Write a Great Antagonist | Barbara Vance | Skillshare

Write a Great Antagonist

Barbara Vance, Author, Illustrator

Write a Great Antagonist

Barbara Vance, Author, Illustrator

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13 Lessons (1h 51m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Villain vs Antagnist: The Difference Between

    • 3. Making Your Antagonist a Genuine Threat

    • 4. Motives and Goals

    • 5. Motivation Examples

    • 6. Antagonist as Loved One

    • 7. Humanizing the Antagonist

    • 8. Antagonist as Main Character

    • 9. Mental Struggle as Antagonizing Force

    • 10. Social Issue as Antagonist

    • 11. The Unseen Antagonist

    • 12. Villain Archetypes (with examples)

    • 13. Next Steps to Fleshing Out the Villain & Project

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About This Class

This course will help you craft a fleshed-out antagonist who brings out the best in your protagonist, ensures maximum conflict in your story, and is memorable!

Writing a great antagonist is hard. You want to make sure he is a genuine threat to your protagonist, but you also want to make sure he is realistic and relatable. This is a hard balance. Many writers make their antagonists cardboard by not fully developing. Because of this, they end up being unthreatening, which diminishes the conflict in your story.

This class comes with great class notes and a wonderful worksheet to help you brainstorm and plot out the topics discussed. These may be downloaded by clicking on the Projects and Resources tab. They will be on the right hand column. These are only available on a computer--not on the phone. ;-)

 ALSO, the class notes include a **fantastic** list of recommended books and films that demonstrate some of the best antagonists in literature and film. There is a lot of variety, and nearly all are contextualized in the class. They are also annotated in the notes so you have an idea of why it made my list and what to look for when reading/watching.

Topics addressed include:

  • The difference between a villain and antagonist
  • How to make the antagonist a genuine threat
  • Defining your antagonist’s motives and goals
  • What to do when your antagonist is a loved one
  • How to humanize your antagonist so he is a real person
  • When your villain is the main character
  • Mental struggles as an antagonizing force
  • Social issues as an antagonizing force
  • The mysterious/unseen antagonist
  • Villain archetypes

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Barbara Vance

Author, Illustrator



Barbara Vance is an author, illustrator and educator. She has a PhD in Narrative and Media, has taught storytelling and media production at several universities, and has spoken internationally on the power of storytelling and poetry. Barbara’s YouTube channel focuses on illustration and creative writing.

Her poetry collection, Suzie Bitner Was Afraid of the Drain, which she wrote and illustrated, is a Moonbeam Children’s Book winner, an Indie Book Award winner, and was twice a finalist for the Bluebonnet Award. Its poems are frequently used in school curricula around the world.

