Wild, Sour and Acidic Beers | Marty Nachel | Skillshare

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Wild, Sour and Acidic Beers

teacher avatar Marty Nachel, Beer Me

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (38m)
    • 1. Introduction to Wild Sour and Acidic Beers

      1:39
    • 2. 1

      6:42
    • 3. 2

      13:54
    • 4. 3

      7:36
    • 5. 4

      3:58
    • 6. 5

      4:14
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About This Class

At one time in brewing history, beers that turned sour were considered contaminated and undrinkable and they were dumped down the drain.  Today, sour beers are extremely popular in the craft beer market, but unfortunately, they're cause for much confusion among consumers.  This course will help set everyone straight.

This course covers all the bases, from traditional sour beer styles from around the world to "wild" ales brewed around the block.  Beer souring organisms and methods are covered in great detail.

This course is taught by professional beer judge, beer educator and the author of "Beer for Dummies" and "Homebrewing for Dummies", Marty Nachel

Meet Your Teacher

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Marty Nachel

Beer Me

Teacher

* Author, "Beer for Dummies", "Homebrewing for Dummies"

* Beer Education Director for Tapville Social 

* Advisory Board member and adjunct instructor, College of DuPage (IL) "Business of Craft Beer" certificate program

* Professional International Beer Judge- Great American Beer Festival, World Beer Cup, Festival of Barrel Aged Beers, Copa Cerveza de Americas 

* Draught Master and former trainer for the Heineken brand

 

 

