Writing Editing Masterclass -Content Editing, Copyediting and Proofreading | Sivakumar Kannan | Skillshare

Writing Editing Masterclass -Content Editing, Copyediting and Proofreading

Sivakumar Kannan, Digital Marketing Consultant and Coach

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62 Lessons (2h 59m)
    • 1. Intro

      4:45
    • 2. Steps involved in writing editing

      4:54
    • 3. Track Changes in MS word and Google docs

      9:47
    • 4. Editing Tools

      4:15
    • 5. Step 1 Read out loud

      6:57
    • 6. Step 2 Make smaller sentences

      8:14
    • 7. Step 3 Clarification from the author

      4:24
    • 8. Step 4 Remove irrelevant and duplicate points

      1:37
    • 9. Step 5 Removing any contradicting statements

      1:25
    • 10. Step 6 Replace Jargons with simple words

      2:18
    • 11. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 1

      10:20
    • 12. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 2

      9:28
    • 13. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 3

      10:28
    • 14. Step 9 and 10 Subtitles

      3:35
    • 15. Step 11 Providing a magnetic title

      1:11
    • 16. Step 12 Proofreading and author feedback

      7:31
    • 17. Rule 1

      4:12
    • 18. Rule 2

      1:36
    • 19. Rule 3

      1:08
    • 20. Rule 4

      4:43
    • 21. Rule 5

      1:08
    • 22. Rule 6

      8:33
    • 23. Rule 7

      2:27
    • 24. Rule 8

      2:30
    • 25. Rule 9

      2:22
    • 26. Rule 10

      2:17
    • 27. Rule 11

      1:14
    • 28. Rule 12

      0:58
    • 29. Rule 13

      0:57
    • 30. Rule 14

      1:05
    • 31. Rule 15

      2:23
    • 32. Rule 16

      1:51
    • 33. Rule 17

      1:19
    • 34. Rule 18

      0:54
    • 35. Rule 19

      1:29
    • 36. Rule 20

      0:58
    • 37. Rule 21

      1:47
    • 38. Rule 22

      1:07
    • 39. Rule 23

      1:10
    • 40. Rule 24

      1:37
    • 41. Rule 25

      1:49
    • 42. Rule 26

      1:16
    • 43. Rule 27

      1:46
    • 44. Rule 28

      1:49
    • 45. Rule 29

      1:14
    • 46. Rule 30

      0:47
    • 47. Rule 31

      1:18
    • 48. Rule 32

      1:20
    • 49. Rule 33

      1:34
    • 50. Rule 34

      1:28
    • 51. Rule 35

      1:29
    • 52. Rule 36

      0:49
    • 53. Rule 37

      1:32
    • 54. Rule 38

      1:19
    • 55. Proofreading strategies

      3:02
    • 56. Spelling errors and Homonyms

      2:52
    • 57. Punctuation mark Period

      2:32
    • 58. Punctuation mark comma

      3:53
    • 59. Question mark and exclamation

      1:14
    • 60. Colon and quotation mark

      2:05
    • 61. Apostrophe and hyphens

      2:06
    • 62. Dashes and Parenthesis

      1:12
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About This Class

Want to Become a World Class Writing Editor? Your Search for a Solution Stops Here!

Course Coverage

Basics

The first section in the Writing Editing Masterclass teaches you the 3 major types of editing called

Content Editing,

Copyediting and

Proofreading.

Content Editing - Step by Step

The above types of editing are frequently applied by journalists of leading newspapers and magazines.

After learning the basics, students will start learning how to apply these techniques while editing a blog post.

So the lectures in the next section dive into each of these types of editing to show how to do them practically.

For an easy followup, all edits are done with a 12 step editing process that covers all the necessary steps.

At the end of these 12 steps, students will see a draft copy of a blog post is edited to near perfection by making it well structured, lean and an easy to read the content.

To make the entire process hands-on, students will download the attached draft blog post and edit the same in parallel

along with me.

At the end of that lecture, they'll compare their editing with the lecturer's edits and learn new ways to edit a piece of content.

Content Editing Examples

Obviously, not all editing rules will come into play while editing a blog post.

So, to make all the editing rules familiar to the students, a section containing these editing rules with examples is included.

Also, an eBook that contains examples of wrong usage and the alternative right ones are included.

At the end of learning these rules, students will be thorough in handling any editing job in the English language.

The takeaway from the Course

Students will learn the techniques of editing an English content to near perfection.

They'll become familiar to all the rules of editing and when to apply those rules.

They will become experts in converting a dry, boring content with a lot of errors into an interesting, easy to read, lean and error-free content.

Who is this course for?