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1. Introduction: hi, everyone, and welcome to this course on how to write a great antagonise or villain for your story next to the protagonist, The antagonised is probably the second most important character in your story, and so it's important that we want to spend a lot of time developing and fleshing out who that character is, especially and importantly in light of who the protagonist is and what the protagonists goals are. So this course is designed for us to look very specifically at the role of an antagonised or villain and consider, given that that's the function of the character in the story, what are the important aspect of that character that we need to consider so that we make sure that that individual is as threatening and as formidable as he or she needs to be, so that we have the proper tension, the proper suspends the proper conflict for our narrative to succeed? One way to look at this is considering what a story is. So when we think about a story being that which is sort of focused on a main character, who's going to go through a grand character changed throughout the whole story. But then that that grand character changed is manifest through a lot of little story points . Throughout, We are examining this development of a character through conflict, and more often than not, that conflict comes in the form of a person who we would consider the antagonised or the villain. It's the person who is standing in the way of the protagonists goals and is forcing that conflict on the protagonists, which then forces the protagonist to phase, develop, nurture certain traits within himself or herself that make him grow as a person. So protagonist has the ultimate sort of actionable goal in the story they're trying to achieve, but they also through achieving that will develop a zit persons that antagonise is there to sort of put a stopper put it, but a roadblock in front of the protagonist for the goal that he has or she has. But in doing that is causing character growth in your main character, which again makes the antagonist your really your second most important person in this story. A week antagonised is not going to be believable is not going to seem threatening and is therefore your story will never reach those climactic moments of tension that it could have . You might be a wonderful writer and you might have a great story. But if you don't do the proper leg work to make sure that your antagonised or your villain guest satisfies certain storytelling functions and roles, it's your story is never going to get that depth and that reaction from the reader. In this course, we're going to be looking at an antagonise from a variety of different angles so that you get your your head around all the things that you need to make sure you are thinking about , and this includes addressing antagonists and villains. They are different, and it's extremely important that you understand that difference so that you can manifest it properly into your story. We will also be looking at the antagonised motivation and his goal, because these are essential. This the motivation and goal is essential for the protagonist, but we have unique aspect of motivations and goals that are important for a antagonised. We will look at trying to understand the why in the motivations of the antagonised, how do you humanize your antagonised? How do you make them not cardboard, not caricature do you want your antagonised to be purely evil, or do you want him to have sort of human capacities or or aspects to himself that the reader can connect with these sorts of variables really change the relationship the reader has not only with the antagonised, but with the protagonist and the way that the reader interprets your story as a whole. So you need to know how approachable you want your antagonist to be. You need to know how you're going to manifest that approachability, whether it's through backstory, whether it's through juxtaposing the antagonised with other characters, whether it's through certain traits, the antagonise task. There are all kinds of ways that we do this, and we will be looking at those. We will look at the antagonised when he's the main character, when when your protagonist is sort of the antagonised or the bad guy, so we'll be taking a look at that. We will look at social issues when your when your story doesn't really have a primary person as the villain. But the antagonised is a social issue. Likewise, if the antagonise to something more abstract, like man versus nature, or something like that worth the weather. How do we How do we deal with that? What do you do if you have an unseen antagonised that you might haven't say a mystery novel or something like that? We will look at protagonists who the antagonised is their internal struggles, People who have goodwill and don't have a negative desire but are yet on antagonizing force . We will look at those, and we're also going to then look at quite a number of antagonised in literature and in film to see how and why they succeed. So we will be addressing some of the truly great antagonists in literature and in film. This course comes with several things to help you, including class notes and a worksheet at the end that you can fill out to help sort of bring your antagonised to life. It also includes a number of recommended readings and viewings of books and films that will help you absolutely get a handle on analyzing antagonised and identifying why they work and why, why they are so good. So all of that's packed into this course I'm very excited about. This is a widely requested one. It's my joy to bring it to you. I hope it sounds of interest. If it does, let's get started 2. Villain vs Antagnist: The Difference Between: all right. Before we get started. In delving into the course, I recommend that you download the class notes for this course. Before we go through it, you will see where it's just going to give you some really great bullet points. And what have you of the things that were going to be talking about? If you want to get the most out of the class and retain the most information, you'll make notes. You'll write things down. So I I highly recommend downloading these first so that you can make notes on them. So take a pause, go download the notes and then come back now because you want to develop your antagonised as best you can. There are numerous exercises that I recommend that you do just to build the antagonised character. Period. Um, first and foremost being my character profile course, I have a list for you on the class note of recommended viewing of my courses to develop a character. I I highly recommend that you go through all of them. All of those courses have exercises for you to do. If you haven't watched them, please do and then go through and do those exercises for your protagonist and for your antagonised. This course supports. Those courses were not going to talk about character development in general. We're going to look at specifically, how do we build out this character? That's the antagonised. So while you sort of develop your antagonist character through those of the class exercises , which again they're listed in your class notes, they're also list on the classwork sheet. You want to think again specifically in this course about All right now, how do we shake this into the best, most threatening villain that we can? If you've watched my courses before, You know that I am a big believer in writing guidelines, not writing rules. Everything I'm going to be talking about here in terms of advice, I have no doubt in the future has been broken at one time or another to great effect. So take these in its guidelines, not rules. And the other thing that I would like to clarify. As we go through this, there are different forms of writing characters. There are characters for genre fiction, and then there are characters for quote unquote more literary fiction, and this course is we will be looking at both. We will absolutely be addressing things that go more toward the genre end. But we will also be taking a great care to address things that arm or in the literary side of it. When you push to the literary side of things, it's just four less clear cut. It's not going to be a standard archetypes. It's not going to be sort of as predictable in terms of its the antagonists relationship to the protagonist, etcetera. This is not to say anything against genre fiction. A lot of fiction is genre fiction, and so it's wonderful and it has its place. But I also want to make sure that we're addressing more nuanced fiction in which the role and the function and the antagonizing characters are not so clear cut. They don't necessarily fit into a mould. And when you you go down that avenue Ah, lot of the writerly rules, as it were, sort of. I don't want to say to go out the window, but they're just they're not standard. It's not standard, so please keep those things in mind as we go through the class now, the first big idea that we need to get our heads around is what is a villain and what is an antagonised. And the short rule to this is that all villains are antagonists. But not all antagonists are villains. So let's start with the antagonist, since billons old villains are that Let's start there and forgive me if I look down, you know, I teach. I teach from notes, so an antagonised isn't necessarily a person. What it is is a plot role. It's a function in the story. It's the thing that butting up against the protagonist. It can be a character. It can be the weather. It can be a social issue, our social calls or society, so it can be a variety of things. But there are things that are challenging your protagonist and keeping your protagonist from oftentimes achieving a goal that he or she is working toward. But as we shall see when we go through this normal characters, not all books they're actively working toward a goal that doesn't matter. It's the antagonist is a plot role. It's a function is a force that's that keeping the protagonist, if not from a goal from contentment from being happy from a better life. You want to keep that in mind now an antagonised because it's a plot role. It can. You can have multiple antagonists, you might have several, and they're might generally be a hierarchy to them at the main villain, the main person being the ultimate antagonised. But then you might have another character who is not a bad person who actually cares very much about your protagonist. And yet is is getting in the way of the protagonists gold just the same, which makes them and antagonised also so antagonists can have bad intent for a character but antagonised scan have good intent for a character we know through just living that someone can have very good intentions. But their intentions aren't always helpful, and so that that is true of on antagonised. So the function of an antagonist in a story is to provide opposition to provide trouble for the protagonist and that pressure that trouble opposition that it's causing in the protagonists. Life is what forces the protagonist forward in this story, so it creates conflict. The protagonist tries to solve that conflict, which pushes the plot forward. The plot is always pushed forward by conflict that is. Then the protagonist tries to resolve more conflict. The protagonist tries to result. You think of of a of an oyster might be very peaceful, but you put the little pizza sand, and it now gets all agitated and has to do something about it. It's the same thing true of the protagonist, so so that antagonised, that antagonizing force is what's causing the protagonist to react and to move forward and , in doing so, to grow as a person. So again, so keep in mind that protagonist is not necessarily evil. Might be a mother who grounds her daughter because she loves her daughter and her daughter disobeyed her. But in doing so, she grounded her daughter. Now her daughter can't go out and save the day in this x y Z way on. Antagonizing force might also be internal. It's something that someone is struggling with an internal pain. Maybe they had a traumatic experience as a child, and they've never been able to get over it. That haunting of the past is an antagonizing force. It's keeping the protagonists from being a more full human beings now, traditionally, this antagonizing forced this opposition to the protagonist is is demonstrated through a person. But again, it doesn't have to be. It doesn't have to be through a person. That's what an antagonist is. Now. A villain is not a plot role. A villain is a character type. A villain will always be an opposing force to a main character, which means again, a villain is always an antagonist. But whereas an antagonised could be like that mother who cares very much for adultery and its grounding her out of love or, you know a friend who is trying to help it is a bumbling sort of a friend, and it's constantly messing things up. So in an attempt to help is actually making things more difficult. Those are antagonizing forces, but a villain has Mile intent from the get go and in Villain wants to do Bad wants to inhibit. The protagonist wants to be an opposing force, whereas an antagonise that might not be true. If your story has a villain, that villain will be the main antagonised should be the main antagonised, so you want to keep that in mind and that the reason that part of this so important is that when you're creating a fleshed out story world. More often than not, there is more than one antagonizing force, because that's an awful lot of pressure to put on one character to be the only opposition that a protagonist experiences. And now everything else the protectionist experiences isn't that difficult. No, the protagonist should e. I mean, just think about life. There's no it's not usually one person or situation that's an opposing force in our lives. It's many again the villain is going to be sort of a physical personification of a intentionally bad antagonizing force. For the purposes of this class, we're going to predominantly focus on personifications of antagonizing forces. So we'll be looking at villains. And then we will look at antagonise who are not villains. We're not going to spend as much time on things like the weather, etcetera, so we will address it in the next video. I want to talk about one of the most important aspect of a good villain and antagonist, but certainly villain in particular, which is that they be a genuine threat 3. Making Your Antagonist a Genuine Threat: One of the biggest issues that I see writer's run into when they're crafting their villains is that