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to Wild Sour and Acidic Beers: hello and welcome to wild, Sour and acidic. Very I'll be your course instructor. My name is Marty Natural and the author of Beer for Dummies and Home Brewing for Dummies. I've been a professional beer judge as well as a beer educator for over 20 years, of course, project for this course, since the real pleasure of experiencing wild, sour and acidic beers tasting it. The course project is simply to seek out and try at least three different beer styles that were acidified in each of three different ways, and you'll understand what that means made around this course, when I talk more about the different beer styles that are acidified or or sour. If you're a home brewer, consider salary one of your beers based on established beer style. And before I move on with the rest of this course, I need to talk about the word sour. It seems to be a catch all word that is used to describe any beer that has even a little little spit of acidity in it. What is important to understand is that there are several different sour beer styles, and we will be talking about those There are different salary organisms that are responsible for souring beer. And there are different souring methods that could be used by brewers in order to create seller or acidified beers. So that brings us to the end of the intro. Be sure and come back or part one. We will talk in great detail about wild, soured, acidic beers chairs. 2. 1: Hello and welcome to Part one and wild soured, acidic beers. In this segment, I'm gonna talk about more specifically about what it means for a beard to be wild sour or citic, it's center. It's important to understand that sour beers have been a part of brewing reality throughout the millennia. Typically, sour flavored beer was considered a negative in centuries past. Brewers did what they could to avoid letting their freshly brewed beer go sour. But in today's marketplace is considered a very viable option. What this means, really is that in the old days, brewers tried to protect their beers from going sour. If they brewed in warm weather, there seemed to be a higher incidence of beers going sour, and thus they were considered bad and they were typically dumped. But now we know that there are several different beer styles that are intended to be sour, and today's craft brewers are going out of their way to make these very specifically so about today's acidic beers. The reason why they've been such a hit is because they brought in the beer flavor spectrum . In addition to all the other beer flavours out there, these new acidic, sour beers are creating this whole new platform for a difference flavor of beer. They pull up the flavor spectrum. Acidic beers today are considered a sociable middle ground between adventurers, beer drinkers and adventurous wine state with drinkers. In other words, there are a lot of wine drinkers who may not have. I consumed a lot of beer prior to the advent of sour beers. But now that the summer veers exist, it's attracting wind records to the full than once. Wine drinkers have this option of drinking a an acidified beer. Then it kind of draws them into taste a lot of other beers from the craft beer market. Now I want to talk about three different stages of a six year. What I mean by this is how do we tell the difference, Um, different beers that are soured or acidified apart? I would like to address how the brewer, uh, comes to brewing a sour, acidified beer. The 1st 1 is an unintentional, acidic beer. It's beer that went bad as a result of a mistake at the brewery pour beer handling of poorly maintained equipment. In other words, the brewer did not set out to make an acidic or sour beer. He just screwed up, and the end result was a sour acidified beer. The second situation we're talking about an intentionally acidic beer that means a brewer wanted to make a beer according to style. In other words, the recipe was designed to produce a sour tasting beer, and lastly, there's the anticipated acidic here that's a matter of wood. Aging is predicted influence on the finished beer. In this situation, we're talking about brewers brewing a regular beer, essentially a non acidic beer and non sour beer. But putting it into a vessel, something like a barrel or a food drug, and allowing the bacteria in the wood to take over that beer and Acidifying or salary so unintentional, intentional and anticipated. We can also talk about the different acid flavor intensities in beer. We can look at these in order at the lowest end of the flavor spectrum. We would refer to something being acidic or sour, being just simply tart. Maybe you remember when you were younger, or maybe more recently you may have tried candy called a sweet tart. Obviously, it has a little bit of that tartness on the palate. That's what makes it so interesting. And then we can graduate up to what we would call tangy. If you're a fan of Chinese food and you like sweet and sour sauce, those sauces tend to be pretty tangy on the palate. Next, we would talk about something being straight up sour, and again I'm gonna refer to Candies are, uh, Candies out there that are intentionally very sour. I think you're a sour patch. Kids was the name of one of them. Might my kids used to eat them, But anyway, straight up, seller on the palate. Following that, we can refer to something being very puckering. This goes beyond sour. This, uh, an instance that I can give you is, let's say you took a lemon and cut that lemon in half, and then you just squeeze the juice of the lemon directly into your mouth. You swish that around a solid that would create a very luxury sensation in your mouth. And lastly, I'm sure everyone is at least somewhat familiar with vinegar. This isn't a very intensely cellar character on the palate. It's actually it can be so intense to be unpleasant. So we go from Tartu, tangy to soured a cookery too vinegary, a quick word about the difference between acidic versus acetic now acidic, as you can see on the panel on the left. From an adjective point of view, acidic means having a pH of less than seven on the scale or having the strength to neutralize elk allies. In a very general sense, acidic means having a sour taste. So many different beers out there have a sour taste, so we can say that they are sick. Uh, in the right hand panel, you see acetic, and that means very specifically pertaining to vinegar acetic acid. Otherwise, notice vinegar has a very distinctive sour taste and pungent smell that sets it aside from all the different types of acids. Vinegar is often produced by fermentation and a subsequent oxidation of ethanol, which is the alcohol produced during fermentation. So there are different beers that are strictly acidic, and under our beers that can actually be a civic media. They take on the character of vinegar, and you can actually tell the difference between them. And I will talk more about this one to talk about beer styles coming up in the next part. Be sure and come back for sports on the different beer styles, this is the end of part one here. 3. 