This course is for

  • Anyone who wants to become a professional editor

  • Anyone who already is an editor and wants to raise their game

  • Anyone who wants to dramatically enhance their own writing by self-editing

Transcripts

1. Intro: it's perfectly okay to write garbage as long as you it brilliantly. Cjh area. Hugo Award winning novelist. Hi there. Welcome to this course on complete writing. Editing master guests. I'm sure I'm a writer, editor teacher and an online in the scores are de gea Hog getting a piece of writing to near perfection. It's near perfection because I believe perfection doesn't exist. You can always keep improving. Let's quickly see what I'll cover in this course on, take a piece of content and show how to do content editing. This involves structuring and restructuring the content and its flow. The focus here is the organization of the content. In a way, it serves its purpose to its readers. Copy 80. This involves improving the grammar spelling mistakes in the readability of the content. This includes cutting the flab are Dennett words from the bees, altering the Senate structure to improve readability. Answer one and finally proof reading. This involves improving the peace for punctuation and typo errors. These terms are mainly used in book publishers world. These methods are frequently used by journalists off leading newspapers and magazines to any of the piece of card, and they need to publish, however, I used these techniques to edit a piece off a block post so its substance and the farm is structure right for its readers. In addition to them, I'll also be a getting to some of the good practices off writing content online like attractive titles. Subtitles Writing for this skimmers Angelique, I show how to do all these Herridge manually with help off track changes option in Emma's work, It's an incredible skill. You can sort of this many of the editing software in the market and during the ones like Grandma really are Hemingway editor is good enough to handle proof, reading and partially some content in copy editing work. None of the software can completely handle cart. Anything in copied it. You need a man with a manager to do them all in a much better way. And that's the reason why I decided to teach this amazing skill off, editing a piece of writing that right away in the scores, I've shown a lot of wrong sentence structures people commonly used and how the crack them with examples. You see tons of examples in this course so you can familiarize yourself with the concepts and the ideas. Now let's see how the course is structure. The course starts with the introduction to the terms like content, anything, copy editing and proofreading and how they are different from each other. Then I'll show it beats off block, cause that requires editing. I'll do all three times of anything we discussed here and make it flow and read better. After showing how edit this model blocos, I show common, enters people, make one writing and how cracked them with examples. Now, who's the course intended to? Well, the course is intended to the content editors and copy editors who want to improve the editing skills that writers who want to do self edit and want to learn how to do it the right way. The writers want to do it better editing job that their clients and implies, and entrepreneurs in general want to learn how to write our ended a piece of content to make it readable and likeable their audience. Now here's an important question. Why this course over any other course? Because this course is from a professional writer and editor, it comprehensively covers all kinds of editing to change a piece of content. It's best possible structure. Finally, what is your take away from the scores? At the end of the course? You have learned how to edit a piece of content near perfection, applying the best possible structure writing principles, grammar hand punctuation, Drew's Remember this The purpose off anything a piece of content is toe. Make it easy for the readers to re understand and apply the principles. That's precisely what you learned in this course. So wait no more and role in this course. No, I can't read to see you and the next listen. 2. Steps involved in writing editing: Hey, welcome back. Let me walk you through. My 12 part editing system discovers all kinds off anything like conduct anything, copy anything and proof reading part. Then I'll explain in the Mont ST each part with my examples. Okay, let's get started. Step number one. Read the carton allowed slowly toe. Understand the content in its context. Figure out the purpose off the car before we start eating. They may need to read the carpet a few times, but reading it slowly is critical to know down all the errors on understand the meaning behind every part. That's the purpose off the first step step number to break the continent into bite sized pieces are points that makes sense. We don't need longer points that will be difficult to read and understand. So we'll break the longer sentences in this model. Once at the same time will ensure the intended meaning is intact. Step number three read and no down the barns that need clarification from the author. Once we have small sentences and to be easier to read and no down the points that need clarification from the other, I'll be using Emma's work to track the changes we make with this, I can quickly, no down the points that need clarification. You can also use Google Ducks for this purpose. I'll show you how to do this on both Emma's work and Google docks for your easy follow stepping before is and are removed. Points suitably to ensure all are unique and relevant because we don't need any duplicate, are irrelevant point in the country. Step number five. Remove any contradictory statements within the content. Contradictory statements within the card. It will confuse the readers so we'll read the carpenter thoroughly and remove them. If any step number six rewarded Jagan's into simple watch. The general rule is that the cart and should be understandable toe even 1/3 or fourth grader. I mean, it should use simple words rather than a complicated watch. Soviet removed all the yardage breeding. It should be a breeze, a majority of the audience. That's the buzz of the step step number seven Jammu Dennen phrases and dramatically letters . This is the deep dive into the copy editing portion of the edit. It's rule based, so I'll cover this portion in detail with lots of examples so that you become familiarized with root identikit separate videos for each rule to make it detail. Learning Step Number eight is rephrased the weaker sentences into stronger ones. This is also a part of copy editing portion of the anything you see several examples To understand this point. Better step Number nine provides subtitles for the contact that is categorized each point in a few words that it belongs to in the world off Internet. It's a must that be right for the skimmers. I mean, people don't have time to read through all the content. Most of them just came through their websites. The best way to make the conference capable is the break it into mini sized paragraphs and subtitle. Each of them stepped in, arranged the subtitles in such a way they flow in a meaningful order. Once we have subtitle paragraphs will ensure that each subtitle flows in a logic and order from the beginning, killed again strip them. 11. Provide a killer title that Kinder's curiosity to read more. Finally, we and provide a suitable title for the card. This title should convey a clear benefit to the readers and has words for Qingling curiosity. The purpose off a title is the create interest to make the readers read the cart. We'll make sure our title will serve this purpose. Step number 12. Read the carpet out loud for proof. Really. Now the of completed the editing. Let's proof read it for punctuation on disciples, if any. That's how we're gonna edit a piece of country in my next video to show you the draft content you're gonna edit. See you there. 3. Track Changes in MS word and Google docs: Hey, welcome back. Both Emma's word and Google docks are great for anything a doctor in this video. Let's see how to track changes in these software. This will be very useful when you ended the contact. Now let's create a random text. Do work with it. This is a formula to create random text in M s work with three paragraphs each red. Three senators. I have that random checks. Once you have your dext, you have several options to edit that text. All those options appear here under radio steps. Now I don't want to go deep into the basics of Emma's word. Are Google docks here in this video? Because that's not what this course is all about. If you want to learn more, I suggest you take a class that teaches basics off. Emma's were arguable ducks. Now let's come to the purpose of this video. Both the software's offer options to track the changes you make while editing the doctor. This is very useful. If you work as a part of a team and want a shadow, the edits you make with other D members, you have the option to include Commons. If you have any to the D members. Even if you work independently, this helps to know the changes you make as you work with the document. The next time we are gonna use this track changes option. Draw this course. So I just want to show you how this works in both Emma's work and Google ducks. Now, as you can see, I'm on the Emma's war document. This is the content we are gonna edit. That's enabled track changes. Let's go toe redo tab, click crack gene. Just just make sure the shows all market now. Any changes I make, the document will appear as a market. Another watch, any changes I make will appear in dread color. Let's say I delete this work. It doesn't go away. It just gets crossed out. If I add more next, it gets underlined. This makes it easier for the owner of the content and know what changes I've made before making it a final draft. If I wanna add are common to the owner of the content, I can by just selecting the text and clicking on the new Common command, typing your comment here and press as cakey our press anywhere within the document, they closed the common box. How does it work when you're the owner of the content and receives a document with tracked changes in comments? As an owner, you accept the changes are reject them. If you disagree, select the change and accepted are rejected. If you click on the drop down, you can accept or reject all changes at once to delete a comment selected and delete. To delete multiple comments, select the drop down and believe all review the documents without the strikeout going to show markup balloons show revisions in balloons. Divisions will move to the right march. This makes the document a bit easier to read. You can also hide all these changes temporary, go here and choose no marker. This helps to see how the final draft will look like also easier to read. However, this is different from accepting all the changes. This only hides the changes that appears in different color. To remove the changes in a different color permanently, you need to accept our reject the changes. This is very important before you send the final wish. Now here's another trick in case you forgot to add tracked changes and have already made a significant amount of changes in the document. How to track those changes. Here's away. Go to review Compare Compare again. Select the copy off your original document here and select the revised one here. Think OK, word has compared to do and come up with a document that shows the track changes. Original document. Here. The device one is here in the compared document, but traction just is here. Not you can send this document to the owner of the content for his accepting or rejecting the changes. This door is a huge help. Many are collaborating with team members on projects. It makes it easier to track visions and communicate ideas back and forth. Not let's see how to track changes in Google docks. I have the same content on goal ducks. The formula we used to generate random content in Emma's work doesn't work here, so I just copy pasted this from Emma's word for this demonstration. Right now, we are in the anything more you can't see this here. This means you can edit. Tracking is not enabled. Click on this pencil icon. I have an option here called, suggesting they may click on it. The box becomes agree. This enables track changes. In other words, it's card suggesting in Google docks. Not everything you do on this document is suggested by you not edited by. Let me make some changes on this contract. You can see the suggestions here, so all my changes are appearing here. As comments the conference owner can reply. You'll see both of the original commenter and the person who replied, in this case, both Army. But as you can see, it's a great way to communicate within the document. The content owner can accept this additions by clicking on the stick mark. Our reject them by clicking on this X mark. There's one more Mork are doing more once all suggestions are accepted. And if I'm ready to print out goto viewing more, I can't do any more editing our suggestions. I can drea our print desert. So once done with all the suggesting, you can go here in shadow doctorate, type in the email, give whatever the permission you want to give and shattered. And if you want to comment on any of these points, highlight the decks and and the comment click on. Resolved to hide and click here to see all the changes. So that's how you work with suggesting in Commons in Google docks. 4. Editing Tools: he will come back. When we write, some of us use a lot of Dannon and flabby watch. That's because we apply the local language while writing Speaking is different from writing . There's no room for flab in writing great books. Articles are posts. Removing flabby, redundant and unwanted words are one of the major work off a copy editor. Apart from correcting grammar and punctuation, of course, there are other types off enters he may find in the copy. In this course a bit later, I show you how copy editors remove many of those flaws from a copy. It's a part off manual copy editing. This is why a copy editor is higher. But here's a shocker. As a copy editor, if you want to speed up your copy editing work are as a client. If you want to do self editing without hiring a copy editor, you can do it with a tool that's called would drink. It's an add on to Emma's ward. This told, removes the flabby words and phrases from the copy and makes it relatively leaner again. The stool is not a complete substitute for manual copy editor, but there's definitely complements the copy editors work are helps clients to do self editing to some extent again, this door doesn't remove grammar issues. For that, you have other tools, like Graham early. The purpose of this toe is to remove flab and make the copy lean. That's a paid tool, but they have a free truck, so you may use it to test this out. I'll quickly show you a demo off how the stool works. Go to the site and download the tool and install it. Once installed, you'll see a tap. God would Rick on your word document. Let's say I want to remove the flab from this piece of block post later on. In the scores, I show you how to manually copy of this piece. But now, if I want the use this tool to remove the flab from this, I can do it quickly by going here. Click on would drink. That's it. The door scans the document and shows the flab. Take a look. Now. I may not agree with all those suggestions, but the tool is super quick and helping me to detect some unwanted and done in words and flat. That's very helpful. I may choose to agree and remove those words are reject some of them and just more overall , a pretty handy dual for any duster. Do the editing to do grammar and sentence editing. You have other dudes like Mos Word itself, go to review and do spelling and grammar check. Then you have Graham early. It has both free and paid versions. The free washer does a good job off removing basic grammar mistakes, and that is Graham. Early for Emma's were Do just download it and get suggestions on the world so you never have to leave your word document. Another one is ginger salt Bear a good door to remove grammar and punctuation enters. This, too, is added to Emma's work and finally, Hemingway App. This is a free door, but a great one to cut shot long sentences, remove excessive Agweb's and improve readability. Being a manual editing course, I'm not gonna use any of these tools in this course, but