they fall one of two ways. They either make the villains so evil, so terrible, nothing redeeming nothing that fleshes them out so that you have this sort of well rounded protagonists and then this very cardboard fake, cartoonish sort of antagonised on the other side. What they do is they don't actually make the antagonist all that formidable. They give their protagonists all of these skills and resources and brainpower and things like that. And then they're antagonist, doesn't have any of that and doesn't seem that old threatening. So it's very important when you are writing your antagonised that you say to yourself, How can my antagonist be a genuine threat to this story? And those last three words are so important waken all just sit down and sort of come up with a body who, you know is hates this and he's good at sword fighting and he is really smart and Consol puzzling. You can think of all kinds of things that that would be intimidating for someone to possess if they're not on our side, but you're writing a specific story and you're writing a specific protagonist. So what characteristics can you put into your antagonised that would be most intimidating to this protagonist? And most intimidating to this story? Give you an example. Se. I'm writing a story about two that focuses on two opera singers. Our protagonist, who is trying to get the lead role in the next opera, and the antagonised, who likewise wants the lead role. Now it just so happens that my antagonised is a really great fabulous singer who actually has Mawr formal training in opera than my protagonist. That skill and singing in this situation is incredibly intimidating To my protagonist and Jermaine to my story. What would not be terribly intimidating or Jermaine to my story is the fact that on the side she knows taekwondo that port, unless you somehow magically weave that into your story. If the plot line is all about trying to get the lead in the next opera, the taekwondo issue is not that intimidating, which is why you really cannot think of your antagonised in isolation. You need to develop your protagonist and your Antiochus. NIST needs to play off of that protagonist and needs to play off of the protagonists goals in the main conflict for the story. So you really want to keep that in mind, and you want to form an antagonist who truly is a genuine threat. And you do that in part by saying, What are the skills? What are the, whether it's mental or physical, etcetera? What other things that are going to be the most intimidating to my protagonist? If your protagonist can very easily overcome your antagonise, you don't have much of a story. So keep in mind, your protagonist is going to be struggling against your antagonised for a while for a while . So if you can't devise an antagonised in which you can dream up numerous struggle points, numerous points of conflict in your story that are all of it unique, a little bit different, then you haven't flushed out your antagonised enough. We need enough substance to this person so that the protagonists really feels threatened by it. Now. You can do this in a number of ways, the first being what we talked about with skills, so a really phenomenal just set of skills that makes your protagonists to go. This is my equal. At least this person is at least as good as I am, if not better, which makes your your protagonist the underdog. So the the level of talent of skill is similar. They are. They are equals in this regard. This can be mental capacity. It can be physical skills. There are all kinds of things that it could be. But when you're analyzing a film or thinking about yours and when you're, say, thinking about your protagonist and you're coming up with your protagonists strengths, you need to take your protagonists strengths and go over to your antagonised and say, Alright, how does my antagonised match these? And if they don't match the mall, what of these strengths my antagonist has that my protagonist doesn't have so that they're equally equally matched. Other things that can make the protagonist seems sort of undefeatable. You know you want your readers to go. Is this possible? Can we beat this person? I don't know. I have to keep reading. And so because you want your Regis doing that, we have to sort of sense the idea that the protagonist might actually lose. She might lose because she lacks the skills. Another way that you can think about doing this is make sure you are designing scenes in your story in which we see your antagonised out with other people. So remember, yes, the antagonist is the antagonist to your protagonist. But this person's also probably opposing force to other people. So perhaps we can see the antagonised opposing these other people. Perhaps we see our opera singer villain just wowing, wowing judges, wowing audiences and just doing so well at this and that. And then maybe we see her sabotage another singer by causing her to get sick or putting something into drink or things like that so that we can sort of see her overtaking other people. Another thing that's going to then make your antagonised just seem intimidating. Is just having that antagonise have unsavory goals? Your opera singer Antagonised might be your best friend, and that's a perfectly fine plot structure. She's still in antagonizing force. She's still preventing the protagonist from getting the lead role. Perhaps, but that's different than the antagonizing opera singer being also a villain who has now intent. So if you want somebody who really has this dork presence in your story, then show me her her malicious intent to my protagonist and two others. Another thing that's going to make that antagonised seem very intimidating is going to be that her actions, his actions require a reaction quickly. You know if if a character does something we don't like and we go, I didn't like that, but I can deal with that next week. It's fine. That's not a terribly intimidating antagonised. But if our antagonist does something of our villain does something in, we go, I have to respond. Now that's intimidating. So you are ratcheting up now. It's not just someone who's really skilled. It's somebody who has a bad intent and is after me. If you're not paying attention to me, I okay, I might think you're really skilled, but you're not focused on me. No, they're skilled. They are against you. Their actions against you require immediate reaction from you. All of these things are going to make that antagonised seen like a true blue threat. You may also want to have scenes in which the antagonised really is demonstrating his or her power over other people. So just just knowing that they have a certain amount of power, Whether that's inherited power or power, they earned all kinds of power. But show me that person dominating over other people that's going to to be again, building in this flushed, out, flushed out character, also having a believable backstory and believable reason why they want what they want if and we'll get into this in a little bit in the course. But if if a character doesn't have a believable goal, believable reason for what they're doing, it's just not going to see, not intimidating to us if we can sympathize to the point of understanding why they believe what they believe that is going to make them far farm or intimidating in the final two things that you can do to make sure that you are your antagonist is certifiable. Threat is show that person's effect on the story world. Lord of the Rings does this so well. We don't even have to see sore on all that much, But we we absolutely feel the threat of sore on. We know he has bad intent. We know he's incredibly powerful. That's both told to us and shown tow us. Here's all these terrible, hideous horrible henchman working for him. So he's built up this big army of people. You feel the effect of sore on on the whole story world. Everybody's dealing with the darkness of this and not that really makes him such an intimidating villain because he isn't just having a effect a little bit over here. He's affecting everything everywhere. It's just tremendous and, um, tremendously large. So that's part of what makes sore on such a huge, effective antagonised. Likewise, you think of John. It's the white witch in the line, the which in the wardrobe, where she freezes all of Nordea. I mean, it's all of Narnia. She's frozen the whole thing. And everyone is having to respond to her, either by being on her side or not being on her side. And it requires a decisive response because if you're not on her side, she'll turn you into stone. So, um, you know, worth thinking quickly whether you're on her side or not, and she's not trustworthy to begin with. So having that effect on the story world is truly one of the significant ways that I would say, particularly in a lot of genre fiction and particularly in fantasy. You definitely see villains coming to life. And then last point that I would want to make is just having in the emotional danger that, um is brought about by what you're antagonise does. So there's the physical dangers, say, Lord of the Rings, all of the danger that photo is in as he tries to get that ring to more door. There's a lot of physical threat and danger, but there's also an emotional threat, and you want to make sure that you're considering that to You want your readers to feel what the repercussions emotionally are for the protagonist. What are these emotional repercussions to what's happening? A really great example of this that I have in the viewing for you is a film called Dial and for Murder, and this is an Alfred Hitchcock film, and the basic premise is that a man he's married to his wife, she inherited a lot of wealth. He does not come from money, not a big worker. So she's living off of that money, and he just really wants her money so he plots to kill her. There are complications to this, and we are able to actually see the emotional strain that his wife is under because of the actions that he's taken support of. What makes that powerful is that we see the emotional strain that's happening because of the antagonised again, true in The Lord of the Rings, the emotional strain that photo is under because of sore on because of the ring and and all of the rest don't ignore that emotional strain. Remember, we are connecting with characters through emotion. So you want to make sure that you're not just talking about the physical sort of impediments in the physical challenges oven antagonised. But you're also talking about how thes stressors that are happening to your protagonist are affecting him or her emotionally. OK, in the next video, I'd like us to talk a bit about antagonised motives and their goals. 4. Motives and Goals: just like protagonist has goals and reasons for those goals. Likewise, your antagonised does so it's very important that you know your antagonised goal and his or her motives for that goal. A goal is basically what your antagonist wants. And the motive is why he or she wants it. Now there are certain antagonised characters or villains that don't necessarily have expressly a goal. And, um, Miss mentioned from a little princess comes to mind. Miss mention. If you wanted to give her a goal, that all you would say that it's in some ways her villainous goal is to just make Sarah's life miserable. But the truth is, she doesn't have a goal. She's a woman who wants money. She wants power. She wants prestige. Sarah, she feels, has cheated her out of money, even though she's our hasn't. But Miss mentioned sees it that way. And so, Miss mentioned is just sort of using Sarah. She's trying to use Sarah as much she can, but she is just really trying to make sounds like terribly miserable. She is a bit intimidated by Sarah. She just hates Sarah and salaries in many ways, everything Miss mention wants to be, but knows she isn't. And so she just makes hours life terribly miserable. But she doesn't have an active goal herself. So if you're writing a story and you say to yourself, I don't think my villain has a goal now that is a warning signal. You need to really look at your story. But it could be that your story structure doesn't have this overt goal the way a genre fiction might so do keep that in mind, but goals and motives. So what does he want and why does he want it? And that source of behavior is so important. And I have a list for you of why what might cause villains to have the goals they do have. But that is what provides logic for why the villains doing what they're doing? Your reader, your viewer is going to want to say, Why does Captain a hub want to kill this white whale so much? You know, why does Voldemort want to kill Harry so badly? Why does the White, which want to take over Nordea and what you'll find across stories, is that sometimes there's more humanizing happening to the goal with the goal in the motive . And sometimes there is less, the more your villain is just pure the evil. Unless development of that internal why need, is they're they're just purely evil. They're doing it because they're even. But we're definitely in a trend, certainly now with fiction, where, ah, lot of times the the antagonist, the villain has a lot more they can say about why they want what they want. You know, someone might really want power and everything else. And it's because when he was a child, he was poor and they lived in the country with his terrible dictator, and it was just tedious and horrible. And he was abused. And because of that, it just turned him into somebody who really wanted power. And perhaps it's stored it off is a good thing. And he wanted power so he could defend the little ones. But then it turned into this terribly bad thing, and it just grew into something that was harder than evil. So, you know, having that kind of reasoning why is so important? But again, don't I think there's a lot of advice out there that you have to totally humanize and again , we'll get into this, but you're your antagonist and you don't have to totally. But you do have to put a stake in the ground for what is the goal? What is the motive? Even if it's just that his goals could kill Harry because he hates hurry because he's evil and he wants him to die. You know, um and and Harry Harry's parents got in his way so that why and that motive in sight, the villains, actions and the villains actions caused the heroes reactions. And that's where you get the conflict and the forward propulsion of your story. So make sure he has a goal now when it comes to this goal, it several things the villain needs to totally believe in the goal, like he needs to be even the goal. And he needs to see himself as the hero