2: Okay, Welcome back to part two of sour, acidic and wild beers. We're gonna take a look a traditional sour beer styles. But before I jumped into the actual beer styles, I want to talk about subdividing them into very two very simple categories. 1st 1 is what I refer to is being a simple sour beer category. All of these originate in what we consider modern day Germany. The second grouping would be what I consider the more complex sour beer styles that originate in modern day Belgium. Simple sour beers are exemplified by clean, one dimensional, refreshing acidity, usually just lactic. Soured is complex. Sour beers are exemplified by layered multi dimensional funk and acidity, occasional displaying vinegary notes. So simple versus complex that's compare simple sour beers are not only simple tasting, they're easier to make, which means that could be produced rather quickly. Complex beers and Natalie complex tasting. They're difficult and time consuming to make, which means they take patients to produce. Thus, American craft brewers produced much larger quantities of simple sour beers, and very few of them makes our beer sales that have any depth and complexity. So here's a quick look at the two different groupings on the left hand side, You see what I call the simple sours or the Germanic styles? It's Go za lifted Heiner in Berlin device. And on the right hand side, you see the more complex Belgian style sour beers. I would include slanders Brownell otherwise noticed, Will Bruin Flanders Red Ale, limbic and good. So now we're gonna take a look at all of these In no particular order. I'm just going to run through all seven of them, starting with Berliner advice. The name itself Berliner Vice. This is a style that comes to us from Berlin. That's the Berliner and vice W I S s in German means white. Essentially, this is a very pale beer. Some refer to it as being white or vice. The fact that they dropped an E at the end of this word, I really don't know what the source of that is. I can only assume that that's their way of tell. You depart from what would have a better be known as the very advice, which is from the state of the very, which is, uh, it is a different location. Germany, Parts of the South anyway, the overall impression of Berlin devices a very pale, refreshing, low alcohol German wheat beer with a clean lactic soreness. Any Britannia? My sees Funk is restrained now, pretending my sees. You don't need to know what that is right now. I'll be talking about it in greater depth. As we move through this course. Just keep in mind that it's what we referred to as being a wild yeast for the aroma. A sharply sour character is dominant. It's moderate to moderately high for flavor. It's a clean, lactic somberness that dominates. It could be quite strong. The sovereign is provides the balance in the beer rather than the house may have a restrained, funky pretending mice's character again, there's that while you still refer to general comments, this beer is often served with the addition of a shot of sugar syrups, otherwise known as mitt shoes. In German, that means they're flavored with raspberry flavored syrup, otherwise known as him beer Woodruff, which is also known as Bob Meister to counter the substantial, soured ISS of this beer style. In terms of its history, this is a regional specialty of Berlin. It was referred to by Napoleon's troops in 18 09 as the champagne of the North. Due to its lively and elegant character, it's become increasingly rare in Germany. Many American craft brewers now regularly produced the style second style we're taking you look at here is called Go Za. And yes, you heard that right? It's two syllables. Go za. This is also a dramatic style. The overall impression is that it's a tart and fruity wheat ale with a restraint. Corey entered Salt Character. Both of those ingredients are using this beard, both coriander and salt, as far as its aroma has a light. Soured is that could be slightly sharp acidity and coriander can give a bright, lively impression to this. Beer, in terms of its flavors, has moderate, noticeable sourness, like a squeeze of lemon and ice. Tea acidity balances the multi. You said it could be more noticeable in the finish and enhance the refreshing quality of beer. Acidity is always balanced. Not very forward Comments about this beards that the historical versions may have been more sour than modern examples due to spontaneous fermentation. We'll talk about that term in a little while as well. Modern examples are inoculated with lack of bacillus and are more balanced when we talk about being inoculated. That means the brewer adds the lack of the Selous, so therefore, the finished beer will be more balanced as far as the history of the style. It's a minor style associated with the town of Light Sig, but originated in the Middle Ages. In the town of Goes Lower on the Goes. A river production declined significantly after World War One and ceased entirely in 1966. Modern production was revived in the 19 eighties, but the beer is not widely available in Germany. You can actually find more of them here in the United States, the third and last of the dramatic styles, this one is lifted Hiner overall impression of this beer. It's a sour smoked, lower gravity German wheat beer. It's complex. Get refreshing with a lobe interest and moderate Souris aromas. Moderately fresh, smoky aroma with light hits of soured is flavor has moderate intensity. Clean lactics Otterness. No funk has a dry finish