Windows Command Line Course - 2020 (CMD, Batch, MS-DOS) | Healthy Tech | Skillshare

Windows Command Line Course - 2020 (CMD, Batch, MS-DOS)

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19 Lessons (1h 18m)
    • 1. Introduction (3)

      1:11
    • 2. Commands & Parameters

      5:06
    • 3. Navigating & Creating Directories

      6:07
    • 4. Moving, Renaming & Deleting

      4:55
    • 5. Redirectors

      5:12
    • 6. Starting Applications

      5:42
    • 7. Scripting #1 Basics

      6:02
    • 8. Scripting #2 Loops

      3:38
    • 9. Scripting #3 Task Completion

      5:19
    • 10. Locating, Comparing & Encrypting

      4:52
    • 11. File Attributes

      5:37
    • 12. File Associations

      4:43
    • 13. Task Management & Scheduling

      3:55
    • 14. System Configuration & Maintenance

      6:05
    • 15. Editing the Registry

      3:51
    • 16. Troubleshooting Networks

      4:16
    • 17. Managing Networks

      5:11
    • 18. Tips & Tricks

      4:32
    • 19. Conclusion

      0:44
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About This Class

Ready to take your IT skills to a completely new level?

You have come to the right place!

In this course you will learn exactly what the command line (cmd) is and gain valuable insight on how the command prompt (ms-dos) actually works rather than memorizing commands.

Even if you are a complete beginner with no previous experience, you will learn everything from the ground up, step by step in a fun and engaging way.

The command prompt (ms-dos) is one of the most powerful tools in the windows operating system and it can be used to do almost anything.

From simple tasks such as moving, renaming and deleting files to managing or troubleshooting your system or network.

By the end of this course, i am confident, that you will:

  • Have a deep understanding on what the command line (cmd) is and how it works.

  • Be able to complete complex tasks in an instant.

  • Effectively troubleshoot or manage a network from the command prompt.

  • Use your computer much more efficiently.

  • Automate small tasks using batch scripts.

  • And much MUCH more...

if you are ready to become a poweruser join me and the other students by enrolling now.

What are you waiting for?

Enroll NOW to get started!