of his own story. Um, the villain has to feel like I am, and I am in the right. I am my hero of the story. I'm the star of my story. I'm the hero. Therefore I want to kill Harry Potter or what have you. I want to take over Nordea. But the second thing is that the villain needs to see that. I believe that this this goal is the only way. This goal is what must be. This goal must be white. Which cat sort of just co run Narnia. Or, you know, have control over the dwarves she has to have full of Nordea because otherwise something could threaten her rule. So she's got to get all of it. And she has to eviscerate anyone who doesn't totally believe in her because she cannot afford to have her Dominion threatened. And she probably feels that way because her sister backstory she clashed with her sister on control of the kingdom, and she doesn't want to do with it again. So it's normally all or nothing. So they have to really believe that this is what must be. Voldemort must kill Harry. Because if he doesn't kill Harry, Harry is going to kill him. So there is this sense of it. Must be the only way. I am the hero of my story. And the third thing is that he has to really have considered this. I mean, that's implied, but I want to state it. They have to have truly fold about this, and you don't need to show me scenes of them truly thinking about it. But I need to feel like your villain has seriously fought about this and has determined that this is what needs to happen. They thought about it in their resolute in going after what they Want and now keep in mind , this goal is usually manifested in one of two ways. It's usually the same thing the protagonist wants, and only one person can get it. Think of the two opera singers. There's only one port in the only one lead in the opera, and they both wanted or they want different things. So you know I might. I want to make a cherry pie and you want to make an apple pie and we can't make both. We can only make one pie. Only one of us is going to win, so it's usually we want the same thing or we want different things. Now I will say, Don't get too hung up on that because you can sort of word it differently and end up the same place. By that, I mean you could look at, say, Nordea in Nordea, you could say both ass land and the white, which want to rule Nordea. You could also say the white which wants to be in control of Narnia and in the other one as land wants nor need to be ruled. And those are two different things because they want to different rulers to see what I'm saying. So don't get terribly hung up on this, But it's worth kind of contemplating and thinking about, um, and the last thing to really consider with the antagonised schools that it's justified. They feel they're right in doing it. They feel they have a justification for what they are doing. This brings me to the concept of the Y in your antagonists, reasoning. So the why of the goal? The reason the motives of that they can come from a lot of places they can come from their backstory that can come from their past. As we talked about that, you want to consider the legitimate reasons that you're antagonise might do these things. Now keep in mind, you are goingto flesh that antagonised out far more than what's actually going to end up in your story. That's okay, but you want to take time to consider these things, So consider the source of their behavior all of the unbecoming trades of your even the becoming ones. When you're thinking about the traits of your antagonist, what is source? If you have this villain who's a terrible, hideous, horrible person and yet has phenomenal manners, manners matter so much opening a door the way that one speaks. And this and that. Where did that come from otherwise terrible, hideous, horrible villain. But maybe he grew up in a certain kind of household with a certain set of rules and his pacts established in this and that. What is the story there? Why is he the way that he is? And then the other thing that I watched to consider it to think about is this, and this is so important, the justification and the logic that your antagonist has, for the reasons that he is the way that he is. I don't have to be right. They don't have to be moral. It's not. It's not about that. They could be totally crazy. You could say you're insane. What matters is that they are very logical to the antagonised, and we can see how their logical to him. So you can have a character who is mentally insane but who is operating out of a place of considerable logic, and you can see that you might not agree with it. But you see what drove them to their actions. That's important because it allows you the freedom to really write somebody logical, who's also actually quite evil. A great example of this is inspectors there in the Missouri. Uh, this is a man who believes so deeply in the law. He believes in the law, and he is committed. What the law says is what has to happen, and he's an antagonizing force. He's not necessarily a villain because he's not just doing something out of the hate of his heart. He loves the law. He wants justice, but he wants it so much that he can't see the forest through the trees. And he's there for a serious, antagonizing force. He is vey antagonizing force in the story, but you can look at him and say I understand because of your background. I understand why you are so doggedly pursuing this other man because you believe so deeply in the law because of your past because of the things that makes sense, even though we're like, Oh, I wish you could just take a step back and see where you're wrong But it still makes sense to him, and we understand that. So that's just something that you want to you want to think about. You know, the villain. Their worldview is so important. So when you can show that villain sort of began in a path of logic and of moral health, as it were, of just a solid moral place and then sort of devolved. That's a lot easier for the reader to kind of understand where the villain is coming from. And the other one is where that motivation comes from. A on emotion that we can relate to. You know, if the villain is jealous, we might be able to relate to Jealousy doesn't excuse the villain, but it allows him to be relatable 5. Motivation Examples: So what are some of the motivation set a villain can have? I have If you listed for you, I'm not going to go into great detail on any of these. There are far more than what I've listed here, but I did want to take some time to this. A few of them, and these include a failed career eso. They tried something and it didn't work out That can cause them to have certain antagonizing forces to someone say our opera singer villain didn't get the role, and now she is stalking or protagonists who did get the rule because she's so bitter about that would be an example of that Ah, failed romance. So in antagonizing force or a villain who is operating because they feel jilted. Ah, phenomenal example of this is Miss Havisham in great expectations. Miss Havisham was jilted as a young woman, her feel say, did not show up to the wedding, and so she never got over that and has not only been a man hated her whole life, but then she's raising young Stella to be a man hater and a heartbreaker. So she is a tremendous antagonizing, forcing Pips life she's not necessarily the main villain, and she actually just kind of like Pip. But, um, she's an antagonizing force. That and her her actions all stem from this failed romance, this jilting that she had another reason that the villain might be the way that he is is an attempt to gain acceptance. And, interestingly enough, a character who is a good example of this. Actually, Bob, you will in To Kill a Mockingbird and in To Kill a Mockingbird. Bob. You is the father of a daughter who they are claiming that a young black man raped her. And Bob, you will you watch the film, you get the sense he's not liked by the town. He's not educated, he is very poor. So he's on the outs. He's not accepted. He's not an accepted poor to the town and in a way, falsely accusing this young black man of rape and the trial and all of the attention and everything else. It's almost like and Bob, you als mind he he's going to take revenge on being on the outside. He's going to try to be accepted because this is such a racist time in America that for what is the first time in his life. All of these people are on his side because he happens to be against a black man, so there's a kind of acceptance that he's getting from pursuing this. So so that's an example of this attempt to to gain acceptance. Another reason would be revenge, which, at a good example of this is masala from Bend her, which eyes also in your readings and your viewings. But Masala is he was best friends with Ben Hur and they grow up. He wants Ben's help in. He asks for Ben's help, asks him to help him do some work for the Roman government. Bend her is a Jew is against the Romans, and he says, I cannot help you. Masala is so upset about this that he sort of exact revenge on Ben Hur and then that that revenge just sort of grows and grows and masala. It becomes increasingly less human as it worked in his in his resoluteness, to to hate then her. Another reason could be justice, which we talked about in Inspector Javert Javert. So Inspector JIA there is after justice, and that's why he does what he does. Another reason is just fear, an antagonist or a villain who's just simply so afraid. And that's causing them to be in opposition to the protagonist now, to give you an example of somebody who would be in antagonizing force but not a villain, say the protagonist, Haas. To go into a dork would because she has to do this if she's going to beat the actual villain. But her sister is terribly afraid of the wood and just won't let her go in just literally, physically not letting her go in and preventing her and locking her in a room or something so they won't go out into the forest in that situation. Her sister, out of fear of going into the forest, is an antagonizing force because she's keeping the main character from achieving her goal against the antagonist so that can play into things. Paranoia absolutely can play into it. So is the antagonise just totally paranoid about something this would show up in Mrs Danvers in Rebecca would be a good example of that woman, who's just sort of I don't want to give away too much that one. You should definitely see it but she she's got issues. Um, which brings me to the next one, which is mental health issue, whether that's depression or a psychological condition of some kind. Do they have a mental health issue that's causing them to be the way that they are another ? Another one could be desperation, just feeling totally desperate, like you have no way out, and you therefore react. You think of even just in animal or something like that. If an animal sort of feels closed in than they might, they react. They react because they're desperate. They have to, and some others can play into. This money can play into it. Do they just really want money? Do they really want power? Do they really want to freedom? Any of those things can be motives for a villain. So when you are watching films or doing reading, always ask yourself, You know what is the primary sort of group motive that this villain has All right. In the next video, I would like us to talk briefly about what do we do in an antagonist is not a villain. Button Antagonised is a loved one, 6. Antagonist as Loved One: as we mentioned, antagonists aren't necessarily villains, sometimes on antagonizing forces. Just someone who is a loved one is a close friend of your character, and it's good to have these characters in your story. It's far more flushed out and far more realistic, because people in our lives who do care forests can still keep us from doing things that we want or can certainly make life more difficult. So you know a mother who grounds her daughter doesn't let it go to prom? It might be getting in the way of her slaying the dragon or what have you she She's doing it because she sort of thinks it's for daughter's own good. When you write this sort of thing into your story, you want to make sure that you are capitalizing on the conflict in the relationship, bring out the drama that occurs when someone has our best interest at heart, and we don't. I think that what their idea of our best interest is our idea of our best interest. These are people we love these air people. We are not indifferent to, you know, the villain. Okay, the protagonist hates that person. They're still hard to overcome, But we know emotionally where the protagonist stands, but people we love, this is really conflicting. These those are the exhausting relationships because you love that person. You want a relationship with that person. You see a lot of good in that person. It's just right now they are not helping you out. So you you want to sort of bring out all of the drama that happens when someone you love gets in your way. Think of that when someone you doesn't don't like to something to hurt you. You might be a little hurt by and you might be a little irritated by it. But when someone you love her, too Gosh, it sinks and deep. So so consider that look at the drama inherent in the relationships of people. We love these characters. The protagonist doesn't want to see them thrown into jail or killed or anything else. They want to change that person's mind, which requires so much energy, right? I mean, how do you do that? How do you do that? And compassionate How do you How do you, you know, show them, Show them the light, let them see the way and if they're not going to see the way, how do you get around them without hurting them? There's just a lot of conflict there, So you want to really work to try to keep that tension in that relationship up? A really interesting example of this is the book Washington Square by Henry James, which is also a movie called The Heiress. And in It Basically it's about a very plain girl who falls in love with a young man who is very handsome and he's very sociable, and she's none of these things. She is just to put it unkindly. She's the sort of girl, just no one can imagine her ever getting married because she's not lovely. She doesn't have good conversation or anything else. The only thing that she seems to do well is embroider, and her father believes this battery doesn't see why anyone would want to marry his daughter. She, her mother's dead and her mother. His wife, was a beautiful woman. Beautiful everything your daughter's not. And so when the father looks the daughter, all he sees is how she falls so far short of