for the sake of shadowing the knowledge and giving a badness, I wanted to tell you about these tools 5. Step 1 Read out loud: hey will come back from this video for the next few videos. I'll be anything a piece of sample content on the screen so you can follow along and learn how I do it. Step by step. The editing is based on certain rules and principles that are applied in writing by content and copy Editors. These rules will not apply to spoken are colloquial English. I'll cover these rules in the later part of this course, so complete the course and full to learn all the rules. I've shown these rules with plenty of examples, so you have no difficulty in learning and practicing that the content I'm gonna edit is here. The first step is to read the content, allow slowly toe, understand the content in its context. The purpose is to figure out the purpose of the contract. So let's do it. There are many people giving out really bad advice on hardly used instagram. I mean the same kind of people that give bad advice on how to use Facebook, Lincoln and other social media channels. You may follow their suggestions and get 50,000 followers that are also watched instagram for clueless posts. But what you won't get is real networking opportunities and an audience that cares about what you say. Here are a few things not to do on Instagram if you want to be a valuable tool for building your network and reputation, first of all, following people and Moss and I'm following the watch that don't follow back, this is our way to build up an impressive list off followers. But how many of them are interested and what you have to say and how many of them are just falling back to build up their own numbers? Follow people that you have a genuine interest in and focus your attention on being the kind of remarkable person who posts things of value that others want to follow. The principles are same as other social media channels like Facebook and Twitter. A few 100 engaged followers as worth a lot more than 50,000 who tune you out. The next one is using search to give others the hard sell. Instagram search is a very useful tool for finding those that might benefit from your services are products, but you must proceed with caution. I'd go so far as to say that you never want to try to directly sell to any one individual on Instagram without them having given conspicuous signs that they are open to your message . Think about it this way. Imagine your at a cocktail party having a conversation with a group about wanting to invest your money and wanting to know the first steps from across the room. A realistic concertante jumps into your conversation. Would you rather she answer your question in a factual way and hand you her car with an invitation to get it to touch? If you have further questions, are telling you that she can under to all your problems. But you need to sign with her right now as she whips out her appointment book and insists on booking a visit to your hope right away. If you use search to find people with problems you could solve, do just that and let them look up your information on your profile, and they wanna learn more. So direct selling to individuals is not advisable on instructor Now here's another mistake People frequently do. If using search for the heart cell is bad, sending ad sales messages at random is suicide. This is viewed as spam by many, so there is no quicker way to get blocked then, by sending at messages toe people out of the blue to try and sell them something get blocked enough times and instagram will shut down your account. You have nothing to gain by doing it and everything to lose. Finally, forget that you get what you give. You don't have to follow everyone back. Who follows you on Instagram? You don't have to respond. Every act message are reciprocated every like our follow recommendation. But you do have to provide value to make an impact on instagram. That could mean that you're entertaining, helpful are informative so long as you provide something that others want in shock. That has to be a reason for people to follow you. The value doesn't necessarily have to consist off making great posts. The thing is, they must be posed that people are eager to see and not some tepid rehash off what everyone else to say find what style opposed works for you. Some people can post images about what they had for breakfast and make other people care. You don't have to appeal to everybody to make Instagram work for you. But you do have to deliver something that's of value to your target audience. What are some vase that people have turned you off on? Instagram? What would your one piece of advice beat those just starting off? So, guys, the purpose of this content is to tell the readers some of the common mistakes people do while drawing their instagram a cop The author has given a few points you should avoid making. He also suggests some of the art in native raised to grow on Instagram. So let's no doubt the purpose of this post as common mistakes people make on Instagram. Our title of the Post is gonna include keywords from this statement, but we'll create a suitable benefit rich and magnetic title later. It's one off our 12 part anything sister. See you in my next video 6. Step 2 Make smaller sentences: Hey, welcome back. The purpose off any content is to make it easy for readers toe understand it. So one of the ways to do that is to write the content with smaller sentences. That's what you're gonna do here. Step two is to break the content into bite sized pieces are point that makes sense. Let me start doing it now on the way I may correct some very obvious dramatic on punctuation mistakes. There are many people giving out really bad advice on how to use instagram. I mean the same kind of people that give battered wise on how to use Facebook, LinkedIn and other social media channels. Here, I would add a comma after Lincoln before the word, and you may follow their suggestions and get 50,000 followers that also watched Instagram for clueless posts. But what you won't get is really working opportunities and an audience that cares about what you say. Here are a few things not to do on Instagram. If you wanted to be a valuable tool for building your network and repetition first of all, following people and mosque and unfolding the ones that don't follow back, this is a way to build up an impressive list of followers. But how many of them are interested in what you have to say and how many of them are just falling back to build of their own numbers? Follow people that you have a genuine interested and then focus your attention on being the kind of remarkable person who post things of value that others want to follow. The principles are seen as other social media channels like Facebook and Twitter. It should be the principles are D C output A. The after this are. And instead of like, our put us, ah, few 100 engaged followers is worth a lot. More than 50,000 who junior out it should be are worth, instead off ease work. The next one is using search to give others. The hard shell Instagram search is a very useful tool for finding. Those that might benefit from your services are products, but you must perceive that caution our go so far as to say this. You never want to try to directly sell toe any one individual on instagram, the not them having given conspicuous signs that they are open to your message. Think about it display. Imagine your at a cocktail party having a conversation with a group. It's about you wanting to invest your money and wanting to know the first steps from across its rule are really estate consultant jumps into your conversation. Would you rather she answer your question in a factual way and handle her car with an irritation toe? Get into touch if you have for the questions, are telling you that she can 100 all your problems, but you need to sign with her right now as she whips out her appointment book and insists on booking a visit to your whole right away. If you search to find people with problems you could solve, do just that. Let them look up your information on your profile if they wanna learn more. So direct selling to individuals is not advisable on Instagram, Not here's another mistake people frequently do. If using search for the hard shell is bad, sending at sales messages at random is suicide. This is viewed, asked Pam by many, so there is no quicker way to get blocked then, by sending ad messages to people out of the blue to try and sell them something get blocked enough times. Instagram was shut down your account. You have nothing to gain by doing it and everything to lose. Finally, forget that you get what you give. You don't have to follow everyone back. Who follows you on Instagram? You don't have to respond to every act message aren't reciprocated every like our follow recommendation. But you do have to provide value to make an impact on instagram. That could mean that your entertaining helpful are informative so long as you provide something that others want in shock. That has to be a reason for people to follow you. The value doesn't necessarily have to consist off making great posts. The thing is, they must be posed that people are eager to see and not some tepid rehash off what everyone else is. Say, find what style of posts works for you. Some people can post images about what they had for breakfast and make other people care. You don't have to appeal to everybody to make instagram work for you, but you do have to deliver something that's a value to your target audience water some vase that people have turned you off. My instagram What would your one piece of wise bto those jazz starting out? So, guys, that's how I would do it. As you may have noticed, some of these sentences are still a big mouthful, but we'll crack them as we re like them in the copy editing part. Now let's proceed to the next step. 7. Step 3 Clarification from the author: Hey, welcome back. Step Three is to read and no down the points that need clarification from the author. Especially no down the factual enters you notice within the content and get them clarified with the other. In this content the factual enter maybe something like Metin. One of the sentences the author mentioned the name asked Twitter instead of Instagram since the posters of our instagram that must be by oversight. Still, I would ask the author before correcting it in addition to any factual errors. I mean awesome gender are content specific questions Some of the questions I mean Oz the author Our what is the level of everything you want mild moderate are significant. Who is the target audience to this piece of content? Do you prefer casual or pharma? Don't Do you prefer British are American Spelling Antoine on the British are American spelling British people use the spelling that engine R E examples are center fiber leader theater for the same ones. Americans used the words that end with e. R. For examples Center fiber leader theater. Likewise, Brits uses spilling the engine. Rid n ce, for example, defense license. Ah, French pretence for the same meaning Americans use the spending the engine with and s e examples, our defense license off French and prudence. If I have tragedy while anything, I mean suitably used those words. And finally, if you have noticed any other within the content, you may go ahead and know that down and get the clarified with the other. The purpose of this step is to ensure the editor has clearly understood the authors expectations and clarify the ambiguous bond for making corrections. Now watch me noting down some of the clarification I may need from this Visa contract. I know I can make significant changes in this content. That is the authors expectation. I know it can be casual as the content is online, social media related. Apart from that, our ask if the author prefer British are American English spelling. Who is the target audience for this piece of content. In addition to these general questions, I noticed a point, possibly a factual error that needs clarification. It is this point, the author tells the story. The story goes like this. Imagine you're at a cocktail party having a conversation with a group. It's about you wanting to invest your money and wanting to know the first steps from across the rule. A realistic concertante jumps into your conversation here. My issue is this When you want to invest money, it would be in any assets. But mobile are immobile, not necessarily in the real estate. So why not introduce an investment consultant in your story instead of a realistic concern ? Tick, are you need some tips on investing in re illustrate alone? If so, I can include the term real estate within this sentence. Here. I need ratification on this point so I would know down this point for clarification. 8. Step 4 Remove irrelevant and duplicate points: Hey, welcome back step for is to add or remove point suitably to ensure all are unique and relevant once, because we don't need any duplicate are irrelevant points in the content. So let's go through the content with a focus to find duplicate sentences and hear 11 points . As I go through this, I find this particular point irrelevant. I mean the same kind of people that give batted wise on how to use Facebook, Lincoln and other social media chips. In my opinion, this sentence is not acquired. The content is about what not to do on Instagram. So why do talk about other social media channels here? Moreover, if I eliminated, it doesn't affect the flow of the content either. Likewise, another point that I feel is irrelevant is this. The principles are the same as other social media channels like Facebook and crit up. This is similar to the previous one. I feel it's not necessary to talk about other social media channels in this country. That's it. So I don't see any duplicate sentences are repetitions, but I could see two sentences that are irrelevant to the main content. So I remove them. I also made chart. They don't affect the flow of the contract 9. Step 5 Removing any contradicting statements: Hey, welcome back Step Number five is did remove any contradictory statements within the contact . As I was going through the content, I found a statement that looks contradicting with another. It is this sort. Direct selling to individuals is not advisable on Instagram. This particular statement is contradicting with this one. You never want to try to directly sell toe any one individual on Instagram without them having given conspicuous signs that they are open to your message. So French. The first statement say's drug selling on instagram has not advisable, but the 2nd 1 say's Drexel ing is not a loved until you have the signs that your audience is open to that. So it's not that issued, not directly sell on Instagram. You need clear signs that your audience is open to that message. So the first statement is confusing, and in my opinion, this can be to move and the floor. The content is not affected after moving it 10. Step 6 Replace Jargons with simple words: Hey, welcome back. Step Six is to reward the Jagan's into simple watch. Let's go through the content and replace complicated words, if any. Let simpler, which the first complicated word I come across in this content is in the Senate first fall , falling people in mass and unfolding the ones that don't follow back. The war in Mass can be replaced with a simpler word. So I reword the sentence like this. First of all, mass follow people on instagram and unfold of the ones that don't follow back. We have more work to do on the Senate. We'll do that in the next step. No, the next one. You never want to try to directly sell toe any one individual on Instagram without them having given conspicuous signs that they are open to your message Should the word conspicuous is a complicated work. I would replace it with a simpler word like clear. So the revised construction as you never want to try to directly sell toe any one individual on Instagram without them having given clear signs that they are open to your message again French, we have more work to do on the cinch we'll handle it in our next up. So we found too complicated. Watch. We replaced them with simple lunch. Let's move on to the next. 11. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 1: Hey, welcome back. The next step is to remove her done in phrases and dramatically letters. If a quiet, we'll include power words to make the peace sound great to read. Reading through punctuation marks better where they are missing. So far, they were making content editing with superficial changes. Remember that metaphor? Big picture view from 20,000 feet height? That's what we would do it. Now you're gonna dive deeper and make sentence level editing. They're going to do a lot of work in the step, will go sentence by sentence and make corrections if required. So keep a close watch. After completing this editing, I mean editing this piece of content. I'll cover the rules. I applied to copy Unity. I'm gonna cover the rules with tons of examples. So keep going. Now. Let's dive into the content I will edit. There are many people giving out really bad wise on how to use Instagram. I would revise it as lots of people offer horrible instagram advice. A white starting sentences with flabby phrases like that are that is injury instruct. Just start with lots of people. If you have an option, you can be even more specific and say thousands of people are hundreds of thousands of people instead of just lots of people. But I okay to the world. Lots of people here instrument the flabby word giving out I would use offer. Here's another one. The watered wise is an objective. The world really bad wise. Is any DNC flight objective? Whenever you see constructions like this, look for a stronger, objective, sheer instrument, the word really bad wise. I would use the word hard herbal advice because the word horrible is a stronger alternative for the intensified objective. Really back and wise on how to use Instagram is a flabby phrase in straight out simply used instagram advice. The original sentence had 14 words. The Weist Construction has just seven words and conveys the same meeting sharp and sweet. You may follow their suggestions and get 50,000 followers that also watched instagram for clueless posts. You may follow the traditions and get 40,000 followers watching Instagram for a clueless post in the Senate of replaced of phrase that I also watched with watching. But what you won't get is really networking opportunities and an audience that cares about what you say hydro wise it as, but you'll miss really networking opportunities and a catting audience that listens to you . I prefer the phrase, but you'll miss. It's enough, but what you won't get. Answer the phrase and audience that cares about what you say. I use a carrying audience that listens to you. Here, you can see in now is followed by a verb. The word audience is a known, and the word cares is a work. I can work that world into an objective and put that before the now. So instead, off an audience that cares. I used a shot or a catting audience. Here are a few things not to do on Instagram. If you wanted to be a valuable tool for building your network and reputation, I advise it as Instagram is a valuable network and reputation building tool, but only if you a wide four common mistakes. The sentence stops with feet are it's a flyby phrase, so I removed it. The phrase few things are ambiguous, so I used the phrase common mistakes, and instead of the phrase not to do, I use a wide. Also, I simplify how the Arthur defined Instagram as a valuable tool. At this stage, we need a subtitle that shows all the four common mistakes, But we'll add the subtitles, Leader. It's a part of this 12 step process anyway, so we'll cover that in a separate step. Let's proceed to the next point. First of all, mass follow people on Instagram and unfollowed, the ones that don't follow back. I advise it as number one mass follow people and unfollowed those that don't follow back. I did move the phrase first of all and number the point as one. I don't need the dough instagram again. The whole article is about instagram, so why repeat it again? Her place of phrase, The lunch with those? This is a way to build up an impressive list of followers and start with. This is a It's a flabby Senate. Let me rephrase it. Doing so builds an impressive list of followers. Insert off. This is Ah Wei toe I used doing so. I removed the word up in the builds up. It's redundant. This reconstruction shaved four words, but how many of them on interested And what do you have to see? I would reconstruct it as but how many are interested in what you say and you can see I remove the watch off them and have to and how many of them are just falling back to build up their own numbers? I did. Why's it as and how many Onley photo back to increase their own numbers? Same way I did plays off them are just following with Onley full and instead of build up our use increase, follow people that you have genuine interest rate. I mean, why is it as fellow people you genuinely find interesting? I didn't place that you have a genuine interest in with you genuinely find interesting and then focus your attention on being the kind of remarkable person who posts things of value that others want to follow the device construction is and then focus your attention on being a remarkable person who pose valuable follow worthy contract. Here I've replaced the word that kind off with a I replaced the phrase things are value that others want to follow. Vint Valuable follower The content have you have made the sentence shorter? That conveys the meeting much stronger because we have replaced certain ambiguous words like the kind off and things of value with stronger phrases 12. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 2: a few 100 engaged followers are worth a lot more than 50,000. Ho to note. In the Senate, I feel the world a lot is not required, so they wised. Construction is a few 100 engage followers are worth more than 50,000 who junior out. The next one is using search to give others the hard sell. I d wise it as number two. You search to give others the hard shell. Now they're on the second common mistake. So I removed the phrase the next one is using. Instead, I just insert the word use. Instagram search is a very useful tool for finding those that might benefit from your services are products I d. Wise it as instagram. Search is a handy tool for finding those that might benefit from your services are products she don't Very useful is an example often intensified objective. Youthful is a week objective very intensifies it. Trying to a wide such intensified objectors instead, use a strong objective that delivers the same are similar meeting. So I would use the word handy in its place. So instrument very useful to I would use handy tool, but you must proceed with caution. No corrections here. I would go so far as to say this. This sentence is fine. You never want to try to directly sell toe any one individual on Instagram without them having given clear signs that they are open to your message. The wise construction is you never want to directly sell to anyone on Instagram. Unless you have clear signs, they are open to your message. This sentence is a big long so I worked on it to make it shocker. The word individual may not be acquired in my opinion, because even without it, the sentence conveys the same meaning. So I remove it. Wielaard them. Having given is a tough one on the country. So let me rephrase the sentence as unless you have clear signs they're open to your message . I would remove the word that because it doesn't affect the meaning try to is a flabby phrase. So I remove it. Think about it this way. This is fine. Imagine you're a day cocktail party having a conversation with a group. The wise construction is imagine you're at a cocktail party discussing with a group I replaced having a conversation with the word discussing having a conversation is a re collision off conversing. It's called nominal ization. Non realizations are known to drive from adjectives. They're worse than describe. Knowns are verbs, which are action, which usually nominal. Is ations are flabby, So I changed it to its work form. It's Converse. I prefer to use discuss instead of Converse, and I shaved off a couple of flabby words from the Senate. It's about you wanting to invest your money and wanting to know the first steps I would read. I did ask into what, what first steps you should bake to invest your money as you can see the sentence as difficult to understand. So I made it simple and straightforward from across the room, and investment consultant jumps into your composition. Let me add a comma here after the word room. Would you rather she answer your question in a factual way and hand you her card with an invitation to get it to touch? If you have further questions, the wise construction is, Would you rather she factually answer your question and all for her card and in white you to discuss additional questions later? Answer your question in a factual Ray is worry, So I would simply fight as factually answer your question Instead of hand you, I would use the word offer. The were invitation is a nominal ization, so let's converted this into its vote form in white instead of the phrase with an invitation to get in touch. If you have further questions I use and in, why do to discuss additional questions later? So we have used a stronger look for instant off vicar normalization. Also, we shaved off three words from the cinch or telling you that she can 100 all your problems . But you need to sign with her right now. As she whips out her appointment book and insists on booking a visit your whole right away , they relied this tell you she can solve all your problems only if you sign with her right. Then, as she saw her appointment book and insists on booking a visit be a whole right away, I changed it to tell in sort of telling, starting with the word telling is not correct here, as I have already introduced a scenario that begins with Would you rather she so it should read, as would you rather, she tell you, I moved that and I would use a simple ward solved instead off 100. Ooh, I also like to replace the phrase that say's. But you need to that only if you replace the word now with them because it is a more accurate representation off. Then over the scenario occurs if you use such to find people that problems you could solve do just that. No correction here. But I would like to add his sentence that Shay's find things in common and talk about that because the next sentence say's let them look up your information on your profile. If they wanna learn more, how will they look up your profile until they know you exist? So I feel the sentence is required to let them know something about you. Let them look up your information on your profile if they want to learn more. I really like this. Ask let them browse your profile information. If they want to learn more. I replaced the word look up with brows. I would use profile information in the place off information on your profile so I can shave two words 13. Step 7 and 8 Copyediting Part 3: now here's another mistake. People frequently do that. It wise one is people make another mistake Frequently. I removed the word now and a white starting the sentences with here is this is in fact, the next common mistake. People frequently do, so let's number it hopes. In that case, I don't need the sentence. A doll Saudi. I would remove it if using search for the hard shell is bad. Sending ad sales messages at random is sue site. This is 1/3 point. The device construction is number three. If using search for the hard shell is bad, sending random ad sales messages is suicide. Instead, off our sales messages. Random, I would write it as random and sales messages. This is view as Pam by many no correction year, so there is no quicker way to get blocked than by sending at messages to people out of the blue to try and sell them something. Visit wires, complete reconstruction. Nothing makes people blocking you quicker than sending out of the blue Had sales messages? Sure, I don't think the word so is required. Let's not start the sentence with that is, and this complete reconstruction have shaved 10 words from the original sense get blocked enough times and instagram will shut down your account. I realize it as get blocked enough and instagram will suspend your account. I removed the word times because it's redundant. I would use the word suspend in the place. Our shadow. You have nothing to gain by doing it and everything to lose the device. Construction is you have nothing to gain by doing so and everything to lose. I replaced it with so because it's easy on the tongue and I would prefer to say why it's a bad idea by including an additional sentence. So in the end, I would say, because no one would chick on your links, let alone by Sorry to be a separate Senate. Finally, forget that you get what your gift. It's actually the fourth and final common mistake, So I would include the number four, the revised one as four. Finally, forget the saying you get what you give within courts. For now, I remove the word that and I include the word the saying within courts. I would start with a smaller y. I would prefer toe and of raise for now because this court applies to most of the situations. This is only an exception. You don't have to follow everyone back who follows you on instagram. Otherwise, it as you don't have to follow everyone who follows you door back is redundant and hence not acquired on. Instagram is implied here, so not required. You don't have to respond to every act message, our reciprocate every like our follow recommendation. No correction here. But you do have to provide value to make an impact on Instagram that it wise one is. But you do have to provide value to impact people. I would use impact people instead of make an impact on instagram again on Instagram, it's implied. So I moved it. That would mean that your entertaining helpful are informative so long as you provide something that others want, it acquires complete reconstruction. So the device construction is be entertaining, helpful are informative so long as you provide valued others the phrase that could mean that is redundant. So I would remove it. I would start with be entertaining, comma, healthful and so on, and end with value to others instead off something that others want in chart that has to be a reason for people to follow you. I would revise it. As in shark, people need a reason to follow you here. I replaced a phrase that starts with That has to be a reason for people. But people need a reason. The value doesn't necessarily have to consist off making great posts. The device construction is the value doesn't necessarily come from making great posts. The phrase have to consist off is flabby, so I replace it. But come from The thing is, they must be posed that people are eager to see and not some tepid rehash off what everyone else is saying I did. Why's it? As people must be eager, the CEO post a wide some depite rehash off what everyone else stays, as you can see, the sentence starts with. The thing is, it's flabby idea wise. The construction. By putting people first, I shamed a bunch of watch here. I broke the sentence and to do for easy reading, find what style opposed works for you. No correction year. Some people can post images about what they had for breakfast on make other people care. I change it, as some people can post images about what they had for breakfast and make others care. I remove the word people that appears here for the second time. I change other to others. You don't have to appear everybody to make instagram work for you. No correction. But you do have to deliver something that's a value to your target audience. The device construction is but you must deliver value. Do your target audience. I place do have to. With must I removed something that's off and leave the world value there. What are some ways that people have turned you off on Instagram? I read I descendants As what ways have people turned you off on Instagram? What would your one piece of a wise be that those just starting out? I just asked what would your one piece off advice be? Your instagram newbies? I replaced those just starting out with instagram. You bees! That's it. They have done copy editing. We have also converted some of the vicar senses into stronger ones and that this via Don would step number seven and step number eight 14. Step 9 and 10 Subtitles: Hey, welcome back. The content we are editing is a block pulls type of the conduct. The purpose is to maximize the readers in the amount of time they spend on that page. Readers have limited time and attention span, so they usually browse through the content by strolling the streets. A paragraph style of far content is the quickest way to losing attention. So what works best keep data graphs, shark and provide a divey for each better. In this case, the content is a list