Transcripts

1. Introduction (3): way. Welcome to the Windows Command Line course. The command prompt is one of the most powerful tools in the Windows operating system, and it can be used to do almost anything from simple tasks such as moving, renaming and deleting files to managing or troubleshooting your system or network. In this course, you will learn exactly what the command line is and gain valuable insight on how the command line actually works rather than memorizing commands, even if you are a complete beginner with no previous experience, you will learn everything from the ground up, step by step in a fun and engaging way. By the end of this course, I am confident that you will be able to complete complex tasks in an instant, have a deeper understanding of what the command line is and how it works. Use your computer much more efficiently and much, much more. If you're ready to become a power user, join me in the other students by enrolling now hope to see you soon 2. Commands & Parameters: welcome to the first lecture of the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn the very basics of the command line. We will start with an introduction. We will then learn how to use the commands to view our files and how to use parameters to manage the output. Some of you might be eager to doom or complex tasks using the command line. However, it's important that you learn the command lines, rules and structure by doing small tasks so you can eventually have the ability to complete any task. You wish to please be patient and pay attention. So what is the command line? The command line, also called the Command Prompt, or CMD, is a text based user interface. That means that the only way to interact with it it's the type commands a command is a word that tells the command prompt toe act in a specific way or complete a specific task. We will learn more about commands later on. The command line could be used to complete a myriad of tasks and functions. Some of the tongs and commands within the command line are extremely useful and cannot be accessed otherwise, making the command line particularly necessary for high level coding and system administration. Let's take a look. Now that we know what the command line is, let's start using it. The first thing we're going to learn is how to open the command line. Feel free to follow along. The easiest way to open the command line is the type CMD into the search bar on Select the first result. Now that our command line is open, let's take a look around it. The 1st 2 lines displayed basic information about our Windows version. Feel free to ignore these. In the next nine, you'll see the location at which the command prompt is located now, and it's called the current directory. In your case, your Windows user name will be displayed here. In my case, it's Julian. One of the many functions of the command line is that it can be used as a final manager, meaning that you can view delete, rename change, far permissions and much more so this would be the equivalent of navigating toothy. C slash user slash Julian directory from the Windows File manager viewing files Let's suppose that we want to view every file and folder in our current location. To do that, we're going to use the dire command. Dire stands for directory in the 1st 2 lines. The single dots represents the current directory on the double dot the parent directory. So in my case, the single dot displays information about the Julian folder on the double dot about the Users folder. In the first column, we can see the dates and times at which the files were created at. And next to that. The word dire indicates that this is a folder or directory. Finally, the next column after that contains the names of every file parameters. While that's all well and good one. If we want to change the way a command works to do that, we will need to learn parameters. Parameters, also known as options or arguments, are specific words, letters or symbols that can be typed after any command to make it function in a specific way. Parameters are different for every command, and thus memorizing them all is impossible. Luckily, you don't have to memorize every parameter because that's where the command help comes in typing help. Dyer, for example, will display every available parameter option for the dire command. Let's press enter as instructed by the command line so that we can view the full list of parameters. Let's say, for example, that we want the oldest files to appear first going by the output off the help command we need to use thes slash o parameter followed by D so that our files assorted by their creation date So our complete parameter will be slash o. D. Let's type command along without parameter. Our files are now sorted so that the oldest appears first success. There are many combinations of commands and parameters, which you can use to complete pretty much every task there is. Feel free to try a few more parameters on your own before moving on to the next lecture summary. The Dire command displays every file and folder in your current directory. Use parameters to make command functions in a specific way to view every available parameter for a command type help along with your command. That's it. You know what commands and parameters are and how to use them. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on. Put to practice what you have learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture 3. Navigating & Creating Directories: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn how to navigate the command line out creator delete folders as well as how to perform an operation from our current and different directories preparation. Before we begin learning how to navigate folders from the command line, we have to create a folder to navigate into, simply right, click on the desktop and create a folder with the name of your choice. I will go with cats navigating directories. In the previous lecture, we learned how to view the files of our current directory using the Dire Command. But what if we want to view the files of a different directory? That's where the command C D comes in. Seedy Stands for change Directory, typing CD, followed by the directory we want to navigate into will change the location of our command prompt to the specific directory. So to navigate to our desktop. Let's type C D, followed by desktop success. We are now into the desktop folder. Let's see if the photo we created at the beginning is here, and indeed it is. We can change our location back to the parent directory by typing CD, followed by two dots like we learned previously. The double dots represent the parent directory, so typing CD along with two dots is the same as typing. C d c slash user slash Julian. Now let's say that we want to navigate into the Cats folder that's located within our desktop. To do that, we have to navigate to the desktop folder using the CD command like we did previously on The Navigate to the Cats folder using CD. Once again, however, we could navigate directly from our current directory to the Cats folder with just one command. Let's simply type C D Desktop Backwards Slash and cats. The backward Slash indicates to the command line that what follows is a directory. Upon running the command, you can see that we have successfully changed out directory without having to go through the desktop folder creating folders. Now that we know how to navigate the command line, we can learn how to create our first folder. The command we're going to use is M K Dire, which stands for make directory. Here is what that would look like. Let's type die to verify the Towel folder was created. Our folder is no here. What went room? Let's sort the list by typing dire slash OD. As you can see, a funder was indeed created, however, not with the correct name. So how did this happen? Let's first take a look at the command we typed to instantly view your command history. Simply hit the up arrow key in your keyboard a few times until the command you previously typed appears. It seems that the command prompt only used the first word of our folder name and completely ignored the rest. Why did this happen? The command prompt needs to be able to differentiate between names and multiple parameters when typing names or directory locations that have spaces within them. We need to use quotation marks, which tell the command line that the spaces separating the words do not constitute any additional parameter on a just a constitution of our folders name, So the correct command would be as follows. Let's type die once again to verify, and as you can see, a folder with the correct name has been created, deleting folders from the output. We can also see the folder we accidentally created to remove it. We will use the RM Dire Command which stands for removed directory. Keep in mind that as the name suggests rmd I only deletes folders trying to delete a file using RM dire will constitute in an error RM dire without any parameters. Only remove solders that are empty. To delete a folder along with the files or folders within it, you need to use the slash s parameter. The command would look like this after entering our command. The command line will ask if you are sure you want to delete this file simply breast. Why? To confirm different directories using the M K Dire command. We can create a folder in our current directory. But what we want to create or delete a folder in a different directory without having to navigate their you would have to enter the location of the Target directory followed by a backward slash on the name we want our folder tohave instead of typing the name of our folder directory so the command would look something like this. As you can see, we are once again using quotation marks because the location of our directory contains a space in the same way you can replace em que dire with any command to complete any task from any directory summary you see d to navigate to directories, creates or the league directories using em. Cate Dyer or R M Die. Don't forget to use quotation marks in names or locations that contain spaces to create or delete a file from a different directory into its full location instead of its name. That's it. You now know how to navigate the command line and how to create and delete folders. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 4. Moving, Renaming & Deleting: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. This lecture is all about working with files and folders. We're going to learn how to use the command line to move or copy files, how to rename and delete files and folders and how to use wild cards to manipulate multiple files at once. Preparation. To learn how to move files, we must first create a file to move around. So let's create of text file named Cats. In the following lectures, we're going to learn how to create files directly from the command line. But for now, let's simply use the graphical interface. Let's go back to the command line to create a folder as well. Simply navigate to your desktop and create a folder using the M K Dire Command moving files . We can use the Move Command to organize our farms from the command line. The move Command is used to transfer a file or folder from one location to another. We're going to type move, followed by the location or name of the file. We want to move in this case cat, along with the location we want to move it into, in this case, the Cats folder let's verify that how final has been moved using the CD and dire commands. And as you can see, our file has been moved successfully moving backwards to move a file back to its parent directory. We're going to use the move command along with the path of the parent directory. Or, alternatively, we can use two dots in the same way with you. C D, along with two dots to navigate our self to the parent directory. Typing move cat dot text, followed by two dots will move our farm backwards. Let's never get to our parent directory to verify the tower Final has been moved successfully, and indeed it has Copying falls. An alternative to the move command is copy. The copy command is used the same way. The move commanders. However, it not only transfers farms but keeps the original fun in its place, essentially duplicating it. Let's joints, and as you can see, the original file is still here. Upon navigating to the Cats folder, we can see that an identical copy of our file is there as well. You can also use copy to duplicate a file without moving it to a new directory simply type copy followed by the name of the file as well as a name for our duplicate renaming files to rename a file. We're going to use the Wren Command, followed by the name of the file or folder we want to rename along with the name we want to give it. In this case, let's rename our cat dot text file into Cat one doc text. Let's type dire to verify, and our final has been renamed successfully deleting files to delete the files we just created. We're going to use the Dell Command. Unlike RM, dire Del can only delete files using Dell to delete a folder will constitute in an error. To delete both our farms, we could simply enter Del, followed by the names of our files. However, there is a better way. Wild cards. We can delete every file that begins with the word cat by using a wildcard. Wild cards are special symbols that take the place of characters or words. The most commonly used wild card is the ass tricks typing Del, followed by a set of characters that is shared among the names of the files we want to delete. Along with an Asterix will delete all of them. Typing Dire weaken. See that both our files have been deleted. Summary use, move and copy to relocate or duplicate your files and folders. EU's Rehn and Dell to rename or delete files. If you are working with multiple files, take advantage of wild cards. That's it. You know how to move Rename and delete files using the command line. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 5. Redirectors: welcome to another lecture off the course. This lecture is all about re directors. We're going to learn what re directors are exactly how we can use them to create files from the command line, as well as how to combine multiple commands and everything in between what are re directors . Usually the only way to send input to the command line is with your keyboard. However, we can also send input or output using a re director. Every director is a special symbol that is used to, as the name suggests, redirect the input or output from one command to another. Let's take a look. At a few ways. We can use re directors creating files to create a file with the Windows Command line. We're going to use the Echo Command along with a re director. Echo is primarily used to print variables or strings to the command line, similar to prints or console dots right line in other languages. However, for now, we're going to redirect its output and use it to create a file. You can create multiple types of files using eco. However, for this example, we're going to create a text file because it's the easiest to grasp. There are multiple types of re directors, but for now we're going to use the greater than symbol, which will redirect the output of the echo commands into a text file. Let's type eco followed by the text we want our file toe have along with the greater than symbol on the name of our file, along with its extension and our phone has been created. But let's check. If the contents of our file was created correctly as well, we could simply navigate to our directory from the Windows File manager and open our foul there. However, we can open our file from the command line simply by typing its name. The note pad will immediately launch and display the contents of our file. You can also view the contents of a file directly from the command line using the type command simply enter type, followed by the name of the file we just created. The contents of our fire will be immediately displayed. Using greater than will only create a new file toe, add text to an existing file. We need to type the greater than symbol twice, once again using the type command we can see that our text was added successfully. In some instances, you might want to create an empty file. To do that. We're going to type eco directly followed by a not the greater than symbol on the name of our file. Let's use type to verify and our final is indeed empty. Combining commands in the Windows Command line, you can enter multiple commands with one line of code. We used a re director previously to redirect the output off the Echo Command into a file. This time, we're going to use every director to redirect from one command to another. Let's go through all the re directors you can use to combine two commands. The most commonly used re director is the double 1%. It only runs the second command if the first run successfully. Next up is the single ampersand. It runs the second command regardless, If the first command returns an error or not, then we have the double vertical bar, which only runs the second command. If the 1st 1 fails the final the single vertical bar, which redirects the outputs of the first command to the second, you can also combine multiple re directors here is an example. If the first command runs successfully command to will be run if not command three Will we run Instead? You can use any of the above re directors or a combination of them to complete any task you wish. For example, to create a file, move it to a new folder on view its contents, you need to type the following. Try using a combination of commands on your own using the re directors you just learned so that you can understand them properly. Summary used the Echo command along with the greater than re director to create finals use type to view the contents of a text file directly from the command line. Make use of re directors to run multiple commands in a single line. That's it. You now know how to use re directors to create files and to combine multiple commands. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on. Put to practice what you have learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture 6. Starting Applications: Welcome to another lecture off the course. This lecture is all about launching applications from a command line. We're now going to learn the three wings. You can use the command line to launch applications, how to use environment variables to make the process easier and everything in between starting applications. In many cases, you might want to start an application directly from the command line. There are three ways to do that. Internal commands. Direct invocation on the starts command. Let's go over each of them internal commands, internal commands or what we've been using thus far with internal commands. You can only launch programs that are built into the command line, such as Echo or CD. Direct invocation. To start a program using direct invocation. The execute herbal off your program needs to be located in the same directory as the command line. Let's join launching an application using direct invocation. For example, let's try launching Crume. We would first have to navigate to the location of our applications. Execute Herbal To find the location of our chrome executes herbal, we will need to find its short cut from the desktop, right click it select properties and find its location from the start in field. Now that we have our location, let's navigate there to verify that how execute Herbal is there? And indeed it is. Now that we're in the same folder that the Execute Herbal is located, let's launch it by simply typing its name into the command line. Let's break down what just happened. The command line searched through all the files in our current directory, found a fire with the name we specified and successfully launched it. You might be wondering why we didn't launch Chrome directly from its desktop shortcut, that it's certainly possible Let's navigate to on desktop and find our chrome shortcut. Some people, however, may find that from the command line, some short cuts are missing from their desktop directory. That's because Windows sometimes stores shortcuts in different folders. If you're short cut is not