a woman he married. She falls in love with this young man. The father thinks that the young man is just after this girl's money. And so he does a lot to prevent quite a lot to prevent the marriage a lot. And it reeks. It is a total strain on that father daughter relationship, and I'm not going to give this story away. It's one worth. You're certainly reading, but at least watching the movie and they're on the list. That is one where you really see someone who is not the prime antagonised but has a tremendous emotional role with the protagonist and its attention that that the author and then the director they keep that tension high throughout in a variety of ways. It is just an excellent example of it. I really recommend that you watch it, and when you do, if you do as the track, all of the scenes with the father and the daughter, what's happening in each one of those scenes and and how are we maintaining the tension? But how are we seeing different facets of the way that the father has this relationship with his daughter is phenomenal. Example. Cannot. I cannot recommend it enough to you, all right, in the next video. What I would like for us to do is to look at how do we humanize are antagonists or a villains bring them to life. 7. Humanizing the Antagonist: as we mentioned, we're in a place where a lot of people want to truly humanize their antagonists. I think this advice is a little overdone myself, because I think there are a lot of examples in literature where we don't have a lot of that humanizing. And yet they are just the best villains. So I do think it's an important thing to think about. But I also think that you you don't have to give your villain all kinds of emotional baggage and back story that so we sympathize with him. I simply don't think that's true, regardless of how much it's advised by by people. I simply don't see it in a lot of great literature, but it is definitely used, and it is something that you can do to great effect when your reader can sort of establish emotional and mental connections with your villain. That makes your villain far more complicated, and it makes our relationship with that villain more complicated because just like your relationship, your character's relationship, it's a loved one who's an antagonised is just more complex. That is also true of our relationship with the villain. If the villain is someone we can sort of understand in some ways or someone we sort of like in some ways. Then we have a more complicated relationship with that villain and not makes your story more complicated as well, because they're numerous ways that you can sort of human eyes, your your character and one is we sort of touched on is to look at the root of his or her bitterness. Why is this person the way that they are? And can we see that you know? Example of that is in The Incredibles, The little boy who looks up to Mr Incredible and it's then rejected ends up that that causes him to then become the the ordinary nemesis of The Incredibles for the film. So he sort of has this jilting or Miss Havisham is jilted at the altar. And can you only imagine what it would be for a young woman, particularly at that time to stand up in this huge wedding? All of these people here and then the groom never shows That's terrible. That's horrible thing. We can really do that and understand how hurtful that might be. So it's just things like that you don't have to bleed emotion all over the page. It's just a situation that we can understand. And if you read Miss Havisham character in the book, you don't walk away feeling boatloads of sympathy for you really don't because she's just kind of a dark, twisted woman. So when you provide that back story, there is a difference between deeply emotional back story that just makes us totally feel for the villain, even though we don't like them and back story that we're like, Yeah, I get it, I see it, but I still think you're bad. And Miss Havisham falls more into that. So there's there's quite a range you have to play with here. I don't feel like you just have to do an emotional dump for your antagonist, But certain things are given that origin story. The origin story doesn't even have to be the origin of their birth. So much of the origin of why they are now a bad person, because, you know, most people aren't born out of the womb. A villain. Something happened to them to make them that way. So, you know, do something without humanizing and give me that back story that tells me a bit more about why they turned bad in the first place. That helps sort of flesh them out. Also, just just taking time to have this realistic characteristics going through the character profile and things like that. Just having certain traits. You might have a really wretched villain who just has a penchant for cinnamon rolls, and he just he just likes to have his cinnamon rolls. And it's his oddly endearing little thing about this person who you otherwise don't like. And yet he wants his cinnamon rolls, you know, on dso even take. So it is quite quite evil. And give them these little trades, oddities and things like that that can in fact make us like him or like her. So so think about doing it that way. Um, if it's a non human person, Theun personifying of it, if you If your character is not a human, it's an animal or something like that. Give them emotions, give them things like that. Do they love there? Family. Do they have a sibling? Do they have moments where they feel sad, lonely, jealous, you know, giving us some moments where we see some emotion from the antagonise that we can relate to in the current moment so we can relate to the pain of being jilted by Miss Havisham. But, you know, in the midst of, um, moment, what kind of sympathy can we feel for a character? You see, the spit mean girls? If you watch the film mean girls, there are There is a moment close to the end where you you do feel some sympathy for Regina . George. Um, so can you give me some peeks into the emotions bit behind the curtain to let me see that emotional, that emotional pain? Another thing you can do is just give them very likable traits. So if someone is truly evil, give him charm. They came funny. Silence of the Lambs Hannibal Lecter comes to mind really intelligent, really smart, able to totally articulate the way that he feels and give a very logical, cogent argument as to why the people that he's going after really deserve what they're getting. No, I'm going to say all that saying that he's is insidious villain. He's not likable, and I don't care how smart he is in that film. He's just grossly unlikable, but in at least putting those things out there keeps him from being flat and cardboard. So just because you put some good traits into a villain doesn't mean that I'm necessarily as a reader going toe like him. It's just going to help make him a bit more three dimensional, and it's going to give you a protagonist something to engage with. If you're protagonists has only evil to engage with, then it's easier for your protagonist to not be conflicted if your antagonist has thes other traits. Has this logic, etcetera? Your protagonists becomes more conflicted. That's why the Jodie Foster's character in Sons of the Labs is a bit conflicted. She knows how bad Hannibal Lecter is. She knows it, but she spends enough time with him. She sees this man who's so educated, who's so sensitive to culture who can so clearly articulate his thoughts, his emotions that she becomes conflicted. So that's what makes the story more interesting. Remember, you are always thinking not just about how do I make my villains more relatable for my reader? How do I make my villain more relatable for my protagonist building in the conflict? Conflict isn't just antagonised is preventing protagonist. That's not just in the conflict is also emotional. While do I feel about his preventing me from doing this? If it's somebody I don't like, who's preventing me from doing it? It's much easier for me to be like You're terrible. I'm going to do everything I can to get past you if it's someone I love, who's protecting defending me from doing it, And I really have to deal with this and think about it. So all of these things start to come into play your readers relationship with antagonised, your protagonists relationship, the antagonist you're always dealing with both. Keep that in mind. Um, you know, make them smart. Make them intelligent. Always remember, they are a hero in their own mind. Never forget that. They know that for them, they are the hero. They have ambitions. They have goals there. Just again. Go through the character profile course and the other courses. You will flesh your character out in this way. You want your reader to empathize with that. Antagonised does not mean they have to like him, does nothing. They have to approve of them, but they should be able to empathize to go back to Inspector Javert. He be These stealing is wrong. Therefore he is obsessive and going after this man. Now we might think he's obsessive. We might think he's taking the justice too far. We might think he's not seeing that. Actually, this man is innocent and that the law isn't always right. The law can get things wrong, But we can agree with Inspector issue there that stealing is wrong and that the law in general should be paid. There are things there. It's just that he kind of gets in the way of things. Which brings us to this idea of having shared values with our antagonise. Inspector Javert believes in justice. I believe in justice. You might have a character who really believes in the environment, and maybe they take it too far. But I believe in the environment. Do I have shared values? Is there something at which I can agree with? And then the last thing I would say that can help to make the antagonised relatable and sort of humanize them a little bit is to give them special gift, give them special things. You know, if you have this terrible, terrible evil witch. But she has this magnificent gift of everything that she touches becomes beautiful. If she touches a tree, it blossoms and it's so lovely. That's a lovely gift. That's just beautiful. She might be really terrible, but what a beautiful gift to have. So so what special gifts can that villain have that you can look at and say what? They're my? They're special because of that. So there's always that you can sort of make your antagonised mawr empathetic, more humanizing, keeping in mind that this doesn't mean your reader has to like them better. It doesn't mean that your reader has to believe that they are right, and you don't have to just make your antagonised emotionally stripped bare. You do not have to do that in the next video. Let's take a bit of time and look at what do we do when our villain is our main character? 8. Antagonist as Main Character: one of the best things you can do to make your antagonised or your villain not a caricature is to actually make him or her a few point character to make this story from his or a point of view. And when you do this, generally speaking, you're making the villain the main character. You're sort of choosing to make that person the main character. What makes this work because your protagonist is your antagonise. Now, in a way, your protagonist is it villain. The protagonist always needs antagonizing forces. So while your protagonist, your main character, maybe a villain, we still need to see that villain come up against opposing forces because that's what makes the plot interesting. That's what makes the plot push forward. That's what makes us engage. So you would want to say, OK, what are the antagonizing forces? This more so than other points of view, really will go back to the idea of the antagonised seeing himself or herself as a hero in his own mind. You're going to really, truly if you choose to do this, you will have to have a very solid sense of motive, sense of goal and sense of character. You you will have desk. Definitely. You'll need to know their values and their beliefs, their strengths, their weaknesses. Why they're doing what they're doing, what their goal is. You will have to nail down all of that just like you would for a protagonist, and then come up with those antagonizing forces. Several great examples of this in Lolita Humber Comfort is a pedophile. He marries a woman to get her daughter, and he basically forces relations with this young girl. It's very sad, uh, and disturbing. That being said, it is one of the truly just great works of literature, and Hubbard Hubbard is the main character, and we see his emotional pain. We see his attempts to really try to treat Lolita well and give her the things that she wants and part of what makes that story in that character. I say sympathetic so tentatively, because he is totally unlikable. What he does, it's extremely inexcusable. But what makes him that sympathetic main character is that he has his antagonizing forces. He has someone who is also attracted to the leader who sort of stalking him, joined with the fact that Lolita herself is not likeable. Now if we were to look at this from Lolita's perspective, we might understand why she feels everything that she feels. But if you watch the film or read the book, Lolita does not come across like this. Just peach of a girl she doesn't. And so you have these antagonizing forces, whether through Lolita, with a person following him or his own emotional pain. You have all of these things happening and coming into play, we get the back story on comfort, comfort. We get a lot. We see all of it through that perspective of his lens. That is truly great literary example of this form. Madame Bovary is an interesting one that is not first person the way that Lolita is, but it is 1/3 person limited. We really see very frequently through her eyes. She is completely unlikable character, but you have some sort of sympathy for a woman who feels just who's getting it so wrong. You read that book and you do sympathize with her getting it so terribly, terribly wrong, and it seems tremendously tragic because she does actually have a husband who loves her very, very much. So there's a tragic nous to Madame Bovary, but we do get quite a bit of connection with her because we're in her head space so much. A couple of other examples of this is Jill Brenner from Judy Blume's blubber job, Roman. A printer is a bully, but we see things from her perspective. That's a great one, especially if you're more interested in young adult or Children's literature. I would recommend that book and then George R. R. Martin in a song of fire and ice. He has this sort of incestuous brothers sister characters who