type. It covers four common mistakes. Instagram you, these Duke so it would be a property to provide a subtitle for each of those four points. When readers browse through the content, they'll read the title and the subtitles. When they find them interesting, they'll take time to read the content. So let's work on the subtitles first. The first point is about mass. Following the people once they start following us back unfolded them one of the worst methods to gain the following, in my opinion, So I would say it's only a trick, not a viable strategy. So that's called it so for unfollowed trick. That's the first common mistake that's the first subtitle, The 2nd 1 is using search to give others the hard sell. It's pretty straightforward mistake, So the subhead is using search for the hard sell. The third Common mistake is sending random acciones messages again. This is also pretty straightforward, so let's put it out such sending random at sales messages. The fourth and final mistake is about reciprocity, trying to reciprocate for every, like Fargo and comment rather than focus on providing value. So that mistake can be phrased in a few words as focused on reciprocity all the value. The main focus should be on providing value. With that view completed, Step nine stepped in is about rearranging the subtitles so they flow in a meaningful way. In our case, I find the flow off subtitles is already fine. So I'm not gonna make any changes in that. However, might wise to you on Stepped in is this. This step is very important for content that explains a process, for example, a block post on building a word president site. The steps have to be followed in the same order to complete the website creation the doctor any Eder's. So just keep that in mind When you ended the contract 15. Step 11 Providing a magnetic title: Hey, welcome back. The next step is to provide a magnetic title to the contract to provide a tighty. I suggest you to use the purpose statement we created earlier Here it is common mistakes people make on Instagram. Since ours is a list posed, I would use a number foot four common mistakes instead of people make. I would be more specific and used. Newbies must have lied because people is a generic down. Since these are common mistakes committed by newbies, it would be more appropriate to use that term. The phrase must a wide is more powerful, so I prefer that So the title is four common mistakes. Newbies must have wide on Instagram. They're done. The final step is to prove free and see if there is any school for improvement in grammar and punctuation. 16. Step 12 Proofreading and author feedback: he will come back. The quilt in Final Step is proof reading in getting feedback from the altar. Whenever a proof reader receives a piece of content for proof reading, it is implied that the document is already gone through. Editing in a job is to correct the content for small type ALS and punctuation errors. If the proof reader notices any major enters, like Anderson, the meeting floor grammar he are, she usually sends it back toe edit the document. First proof reading is the final activity. Before the content is published, a proof reader takes a print out or a hard copy of the contract. If you want to save trees proof. Reading online is fine for the event off software's like Graham. Early proof reading online is also fine. However, you need to be careful if the author is particular. About British Are American English spelling some words that sound the same with different spelling and the like? Proofreaders don't bother about the meaning of the senators. They are worried about the spilling of the words and punctuation marks. So let's read the document one final time outlaw and see if it requires any correction here for easy reading. Let's enable no mark more. Four common mistakes. Newbies must a wide on instagram. Lots of people offer horrible instagram advice. You may follow their traditions and get 50,000 followers watching Instagram for clueless posts. But you'll miss real networking opportunities and a caring audience that listens to you. Instagram is a valuable network and reputation building tool, but on Lee, if you avoid four common mistakes, Ah, comma needs to be added before the word. But let's put the number four in worse. Number one. Follow unfollowed trick Mass. Follow people and unfold of those that don't follow back hopes That should be no comma before the word. And I think I added this by oversight guys. This is why proof reading plays a crucial part in the whole process. It gets another chance to correct enters. Doing so builds an impressive list off followers, but how many are in Crestor and what you say and how maney Onley follow back to increase their own numbers, follow people you genuinely find interesting and then focus your attention on being a remarkable person who posts valuable follower The contact. Let's put a hyphen between follow and worthy Ah, few 100 engaged followers are work more than 50,000 who tune you out. Number two Using search for the hard sell Instagram search is a handy tool for finding those that might benefit from Yar Sosa's optronics, but you must perceive that caution. I'll go so far as to say this. You never want to directly sell to anyone on Instagram unless you have clear signs they are open to your message. Anyone is a single work. Think about interest rate. Imagine you're at a cocktail party discussing with a group. It's about what First steps issue picked investor money from across the rule. An investment consultant jumps into your conversation. Would you rather she factually answer your question and offer her car and in white you to discuss additional questions later or tell you she can't solve all your problems only if you sign with her right. Then, as she saw her appointment book and insists on booking a visit to your hold right away, if you use search to find people with problems it could solve, do just that. Find things in common and talk about that. Let them browse your profile information if they want to learn more. Number three. Sending random ad sales messages if using search for the heart cell is bad. Sending random ad sales messages is sue site. This is viewed as spam by many. Nothing makes people blocking you quicker than sending out of the blue at sales messages get blocked enough in Instagram will suspend your car. I see a comma is missing before this and you have nothing to gain by doing so and everything to lose. Another comma is missing before this end because no one will check on your Ling's, let alone by number four focused on reciprocity over the value. Finally, forget the say you get what you give for now you don't have to follow everyone who follows you. You don't have to respond. Every act message are reciprocated every like are followed a commendation. But you do have to provide value to impact. People be entertaining, healthful are informative so long as you provide value to others. Put a comma before the are in shock. People need a reason to follow you. The value doesn't necessarily come from making great posts. People must be eager to see your post a wide some tepid rehash off what everyone else stays find what style oppose work for you. Some people can't post images about what they have for breakfast and make others care. You don't have to appeal to everybody to make instagram work for you. But you must deliver value to your target audience. What ways? How people turned you off. I instagram. What would your one piece of advice be to Instagram newbies? That's it. I'm done. I don't see any more letters on this piece, so it looks fine to me. As an editor, I would send this out to the author of the content and get specific feedback on questions like, Does the title of the content make you read further? Do the subtitles represent the Kant and shown it to them? Do the subtitles flow well from beginning to end Is a language easy to understand? Does the structure of the content make it a breeze to read and the like? Let's enable all market more now because they want the document to go to the author in this farm. It that's it. It's time we look at some of the rules to follow while anything the country 17. Rule 1: Hey, welcome back. When it comes to anything, the purpose of the work is this. Make sure the readers can easily really understand your writing that are certain ways to insure this. My following the best practices off both content anything and copy it This practice of condoms editing in shores. The writing uses simple words and phrases, smaller sentences and paragraphs using numbers Angela Best practices and copy editing. Ensure that writing is grammatically correct, uses active, wise and sort of passive wise, cuts the flab and delivers a message in the least possible words uses best Senate structures and the like. Why using superfluous watch might be forgivable when conversing. It's far less so when you're writing award, which adds nothing extract. A sentence is called a plan as, um, a war, which merely repeats the meeting off. Another word in an expression, is called a tautology. The purpose off the rules I'm showing here is to correct such errors and make the sentence lean in easy to read. Let's look at these rules one by one. At the end of these lessons, you have learned how to apply these rules to make a piece of content a breeze. To read and understand, let's get started. The first rule is to break long sentences into smaller ones wherever possible. Words like and but far naar are so yet are usually used to connect to our more sentences. These are car conjunctions. This makes the centers bigger and difficult to read and understand. Here's an example. A lot of people off for battered wives on stock market investing, and you may blindly follow their advise. Inborn your money in the Senate the word and is the conjunction that connects the sentences depending upon the meaning of the sentence. Other conjunctions are also used. A lot of people offer batted wise on stock market investing. Rich, you may blindly fall and burn your money Are a lot of people offer battered wives on stock market investing, but you should do your homework carefully before selecting your wife, sir notices All these sentences can be broken into two. A lot of people offer battered wives on stock market investing. Peter, you may blindly follow their wives and burn your money. A lot of people off for battered wives on stock market investing, period. You should do your homework carefully before selecting your advisor. So look for conjunctions. That's where you have the opportunity to break the sentence. There is another type off connecting phrase called A Partners Feel Freeze. The stock market indexes taken nosedive after the bad news. The sunning in huge losses to the small traders in shot down investors. In this sentence, the term is something in is the participle of phrase that connects to senators. It could be present participle that usually starts with a world and injured with i N G. Our past part Izabal that starts with the world and INGE with ET so it can also be the Sultan End. In that case here, the takes should be took. The stock market indexes took a nosedive after the bad news. The Southern End huge losses to the small traders and shot down investors. So this type of sentence can be broken into two simple sentences like the stock market indexes took a nose dive after the bad news period. This result, er in huge losses to the small traders in sharp time investors 18. Rule 2: Hey, welcome back. The next rule is about starting your sentences, but most of born in words are announced whenever possible. Most important WEBS announced because that might be more than one world on now in a Senate , the idea is to choose the most important one of from to start your sentence. Let's say you come across a sentence that say's things that burn your belly fat are available here, a white starting a sentence with words like things. They are ambiguous now. How to convert this? To comply with the rule, find the non are the verb and put it in the front. Kid award burn is a woke let's put it in the front. An example. Burn your belly fat with the herbs available here. Notices. I put the world in the front. I also replace the word things with hopes, so I'm very specific here. Here's another, but a slightly different type of example. It's time to ask what else I can do to help victims. There are works already in play here, but the crucial work is does do so. I prefer to use it in the front. It's time I do what it takes to help victors. The slight change makes the Senate powerful and shaves a few words to make it lean 19. Rule 3: The next rule is about adding alliteration ins wherever possible. This is interest al integrations make it easy for the readers to read and understand. Mitzi. I come across a sentence that Shay's seven easy steps to set. Er smart Goche Not instant off easy steps. I would see if I can use simple steps if I can. Then seven simple and steps all starts with s. This makes it a perfect alliteration. Seven simple steps to set the are smart Bush. Here's another example she enjoyed serving the wholeness. Let's see how to add calculations in the sense it ends with the word wholeness. So I would think if I can substitute the other words like these with some of the words that start with Hoech, I come up with a Senate that looks like this, she happily help the homeless. 20. Rule 4: Hey will come back. The next rule is about avoiding nominal ization. The effectiveness off this product. It's not good. Whenever a noun is formed from a worm or an objective, it's called a nominal position. This leads to wordiness, so always a wide nominal is ations. Instead, use the world are now the sentence can be re framed. As this product is not effective. It makes the sentence stronger and simpler. Her appearance costs cheers from the crowd. This is another example of normalization. I also noticed this usually nominal is ations. Result in a passive wise Senate. Avoid passive wise. Always use active wise while writing. Let's rephrase the sentence. To remove the novelization, we'll find the world war objective off the nominal ized war appearance. It's appear she appeared and the crowd cheer. See now this has automatically become an active wife's sentence. It's shark sweet and powerful. Some more examples of nominal is ations are given here. Here's another example of nominal ization and a flabby senate. We performed that analysis of the data. Let's read I descendants asked the analyzed the data. So go through your content and underlying all the nominal positions. Take a closer look at these words and change them to works as such. Normalization are not bad, but they are usually wordy. Normalisation ins are sometimes useful. For example, when you summarise the action off the previous Senate in such a case of normalization is a good way to form a backward link to something are very familiar to the reader. For example, the analyzed the data. This analysis demonstrated the need for additional experiments. She was the first sentence uses the world, which is analyzed, and the 2nd 1 uses normalization, which is perfectly fine. Here's another example. The company database has been subjected different improvements, modifications and extensions in structure and content over the years. The sentence relies on nominal is ations to convene action. The awkward work off the centers has been subjective is meaningless. The authors likely intended to convey action inwards, improvement, modification and extension. But these are all nominal is ations. By converting these into words, we get a much clearer sentence and eliminate this phrase has been subjected. Let's try to rephrase it now. The company data days has been improved, modified and extended in both structure and content over the years to clarify even further doesn't improve, imply modified, possibly even implies extended the strip it to precisely what you mean. What about this? The curator Zoff improved the structure in content of the company's data bees. Here's another example. I'm making a dumped again. Hear the word attempt is a nominal ization. A world is converted to a noun to complete dissension. Because of it, it makes the whole sense flabby. Let's remove the nominal ization and make it sound simple. I'll try again. That's it. See how simple the sentence has become? Here's another example. It's our belief that copy editing can be done with ease. Hey, the word belief is a nominal ized work. A world has converted toe now to complete the Senate, so the sentence has become flabby. Let's rephrase it to use the world. The work for the non belief is believe so I rephrase the sentence asked. She believes copy editing is easy 21. Rule 5: Hey, welcome back. When you come across words, see if you can't replace them with stronger action oriented works. Let's see an example. Bring your acting skills to the next level. Are get your editing skills to the next level. She the word bring and get our works, but their sound weak to me instead. How about using is stronger action oriented work like Advance, so I would revise it as advance your editing skills to the next level. Here's another example. You'll have many customers if you place the ad in the Senate, the word have sometimes weaker instrument. I would use a stronger action audience and world like land. So let me rephrase the sandwich. You land many customers if you place the ad, so the rule is this. Use action works in place off regular watch. 