located in your desktop funder, simply navigate to the following location on search for your shortcut. There. Note that shortcuts used the dot lnk extension as opposed to the usual dot e x e. This is of no concern to us, since in this case their usage is exactly the same. Once you find your shortcut. Simply type its name into your command line along with its extension. In this case, we need to surround the name of our short cut in quotes because it contains a space. And, as you can see, chrome successfully launches start command. The third way we can launch applications from the command line is with the use of the start command. Unlike direct invocation, you do not have to be in the same directory. The execute herbal is located in with start. We can also launch applications that enlisted in the path environment variable. We're going to learn about environment variables later on, Let's try launching an application using the start command type start, followed by an empty set of quotation marks. The location of the chrome executes herbal as well as a backward slash on the name of the execute herbal in quotation marks. The command start requires an empty set of quotation marks as the first parameter for locations with spaces. This happens because start could be used to open console applications as well. And if the first argument is quoted, it assumes that it's the name for the new console window. If the location of your execute a bull does not contain any spaces. Simply type start followed by the location environment. Variables. Having to find the location of your execute herbal every time you want to launch, it can get tedious. That's where environment variables come in. Environment variables are, as the name suggests, a set of variables whose values is set through the operating system. When we launch applications using the start command, the command line looks up the name of our application in our path environment. Variable amongst other locations. The path environment variable contains a list of applications and execute herbal locations . Let's list out crones. Execute herbal locations now. Path environment variable. We're going to use the set command typeset, followed by the name of our application, along with the location of its execute Herbal. Let's now use the start Command to launch it. Type of start, followed by the name of your application in this case, chrome. And as you can see, chrome has successfully launched summary to launch a program. When you are located in the same location as the execute herbal use direct invocation. Use the start Command to start a program from a directory by typing its footpath. You set to start programs without having to type their full path every time you want to launch them. That's it. You now know how to launch applications directly from the command line. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 7. Scripting #1 Basics: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. This lecture is all about the basics of batch scripting. We're going to learn how to create and run your first script, how to implement variables as well as how to implement logic into a script. Although this court is more about the command line itself, this wouldn't be a complete course without at least a brief introduction to the basics of scripting batch scripts. You can automate many tasks and make your computer life easier by using scripts. A Bat script is a file containing multiple lines, with commands that are each executed one after the other by the command prompt. With scripts, you can automate repetitive tasks such as the deployment of applications, too many computers at once, or various housekeeping activities such as organizing or deleting unwanted files. Creating a script like I mentioned previously bat scripts or text files containing lines of code. So let's create a text phone and had some code. Let's simply type echo Hello on beneath that type pause. Without the command pause, the command line will automatically close because there are no more commands to be run. Bat scripts used the doctor bat extension So to make our fall execute herbal, we need to change its extension to dot bat, click file, save as and type dot bat after the name of our file. Let's now execute our farm simply by double clicking it. As you can see, the command line immediately launches on, executes our command to close the command line. Simply instruct the Pause Command to continue by pressing any cake. Noted that the Pause commands doesn't exit the command line itself, but rather simply stops its execution until a key is pressed, giving us time to review the output. The command blind only closes when there are no more commands to be run. The command line shows the current directory and the command that is being executed before showing its output the same way it does when we took command directly into the command line . When running scripts, however, we might want to view just the output to do so simply add at echo off as the first line of our script upon running the script. Once again, you can see the only our output has shown this time variables, just like with any programming language you can assign and read variables to set a variable . Use the set command, followed by the name off the variable, the equal sign and its value without any spaces. Let's print our variable using eco type eco, followed by a percent sign the name of our variable on a percent sign. Once again, we are using percent signs because Echo needs to be able to differentiate between words and variables without the percent signs, the command line would only show the name of our variable and not its value. Let's try launching our script success to change the value of a variable. You can simply type set once again with the desired value. We could also prompt the user to set the value off a variable using the slash p parameter type set slash p, followed by the name of the variable and make it equal towards ever you would like displayed to your user. If statements. Let's implement some logic into our script. We can use if statements to condition the output of our script. One of the most common uses off if statements is checking variables to implement an if statement, simply type the word if followed by your variable to equal signs are value on the command that is to be run in case the if statement returns true and let's run out script success. We can also add else and else if statements, simply by adding them after our if statement. This time, however, we need to enter our commands in parenthesis, as you can see the else and else. If statements are executed appropriately, functions and go to a function is a group of commands that together perform a task with functions. We can organize our code and make it easier to understand toe at a function to our script. Simply enter a colon punctuation mark on the name of your function to call your function type Go two, followed by the name of your function. Now let's try our script success summary. Make sure you change the extension of your script to dock bat. For it to be executed. Use variables and if statements toe handle input on performance action accordingly. Use functions to organize your code and make it easier to read and understand. That's it. You now know how to use scripts to make your computer life easier. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 8. Scripting #2 Loops: welcome to another lecture off the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn everything about loops in batch scripting. We're going to learn what loops are exactly and why we need them. How to create and use our very first loop as well as how to use loops to perform an operation on every file in a directory loops one of the most basic but simultaneously powerful programming concepts are loops. We can use loops to repeat an instruction until a specified condition is met. For example, let's say that we want to print the name of every file in a directory. First, we need to find the location or path of the directory we want to look through in this case , for example, our desktop. First, we need to use the C D command to instruct our script to navigate their Let's implement our loop Now by typing 42% signs directly followed by a character, the word in the ass tricks wildcard within parenthesis, along with the word do and in parenthesis again and to the command you want to run. Let's break down each element of this leap. Our a parameter specifies a single letter replaceable parameter. You can replace a with any letter of your choice. This is similar to a variable in the sense that it's value changes. However, its syntax is slightly different. It requires 2% signs before its name when used in the command line. However, instead of a bat script only 1% sign it's required. That is because the four Lee requires that this parameter has just a single percent sign. However, a single percent sign would not be interpreted correctly by the command line because it has a special meaning when it's read from a bat script. Thus, we need to use one more percent sign so that the command line knows that what follows is a literal percentage sign. After that, we have the Asterix Wild Card, which instructs the command line to leap through every file in our current directory. In the next lecture, we will learn how to restrict which farms will loop through, depending on their name extension and more and finally, in parenthesis, we have the command that will be executed for each file in our loop. In this case, we will simply print its name using the Echo Command. Upon running out script, you can see that all the files in our desktop appears successfully. Our four loop will only look for farms in the desktop directory and not within any subdirectories it might contain To look through farms recursive lee, you can use the slash r parameter. Other parameters include Slash D, which will loop through folders, slash Ellis for looping through a set of numbers and finally slash f will loop through text . Summary loops are immensely powerful and that can be used to complete repetitive tasks in an instant. The single letter replaceable parameter takes a value for every item in a loop. Use the slash D slash l and slash F parameters to loop through folders, numbers and text accordingly. That's it. You now know what loops are in a bat script and how to use them. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on. Put to practice what you have learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture 9. Scripting #3 Task Completion: welcome to another lecturer off the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn how to complete a variety of tasks using batch scripts. Specifically, we will learn how to manipulate a number of files and folders all at once, how to loop only through a specific set of files based on criteria and how to vastly expand the functionality of loops. The task that we learn to complete with the command line can also be completed faster in a bigger scale with batch scripts. Let's go over all the ways we can complete a few essential tasks from a bat script manipulating files just like we learned in the previous lecture, we can use batch scripts to loop through a set of files and perform in action. Previously, we simply printed the name of each file. This time, however, we're going to take it a step further by manipulating or modifying each one of them. To do so, we will use the move copy Ren on delete command, just like we did from the command line for this example, let's use the move Command to move every file in our desktop toe a new folder. As you can see I have already created a few example files in my desktop directory. Feel free to do so as well, Going back to arm a note pad before our loop. Let's use the M K Dire Command to create a new folder on. Then let's delete the Echo command from our loop and replace it with move, followed by our variable within quote. Because some of the file names might contain spaces and finally type the name of the folder we created once again within quotes. Upon running our script, you can see the AL Files have all been moved successfully. You can replace move with any command to complete any task you wish. Selecting files In many cases, you might want to be selective about which farms you want to modify. You might, for example, only want to select farms with a specific extension or files that have a specific word within their name. For example, let's select only farms that have a Dr text extension to do so. Let's simply add doc text after our wild card while we're here. Let's also at the slash r parameter into our four loop. That's because our farmers are located in a directory within the desktop funder, and I want the command line to search for coercively. Or, in other words, I wanted to look for farms within subdirectories, specifically our All Files folder. Save and run your script. Let's open our newly created folder and check its contents. As you can see, only text phones were moved. Only select fans that have a specific word within them. Simply enter your word within Asterix one at the beginning for any text that the name of our file might have before our word and one at the end parameter extensions. We can vastly expand the functionality of loops in several ways by using parameter extensions, parameter extensions, air compilations of symbols and letters that, when placed before a single letter replaceable parameter, can display specific information about each loop herbal item. For example, When looping files or folders adding the tilde punctuation mark on the letter X before our character or print its extension, you can also look for a specific file by adding an if statement and using the end parameter extension. Let's simply create an if statement which will compare the name of every file with the help of our parameter extension until it finds the one we want. We can also add else statements to execute a different task for every other file. Here is a list of the most commonly used parameter extensions. You can refer to this list any time you're in need of one. Remember that within a script, you can also do anything that you can do from the command line, such as launching applications, organizing your files on pretty much everything we have learned thus far. You should now have gained a solid understanding of batch scripting on Be able to complete most tedious task without breaking a sweat. Summary. When looping phones, you can execute any command about each item automatically the same way we do from the command line. Used the district wild card to select farms based on their extension or a word within their name. Vastly expand the functionality of loops by using parameter extensions. That's it. You have now learned even more about batch and can create your own powerful scripts. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on. Put to practice what you have learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture 10. Locating, Comparing & Encrypting: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. In this lecture, we're going to locate, compare and equipped files using the command line. We're going to learn how to view the structure of a directory, have to search and compare files how to securely encrypt decrypt files and folders and much more. Directory structure. Tree command can make it quite easy for you to locate farms using the command line using the tree command. You can view how your directory is structured on where every file is located upon typing tree in our command. Prompt a list of every file in our current directory as well as every subdirectory will be displayed. We can also type tree, followed by the name of our drive to view our entire computers file structure. It might take a while for this to complete, depending on the size of your drive. Search file contents. While Windows has some search capabilities, searches a usually quite slow and they cannot search the contents of files. That's where the command find comes in. You can use the Find command to search for a string that's located within multiple text files. First, let's join searching for a string in a single file simply type find, followed by the text. You want to search for within quotes on the location or name of your text file. If the find command didn't manage to find your text, even though you are sure it is contained within your file, try using the slash I parameter, which will ignore whether or not the case of the characters in the file a different from the provided strength. Other parameters include Slash V, which displays every string except the specified one slash N, which displays at which line every string is located at and slash C, which only displays the counter blinds that contain the specified string. To search for a string inside, multiple documents either enter the names or the locations of your documents one after the other, or alternatively, take advantage of wild cards to search through every text document in a directory. An alternative to the find command is find str the difference being that find str has more Saanich options and includes support for regular expressions, which makes it similar to the grip command in linen. Compare files. If you were a programmer or writer, it is particularly useful to know If there are any differences between two files, you can use the command blind to display any differences using the F C Command. Let's first create two finals using the Echo Command and Type FC, followed by the locations or names of the text. Violence you want to compare. Their differences will be displayed immediately. Useful parameters include Slash C, which will disregard any casing differences between the strings slash A, which will only show the first and last line for each set of differences and slash l B directly followed by a number which will limit how many different lines the FC Command will look through before boarding secure files. You can use cipher to securely encrypt or decrypt any files or folders. Type cipher slash E, followed by the name or location off the folder you want to encrypt. Replace the slash E parameter with slash D to decrypt a folder or file cipher is a security tool and can do a lot more than just encryption and decryption. For example, you can use cipher with the slash W parameter along with the name of your drive to override all your empty space, making deleted data unrecoverable. Keep in mind that this operation will take quite a long time to complete summary to view Howard directory is structured. Used the tree command to search for text within a file used the find and find str commands and compare files using FC you cipher to securely encrypt decrypt funds and to make deleted data unrecoverable. That's it. You now know how to locate, Compare and secure your files and folders. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on Put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 11. File Attributes: welcome to another lecture of the course in this lecture. We're going to learn everything you need to know about file attributes. Specifically, we're going to learn what file attributes are on. What purpose do they serve, how we can assign file attributes to our files and folders on how we can use file attributes to change, how a file could be interacted with and much more. What's our file attributes? File attributes in Windows are certain metadata. Associate it with files and folders that define the way a user or the system can interact with that file or folder as well as how it behaves by using file attributes. The system and its user grant or deny certain rights to files and folders, Thies writes, dictates how the final folder could be interacted with on what purpose it serves. For example, Finals denoted with the system attributes are critical for the proper operation off the system and can only be used by the system itself. Only users with the appropriate privileges are allowed to read or write to them. Each Fine Attributes has two states on a file set and cleared only a file that has a given attribute in the set. State behaves accordingly to the behaviour denoted by that attribute, which is a fancy way of saying that every file attributes already exists in a file. But to make its properties active, we must enable it. We're going to learn how to do that and much more in this lecture. In this list, you can see what the most common file attributes are on what purpose each one of them serves the Trib command to view sets or clear file attributes using the Windows Command line, we will make use of the Attribute command. A trip stands for a tribute to view what attributes are currently set on the fire we just created. Simply type the trip command, followed by the name or location of our file or folder. The trip command will immediately display the first letter off every file attribute that is currently set on the specified file or folder by default. New files only have the archive attributes set to change, Add or remove an attribute for a file used. The A trip command, followed by a minus or plus sign, depending on whether you would like to remove or add an attribute along with the letter of the file attribute on the location or name of your file. In this case, I use the plus our parameter to set the read only attribute to my file. Similarly, to set a different attributes. Replace our with the letter off the attributes of your choice toe unset slash clear and attributes replace the plus sign with a minus. We can also set many attributes at once simply by typing them one after the other. For example, with the following command weaken set both the read only on the system attributes change directory attributes. We can also use the trip command to change the attributes of a folder. Here is an example. However, this command will only change the file attributes of the folder itself and not any of its contents. To modify the attributes of any files and only files that are located within our directory , we need to use the slash s parameter to include any directories as well. You need to use the slash D parameter. Also, here is what the command would look like. The read only and system attributes will be set for the folder named My Folder, as well as any subdirectories or farms within it. Finally, we can change the attributes of many files and folders at once by using a wild card in the place of a name. Here is what that would look like. Notice how I surrounded the wild card in quotes. That's because the name of some of the files in the current directory might contain spaces hiding files and folders by setting or clearing the hidden attributes from a final folder, we can either hide or unhygienic accordingly. For example, we can use the following command to make our file hidden. The fire will be hidden at once. Hidden files or directories are by defunct, not viewable, from the Windows Farm manager to view a farm or folder that has the hidden attributes set. Use the dire command along with e slash a. Parameter. Every file in your directory will be displayed at once, including files or directories that are hidden summary fine attributes and windows. A certain metadata associating with files and folders that define the way that a user or the system can interact with that fire or folder as well as how it behaves used the A trip command to set or clear file attributes on your files and folders used the slash s and slash d parameters to change the far attributes of a directory. Recursive Lee, That's it. You now know what file attributes are and how to use them. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 12. File Associations: Welcome to another lecture of the course. This lecture is all about extension associations and file types. We're going to learn what file types and extension associations are. How we can view the associations between phenotypes and extensions. And how to change the association of a certain final type with an extension and much more water. Our extension associations, windows associates, every extension with a certain file type so that it knows the type of data that is contained within a file and thus how to execute or open it. For example, windows, by referencing the extension association of adopt PNG file, knows that it's an image and opens it with the appropriate application. One file type can also be associated with many extensions. For example, both the dots seven Zed and dot zip extensions are associated with the 7-Zip file type. On the other hand, an extension can only be associated with one file type. We can use the sock command without any parameters to view every extension as well as its file type association. Every extension and file type in your system will immediately show up. Note the names of the file types that appear are a bit different to what they are on the GUI. That's because Windows displays file type names that are more easily understood by its users rather than those that it uses internally. For example, you would usually see a text document appear as txt file. You can view how the name of a file type is usually displayed simply by typing its name after the Asoka command. And as you can see, textFile is displayed as a text document. Using the sock command, we can view and change the file type association of a specific extension simply by typing a sock followed by the name of the extension. The final type of the dot txt extension will immediately show up. Changing associations. By changing the extension association of a funnel type, we can determine which applications should be used to open it. For example, let's make every file with a dot txt extension open with Microsoft Word. First, we must find out what file type Word documents use. To do so, let's view the association of an extension that opens Microsoft word such as dot doc x. Now that we know what file type to use, let's associate it with the dot txt extension. To change the file type of an extension, simply type the command followed by an extension and make it equal to the File Type of your choice. If you get an access denied error, knew need to run your command in a command prompt with administrative privileges. Windows will now treat dot txt files as Word documents and open them with Microsoft Word. Note that you cannot assign any association to any file type. That's because the application of your choice might not know how to handle the data contained within your file. For example, if you were to make every dot raw file open at a text document, you'll text editor would not be able to read and understand those files. That's why it's important that you are incredibly careful when changing extension associations. The wrong command can easily make files of a certain extension on openable. Finally, you can associate a file type to only extensions that do not have any associations. For example, to make windows open every unrecognized file as a text document type the following. Any file that has an unrecognized extension will now be opened as a text document. Summary. Extension associations are the reference between extensions file types. One file type can be associated with many extensions, but an extension can only be associated with one final type. Use the command to change the extension association of a funnel type and thus determine which application should be used to open it. That's it. You now know what extension associations are and how to use them. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you've learned thus far. Until then, see you in the next lecture. 13. Task Management & Scheduling: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. This lecture is all about managing and scheduling tasks. We're going to learn how to view every running process and service in your computer on how to stop them. How to use the command line to schedule on automatically execute tasks in your system and how to configure your schedule. Tasks. Manage tasks you can view and manage every morning task in your computer directly from the command line by using task list and task kill. To view every running task in your computer, simply type task list. A list of every morning process will be displayed along with its i D, although it is redundant with the task manager Task list can often show task that a hidden otherwise as well as display more information about each one of them. There are several useful parameters, such as V, which displays more information about every task, or SBC, which shows related services. You can also use task kill to stop running tasks. Let's try it first. Find the I D or name of the task you want to stop then type task kill. I am followed by the name or task Il minus p i D. And the idea of your process. If a task refuses to stop, use the slash f parameter toe forcefully and its operation. The task will immediately stop schedule tasks. You can use the command line to schedule and automatically execute tasks in your system. Using the SCH Tarts Command, you can not only schedule tasks for your own computer, but also create or sink tasks for multiple computers at once across the network type. The SCH tasks command by itself to view all the tasks that currently scheduled in your computer. To create a task, use the following syntax the slash SC parameter specified How often the task will run. Slash t n specifies the name of the task slash t R is the location of the program or script that will be run and slash s t is the time in which the task will run. If you do not specify this parameter, the time you create the task will be used instead, for example, to create a task named Task Underscore, one that executes a backed script from the desktop every day at 10 o'clock type the following. There are several more parameters with which you can configure your task, look through the output of the Help command to find them all. Similarly, you can use the change and delete parameters to change in. Delete a task. For example, enter sch tasks slash change, followed by the name of your task and the parameters you wish to change or sch task slash Delete, followed by the name of a task to delete it. Leverage the power of the SCH task command and create automation scripts and tasks that will make your computer life easier. Summary. To view every running process and service in your computer use task list used task kill to immediately stop a running process or service. Take advantage of the SCH tasks, command and automate tasks within your system. That's it. You now know how to manage and scheduled tasks in your system. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own on. Put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture 14. System Configuration & Maintenance: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. This Lecter is all about system configuration and maintenance. We're going to learn how to schedule system shutdowns. All restarts what power plans are on, how to configure them as well as how to scan and correct farm system on disk errors Shut down system. Let's start with shutdown. You can use the shutdown command to schedule a shut down or restart for your computer. For example, typing the following command will shut down your computer in two hours. Change the minus T parameter to adjust the time in seconds to abort a scheduled shutdown used the minus a parameter. You can also type shut down slash r slash o To restart your computer on launch The Advanced Our Options menu, which is especially useful for troubleshooting Windows problems. You can even schedule restarts or shutdowns for remote computers using the slash M parameter, followed by the name of your remote computer. Scroll through the outputs of the help command form or information power configuration with power C F G. You can control your computer's power settings as well as any hibernate or stand by states . Your computer uses a table of information to determine how it should consume power on din. Which situation it should be in a specific state, for example, everything from whether the computers should hibernate or sleep when the power button is pressed toe. Whether or not of power saving profile for any PC I express devices should be enabled. This assortment of information is called a power scheme or plan using power. C f g slash l weaken List all the power plans Our computer use its along with Guo Idea. The Asterix, next to a power plant, denotes the power scheme that is currently in use. To display the contents of your current power configuration plan, use the slash Q Parameter. If you want to change a setting within your power plan, use the following syntax. Replace the slash set eight see Value Index with slash set D C. Value index. To make the setting applicable for when the computer is on battery power, use their slash l and slash Q parameters to find the appropriate geo ID's. The setting index option specifies which value from the list to use. For example, zero equals the first on the list in my case. For example, if I wanted to change the behavior off the power button while plugged in, I would have to type the following. There are many things you could configure with the power C f G command scrolling through the list of your power plans contents and make any changes you deem necessary. System and Dr Checking. When you suspect that there is an issue with your Windows fans, the S F C command can come in very handy. S f C stands for system final checker and as the name implies, it can check and correct errors on all the protected system files on D l l s to initiate a scan used the slash scan Now parameter. Keep in mind that the command must be run in an administrator Command prompt on that. It can take quite a long time to complete. Remember to restart your computer afterwards. Upon its completion. Ah, lock file will be created at the following location containing all the operations that the SFC command undertook. You can even use the SFC command to scan for errors in other Windows installations from a recovery drive or first drive to do so. Simply type the following the off boot dire parameter specifies the boot drive letter on the off wind I parameter the Windows Directory usually slash windows Apart from scanning and repairing Windows Farms, you can use the check this command to look for any far system errors or bad sectors on your drive check disk or CHK DSK for short checks. The integrity of the file system, with its metadata on fixes any errors such as bad security descriptions, inaccurate file signs, information or time stamps on many more. While that might sound technical, basically all you need to know is that check disk fixes and corrects errors in every file in your computer to start a check type check disk, followed by the slash F and slash our parameters along with the letter of the drive. You want to scan the slash F Parameter tells the Check Disk Command to fix any errors that might arise on the slash R parameter checks for both bad sectors and any logical errors. Once again, elevated privileges are necessary on the operation can take some time to complete. It's advisable that you run both of these commands at least once every six months to ensure the health of your far system and stable operation off your computer Summary schedule, automatic shutdowns or restarts. Using these shutdown command Configure power settings in your computer using the power C F G command. Make sure to run SFC and check this commands once in a while to fix any errors that might arise in your far system or disks. That's it. You now know how to use a variety of useful tools and commands. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 15. Editing the Registry: Welcome to another lecturer off the course. This lecture is all about the Windows registry. We're going to learn what the registry is and how it's used, how to create and elite sub entries within the registry, as well as how to create, edit and delete entries. The Windows Registry. If you are a system administrator or a power user, you have probably used the Windows Registry to create, edit or delete entries. The Windows Registry is a database that stores setting for the operating system as well as its applications everything from application settings or preferences toe operating system configurations. For example, when a program is installed, entries are created in the Windows Registry that define where the program files are located or which settings used. Editing the registry instead of using the windows to you, I to edit your registry and trees, as you might have already done. You can use the command line instead using the rich command to edit the Windows Registry, you need a command prompt with administrator privileges. Before we create our first entry, we need to create a sub entry. A sub entry is a folder or container that is used to store entries to create a sub entry named My Entries, type the following right after our slash add parameter, we have the location in which we want our sub entry to be created. As you may have noticed, locations within the registry look a bit different to what they do with files or folders. In this case, our local software directory contains entries for user installed programs. Now that we have created our sub entry, let's create an entry within it to add a D word entry named my entry with a value of zero to our local software path type. The following Let's break it down the slash v parameter specifies the name of our entry slash t. The type of our entry in this case, a d word and slash D specifies the data of our entry. Let's jacket file value was added successfully by using the query parameter, followed by the location and name of our entry on entry with the correct value has indeed being created to delete an entry simply used the delete parameter, followed by the location and name of your entry press y to confirm the operation. Similarly, to delete an entire sub entry used a slash V A parameter, which tells the Reg command toe. Also delete any entries within this sub entry. There are several more parameters, which you can use to perform a number of operations to your registry. Look through the output of the Help command to find them all. Be careful when making changes to your registry, especially when deleting entries. The wrong command. Convey very easily break your computer. Summary. The Windows Registry is a database that stores settings for the operating system as well as its applications used to bridge command. On the query parameter. To view your registry, create or delete entries or sub entries using the Reg command on the add or delete parameters. That's it. You now know what the Windows registry is and how to modify it from the command line. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture 16. Troubleshooting Networks: Welcome to another lecture of the course. This lecture is all about commands and tools that are specific to network troubleshooting. If you were not familiar with networks or do not intend to use the command line in the networking capacity. Feel free to skip this section. Otherwise, let's get started. We're going to learn how to resolve network connectivity issues from the command line. How to view every active network connection in your computer, and how to view various information such as which ports are active, which applications initiate connections. Ping. Ping can help you resolve internet or network connectivity issues by sending packets to your destination and awaiting a response type pin followed by a URL or IP address, you will see the reply from the server letting you know it exists, as well as the amount of time the interaction took. Tracer T. Trace a t can be used to visually identify exactly where the problem occurs when a packet gets sent and received from its destination. City, as the name implies, traces each stop on the route the packet takes to reach your destination and tells you information about each of them. To use it. Type tracer T followed by your destination URL or IP. Path paying. Path ping is a more advanced version of ping, as well as a combination of ping and trace, a t path ping sends pink commands to every stopper packet takes to reach your destination over a period of time, resulting in a detailed report. Its usage is similar to both path and trace. A t simply type path ping followed by your destination URL or IP. The operation can take quite a long time to complete, and thus tracer T is usually preferred. However, the extra information it provides can be especially useful at times. Netstat. Netstat stands for network statistics and as the name