with a city and smoke in the aftertaste. Mo bitterness is experienced. It's the acidity that provides the balance in the aftertaste. General comments, This beers served young smoke and sour is an unusual combination that is not necessarily for everyone as far as its history. It originated in lifting Hein in state of Thueringen in central Germany. The height of popularity was towards the end of the 18 hundreds and was widely available throughout during Um, there are very, very, very few examples of Lichten Heiner available in the United States. The only time that I personally have experienced it, it was when I judge at the Great American Beerfest. So now we're gonna be taking a look at the more complex Belgian style beers. The 1st 1 is the Flanders Red Ale. The overall impression of this beer. It's a sour, fruity red wine like Belgian style ale. You're aromas complex. Rudy. It has a complex, very sour profile. The sour aroma raters from balanced toe, intense. The flavor of sour flavor ranges from complementary too intense and can have an acidic bite generally as a sour character increases, the mall character blends two more of a background flavor and vice versa. It's the flavor is dominated by the fruity, sour wine like impression of this period. General comments, long aging and blending of a young and well age beer together often occurs, adding to the smoothness and the complexity of this beer. It is more wine like than any other beer style. Flanders Red is more acetic but never vinegary as far as its history. This is an indigenous beer of West Flanders, which is one of the states in Belgium, and it's reflective of earlier brulee traditions. Beers age for up to two years offered a huge oaken barrels, which contained the resident bacteria necessary to sour this beer. So moving on to a beer style that is similar but not the same. This is Flanders brown Ale, otherwise known as Would Bruin. In Belgium, Its aroma is a low, sour aroma. It can modestly increase with age. The flavor is of a light, a slight sour nous. It often becomes more pronounced in well aged examples, along with some sherry like character producing a sweet and sour profile. Your overall impression is of a multi fruity, aged, somewhat sour Belgian beer style. It's actually a brown ile. Thus far is its history. This has what we call an old ale tradition that's indigenous to East Flanders. Historically, it was brewed as a provisioned beer that would develop some soured ist as it age Flanders Red beers are aged in oak, but the brown beers, air aged, warm in stainless steel are the comments he owed. Bruin is less acetic and multi er than a planet red, and the fruity flavors are much more multi oriented. Next up is the Long Beak, which is also from Belgium. The overall impression of this beer is a fairly sour, often moderately funky wild Belgian wheat beer, with soured is taking the place of hot bitterness in the balance. Traditionally spontaneously fermented in the Brussels area and served one carbonated. The refreshing acidity makes for a very pleasant cafe drink. It has a decidedly sour aroma. It's often dominant in young examples, but may become more subdued with age as it blends with aromas. Describe his barnyard, earthy goatee. Hey, Orsi! And horse blankets. Unusual combination there. Where is the flavor? Young examples are often noticeably lactic. Solid agent could bring this character Maurin balance with the malls, and it's barnyard characteristics. Somberness provides the balance in this beard. Comments are straight. Number X are single batch UNB, lended beers. They're generally served very young six months or younger. Younger versions tend to be one dimensionally sour, since a complex Brett character often takes upwards of a year to develop again, Brett is in reference to the pretend of my sees that wild use that I'll be talking about shortly. And in terror, character is often indicative of a lambic that is too young. And for those of you not familiar with the term and Terek that means of the elementary canal or basically, that's just caught poopy and regards to its history. This is a spontaneously fermented wild ale from the area in and around Brussels, in the Seine River valley. It stems from a farm hospital in tradition that is several centuries old. Last but not least, we'll take a look at a style that's known as Bouza. This is also Belgian, and goose is not necessarily a style into itself. But let me go ahead and read through this before I explain. The overall impression is of a complex, pleasantly sour but balanced wild Belgian wheat beer. This the spontaneous fermentation character and provide complexity with a wide range of wild burn yard horse Bennett blanket or leather characteristics, intermingling with a secrecy, fruity flavors and acidity. It's aromas moderately sour. It blends with the Romans describe his barnyard leather earth. Igoeti. Hey, horsey horse blanket. While some may be more dominantly sour, balance is really the key. Flavors has a moderately sour character. It's classically in balance with the malt and barnyard characteristics. While some may be more dominantly sour again, balance is the key. Sour nous provides most of the balance and finishes crisp right and tart as far as the comments. Gaza is traditionally fermented absolute, produced by mixing 12 and three year old London. Young love Vic contains for mental sugars, while old London has the characteristic wild taste of the Seine River valley, and that would be in reference to the town of mice. Historically, this is a spontaneously fermented wild here, hail from the area in and around Brussels. It stems from a farm hospital, Ian, blending tradition several centuries old, not explain a little bit more about Bouza. It starts out as a long beak, which is the previous beer Salado spoke about, but Lahm beak is a single beer. It Gaza is a combination of different vintages of Le Beek. So again, goose is not necessarily a style into itself. It is a mixture or a blend of different lum beaks. I hope you got all that. If not, you make after you watch. Meanwhile, this brings us to the end of part two. Be sure to come back to your part. Three. To find out how the different beer styles are soured, Jerry. 4. 