22. Rule 6: Hey, welcome back. This rule is about removing flabby and er done in words and phrases. I'm going to give a lot of examples here because it requires a lot of practice to master. And editing potential is huge in this area because people write their peace with a lot of flab. As an editor, you have a huge potential to edit in this area. Let's eat examples I want. 45 people attended the meeting here. The writer of the A Bus Image Wanted emphasized that the figure was not exact, in which case the better word would be approximately about us often used interchangeably with approximately. But it doesn't stress that closeness toe accuracy that the word approximately does so it can be. Approximately 45 people attended the meeting. The other alternative is to use air rage. It can be 40 to 50 people attended the meeting, so a wide using the word about instead use the word approximately are a rage. As we have done here, it was almost time for exams to start in the Senate. The word almost indicates the exam will start soon, but the timeline is not very specific. While writing, trying to be specific as much as possible. Use such approximations very sparingly. So instead, off the about Senate, I would write like the exams with the start in duties art exams. But to start in four days, it's absolutely essential that we finish the project this week. She the word absolutely, is redundant. Redundancies are words that repeat information unnecessarily, because the word essential are very expresses. An absolute idea. The modifier absolutely is redundant. For variety use a synonym such as crucial, vital, necessary are important. So it's essential that we finished the project this week. Are it's crucial that we finish the project this week are which whiter? That we finish the project this week. Another variation of this is using the world absolutely necessary. We see people using this term frequently, but the word absolutely history of down and here, just like the world essential, the word necessary already indicates an absolute idea. So why do you use a modifier and make it or done? And the police investigated the actual facts of the case in the Senate? What do you think is wrong? It's the term actual facts. The dump actual is redundant here. There's nothing called actual fact because the dmf ach are very delivers a message. But in some exceptional situations, the dome actual facts can be justified. See the Senate. Instead of believing the facts on the Internet about vaccination, you should consult medical journals for the actual facts she had. The facts of the Internet is being used sarcastically to mean myths. Passing this exam requires advanced planning and practice. Can you see what's wrong with this expression? It's the dump. Advanced planning. The word advanced is we're done in here because the work planning conveys the message being after something in advance. This itself sends the message so a better sentence will be passing the exam. It acquires planning and preparation. We removed the word advanced. This prize money from the government is an added bonus in the Senate. The dump added bonus doesn't make sense to me. The dumb added is not a quiet because here the word bonus means something. In addition to the originally intended price, So the word added is redundant. So the device construction is this Prize money from the government is a bonus on of the apples are ripe. Hear the word off is redundant. so I can simply say all the apples are ripe. He broke the all time in a car. Well, here the dumb on time is redundant. The term the card delivers a message. So it should be He broke that a car. She had no alternative choice but to contest the election here. The war Chuy's is redundant so that a sentence will be she had no coordinative but to contest the election. Three armed gunmen entered the back. The word on is unnecessary here because the word gunman already delivers a message. So the work armed is redundant here. So the correct way to say that is three gunmen entered the back has send up the hill to reach the top. You hear the word up is redundant, So simply say it has assume the hill. Greece the top. Ask questions to the politicians in the Senate. You don't need the word question. Instead, you simply ask So they y sentence is asked what it dishes. Oh, are question the politicians. Let's assemble together these Lego Parche you hear the word together is redundant because the work assemble means fit together are put together. So the better way to say this is Let's assemble these liberal botch he knows as to whether she would stay are go here. Ask do is a flabby expression, So let's remove it and rephrase it. He knows that if she would stay Argo, there's no news on the results as off yet. Hear the word ass off? Is it a done in one? So let's rephrase it. There's no news on the results yet. Stay alert at all times. You hear the phrase at all times is a flabby expression, so we'll rephrase it. Stay alert. That alone delivers a message. At the end of the day, the toughest survive she had. The expression at the end of the day is flabby. No need to save, so it can be simply the toughest Survive. This organization supplies the basic necessities to the poor. You hear the word basic is redundant, so the better sentence can be this organization supplies and necessities to the poor. This part of blends together well with water. You hear the word together is unnecessary. It's redundant because the word blends already mean the combined materials are ingredients together to form and mass are a single element. So let's remove the work together so that correct sentence would be. This powder blends well with water. The man offered a book it off lovers to the politician in the Senate, the phrase off lovers is redundant because the word book a means a group of flowers elected and blazed into a bunch. So that correct made us say that is the man offered a bouquet to the politician. For a brief moment, the car stopped at the house. Whether what breathe is unnecessary, the word moment means a sharp period of time. So the better way to say that is for a moment the car stopped at the house. 23. Rule 7: Hey, welcome back. This rule is about removing, ambiguous in vague terms. Let's see some examples Accordingly. The meeting was postponed. Hear the word are carting. Lee is a complex work. Our aim is to use simpler words as much as possible so that even 1/3 grader can understand the contract. So if there is an order native, more straightforward word, we should use that hither watch Soul can be used in the place of accordingly. Chili. Why sentence is this? So the meeting was postponed. I have no plan to visit him at the present time. Sheila phrase at the present time is an empty and fabby phrase. Let's use a simpler washing off it and re freeze a cinch. I have no plan to visit him now. At this point in time, let's not discuss about it. Hear the phrase at this point in time is a complex and flabby one. Also, the word about is unnecessary here, So let's reconstruct the Senate. Let's not discuss it now. Jones left the area before John arrived. She the ward area is weak. Why? Because it could mean any place doesn't mean the city are estate or a country are only that specific plays, like a hole on a shop, so it's better to be specific to a white confusion. So the Senate, maybe something like Jones left the shop before Jonah ripe. Our Jones left California before John arrived. I don't like the aspect off ads on television in the Senate. The were aspect is awake now. Stop using this instant. Stopped using a specific work. Let's rephrase the sentence to make it so. I love television, but I hate ash. He's a big man. Hey, the word big is a week objective. It's better to be specific to make the scent and stronger, So let's do it. He's six feet tall in 260 punch. 24. Rule 8: Hey, welcome back. The next rule is about using subjects near looks. Farmers that understand the difference between the soil requirements off plans when they are seedlings and their requirements when they are mature are in high demand. Can you see what's wrong with the sentence? It's difficult to understand this until you read the full Senate. I'm until the end. This is because the subject is separated from the work and there is a big gap between the two. Almost 20 watch in between. Here's a rule. Keep subjects near Waas. This makes the sentence easy to understand. Let's relight the sentence now to keep the world's near the subject. In the Senate, the what farmers is a subject are in high demand is the world. Let's put the world near the subject and relied the phrase. Farmers are in high demand if they can't understand the difference between the side requirements are plans when they are seedlings and their requirements in the armature. Here's another example. Peanuts, shrimp, almonds, milk are anything else with lack toes and vite? Our anything with butin all represents things that people are commonly allergic to. It's a list of items a similar problem happens with such long lists. Others provide a list of stuff with no context and the subject, and the world doesn't show up until the end of the Senate. You have no idea what you're reading until the end, when you find out, you must really descendants to comprehend what these things have in common. Three Wise Just give the context before the list. So let's read. I do. To make it easier to understand. People are commonly allergic to things like peanuts, shrimp, all munch milk or anything else with lack. Toes and feet are anything with gluten, so identify the main subject, and it's rubbed in your sense. If they are far apart, rephrase the sentence to bring them closer. 25. Rule 9: he will come back. This rule is about replacing Tang Kristers and hard to read words off phrases with simple and easy. Once certain words do not flow well with other words. So stop using them together a wide reading difficulty. It doesn't mean using those words are wrong, but using them at such places make it difficult to read, so we'll replace them with other words. This will make the sentence easier to flow. Let's see some examples. We would not have entered the venue without them having given their consent. Hey, the phrase them having given is stuff on the tongue. I think the meaning would not change in the absence of this phrase, so it's better to remove this now. Look at the sentence. Without the strong system, we would not have entered the venue without their consent. The watch, which you use in your writing, are powerful in the Senate. Can you identify that little word that's tough on your tongue? It's the word which now say the Senate allow you notice it. It doesn't flow spontaneously and elegantly instant. I would use the word that now read the Senate again and see how well it flows. The words that you use in your writing are powerful. It looks like just another average block pause from you. Now please read this sentence and see Van. It is difficult on the tongue. Yes, it's here, just like another. So I correct it with the word your It looks like your average block coast, and I removed many words, which made the sense flabby. He used a pencil rather than a pen, dried a letter in the sense I don't see it floors appropriately, so I would prefer to use a phrase instead off in the place off rather than he used a pencil in. Start off a pen to write a letter. Now it flows better, so more comfortable to read. 26. Rule 10: Hey, welcome back. The next rule is a bart ambiguous antecedent. Try to be specific rather than using What's that? Assume meanings Based on previous statement. Here's an example. Not every pulls by Everyone is fantastic, but if it's nowhere close, never publish it in the Senate. The word it reversed to the post. Who's post that ambiguous? Because the previous statement refers to everyone's posed but the word it in the second sentence, the first to your post. The first sentence is generic. The 2nd 1 is specifically your post, so using the word it is ambiguous. So let's rephrase the sentence now. Not every post by everyone is fantastic, but your post is nowhere close. Never publish it. Here's another example. Some websites are boring toe brows Drew ah, bunch of next after dext that no pictures. Our videos sound familiar. If it's yours, the good news. You're almost there again. In this. The problem is in the second pattern. What do you think is the meaning of the term? You're almost there? The author intends to say, We'll solve your issue. Why not say that? So can you see the dorm? She has used us ambiguous insert I would say this. If it's yours, cheer up. You've almost solved the problem. Let's see another example. What do you think your site visitors should do after arriving again? In this example, I would use specific words instead of ambiguous. Watch you specific. More powerful of words are no match. Let's reconstruct it. What action should your site visitor steak After arriving, you're the known action, and the world take makes the Senate stronger and meaningful. 27. Rule 11: Hey, welcome back. Let's see how to remove unnecessary implied words from the contract. Now it's time to raise your wife in this example. The word now is unnecessary because the phrase it's time already implies that meaning. So let's remove the word. Now it's time to raise your wife. This own daily. Worse, the intended meeting. Let's see another example. It was a project which was very complex in structure and very ambitious and nature in the sense you'll see a lot off unnecessary implied watch and intensive fires. Let's trip them down, make it lean. The Project Waas complex and ambitious. We removed the word very because it simply intensifies it. The words complex and ambitious are enough. We've also removed the phrases in structure and in nature because these are implied. 28. Rule 12: he will come back. This video is a bart removing the word that if it doesn't change the meaning of the Senate most of the times you might have come across the word that in the middle of the Senate have you ever thought it? That word is required there. Here's an example. Read the books that you think will improve your knowledge. You hear the word dad is not a quiet, even the dark, that the meaning doesn't change. So read the books you think will improve your knowledge that conveys a meaning. Let's see another example. It's a feature that is unique to my block. Here. The Wardak is not quite the meaning doesn't change in its absence. So it's a feature unique to my block that conveys the meaning, and it's dramatically cracked, too. 29. Rule 13: Hey, welcome back. This video is about using simple Thames in the place off continuous stench, very ever possible. Do you agree with what everyone is saying in his example? As you can see, the present continuous tense is used. It is this, he's saying in the space you can use a simple present. Tench. You agree with what everyone? Saiz Both convey the same meaning in this context, but mainly to shave a word and make the sentence lean. It's better to use this simple present inch when you come across such sentences, but continuous Dench see if the meaning changes. If you can ward that to supplicants, if there's no change, go ahead and do it. 30. Rule 14: table come back. This rule is about separating independent classes with a semi colon are a period. You should do this. If two independent classes are not separated by a conjunction, that's a You come across two independent classes not separated by a conjunction like and but are yet you need a semi colon or rapier to separate them. I specifically mentioned this because some people use a comma to separate them. That's wrong. Here's an example. Every human is unique comma. They have different points of view. In this, you can see do separate classes are divided by a comma in that place. Conjunction could have been used as they are related classes. In the absence of that, they must be separated by a semi colon are a period. 