hours later, and then we hit in. The first person's point of view we get this time is Sarah's. Even by that time, it seemed to Sarah's. If a birthday party had been either a dream or thing, which had happened years ago, and it happened in the life of quite another girl, the next setting is all about mood and setting. The port has been taken away. Everything is back to where it was. It's plain, and then we have exposition and we just have Miss Amelia relate to miss mention how Sarah reacted. We don't never really see it. That's an interesting decision because it's so powerful. And for Sarah to be the person most affected by it. She's the holy one. We actually don't get to see her immediate reaction. Well, we don't see that this lister, but you know of people in the main orbit of Sarah we, Seamus Amelia's we Seamus mentions we see Becky's, we don't see Sarah's. We only get Miss Amelia's relation off. What happened? You've had so many other people react that to add in another reaction of Sarah, that point could be difficult. And one of the things that's interesting about doing it this way, I think, is that because we have only had this relation and we have seen actually where Sarah active fairly strongly by that, any with fortitude not falling apart the way miss mentioned did it really starts to set us up for the first interaction between Sarah and Miss Minchin? Given the news. So we know that Sarah is pretty composed in front of Miss Amelia Now we do know that Sarah goes and she's like, my papa is dead, My puppet is dead and she swings over and over again. Um, so we know in very brief that she went to her room and had this reaction. But it's nowhere near the detail described for miss mention. And again, this chapter really is. It's Sarah's chapter, but in so many ways it's miss mentions, chapter and port of the reason for that is because that's what builds up the tension. We have to just focus on miss mention and her anger and her upset iveness so that we feel the full impact in the worry and the fear for Sarah that we feel given what's happened. We see. When she came into miss mention sitting room top of page 12 in answer to her summons, her face was white under eyes, the dark rings around them again. These are the details that tell us about what happened without telling us what happened. Her mouth was set as if she did not wish to reveal what she had suffered and Waas suffering . She's not look in the least, like the little like the rose colored, but of my child who had flown about from one of her treasures to the other in the decorated schoolroom. She looked instead a strange, desolate, almost grotesque little figure. And then we get the next conflict they have. They had a little mini dynamic there with her wanting Becky to state party. Well, here's the next one we've been waiting. We've been waiting for these two people to come together and what's going to happen because we know Sarah has far more composure than this mention, and we know Miss Mission is completely angry. We've been waiting for this. I get these two girls in the room, and this mention tells her to put her doll down, and Sarah says, No, I will not put her doubt. She is all I have. My papa gave her to me. She had always made Miss mentioned feel secretly uncomfortable, and she did so now. She did not speak with rudeness so much as with a cold steadiness with which, Miss mentioned felt it difficult to cope, perhaps because she knew she was doing a heartless and inhuman thing. We've been wondering how this was going to go down when the two of them got in a room after this and what this tells us. This helps set us up for what's to come. It says Sarah isn't gonna roll over and be a Becky. Sarah is a strong as she ever WAAS. She's going to be a thorn and Miss mentioned side, even in her graceful way, and that there is conflict to come. There is such a strong juxtaposition between how Miss Mention behaves and how Sarah behaves in this moment of great stress. Again, we see characters true colors come out in great stress, will miss mention stressed. But Sarah's trust. So we've really built to this drama, and then we just we see her go back and forth with Sarah and have this dialogue, and we're back to a clip e dialogue that we were at before. And we just have that interaction with them that we wanted. And then we have this really important point on Page 13. It's the first kind of full paragraph in it says If she had cried and solved and seemed frightened, Miss mentioned might almost have had more patients with her. She was a woman who like to domineering and feel her power. And as she looked at Sarah's pale little steadfast face and heard a proud little voice, she quite felt as if her might was being set at naught. And this just summarizes everything that we have seen about miss mention that she wants to feel powerful, and Sarah had felt weak. She maybe could have just that could have mollified her a little bit. But the fact that Sarah wasn't weak, that Miss mentioned did have her money and she didn't have her power. And she felt that Sarah, even in her poverty, Sarah had some kind of upper hand over her just slays her, and we really get in her head there. 