3: Welcome back to Ah, wild, sour and acidic veers were down Part three. We're going to talk about the different methods that are used to sour beer. There are actually several different ways that piers could be soured. Here. I have listed at least five starting with before boiling. In other words, before they even complete the mash, brewers can actually sour the mash. I notice our mashing it could take place during the Boyle, and this would be known as kettle souring in the brew kettle. It could be at fermentation time, which would be the normal time that a brewer pitches different beasts into the beer. This would be the time to pitch different wild yeasts and or bacterias into the beer to create the intended sour beer. It can happen by spontaneous fermentation, and that would mean that airborne microbes would inoculate work with the different bacterias and while UST's or it could be post fermentation. In other words, a brewer would brew a beer, fermented normally and then transferred into different vessels like wooden barrels. Or wouldn't Boudreau's, where there are microbes harbored within the wood that would then Acidifying or sour the beard. Let's take a closer look at these with regards to sour mash in the kettle salary. Uh, we know that bacteria is naturally present on the grain when it comes from the monsters. Lacto bacillus is very prevalent on grain. So if a brewer were to, uh, mill his grain and then infuse it with water in his mashed on, if he allowed that to sit well, let's say 24 to 48 hours. The lack of Vasilis, naturally on the grain, would basically take over that mash and salary in Mash Tun. Now there is also a product called Situated Malt. It comes from the Malta it monster already with acid content, so a brewer, simply by adding a simulated multi his mash, can also Acidifying the mash. In that way, there is also a product called food grade lactic acid. A brewer can simply measured out electric acid and add it to the beer. Whatever ah, stage, he thought was appropriate. Lastly, I know brewers who actually prefer to work with something a little bit more natural. In this case, yogurts contain live cultures and even Kiefer, which is a live culture milk. They simply add measured doses of either the yogurt for the milk to their mash or their beer to Acidifying. Now, in terms of limitation of post fermentation, a brewer following creating a beer brewing the beer, he would then consciously add a certain type of yeast to start fermentation. Well, in this situation, if he's making a sour citified, beardy simply adds the appropriates, yeasts or bacteria is that he wants to do the work for him. Otherwise, like the some Belgian brewers do, they allow spontaneous fermentation to take place. In other words, they go ahead and they brew the beer. But they do not pitch the yeast or add any extraneous used. They simply rely on Mother Nature to supply the micro flora that includes the wild Houston bacterias that will set upon this beer in an open fermenter and start limitation spontaneously. Last been. At least there is the option to take a beer that was fermented regularly with regular sacrum, ICI's Ust's and I'll put that beer into either wood barrels, air food orders and the whatever bacterias or used residents in the wood of those vessels that would then acidified I or sour beers. Let's go back and revisit the concept of spontaneous fermentation. As I mentioned, the brewer does not add any specific yeasts or bacterias. He simply allows Mother Nature to supply everything he needs from fermentation. The word is exposed to air and is inoculated with the micro flora unique to the region. Yeast such as Britannia, My sees Brooks alliances and lumber. Cas Sacharow, my see service yet which is considered a regular Alieu and bacteria such as PD a caucus. Enter Oh Lactobacillus in a cedar backer can be present and can take over and do the fermentation off the beer. Up to 100 different 120 different yeast and bacteria have been found in cool work. They enter from the outside air and from the wooden timbers in the brewery. For this reason, lambic brewers in Belgium are wary of changing anything in the brew houses for fear of disturbing the centuries old microcar. This picture gives you an idea of how spontaneous fermentation takes place. What you're looking at, this is called a cool ship. This is basically one large, open pan into which the hot beer sport and you could see that taking place right now, This particular cool ship this picture was taken at a very famous brewery known as Conte Young, and this is in Brussels, Belgium, and this beer, As I mentioned, this is called a cool ship. The beer's poured into this vessel and allowed to sit uncovered overnight, and the bureau will eventually cool and you could see in the background there are vents or louvers in the wall through which air can pass. The outside air can come into the brewery, carrying all of the micro flora. The bacteria's in the wild, use from out of doors and allow it to inoculate beer sitting in the cool shit. All right, so that's spontaneous fermentation. Now we're gonna take a look at the last part where the brewer puts his otherwise clean veer into wooden vessels and loves that the bacteria's in the wood to do the work. Brewers. No, that is part of barrel aging experimentation that microbes may also be present in the wood of the vessels they used. Wild Houston bacterias can result in anticipated flavors in the finished beer. Some are desirable, some are not so desirable, and it bears noting at this point time that not all barrel aged beers, air sour and not all sour beers are barely leaves. And this reason why I need to say this is because napped all barrel would is infected with bacteria's. And while used some barrels are, uh, cleaned and maintained clean so they don't go off and grow wild things that shouldn't be there. So it's possible for brewers to use these barrels for doing their regular barrel aging without selling appear. And then not all sour beers get their character by being put into a barrel or a food group . So that is the end of part three. Be sure come back or Part four were to talk about the different organisms that I used to sour beer Cheers. 5. 4: welcome back to wild, sour and acidic beers we are now in part for We're talking about beer souring organisms. Now you've already heard me mention several of these already in previous segments. But beers that are sour typically come in contact with views, wild yeasts or bacteria. 