are totally unlikable when we first meet them. But in subsequent books in the series, they become viewpoint characters, and so you end up just empathizing with them more than you would have. So all of those are examples of that. When you choose that, you really want to say, How am I going to get my readers to empathize? And to what degree do I want them to empathize? Always be asking yourself, What do I want my readers to feel, whether it's about a plot point or a person? What do I want my reader to feel? Then answer that with what you have to put into your book so often, people want to write the book and then say G, I hope somebody feels something. No, You need to know what you want your regions to feel, make that part of your goal And then right for that another way that you can actually make that the main character villain more likable is to sort of outflank them with worse villains. So an example of this is Long John Silver in Treasure Island, which is just such a phenomenal book and film. And he's not the main character, not Jim Hawkins is. But Silver is certainly so present, and he is a villain in that. He's he's absolutely villain, but he's tremendously likable. He is on Jim Hawkins side. He likes Jim. He helps Jim and he is brave. I mean, he's he's he's everything a pirate should be. You're going to be a pirate. Be brave. You're gonna be a pirate being cut throat. You're gonna be a part. He just fits it. He fits it'll And these tremendously likable in a lot of ways and part of wise, because all of the other pirates around him are sort of weak and bumbling by comparison. So despite the fact that Silver is apparently a totally violent, cutthroat pirates who you really probably don't want to run into because of his relationship with Jim and because of the contrast that he has to the other Pirates around him, we really like him. So he's not Main viewpoint character, but he's so central to this story that that we we see where he he could still function in that way. Finally, an example of a main character who is a villain would be in the film Catch Me if You Can. Frank Abagnale Jr He knows he's doing wrong. He knows he shouldn't be faking his identity. He knows he shouldn't be printing counterfeit money. He does all of this for a very specific backstory. Reason, because they flushed out all of that back story. And we know and we sympathize the all of his motivations because we see his family relationships and how much he loves them because he sees his desire to be cared for and accepted. We see all of these things so much we sympathize with him tremendously. I mean, he is seriously breaking the law, but you like him where, as opposed, say, with Hubbard Hubbard. You don't like him. He is the main character, but you don't like him. And in that case, that's a first person perspective. Someone like Emma Bovary. You don't like her, but you feel bad for her Long John Silver, Not first person. You know he's bad, but you like him but you But you know his dad. But then, Frank Abagnale Jr. You he's doing the wrong things. But you really do sympathize with him. You you just you really do kind of want things to turn out well for him in the end, which you don't for any of the others. So those are all nuanced aspects of that, and again, I have a big list for you to go and watch. So if this is interview interest area for you, those are the books and films that I would recommend in the next video. I just want to touch briefly on antagonizing forces within the protagonist 9. Mental Struggle as Antagonizing Force: Sometimes the antagonizing force in a story isn't on the outside at all. It's only inside. It's something internal that the protagonist is dealing with, emotionally or mentally. Now keep in mind that if you choose this as your antagonizing force, it sort of makes it difficult to write certain genres. So you want to think about the genre of fiction, your writing. If you choose this, for example, if you're going to write something like this, you're going to spend a lot of time in the characters headspace, which makes it very, very difficult to write, say inaction story. This kind of take on an antagonist is going to be far better for a drama, literary work, psychological thriller or something like that at when you do this. What you want to keep in mind that the drama is happening inside your character. But remember, it's being manifested out in the world. We cannot just sit in your character's head space. What they're struggling with on the inside is going to be lived out in the wider world. Several examples of this one is a film called The Lost Weekend, and that is about a gentleman who's struggling with alcoholism. This one is really is about the struggle with the alcoholism. So the whole point of the story is this man struggling with this addiction, and you'll see that you'll see that the focus is on him dealing with that. It is a film that is truly up in his head. We are living in his head space, so it's a very uniquely done film. But what you also see is the effect that his addiction has on the people around him who care for him who loved him. So when you're writing in this way, you you want to make sure that you're pulling that internal struggle out into the into the world because otherwise your book just reads like a very tiresome monolog, and you want to avoid that. You also really want to avoid moralizing in something like this. Another example of having and the protagonist who the main forces working against his inside of himself would be Ebeneezer Scrooge in a Christmas Carol. That whole story is about a man changing his mind, changing his mind set, changing how he sees the world, and we see so much of that is actually about him seeing how his mentality affect the people around him. So is again very much about how is that internal perspective that internal struggle manifest out into the world. And in that story, we see so much Scrooge to say, I can't change. I can't change on this way. I'm stuck this way. I can't change its to late on a normally go and then the third example of this, which again is another take on it would be Jane Austen's Emma in that film ever is her own worst enemy. Emma wants to help people she wants to set up. Wedding was she wants to be matchmaker. She thinks she's doing such a great job. She's doing a terrible job. She's hurting her friend Harriet very much. She's causing a mess of things. Her struggle is with herself. Her struggle is with her, needing to learn that she can't run the show that she is a bit stock up. She has to sort of get back on track. That's all inside. But what you see with Jane Austen is that she takes a very comedic approach to it, that Emma is tremendously likable for all of that, because she's so genuine, and her heart wanting to do good things, and we see her being gifted in other ways, and we see other characters who we respect like her. So we see a lot of these little likable things, and then it's just like it's just like Emma cannot help herself to just see the error of her ways. And it's comedic and it's funny. But that is a story that just plays out, out in the wider world amidst a very large cast of characters in comparison to some of these other stories. And yet the premise of everything the antagonizing force and all of it is the main character of the story. All right, in the next video, let's look at not what happens when the issue is inside of a character. What do we do when the antagonised isn't a person at all? It's a wider force, an abstract force in the world 10. Social Issue as Antagonist: Sometimes the issues that we're dealing with and we set our protagonist up against isn't a person at all. It's more of an abstract idea or an entity. It could be something like the weather where our protagonist is going across a blazingly hot desert has to survive. But it could also be a social issue. And that's what I really want us to look at here. What do we do when that antagonizing force is a general abstract issue of some kind? An example of this would be just total racism, which we see in To Kill a Mockingbird. And one of the things that you often see happen is that because an abstract force is abstract most of the time, what you're going to see writers do is put a face on the abstraction. So they put put a character in place, who's the villain that represents who represents the abstraction itself. Bob, you'll is the main villain of To Kill a Mockingbird. But what he's really doing is acting as the main villain, which is the racism of society at the time. The trial is so obvious, it's so obvious that John Robinson is innocent, that you see people going through this. You see the the African American people up in one seating in the white people. In another seeding, you see outside of the trial the ways in which that racism is playing out. And then you go into this trial and you see this whole hullabaloo happening. You see a jury over there and of white people judging this black man, and you think this is so obvious? We shouldn't need this much time to show that this man is innocent. He could not have raped this woman. And yet it's happening, Bob, you'll is face of it. Give me something specific to be against as a reader. I can be against racism in general, but when I can have it personified for me, I can just I can be against both. I can just think, Bob, you will is terrible, and I can just take all of the racism that he represents. But that obstruction, when you can take an abstraction and put it into a person just story becomes infinitely more powerful. Other examples of this would be Sense and Sensibility, Jane Austen's Sense and Sensibility. That book has several antagonizing forces in it that the two sisters run up against you have a story about two sisters. They are poor. Their father dies. They are forced to go live in a smaller home away in the country. Because of the way inheritances work, they have almost no money. So Mary Anne and her sister Eleanor, go and live with their mother in this country side. Of course, this is a time when you kind of need to get married to ensure your future as a woman. And both of these young girls are in love with certain men now for different antagonizing forces prevent those girls from being with the people they love. And what you see is that a lot of it. There's a theme to all of the reasons that get in the way all of the antagonizing forces. And it all boils down to this societal structure that privileges money that is all about money and all about inheritance is all about making a good match based on money. So that forces it's the culture. It's the structure of a disempowering, these women from being with people they love, or at least being in a position to earn money for themselves. That's what they're really fighting. But it's played out in a really interesting, fun cast of characters who represent a different aspect of that. Little Women is another example of this and little women that there's really no one person who we point to and say You are on antagonizing force. It's not like that. The main character of the Four Sisters is Joe, although we do. Really, it's all four sisters, our main characters, and it's really about those girls being sisters and going through life. They hit antagonizing forces. But again, you see that for Joe, one of the really big main ones is, ah, culture, in which a woman can't be independent and go and make her own way in the world. Joe wants to do that very much, and that really kind of holds her back, and we see that same sense of what culture thinks a woman should be play out for all of the sisters. It plays out from Meg when she tries to go to a porting, think she has to be a certain way and look a certain way Joe, when she wants to be a writer and it's struggling with that. And then she tries to go and she tries to be a governess. And and you know, her aunt's thinking how she'll make it in the world, and Amy and Amy, who seems to be the most accepting off that culture and what it is. And Beth. So all of them deal with that? And in that book in particular, is one where they don't take the culture and put it on one person. It's more in groups of characters, it's the girl at the ball. Or it's the people who reject Joe stories. You know, it's it's It's in groups of people rather than a specific person, so you can do it that way. So I just want to point those things out. But the key thing to remember is, when you choose a social issue is you're antagonizing force. You're making a commentary on it, so you need to know how you feel. If you've chosen in an issue of area has your antagonizing force, what is your thesis statement of what you feel about that? What is your value statement? You have to know what that IHS in the case of To Kill a Mockingbird it's, I think racism is wrong, right? That's how you feel. The issue areas, racism, and you think it's wrong. And you have to know how you feel about that so that you write that into your story. So make sure you think about that. And then in the most cases you personifying it, you're giving human experiences that help me understand an abstract idea. All right. In the next video, let's talk about the unseen antagonist. 