31. Rule 15: Hey, welcome back. This rule is about using active wise in the place off passive boys. This type of article could be written by anyone in this example. As you can see, this is a passive Y senate. He wanted to be an active voice. Every sentence contains, at minimum, a subject in an action. The subject is the person, our thing, the sentence is about, and the action is what the subject is doing. When a sentence is in the active wise, the subject is performing the action, and the subject typically comes before the action in the sentence when a sentence is in the passive voice. On the other hand, the subject is being acted on by the verb, and the subject typically comes after the action. In our sentence. Anyone is the subject written is the action. Should I convert a passive voice into active wise? Let's rely this sentence so the subject is performing the action. Anyone could ride this type of article. Let's see another example. Ah, book will be read by John every day again. John is the subject. And red, is that what, Since this is a passive wise, the world appears before the subject to convert to active wise. Let's put the subject before the world. John will read a book every day. Here's another related problem. More things cost under $100 are easily customized and help you stand apart from a sea off sameness. What's wrong with the sentence that are three classes in the Senate? The 2nd 1 is passive and other do are active. Let's correct it. Most teams cost under $100 customize easily and help you stand apart from a sea of sameness . 32. Rule 16: he will come back. This rule is a bark saying everything about just one thing before shifting your focus on something else in your state. As a writer, identifying and understanding audiences needs is your responsibility. In this example, the sentence starts with the phrase as a writer. Then the focus shifts to the audience needs. Then the focus comes back to you. It's your responsibility, too much off focus jumping. Let's rephrase it now. As a writer, you're responsible for identifying and understanding the audience needs, as you can see the dark about you as a writer first. Then we talk about your responsibility. Then we talk about audience needs you can control. Who comments on your blogged are what people say in the Senate again, that is a jump in focus. Can you identify this? See this Conjunction. The focus before the conjunction is on the commenters. I mean, those who comment on your block. The focus after the conjunction is on what people in general see. It is a clear disconnect, so it should be corrected. Here it is you can control who comments on your blog's are what they say. I replace the word people with day here today indicates the commenters 33. Rule 17: hey will come back. This rule is a bark stating something authoritatively of white words that reduce it. Practice can make you a better right in the Senate. The word can reduces the authority off your conviction. If you believe something is true, don't use. Can arm A are might just say it and believe it. Let's remove the can Practice makes you a better right. Here's another example. Off authority compromise. You probably should know more about your dog reader's expectations. The war probably diminishes the authority of the statement. You should know when to use the word probably and when not to. When you talk about something you have no control over and you are uncertain about it, you can use probably. But here, knowing reader's expectations will definitely up your chances of success. And bloody so why? To use the word probably so V to move it. You should know more about your blog's readers. Expectations 34. Rule 18: Hey, welcome back. This rule is about removing week linking terms. If your goal is to become a world class writer and author, then you must make reading a regular habit in the Senate. The word, then, is a week linking term. Delete it whenever possible, the Senate's delivers of meaning without that work. Then here's another example. After attending many interviews, finally he got the job in the Senate. The word, finally, is a week linking term. Let's remove it. And let's be more specific if possible. I replaced the war, many with the number seven. After attending seven interviews, he got the job. 35. Rule 19: Hey, welcome back. This drool is about replacing intensified objectors that stronger educators. It's a really bad idea to start George work at the beginning off the monsoon season in the Senate, Bad is an objective. The word really intensifies that adjective. Whenever you come across an intensified objectives like this, consider replacing it with his stronger adjectives. In this case, I would use the word horrible in the place off really back. It's a horrible idea to start George work at the beginning of the monsoon season in the place of Horrible. You can also use the word terrible. So it's a terrible idea to start drawing work at the beginning of the monsoon season. Here's another example. Google is a very good tool to conduct research again. You can't see the intensified objective here. Very good tool I would replace it with the word powerful are excellent. Google is a par for dual to conduct research. Our Google is an excellent tool to conduct research 36. Rule 20: Hey, welcome back. This rule is a bart combining mountains to cut the flap. Keep the information on your profile sharp and sweet in the Senate, you can see the words information and profile are both announce now. We can easily combine this by calling it as profile information. In this way, I can shave to watch and keep the Senate's shot and treat so that it wise synonyms is. Keep the profile information sharp and treat. Here's another example the officials are waiting for and wise from the president. Hear the words and wise and the president announced. Now let's combine them. The officials are waiting for the president advice. 37. Rule 21: Hey, welcome back. Let's see some grammar editors and copyrighting punctuation and proof reading enters. There are tons of grammar rules. In this course. I'm going to highlight the ones that are very common. Let's look at these essential rules one by what this one is about. Providing overuse off Agweb's The Good ran really fast to cash that run of a ball. That's wrong. Add lips are watch the often end in el y and modify it. Waas. They're okay once in a while, but in excess, they are an indicator off week work choices. In our example, the adverb re fast modifies the world. Iran. Our intensifies it, but that's really fast. Paint a more vivid word picture for the reader. Use a juicier word like strengthen instead. So the correct one is the girls printed to cast that runaway ball. Here's another example. Any call loudly for help pitch with an ad love that can be a white it that correct one is editing. Screamed for help. Mark Twain once said, Adverbs are the tools off the lazy writer Stephen King, the American fiction writer, once said. The road to hell is paved with aglass. You cannot completely avoid AdWords from your writing, but use them spat ingley to make your piece of content clutter free 38. Rule 22: Hey, welcome back. This is about avoiding too many prepositional phrases. The bus came over the top of the hill. That statement is wrong. Prepositions are those words that often come before now's and pronounce the show direction , location, our time in the Senate. We have to prepositional phrases over the top and all the hill. Excessive prepositional phrases. Render your writing wordy whenever possible. Simplify. So the correct one is the bus crested the hill. Here's another one reached the airport without any delay. That's a statement with unnecessary preposition. Is the phrase without any delay, instrument this phrase? We can use the word immediately, so the crack sentences reached the airport immediately. 39. Rule 23: the next rule is a bark misplaced modifiers. Listening to large music slowly gives me a headache. That's a wrong statement. It's a misplaced modifier because of its location in a sentence could modify either the phrase that precedes it are the one that follows it in the example. Sentence is a subject. Listening to music slowly are slowly getting a headache. The correct is squinting Modifier are a misplaced modifier. Move its position in the sentence to make it clear to the reader, which were you intend to modify? In this case, the correct one is. When I listened to loud music, I slowly developed a headache. Here's another example. We ate the lunch that we had mark slowly. That's a wrong statement because it doesn't convey the intended meaning. These slowly ate the lunch that we had bought. That's the right one 40. Rule 24: Hey, welcome back. The next rule is aboard agreement off pronounce and and percentage. Every one of the puppies thrived in their new home. That's a wrong statement. Ah, prone on like I ate you, him, her, this themselves there someone who which is used to replace another word. It's anticipated. So the antecedent doesn't have to be repeated. Check each pronoun that. Make sure that it agrees with its antecedent, engender and number in the Senate. Everyone is the antecedent, and it's pronoun is there That's wrong because everyone is singular, So the prune on should also be singular. The right one is every one of the puppies tribe and its new hole. Let's see another example. Neither Jane nor Susan felt that they had Beene treated fairly again. Antecedent is singular, so the prune on should also be singular. And the gender is female, so the right one is. Neither J. Narcisse in felt that she had been treated fairly 41. Rule 25: he will come back. Let's see about ambiguous pronoun reference. John had a card for Gene but couldn't deliver it because he was in her way. What's wrong with this statement When you use pronounce, He, er, she readers need to know who those proponents refer. A prone on without a clear antecedent, is ambiguous. In our example, the sentence is demonstrating an ambiguous pruna. So the reader is, I'm sure who the second he ISS was John in the way, or was there another he involved. So let's corrected John Hannah Clark for Jane but couldn't deliver it because deem lost in James three. Ask noted in the corrected example The Prone. Are he the first attempt whose card blocking G always be sure your pronouns refer to a specific cancer, not at C. One More example, When Abby joined Lucy in the business, she did not know that she would be a failure. That's ambiguous because we don't know who the second she a first. The first she seems to refer Toa Abai, but it's unclear whether the second sheet of first to ABBA are Lucy. Fortunately, we can fix this. Let's change the Senate. When Abbott joined Lucy in the business, she did not know that Lucy would be a failure 42. Rule 26: Hey, welcome back. The next one is Comus places. He was very hungry. She ate a whole beach up. That's a wrong statement. Despise means to connect our joint When our writer joins two independent sentences with a comma instead off separating them with a piot are 1/4 nated conjunction that a Comus place the Kama has its own job to do. But connecting to independent sentences isn't one of those jobs. The correct one is. He was very hungry. Pdf. He ate a whole pizza. Let's see another example. I'm thinking of skipping maths class. It's really boring again. That's incorrect. The correct one. As I'm thinking of skipping math class Peter, it's really boring. Just keep it in mind. A semi colon is also allowed in the place off Pier, and we talk about two independent classes that are related 43. Rule 27: Hey, welcome back. Let's talk about sentence fragments. She's a good friend, a person who I trust and admire. It has the issue off sentence fragment sentence fragments are groups. Awards that looked like sentences but aren't to be is sentenced. Droops off. Words need to have a least one independent class independent classes. Any group of watch that contain both is subject Hannah work and can stand on its own. In our example, the first class is an independent one, but the second clause is not to make it a complete class. Joined the 2nd 1 to the main class are related, So the right one is. She's a good friend, comma, a person who I trust and admire. Another combined sentence has all our requirements to edit sentence fragments, check hall sentences for his subject, a world and at least one class that doesn't begin with this subordinating work like as Hold Oh, if when that singe are who and now that example, the old aluminium boat sitting on its trailer. That's the wrong one. Hey, the world is missing. Let's add the word ease. So the right one, as the old aluminium boat is sitting on its trailer 44. Rule 28: Hey, welcome back. Let's talk about run on sentences. Maybe enjoyed the book. A off tulips John gave her on prom night. However, she prefers roses. That sentence has got a problem. Run on sentences ultimately has fused. Sentences occur when two complete sentences are squashed together without using a coordinated conjunction Are proper punctuation. Such a zippy idiot are a semicolon run on Sentences can be shot are long. A long sentence isn't necessarily Iran on cinch a wide run on sentences. See that it's more than one idea communicated by do arm or independent classes in our examples that are, do complete sentences. Let's separate them. Maybe enjoy the bouquet of tulips. John Giver. On the prom night, however, she prefers roses. Both sentences are complete ideas by themselves. Therefore, use a semi colon are a pia to indicate that they are separate independent classes. Let's see another example. I woke up I a breakfast. That's a run on sentence. The correct one is I woke up and I ate breakfast. In this case, you stay conjunction to connect those two independent classes so you can use a Peter a semi colon Arctic injunction to correct run on sentences 45. Rule 29: he will come back. Let's see what our inflated sentences. It's come to our attention that your tax returns are overdue and the urge you to file them at your earliest convenience. That's an inflated, since if you have something to say to readers, just say it. And simple watch. Inflating sentences with unnecessary words are pointless fillers. Onley muddies what you mean to say. Wordy sentences also frustrate readers, so get to the point fast. Streamline your sentences by using strong words on knowns instead off adjectives and adverbs. Shakespeare once wrote that brevity is a solo wait. Follow his lead by never using 10 words. When two will do. Don't over use words such as Dad just and very she the correct one is your tax returns are overdue. Please file them now. 46. Rule 30: Hey, welcome back. Let's see how the world would is unnecessarily used in some senators. 10 things I wish I would have known. Then I waas 20. That's an incorrect statement. The opportunity for annoying the 10 things existed in the past but exists no longer the tens required. Therefore, is the past perfect, which has had plus the past participle. So the correct sentence is then things I wish I had known then I was 20. 