27. Scene Analysis Example Part 4: and then it's important for us to go well, where is Sarah in all of this? Because we've already seen that where Sarah doesn't really like to be talked about the money. And when Miss Minchin says, You're going to have to work and we see Sarah brightened up, but that that's an important point for us because the author needs to give us some sort of guidance about how Sarah feels about all this. And is she just sort of upset that she's not a princess anymore? And we see that, Saleh. It's like I said, I can work. I've purpose give me some purpose And I think that without saying Sarah's also fall the sour zoster money. Sarah doesn't know what's gonna happen. She has no sense of purpose. She doesn't know that floating. We didn't have to say any of that because she just well, she says, It's our brightened at the thought of work, why I couldn't do that and they like me and we suddenly see that a lot of what was in Sarah's head is what what I do now, and so that even in this dark moment, when miss mention says you're going to have to work. Okay, that says so much about Sarah. It's a really pivotal, pivotal things has a lot about her strength. And then we have her strength come through even more when, at the bottom of Page 13 she says. To Miss mentioned, You are not kind, you are not kind and it is not home. And then she turns and runs out of the room. It says, and she had turned and run out of the room before Miss Mention could stop her or do anything but stare after her with Storm stony anger. That is the only thing Sarah does. This whole chapter that seems truly childlike, and it wouldn't be totally realistic if Sarah just acts like a complete adult the whole time. And so these little moments where, yes, she's strong. Yes, she's precocious. Yes, she has it sort of demeanor of an upper hand over Miss mentioned. She's a child, she's hurt, and she's held it in as long as she can, and she stood up as much as she can. But in this moment, she just has to turn and run, and then we have top of page 14 the fourth sort of seen in this where now we've shifted and we watch Sarah go up the stairs. We watch you go into the attic and we see this is where I live now, this section where she looks at the Ah tick and we just get a lot of setting. It's a lot of setting. This is where we feel three larger Damon wall from the Siris of scenes. So these sequence itself. Finally, we feel things slow down. All of the many data Moi's didn't really feel slow, because while each had its own little conclusion, the action was still building to the final climax of the sequence, which was Sarah and Miss mentioned and talking. And those two getting together there. Now it starts to slow down and again we talk about transitions. How does this author start to slow down? The author is focusing in on Sarah's head, focusing in on setting and slowing us down with just a lot of exposition. So we feel the dissipation of the energy, and it's just it's a lot of up and Sarah's head contemplation looking around at the setting , and that's that's really how it ends. She talks a little bit to Becky and we get this sense of okay, it's It's Sara and Becky now and then we're done. We close with Sarah. We opened with Sarobi close with Sarah, even though a lot of it in the middle with Miss mentioned they've slowed us down. They put us in a new place. Sarah has gone from wealthy and happy and with a father too popper to orphan and two very sad. And we leave this chapter going, What now? Okay, we've been told what only life's going to be, But how does this going to play out and the end of this while it's dissipated? A lot of that energy has left us with so many questions and so much anticipation of what's to come. But the tensions still do. You see, although that comes together, is a wonderful chapter. I just think it is. It's a great book. If you haven't read the book, read the book. It's wonderful, but I hope that going through that is helpful, and I hope that seeing the notes and things is helpful as well. I know it took us a while to go through that, and I congratulate you. If you made it through that whole thing, but that's really the kind of detail that you want to get into when you're analyzing a scene. It is a marvelous exercise, and I really recommend you doing this with a scene of your choice. Let's now get into some practical application tips on how you can then take this idea of analysis and apply it to your own writing. 28. Practical Application: Okay, So, practical application. I'm going to go over this briefly because a lot of it is basically what we said when we said, How would you analyze a scene? All of this section on how to analyze a scene? You should be asking those questions of your own plot. The difference is obviously not analyzing your sort of thinking about what do I want that this to be Now, if you are someone who wants to really plot out your whole story before you right then you would answer these questions before even beginning writing. But if you're somebody who wants to just kind of right, see where the wind takes you, then there questions you would ask. And you would basically analyze scenes that you actually have written to see if they check the boxes that we talked about in this scene analysis section, which is briefly to go over again. These are the things that you want to make sure our in your scenes that you have identifiable in your scenes. You want a purpose to say. What's the purpose of my scene? What's the goal? What am I trying to achieve? There's the purpose of your character in which a character wants. But there's what you, as the