11. The Unseen Antagonist: not all antagonists are forward and present in a story. They might be very hidden from us and yet so present. Nonetheless, this is often true in mysteries, which makes him tremendously fun. And what makes these succeed? Because you're sitting here going all right, I have a villain, but he's not seen. And yet I have to make sure that he seems intimidating and I have to provide conflict there . So how do I do that? You do it in several ways. You build up the tension by giving the protagonist perhaps moments where they almost see him. But don't or you give you make me feel like I'm moving toward knowing who the antagonist is , because when I know the antagonists, when I'm moving forward toward it, the protagonist defeating the antagonised. But when the antagonised is unseen, I'm not only moving forward to hopeful defeating of antagonised, I'm moving forward to the big reveal and so getting clues, trying to figure out who is this person. That's that's part of the fun. But there are two really great examples of this that I recommend watching their films. They're so good. One is a film called The Spiral staircase, and in that basically the plot is this. I will try not to really ruin anything here, but it's some about a woman whose mute young woman who's mute and there's a killer on the loose, and we know that the killer is watching her. But we don't know the killer is. We don't know what's going to happen, and the tension is built and built and built over the course of a night that we see all of these events take place where we feel the murderer is getting closer and closer and closer to this young woman were desperate to figure out who it is. You sort of have you people to pick from. So you're spending all this time trying toe sort that out. And the plot is done in such a way that were given scenes that make us go. Oh, it Maybe it's you who Maybe it's him. And we do this because the the director has set up for us thes scenes that allow us to see certain things. And then you couple that with the weakness of this young woman who's mute and could not scream for help. And so it's a very intense, intense film. It's so good, Um, that one is not a comedy that is drama. Then there is a Siris of Miss Marple movies. They were done in the 19 sixties starring My Margaret Rutherford and I've listed just one few murders, she said as a recommended watch. But any of them are our grand, and those are your typical mystery. We know there's, Ah, murderer on the loose, and Margaret Rutherford's going to figure it out. And she's this charmingly fund, the old woman, those air comedies. And again you see the same idea where we are given clues dropped along the way. But very much the tension is about Let's figure out who this is. There's an obvious yes, let's get the murderer. But there's really a Let's figure it out. That's the fun of it. So in that situation, the tension that you're bringing and are the clues you make me think one thing, and then you give me a clue that makes me think something else. So in a story like this, you have to focus very much on the mental place and the emotional place that your reader or your viewer is at any given time because you want me confused. You want me shifting around. You don't want me to feel like I know who this is. That's for mysteries. But this can also be done in different ways as well and in unknown mystery films where we simply don't see the villain terribly much. But we probably do see his proxies. Ah, good example of this is Lord of the Rings. We don't necessarily in the films. I'll stick to the films for now just because they're easier for people to get through. We don't see sore on a lot, but what we do see are his proxies. We see the night riders, we see the orcs. We see all of these creatures that are on his side, all these people who are on his side, who are very intimidating, who are quite villainous, and they sort of stand in for the villain proper. Forcing a protagonist to sort of defeat these proxies along the way before he can defeat the villain himself raises the stakes. It makes the final and eventual if it is eventual altercation with the main villain, all the more emotional and intense because of what we've had to go through to finally get to the main villain. You welcome to have a story in which we deal with the villain on repeat and that that works . But it's almost like I have to earn myself. I have to earn my way to the big villain, and this certainly plays out in the Harry Potter stories. Harry deals with all kinds of proxies, all kinds of representatives and henchman and different people who work for Voldemort, who are on Voldemort side before he ever fights a huge final battle with Voldemort himself . So keep in mind when you say I'm not going to reveal my antagonist if the mystery do the one thing. But if it's not and we know who it ISS when I going to put my protagonist in contact with that main villain unseen one doesn't mean he's unseen till the end. It could be that we just rarely see him, and most of the time it's the proxies. That's OK, but when you choose for me to see the main villain, those should be really high stakes peak moments. Those should be some of the most intense moments in your story, so ask yourself how my going to get to the intensity of that moment. I have a course on making a scene outline, and I recommend going and watching that one of the things you'll see and that is how we look at on intensity score a conflict intensity so that you're making sure that you're different scenes and different beats within those scenes are at certain levels attention. You want to establish attention in a range. This is my lowest tension. This is my highest tension. Now I work within this. That's what allows the climax to be climactic. It's just like a painting when you're painting. One of the first things you do is establish your darkest dork and your lightest light, and you work in that so that you make sure the highlights and the low lights are dramatic. It's the same idea with your story. So when you want to have this unseen antagonise or certainly any scenes with your antagonist, how emotional? How intense is this scene compared to that scene compared to that scene, you should have a score that is shifting up and down, providing moments of intensity, moments of relief. So think about that as you as you do this. All right. In the next video, we're going to just address some of the many antagonised archetypes. 12. Villain Archetypes (with examples): All right on your class. Notes. We have listed for you antagonised archetypes. No, these are just select a villain. Archetypes. There are many more. But we are going to go through these. I'm going to just address them briefly. But the reason I want to go over these is that quite truly as I've said in many of the course is one of the best things that you can do if you are interested in writing and writing great literature or screenplay, etcetera is of course, to become a student of the form. And I have for you such a fantastic list off books and films to go and to watch. And what I've done is gone through some of the archetypes and giving you pointed you towards some of the very best in cinema and literature for you to then go experience for yourself everything that we start to look at. Here you will see these characters embody things that we have talked to talked about up to this point. So let's just go a few of these again by no means all of them. But I just want to point a few out to you. The first archetype is the fanatic Now. This can be, but does not have to be a religious fanatic. It's just someone who is and just fanatical about something. Some examples that I have for you here are Annie Wilkes in Misery. This is a Stephen King story. There's a book. There is a film. It's seriously disturbing, I have to say. But she's just obsessed with this author, and you see her obsessions play out big time. It's frightening. She's scary. It's a serious, very serious story. The next example I have is more comedic. So syndrome. I mentioned him earlier in The Incredibles syndrome, who is sort of hurt emotionally as a boy. And then it changes him into this little supervillain that he becomes another example of ST John Rivers in Jane Eyre ST. John Rivers is actually a good guy. Um, he is sort of religiously fanatical, a little bit, but he's a bit of an antagonizing force for Jane, in the sense that he sort of is pressing her to do something she doesn't really want to do . He doesn't have bad intent behind it, but it's not quite what she wants to do, so it's just a milder, milder version of that and then inspectors. You're there from the Mir's who is again fanatical about the law and truth and doing right . But it ends up making him a serious antagonizing force in the story. All right, the secret villain. We've talked about this one already, so I'm not really going to go into it more. But again, the spiral staircase murder, she said. I'm leaving the names blank on these because I want you to watch some. But I don't want to ruin the ends of the mysteries. So anywhere there's a blankets because I don't want to ruin story for you. And I'm sore on in Lord of the Rings. All of those examples of secret villains we don't really see but are nonetheless there. Another example is that parental oppressor. This one is just that parent figure who either no, was he or she is doing bad or who doesn't know he or she is doing that just has the child's best interest at heart, and I have an example of each Shumpert Hubbert in Lolita pedophile. He marries her mother, so he is now her stepfather. Bad intent. He knows pedophilia is wrong. He's just so attracted to the leader. He cannot help himself. He is a terrible person. But another example of someone who is just antagonizing force but not villain, really is an Hamilton from the film The Notebook. She is the mother of a wealthy young girl, so it's a wealthy family. She has a daughter. Her daughter falls in love with a man from the wrong side of the tracks. As it were. Mother wants daughter marrying a good man from the right side of the tracks and does some things to get in the way of the relationship that the daughter with the man the daughter really loves. She gets in the way. She's doing it out of the goodness of her heart. But it isn't in fact, helpful. So that is that one of the side kick. A good example of this is Grover deal from a Christmas story. The Sidekick is just basically that person who's always there next to the villain, kind of doing what the villain says and helping out. It's different than the henchman, which we will see in a moment. But the sidekick, he's just kind of like the villain goes throughout its like it's like, Yeah, it's just climbed just the same thing. So the sidekick, the outsider or the outcast? There are a lot of examples from this in filming that richer, going back to just early early ancient poetry in Vail. Wolf Grendel is the monster in that, and he's he's an outcast. So I wanted to throw that in there because for those of you who like fantasy and like mythology and what not go back and watch, they read Bales because that one truly has this outsider outcast as the villain, the beast from Beauty and the Beast. He is on outsider. He is the villain who we then find, is not the villain. And then we find the ultimate villain is the person who's actually the insider so that the beast who seems like the villain is the outsider. And then we come to find No, Actually, this outsider is really quite good and becomes quite good. But this popular man in town is in fact the villain, so it's sort of a switch. Tom Riddle from the Harry Potter series. We see him be the outcast, for sure, and then a great literary example is Heathcliff from Wuthering Heights. That's a good psychological one as well. That's a very complex one, That story, novel and film. The novel and film are very different. If you don't want to invest in that all the wash, the film, that's fine fat he It's an interesting one because Heathcliff is really quite a villain in some ways and knows some of the damage that he's doing it. But he's doing it because he loves this girl. He feels so thwarted. It's It's a complicated relationship if you're looking for villains who are complicated and they are the villain. But they're also the love interest and there the villain. But they're also the outcast, and they have quite a back story that you can sympathize with. And there's family who are antagonised. But it's out of love. It's very complicated. Um, it's a great example of that. So I really wanted to throw that out there. The violent predator example of this would be Teague from Cold Mountain. If you haven't seen it, I recommend watching it. He is basically stalking the main character because the main character left the army he left. The Confederate group is a ran away, and this man isn't hunting him down to bring him back. Fatigue is absolutely evil. He is violent, A murders without a thought. He is just truly, truly, truly a bad just to the core. I mean, just is close to just pure evil as as you're going to get in a story like that. That's not a fantasy or something like that. He is very violent, and he is hunting someone down the trade. Her couple examples of his long John Silver and Treasure Island silver tricks, Jim Hawkins. Any tricks of the people to get onto the island to try to find the treasure, and in that way he's a traitor. But again, if you are looking for an example of a villain who you really like, But it's not because you've been given a lot of back story that makes you connect to Silver emotionally, you're not going to get that. Stevenson doesn't give you that. You don't get a lot of oh, I connected with John Silver because he had a rough childhood. No, you don't get any of that. What you learn about his backstories, he's the worst of the worst. Everybody's like well, Flint was the worst pirate, but then there silver and only silver was worse in Flint. That's how bad Silver is. But we end up just loving silver because of his actions. So he's a grand example of a likable villain who is likeable for his actions and his relationships with the characters, as opposed to some sort of heart wrenching backstory. Another example of a traitor is the character Benedict Arnold, who, of course, is there was a real person but an Ronaldo's book finishing Becca and I put finishing back in because it is a romance. It's a young adult romance, historical fiction. So if you like historical fiction, you like young adult, you like romance. That is a great one to read. It really is. It just has everything that you'd want from those genres. Is a genre fiction type book totally likable and enjoyable? I recommend that one. The insane villain. Several examples for you here, Mrs Danvers in Rebecca. This is definitely a get to this when I go for the other lists, but this is definitely one of those films you have to watch. The book is excellent, too. I recommended, as well at least watch the film. You won't be sorry. Alfred Hitchcock directed it. It's so good, it's so good. Another example. Don't want to give anything away, so I'm not going to address the charming much. But you will find insanity in that story. Bruno Antony From Strangers on a Train. This is a man who is just mad and he kills somebody because of it. It's It's an oddly interesting film. It is just, he m decides that he's made this pact with someone he hasn't made a pact with, that each will kill someone. You kill someone for me and I'll kill someone for you. The other person totally never made this pact, but Bruno decides they did and, he hoped, holds his part of the bargain. And he wants to the personal of his side of the bargain. He comes stalk that person. It's wild, but it's very good, very good film, and then the uninvited, which I'm not telling you, who isn't saying in that one, because it would ruin something so they won't ruin something for the others. The sympathetic villain I'm putting hamper tempered here. I've already said how I feel about him. He's really not sympathetic in the sense that he's totally evil and