1st 1 on the list there is Bataan Oh my sees, followed by Lactobacillus of I p A Caucus. And lastly, there is a seat of actor. Now you see that there's an asterisk next to Bataan, Um, Ici's that is actually wild yeast. It is not bacteria. I see that very being. It's becoming a very common mistake that people think the pretender my sees is bacteria when it is not the last two syllables on that word. My sees suggests that it's a fungus, and yeast is in the fungus family. So 10 of mice is is definitely wild. Used lacto bacillus p A caucus in the CDA. Bakker, however, are definitely bacteria. And, uh, we were talking about these individually coming up right about now. Um, lack. The Vasilis is a beer souring microbe that creates lactic acid. It also sellers milk. Thus, the Lacko part of the name PDO caucuses, a beer souring bacteria that is anaerobic and is therefore a major potential spoiling bacteria and any beer know what that means? Anaerobic means it does not need to have contact with oxygen or air. It's able to function and aerobically or without oxygen or air so it can work in many different places. Uh, spoiling your beer. One of the major flavored developments as a result of peacocks and beer is dass. It'll and Astle is a buttery aroma and flavor. So if you ever you ever drinking a beer that has a buttery aroma and flavor, it may have the early science of peacocks contamination last time. This list is a seed of actor suit of Active produces acetic acid. When beer gets infected with a suit of actor, it is on its way to becoming malt vinegar. So here are, uh, those three, once again pretending my sees being wild yeast. You can see that at the top of microorganism type. It says very clearly it is used, whereas the other two are both bacteria. Uh, pay attention here to where the beers are. I'm sorry. Were the yeasts and bacteria found different beer styles you see for the 10 0 my See, it's founded Wild Beers SE Zone and other farmhouse style ales, along with broom lambic and Flanders Red Ale. The lack of Vasilis is often found in goes a little advice, and Flanders red and brown beers will be cold. Gruenigen P. A ka kiss is often found in London. Good sir, Happier Saleh beers because it's more hop tolerant and lack of the service. And it's also phone and planners red and Flanders round ears Leslie. On the list is a set of active Sita backers responsible for producing vinegar. My oxidizing ethanol toe acetic acid. Many beer souring organisms find oxygen or the production of alcohol during fermentation to be detrimental to their viability. See the back to requires oxygen to convert alcohol to acetic acid. So there you have it, those of the bad boys that create all these interesting and wonderful sour and acidified fears that we all enjoy. This brings us to the end of part four cheer 6. 5: Okay. Welcome back to wild sour and acidic beers were now in part five, the last part. We're gonna be talking about 10 of my sees, and this is where the whole wild concept in while fails wild beers comes from we're talking about when this entire segment is dedicated to pretend, um, I see. So let's take a closer look. The town of my sees the name itself means British fungus. It was British brewers who discovered this wild used many years ago so that this is how they gave him credit. They named it after them. As you can tell by the title of this segment, it's the tandem. Isis is also known simply as Brett. Very often you'll see it written this way on brewer menus or brewery chalkboards. They simply refer to them as Brett fears. As I mentioned many times already, the 10 of mice is is a wild use. It is not the bacteria. There are many, many different strains of bread, probably several dozen different strains. Brett and but one thing that is more or less a constant about all of them is that it has a strong barnyard character in a movie called a sweaty horse blanket Romo, and for beers that have live Brett cultures in them, they may continue to change. Every six months of this was a beer that you were cell oring or holding onto for any particular reason. Character of that appears likely to change over time. Just to give you an idea, I mentioned that there are many different strains of the tandem ICI's. These are just some of the more popular ones used. It worries Rex alliances close an eye and lumber cas again many, many more. Something else that brewers are well aware of. Brett is very voracious. It will even eat cellulose in the barrel would of that's a in Oakland barrel or a wooden food group. Most regular beer yeasts are no to consume approximately 75 to 80% of the available sugars in beer and that last 20 or 25%. Sugar content is considered residual sugar, and that's what leaves the beer with just a little bit of sweetness in it. Well, when you introduce no the town of Macy's to the beer, the bread will continue eating a lot more of those sugars that the regular Berries won't, so it will usually leave the resulting beer very, very dry again. Like I said, it's it's voraciously will be a lot of different things regular, very small and bread is also responsible for imbuing beer with a lot of different, unusual. And some might think, even bizarre aromas and flavours. And you could see from this we're talking about the small of a wet dog or sweaty armpits. There's urine, fecal, uh, aromas associated with the beer barnyard character phenolic such as plastic or smoke. And there's that horse blanket aroma that I referred to before. So if I haven't turned you off to Brett Beers or wild beers yet, and you really want to find out what threat is all about this particular beer, this brand comes to us from Belgium is considered the world exemplar of great beer. Uh, it's called or ball, and it is exported here to the United States. It's fairly widely available. It's not inexpensive. That single bottle you see in front of you locally will cost me about $6. But if you're furthering your beer education and you want to know what Brett Beer is all about, that would be the beard to try. So that brings us to the end of part five. It also brings us to the end of this course on wild, soured, acidic beers. I hope you enjoyed it. Hope you learned something. Cheers.