47. Rule 31: Hey, welcome back. Let's see what this A dangling modifier at the age of four. Sam's family moved from Florida to California. That's a dangling modifier. Modifiers should be positioned as closely as possible to the element they modify the modifying phrase. And the age of four modifies Sam, not Sam's family. So the correct sentence is at the age of four. SAB moved with his family from Florida to California. Let's see another example. Not knowing his name, it was difficult to introduce him. That's a wrong sentence, this sentence say's that it didn't know his name to device. Decide who was trying to introduce the division might look something like this because Maria didn't know his name. It was difficult to introduce it. The phrase is now a complete class. It doesnt modify any other part of the Senate, so it's not considered dangling 48. Rule 32: he will come back. Let's see Waters, a subject work disagreement. There goes Sally and Great on their way to the movies. That's the wrong one. Subjects and words must agree in number. When a sentence begins with Here are There. The true subject of the sentence follows the Web. Sally and Drake is a plural subject, so the world go must also be plural. So that crack sentence is there goes Sally and Great on their way to the movies. Here's another example Nida, Etna's neighbors nor her husband. I agree with her decision That's a wrong one. If the subjects are joined by Naar, are are the world agrees with the closer subject. That's the last one. The last one on this is her husband. So the world must be agrees a single web so that correct sentences, neither at Naas neighbors nor her husband agrees with her decision 49. Rule 33: Hey, welcome back. Let's look at the incorrect use off object. Pro notch. Me and my brothers all have college degrees in business. That's a wrong statement. Several English pronounce retain different farms that indicate their function in a Senate. Me is an object form. In the example, it is incorrectly used as a subject of the world. Half the watch I, you, she, she v they and who are subject pronoun h the relative object prone on off these subject pronouns are me. You, him, her, us, them And who So the correct Simmons, for our example is my brothers and I all have college degrees in business. Let's see another example Me and Danielle went to the restaurant for lunch again. The object thrown on me is used in the place off a subject. Krone. Let's replace it with its related subject. Front on Daniela and I. I went to the restaurant for lunch 50. Rule 34: Hey, welcome back. Let's look at some examples for incorrect use of subject for Nash the owner. Waas most kind to my wife and I as we toured the branch. That's an example of incorrect use off a subject pruner. Here, the subject problem. I is used instead of the object thrown on me. Let me remind you again the watch I you, he, she v they and who? Our subject for a nosh. The related object thrown on our me, you, him, her, us, them And who in our since the subject thrown on. I is trying to do the job off the object front on meat so that correct one is the owner Waas most kind to my wife and me as we toured the drums. Let's see one more example. She gave Jim and I extra cookies. She the subject front on eyes misused in the place off object Fiona So that elated objects thrown on for I is me. So that crack sentence is she gave Jim and me extra cookies 51. Rule 35: he will come back. Let's see. What is this inappropriate use off? Reflexive pronoun forms? Jack and myself build the company from scratch? That's an incorrect statement. Ah, prone on the ends himself, ourselves is called a reflexive pronoun. This type of prone aunt refers to in now are a personal pro. No, they're always objects. A typical editor is to use a reflexive prone on in place off a personal pro. No, we need on Lee. A personal prone on that do is subject front on here. So the correct one is Jack and I built the company from scratch. Here's another example. Would you like to go for dinner with myself and Rossi? That's wrong. The correct one is. Would you like to go for a dinner with me and Rosie? And if Lexapro non should only ever be used when the subject and the object off a sentence are the same, for example, I tripped myself up. They can look after themselves. These are clear examples off correct Use off reflects approach 52. Rule 36: Hey, welcome back. Let's see how the word did is incorrectly used instead off hard in certain. If classes Abba ham things he would be dead now if he didn't give up alcohol and drugs. That's a wrong statement, Abba Ham things. How beget If I hadn't stopped drinking, the dense required is the past perfect. We just had plus past participle. So that crack sentence is Abba Ham things. You be dead now if he hadn't given up alcohol and drugs? 53. Rule 37: he will come back. Let's see how in regular world forms are sometimes incredibly used, many loves to read, has ran for office and has an articulate way off telling it like it is. That's incorrect. Why most English words form the past and past participle by adding ET to the baseball, for example, Walk walked. What belief? Believed? Believed jump jumped. Jumped. However, ah, few high frequency words have irregular past farce. For example, Run Ran, run, go went, gone, come came call enters with irregular wolf farms are becoming common in the media and in articles written by university graduates. Such editors are perhaps evident that elementary school teachers no longer drill their students on the irregular world forms. So the correct one is many loves to read, has run for office and has an articulate way off telling it like it is 54. Rule 38: he will come back. Let's see how to stop omitting the word that when it is needed after the word C R said Tim said after he stopped recording, the room became nicey. That's an incorrect statement when there's no intervening conjunction. The word that may be omitted after the world say are sit, however, if a conjunction such as after, although because before in addition to under our while, intervenes between the world say are set and object, the word that is needed a wide ambiguity. Tim said that after he stopped recording, the room became nicey. That's the correct one, the witness said she overheard the defendant threatened to burn the man's house down. This is also a crack statement because there is no intervening conjunction here after the word said. 55. Proofreading strategies: Hey, welcome back. Now let's see some proof reading strategies used by expedience to proofreaders trying to maul one are more than will help to do the job better. The 1st 1 is Read your paper out, lower our ask someone to read it out loud to you. If you're using Emma's word, here's a way to switch on the read out loud, more so that Emma's word can't read the document for you. You may hear things that don't sound right and can take a second look at those. The second strategy is place a ruler below each line off your paper. As you read, move the ruler toe guide. You line by line through your paper. This will slow you down enough so that you may better see the editors that maybe there the 3rd 1 is triple or quadruple space. Your draft and then proof. Read it. Why? Because sometimes editors are easier to find when the sentences aren't spaced too closely Together. The 4th 1 is read each sentence twice before moving on to the next sentence, and finally, one of the most successful strategies are there. Doing this will help you slow down and see better water is actually on the page rather than what you think is there. Read your paper from the end to the beginning, that means read the last sentence first than the next to last sentence and swan back through the paper. It's one of the most effective proof reading strategies out there, even though it may not seem to be a logical way to read a paper. 56. Spelling errors and Homonyms: he will come back. There may be spelling mistakes in the peace of the content. You're proof reading. These are among the most common surface enters as well as the most easily corrected the cracks. Billing errors. Use a spell checker regardless off your spinning skills, along with in dictionary to help you find the right alternative for a misspell work. Remember that the spellchecker won't help with Khamenei's. These are words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings. Some works that can cause trouble are listed here. There. It's a possessive form of the word they there, it means in that place, they are is a con traction off the phrase they are, except is a world meaning to receive or to admit a group except means usually a proposition , meaning but are only who's is a con traction off? Who is our who has? Who's is a possessive form off the word who it's is a process. So farm off it it's is a con traction off. It is our it has your is a professor of farm off. The word you, you're is a contract Shin off you are. Affect is usually a Web, meaning toe influence effect is usually in now meaning result. Dan is used in combat Issa. Then in a first a time in the past. Work is a farm of the world to be. Veer is a con traction off the are there is related to location. Our place. Check out the attached document that has a big list off confusing tops. Go through them to get clarity on what to look out for When you focus on confusing, watch when you're editing your piece of content. 57. Punctuation mark Period: Hey, welcome back. Now let's take a look at the punctuation rules you need to follow. While proof rating the content must have far. Let's see how the period is used to cut sentences. The P A is also known. Asked if Full Stop and British English you use it like a knife to cut the sentences to the required length you break of the sentences using the PD A at the end off a logical and a complete dot that looks and sounds right to you. Here's an example. I was born in U S. A. And now live in India. Figure the next one is the pier and abbreviations. They are frequently used in abbreviations. Abbreviations can be a written with tar without pH. In other words, you can write CPD a, d n Peered and Peter our CNN e P a. G P. Idiot are e G. The most important point is consistency. Whatever format you use be consistent. The most common format is to omit pH in upper case of revisions like BBC CNN, but they use them in lower case abbreviations like am PM E G, and so on. If the abbreviation is a company name you should copy the farm at that company uses The next one is the Peter and Ellipsis. Often you'll see is sentence concluding with three Dutch. This indicates that only part of the sentence is coated. It is being left up to the reader to complete the talk. Here's an example. He's always late, but you know how I feel about that ellipses. The next one is the P A. In numbers, numbers use periods in English to separate the whole number from the eczema. Apia, used in a number, is ultra called a decimal point, and it just read as find, unless it refers to money 12.50 and dollar 15 point cigs, ill. For $15.60 cinch. 58. Punctuation mark comma: Hey, welcome back. Next punctuation mark is Kama. Let's see how to use a comma in sentences Comus used to organize blocks of thought are logical groupings and making a list. Commas are the most common way to separate one list item from the next. The final two items on the list are usually separated by and are are it should be preceded by a comma amongst editors. This final comma in a list is known as the Oxford Come. I think you might have already heard the importance of commerce. Putting a comma in the wrong place can lead to a Senate with a completely different meeting . Look at the Senate. I hate liars like you. The meaning of the sentence is I hate you because you're a liar, not put a comma after the word layers. I hated liars, comma like you. The meaning of the sentence changes to you and I both hate liars. A complete change in the meeting that shows the importance off proper placement of commerce . Let's see some examples of using the comma in the seas off independent classes. I'm a gym. We went to a tennis game, and afterward Jim Mental, I like your brother. I might even love him. But he's not a very good baseball player. Not a teaser examples for using a comma in a CDs of mouth. A break first I had old meal, bread and milk. This morning I went to the restaurant, airport and museum. Now let's see some examples for using the comma in the seas of objectives. She was young, smart and brave. She was bedding a bride, greed shut Notice that view not used a comma here in the last example, because an objective is modifying another project, not at season examples for using the comma in the cities of works. Jack ran towards me, yelled, fell and fainted. The girls stopped dripper and kick the ball. Let's see some examples for using the common in the seas off phrases. India, one of the most powerful nations on earth, has a huge population. My sister Andrea likes to go swimming. Let's see, the comma sees off participle phrases. Hearing that his friend was in the hospital, Patrick left work immediately, walking to the college that morning, Jack knew it was going to be a special day. Let's see, comma in back wishes, she works in Mumbai, doesn't she? We haven't bean there heavy. And finally let's see the comma and interjections. No, she isn't like other. Gosh, that feels wonderful. Last I'm last in the wilderness. When they use an exclamation after they in dejection, you don't use a comma. 59. Question mark and exclamation: Hey, welcome back. Now let's see how to use question marks Using question marks at the end off all direct questions. Examples. What is your name? Your Italian, aren't you? Don't use question marks at the end. Off reported questions. Examples. She asked if I was Italian. Ask him where he's going. Question marks can Sometimes up here the didn't senators. Why she here? Ah, strong. Is it that brave doctors? Now let's jump toe exclamation mark The exclamation mark has used to express exasperation, astonishment, surprise, sarcasm. I want to emphasize it. Comment. Are shark sharp freeze and professional? Our everyday writing exclamation marks are used sparingly, if at all. That's unbelievable. One intelligent by many obviously, is not an intelligent boy, so that's the cast. 60. Colon and quotation mark: Now let's see how to use the colon, the cool and expands on the sentence that precedes it. It often introduces a list that demonstrates our a la bridge that appears before the court . He collected a strange assortment of things colon but X stamps, bottle tops, string and bunkers. He has just one issue cooler. An enormous eagle. The colon is also used to divide the hour from the Mitch in any writing time in English. Five Bean, 7 35 The next one is quotation Marsh Use quotation march to cite something someone said, Exactly, But when rephrasing watch, someone told you no quotation marks are needed. Example. Rahm told me, Don't forget your past. Graham told me not to forget my past if courting others within a coat. Both single and double quotation marks are usedto said, the two separate quotations off from each other. An example. I haven't spoken to Jim for months, Danny said. The last time I spoke to him, he said, I'm going to Thailand and won't be back for about two years. I have heard nothing since then. You can see both single and double quotation marks and play in this example You may also see single or double quotation marks used to mark out idiomatic are unfamiliar expressions . How always start that? He was a bit off a pain in the neck. I'm not sure. What do you mean by secularism? 61. Apostrophe and hyphens: Hey, welcome back. Let's see the apostrophe. This probably costs us more grieve than all the other punctuation marks put together. The problem nearly always seems to stem from not understanding that the apostrophe has two very different uses in English. Contract shins in positions. Some examples for contract. Shin's is not our isn't she is our she's I am, Are I'm You're not supposed to be here. Who's at the door? They're not here yet. Now some examples for positions. A car's engine, Diana's book insurance room, the Ladies Tennis Club, the Dennis's whole. The next one is high finch a hyphen. Joints do arm or words together. Examples are run down, up to date. Auto add a prefix like cooperate holds colonial. In some cases, though, a hyphen does change the meaning off a sentence completely an example is I'm thinking off recovering my sofa. That means I'm thinking of putting a new cover on it. I would like to recover my sofa. This means get back from someone who has borrowed it, are stolen hyphens and numbers and doesn't make for much. 89 1/3 use a hyphen in a number of farms. Part of an objective will compound examples. He won the 100 meters print. Charles Dickens was a great 19 century novelist 62. Dashes and Parenthesis: Now let's see how to use the dashes. A dash separates words into parenthetical statements. Hyphens are not separated by spaces while our dash has a space on either side. An example. But using a dash is here. She might come to the party. You never know. Finally, let's see Francis. They're also known as round brackets. Use them in a similar way to calm us. Then we wanna aired for the explanation and afterthought are common. That is to do with our main line of thought, but distinct from it. Some grammarians believe commas can replace parenthesis in nearly all cases, a couple of examples. I visited Kathmandu, which was full of tourists on my way to the Himalayas for a tricking expedition. The government education to Pour a Prudent was in 19 shows that the level of literacy is writing in nearly all areas.