wrong. But the way Nabokov writes him in that first person perspective you do it is designed for him to be sympathetic. The authority figure, Miss Mention Miss mentioned. If you've watched me the courses, I've talked about a little princess before. Miss Mention runs a boardinghouse, and Sarah Crewe is one of the wealthy young girls who tends. Sarah's father dies. She is now. We learned, totally poor. Her father has no money. Miss mentioned did not know that. So, Miss mentioned spent a great deal of money on Sarah, thinking her father would pay her back when Miss mentioned found out that Sarah's father was dead and penniless. And now Sara's penny lesson on her hands. She goes about making sours life tremendously, tremendously miserable. Um, so that is a great example of this authority figure. Miss Mention is all about authority. She wants power. She wants money. She wants to be considered graceful and and an elegant woman. Sarah drives her crazy because Sarah has all of the things naturally the Miss mention wants . So when Sarah loses her power, loses her money, Miss mentioned jumps after that. This is the situation. This is a book where there's there's no real goal on either side. It's very situational. Sarah getting back to a good place and sort of quote unquote defeating Miss Mention isn't because of something Sarah did. It's because Sarah's circumstances changed and the reason I talk about this book so much of my classes. It's not only because I do truly love it, but most everything you hear about writing is all goal oriented. What's the goal of the protagonists with the goal of the antagonised? And this is an example of such a phenomenal story that does not have that It is just not that simple to say, You have to have a goal and you have to be working toward the You know this and result. It's not often the case. It's not the case there. It's a wonderful story. I highly recommend it. The beast, the monster. If you ever seen the film alien, there is an alien in it and it is a monster, and it's scary on that is a good example of that. The bully. Several examples for you here, Draco Malfoy in the Harry Potter series that that one is a very traditional bully of Children, curly and of mice and men. That's an example of bullying that happens at the adult level. That's a short book, but it's very powerful by John Steinbeck is very sad, so curly. But Carly is that he is a bully. If you are looking for horror as a genre fiction, I wanted to make sure to include a horror book. Um, Carrie's mother and her classmates are bullies, so carries the main girl. I don't want to give a lot of it away. It's a film and a book, but her mother enter classmates Bully Carrie in that Joe Brunner from blubber is, um, a really good example of a bully. And this is a good example of a first person perspective book as well. So again, if you're looking for that first person perspective, this is one where the bully sort starts out the bullion learns her ways and then Regina George from the movie mean girls, who is just the a penny of bullying in school. The fem fatale Phyllis Dietrich Sin in Double Indemnity. The fem fatale is such a great archetypal role, and this film in particular, she might be my very favorite fem fatale. Figure to this one is really worth watching. It's she is seductive, but she's totally wrong, and she's got some seriously bad intentions. And yet you have to kind of like her. You know that the two main characters and that are not good people. But Phyllis is definitely the villain of the two of them, and you sort of see that played out. I don't want to ruin it for you because it's so good that you just must must must go and watch it. Henchman. Now the henchman is not the sidekick Henchman is going to be someone who really more carries out things that the main villain wants done. And a good example of this is a character from The Godfather Luca Brasi, who sort of just, you know, he's these the point person. He sort of helps run things. Sometimes it's a machine. The Terminator in the film The Terminator as an example of that, and what's interesting about that one is that you don't have the emotion to play with because it's a machine, so you're you're strain your stress. Your anxiety is going to be much more physical in a story like that personifications of evil. These are the people who are just flat out evil Voldemort. Now the whole DMORT is very close to his pure evil as you're going to get. And he's an example of an irredeemable villains, just purely, purely evil. We get a lot of back story on him across the course of the Harry Potter films, to the point where you understand his boyhood. You understand why Tom Riddle did things that he did, and you have all of that. And yet Voldemort remains this sort of purely evil figure. And you have to ask yourself, Why is that when all of these things they put in backstory put in emotion, put in these things that I kind of relate to the character, and that should make them not purely evil. It doesn't really work that way. In Baltimore, we still think Voldemort is just as bad as it gets and poured. The reason behind this is that he is just so bad. His final form is so monstrous it so stripped off humanity that he doesn't even look like a person anymore. He is physically in human He has an absolute clear goal. It is to kill Harry Potter. He will do anything to make that happen. He will kill anyone to make that happen. He will do it without remorse. He is just He's just lost all of the things that might make him human. When you add to that the sort of ethnic cleansing that he has going on, where he just wants to wipe out whole swathes of people and then we're presented with so many deeply disturbing things that he does and choices he makes, it just makes him downright villainous. Toothy core, despite the backstory that were given. So he is a phenomenal example of that. Another example of this purely evil character would be Mr Hyde. In the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. That's a short book by Robert Louis Stevenson, in which you have a deeply good man, Dr Jackal, and he wants to sort of see if he can't sort of separate out the evil in someone that we could all be really good. Well, he sort of succeeds, but ends up with this alternate personality that's just pure evil. And that's who Mr Hyde is I won't ruin this story for you. It's short worth reading, then a book like Dracula, Dracula, Straight up, Evil. There's nothing good in him. And in Dracula you don't get this emotional backstory. He's just a monster. He's just evil. And then the white. Which John? It's the White Witch from The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, who we spoke about again. She's just solidly evil. We have a little bit of back story on her, but the back story we have is not emotional. It doesn't let us connect with her personality. She wants to destroy all that is good and beautiful in Orania, she wants to kill Azlan, who is the Christ figure in Narnia. She's just the Satan of the story. Um, all of those grand examples of personifications of evil nature can also be an antagonizing force. This would be true in the river. In the film, the African Queen, a man and a woman are attempting to sort of blow up a certain enemy fortress at at the time , so the enemies are the enemies. But really, what they're facing throughout is this river and the rapids and the Nats and the leeches and all of these things they have to go through in this river in Africa. It is a truly phenomenal film, Um, where it really is that natures working against these people as it were. And then there's a jack London story cold to build a fire, and in that when it's the cold, it's just the cold, and that's amore. The African queen is quite adventurous to build a fire is a far more calm story, but the cold is no less threatening. And then the supernatural just ghosts and aliens, things like that again with the alien from aliens. But there's also a wonderful ghost story film called The Uninvited that has a ghost in it. That's phenomenal example of that. I also have that listed under Insane because there is a character in it who deals with that . So all of those was just there just some of the many, many archetypes one could have foran antagonised for a villain. All right, in the next video, I would like to go over your class project as well as some final thoughts on how you can write a great antagonist 13. Next Steps to Fleshing Out the Villain & Project: we're in the home stretch. What I'd like to do is just point out a few things for you that I hope are helpful resources and then talk a little bit about your class project. Now, on the class note, you will see that not only did you sort of have an outline of the things that we've talked about in the class, you also have a list of the select Philip archetypes that we went over. You also have a list of select motives for your villains and antagonists, and then we have lists of recommended reading and watching. I cannot speak enough for these. I did choose them. Ferry specifically. So do take time to go over them. We've talked about almost all of them, all of the's you could take and run through the class worksheet to sort of get a further handle on a villain. You could also use the worksheet, which we'll talk about in a moment for your own stories, whether you've written them yet or not. My first recommendation for you, when you are really ready to write your villain is to go through and make sure you have watched sort of the Siris, of course, is that I have on character development because the first rule of thumb really made remains true. You want a fleshed out character. I have a number of courses that do that, including my writing, unforgettable characters, character profile course. This is a great starting point. It is all about building the foundation of your characters. What you want when you design any character, is to create what we think of as root characteristics and out of those root characteristics grow all of the other traits. When you write your characters this way, everything that they do will make so much more sense because it grows out of a route. This is very different than just randomly choosing characteristics for your characters that can make a story, and a character seemed just jointed. So start with that character profile course. But then, as we talked about villains need to have motives. They need to have goals. They need to have a reason why you're going to get a lot of that. When you look at the next course, I recommend which is the character values and beliefs. This is the other foundation for your character. You, your character has goals and reasons and values, and everything that they do is based on those beliefs and those values that they have. So you need to establish what are my villains, values and beliefs? If my villain, if inspectors of their values justice, then that's going to drive him throughout the story. So you know, if John is the white, which values power that drives her throughout the story, you've got to know what those are said. That values and beliefs, of course, is going to help you do that. Help you. All of these will help you come up with, you know, really in depth, meaty characters. You'll want to look at what of my characters Flaws? Because your characters floors can help drive the plot. Ford is not just true of the protagonist. Your antagonise should have lost to your antagonism and things that get in his way. So you need to know what those are their justice. Three dimensional issue protagonists. They also will have strengths. I have a course on that. Then there's of course, it's all about describing their traits, their actions, their thoughts. So this is going to help you bring that antagonised to life and help you come up with and describe them in action in unique ways so that they register as truly unique, separate from all of the other characters and then that believable character relationship course. And again, all of these air on your class notes. But the believable character relationships course this one is all about juxtaposing your protagonist and your antagonised so they're interesting. You don't want to characters who are too close. You don't want to characters who don't butt up against each other enough. You want friction, and that course is going to help you write that friction into your story. So if you have not watched those watch those in conjunction with this one. Because if you do that and you will do the work sheets for all of those courses, you will have a fleshed out villain for sure. So I recommend that very, very much in terms of the project for this class. I have a worksheet for you. As you know, I have for many of my classes, and it's a series of questions and a series of things for you to process through and help you sort of figure out what and who is my antagonised on my villain? When you do this, use it as a brainstorming thing. Feel free to write down far more than is actually going to end up, get get your creative juices going. One of the worst things you can do for yourself as a writer is think that the first things you write our or to be they have to be. They don't. You start writing things, you'll write some things down and go well, that's rubbish. You're writing things down and go that that that's great. Let yourself do that with these questions. The goal of these questions to get you thinking about specific things that will help you consider your antagonised as specifically a villainous forced in the story. So download that work should work your way through it and then take those answers and bring them into conjunction with the character profile with the values and beliefs course. And you'd be amazed you'll be amazed the fleshed out character you end up with. I hope all of this was helpful if it was two things you can do for me that will help me make more courses for you. One is to leave a review That's huge for me, and I would appreciate it so much. And the other thing that you can do his share of this course or any of my courses you like with your peers with your friends with anyone you think might enjoyed as well. Each course has a share a ble link on the course Web page for a computer. And if you share that link with people that can help me, a supposed to if you kind of copy, pay something if you if you use that terrible link that can help me and the more I'm able to get that support, the more courses I'm able to make, which is such a joy. So if you wouldn't mind doing that, I would appreciate it. Thank you for watching. I hope this was helpful, and I wish you the very, very best of luck with your writing.