author, want the reader to get out of this scene. You have to know what the climaxes. You have to know what your character's outer conflict is, the outer girl she's working for and her inner conflict. You want to make sure you have the proper point of view for that scene. You want to make sure you understand the character change and that that character change has been made clear in your scene. And then you want to make sure that it's it's sensory, that it has texture, but it has details that has setting and mood and emotion. So you want to make sure all of these levels are built in. They're all important. None is more important than another. They all work together when it comes to seen purpose. Purpose is all about what you want to achieve as the writer and some not. But certainly not all of your purposes might be that this is a scene in which you want to build suspense. Perhaps it's the climax. It could be a scene in which your goes to introduce a character. It might be that you want to develop a character. Perhaps this scene is one in which we want to establish setting or established mood. A scenes purpose could be to intensify conflict. It could be an inciting incident. It couldn't just be a plot point. Seeing where you're giving us plot points, that we need to go forward, it might be a resolution scene. It could be a scene that develops a being, and it might just be an informative scene. Where you're giving us information that we need to have is a by no means all of the kinds of scenes that are out there. But any one of these might be your purpose for your scene. It's important to know your purpose because that's going to influence how we go about actually writing. 29. Final Thoughts and Class Project: Well, we reached the end. If you've made it to this video, congratulations. I would give you a physical gold store if I could, But I will give you a virtual gold store from making it here. Go, You and thank you so much for watching we have in a moment. I will share with you the class project. But I would like to reiterate that I do have a website and I would love it if you would go and visit it and sign up for my mailing list. I do communicate with you through a variety of sources, but if you want the most up to date personal communication with me, sign up for my mailing list on my website. I'm not Spare me. I'm not going to share your information. I'm just going to keep in touch with you. If you enjoyed this course, if you found it helpful at all, taking a moment to leave a review is a huge help. Me. It really helps me continue to make courses for you. And it helps your fellow students to know about the course. So any kind words and comments that you have and any reviews you'd like to leave our much appreciated my thank you for them most on social media, so help you check me out there as well or it. When it comes to your class project, you will see that there is a handy dandy seen building former for you. This can be used in one of two ways. You can use it to analyze a scene, or you can use it to build your own on. What you'll see is that it's a short and it has all sorts of little boxes that you can fill out that will help keep in your head all of the things that we've talked about. We've talked about so many different things that go into building a scene, and I know that it can be a lot to keep your head and feel very overwhelming. But hopefully this chart will help you do that. I've left it as a word document to say that you can edit it as you want to, but I've also uploaded it as a PdF in case Microsoft Word is not your thing. The nice thing about the word document is that you can actually use it inward, and there are. You might want more lines because you have more characters or something like that, so you can flush it out as you wish. But there is a table. And then there is also a series of questions that you can answer for yourself to make sure that you're hitting all of the important aspects of a scene. Ah, highly recommend that you fill this out. I would love it so much if you would share your projects here because I'd love to see them . So find a scene in a book or a film that you love and analyze. It can go ahead, fill this form out. You will be surprised how much you learn doing this. I also think that if you if you do so with a book or anything in written form than marking and noting on it, the way that we did with a little princess is so incredibly helpful and you'll learn a tremendous amount. So that's my recommendation for you. I hope you'll take advantage of this and nickel shark on this platform. Having said all of that, I thank you so much for watching. I am so delighted to Shadows course with you. I hope you are having a wonderful day. If there are courses that you are interested in, please leave those in the comments or send me an email because I would absolutely love to know the things that you would like to learn more about. Otherwise, I hope you have a beautiful day and I wish you has always the very best of luck with your projects by I have mascara in my eyes. It's killing me round to, Of course, you're going to run nearly floor now. It's laughable that I thought I would film all of this today being on Page five. At this point, that's no good. Found time, is it? You know this little flakes? There's little flecks of mascara. Where does the time go? This course is going to be long. Did lose time to have to say