suggests, it can be used to display various information about your network connections, such as which application is establishing connections, which ports are being used, and various other statistics. You can use this information to troubleshoot or manage your network as well as its connections. Typing netstat by itself for display every active connection in your computer along with the protocol, the location and remote address, as well as whether the connection is currently active or not. Once you are done, press Control and C to stop the execution of the command or the output of the netstat command can be a bit messy and confusing. You can use several parameters to filter sought or display more information about the network connections. Start with slash a, which will display every active port sorted by its number. The slash E parameter, which will display various information such as the number of packets sent and received, the number of errors that have occurred, and more. Finally, we have the slash b parameter, which requires administrator privileges to run and will display which application is establishing a connection. There were many more parameters that can be used along with the netstat utility, browse through the output of the help command to find them out. Summary. Use ping, tracer T and path ping to troubleshoot network problems. Netstat stands for network statistics and it can be used to display various information about your network connections. Use the slash a, slash B and slash E parameters along with the netstat command to filter sought or display more information about your network connections. That's it. Now you know how to use the command line to troubleshoot, didn't it work? This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you've learned thus far. Until then, see you in the next lecture. 17. Managing Networks: Welcome to another lecture of the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn a few more central networking commands. This time, we're going to focus on commands related to network management. We are going to learn how to view various information about your network or server, how to configure your computer's routing table, and how to view or configure your Internet Protocol configuration. Ip config, type, IP config and your command line to get all sorts of information about your IP configuration and all the IP addresses your PC is currently using. A particularly useful parameter is slash flush DNS, which will completely delete your DNS cache. You can also use IP config slash release, followed by IP config slash renew to assign a new IP address to your computer. Ns lookup. Use NS lookup to find the IP of a server from a domain name. Simply type NS lookup followed by the domain name you want to resolve. Alternatively, you can perform a reverse lookup by entering an IP address and finding out the associated domain name route. You can use the route command to display or modify your computer's routing table to display your routing table type route followed by the print perimeter. To modify your routing table, use the following syntax. The minus P parameter makes your entry persistent. Without this parameter, your entry will be deleted at the next system startup. Next type the action you want to take with this entry and the IP of the destination subnet. Optionally, you can enter the subnet mask. If you don't, the defaults will be used. Then enter the gateway IP, and finally, a minus f parameter. You can specify the interface from which packets will be sent from. Make sure you know what you're doing before changing routing tables, the wrong command can break your computer's connectivity. Nets as H net S-H is an immensely powerful utility which will allow you to view or configure your Internet Protocol configuration. The net S-H command can be used to do a variety of things. Everything from viewing your Internet Protocol configuration to deleting your address resolution protocol cash, and configuring various TCP slash IP related settings. Let's start with viewing your interface configuration. To do so, simply type the following command. Let's break this command down. The net SSH command works a bit differently from other commands because it doesn't accept parameters in the usual sense, but rather accepts contexts. As the name suggests, contexts are words that provide context to the net SSH command so that it knows what to do. In this case, the interface context tells our command that the operation we want to perform is on our interfaces. The epi context specifies that we want to do something on the Internet Protocol configuration. And finally, the show config context, tell our command to show us our configuration. Apart from simply viewing information, we can use the net S-H command to perform a number of operations on our network configuration. For example, with the following command, we can delete the cache of our address resolution protocol. We can also configure our TCP slash IP Settings directly from the command line. The following command, for example, will change the static IP subnet mask and gateway IP of our local area connection interface. We can even use the net SSH command to manage our firewall. With this command, for example, we can create an exception for a specific port. These are just a few of the things that the net S-H command can do. Browse through the outputs of the help command or search the internet to find out what else it can be used for. Summary, use the IP config and NS lookup to get all sorts of information about your network or server. Use the route command to display or configure your computer's routing table. Use the net S-H command to view or configure your Internet Protocol configuration. That's it. You now know how to use the command line to manage your network. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you've learned thus far. Until then, see you on the next lecture. 18. Tips & Tricks: Welcome to another lecture off the course. In this lecture, we're going to learn a number of tips and tricks you can use on the command line to improve your efficiency and productivity. We're going to learn how to view your command history. How toe automatically complete commands. How to abort a running command on the number of other tips and tricks. Command history. Let's start by learning how to view your command history. Apart from using the arrow keys, which only displays your previous commands one by one, you can type dusky slash history to view your entire command history. If having to type a command every time you want to be, your history sounds like a chore. You can simply press F seven in your keyboard on a window with your previous commands will show up. Use the arrow keys in your keyboard to navigate through them and press enter to retyped the selected command function keys. Apart from using F seven to view your entire command history, there are a number of other function keys you can use as well. Here is the full list a porter command commands like cipher or tree, can take quite a long time to complete, you occasionally might want to cancel the operation. To do that, simply press control and see a stubborn command might refuse to close with control C, in which case, press control said, which will force the command to stop one page at a time. Using a command like tree can yield a huge amount of information displayed on your screen. On it would require a lot of scrolling and searching to find exactly what you want. Thankfully, we can use the Mork Command to view the results of a command one page or even one line at a time. Simply type your command and redirect its output to the MAWR command. Press. Enter to view one line of time or space to view one page at a time. Press control. See to cancel auto complete typing. Lengthy commands can get quickly tiresome. Luckily, the command line can automatically complete commands for you. For example, let's say that we want to navigate to a folder that is located in our current directory. Let's first type CD and then press tab. We can keep pressing tap to cycle through all the folders in this directory. Auto completion works on all sorts of commands, and it's a huge time saver. Dragon Drop Path names When using the command line, you are often required to enter long parts to files or folders on. While auto completion makes it a lot easier, there is a much better solution. Simply open the folder in Windows Explorer and drag and drop it into the command line. It's full path will immediately be displayed. What Star Wars One of the coolest things you can do with the command line is that you can watch the full Star Wars Episode four directly from the command line. Yes, your hearing is not deceiving you. This might not be particularly useful, however. It is very cool toe watch the movie. First, you have to enable telnet services in your computer. Simply search for turn windows, feature on or off, and check the check box next to Telnet. After Telnet is configured, go back to your command line and type. Tell met towel dot Blinken lights dot nl on the movie will start immediately. Summary. Use your command history Auto completion on Dragon dropped To improve your productivity in the command line, cancel a command with control and see. Use the Mork Command to view the output of a command one page or one line at a time. That's it. You now know a few tips and tricks you can use on the command line. This concludes our lecture. Make sure you use the command prompt on your own and put to practice what you have learned thus far until then, see you on the next lecture. 19. Conclusion: I think this brings us to the end of this course. You now hopefully have the knowledge to complete a variety of tasks with the command line in an efficient and effective manner. Learning how to use the command line was one of the best decisions I ever made. And I'm very glad to have shared my knowledge with you. I really hope you have enjoyed this course. I have certainly enjoyed teaching. You make sure you use the command line often. So you do not forget what you've learned until then. See you on the next course. Goodbye, okay?