Why They Buy Module #3 Motivation to Buy | Michael Solomon | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Why They Buy Module #3 Motivation to Buy

teacher avatar Michael Solomon, Expert on Consumer Behavior

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

9 Lessons (44m)
    • 1. Introduction to Motivation

    • 2. 3.0 An Overview of Customer Motivation

    • 3. 3

    • 4. 3

    • 5. 3

    • 6. 3

    • 7. 3

    • 8. 3

    • 9. 3

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

To understand motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do. Why do some people choose to bungee-jump off a bridge or compete on reality shows, whereas others spend their leisure time playing chess or gardening? Whether it is to quench a thirst, kill boredom, or attain some deep spiritual experience, we do everything for a reason, even if we can’t articulate what that reason is. We teach marketing students from Day 1 that the goal of marketing is to satisfy consumers’ needs. However, this insight is useless unless we can discover what those needs are and why they exist. A beer commercial once asked, “Why ask why?” In this module



we’ll find out.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Michael Solomon

Expert on Consumer Behavior


Hello, I'm Michael.  Here's some background about me and what I do:

Michael “wrote the book” on understanding consumers. Literally. Hundreds of thousands of business students have learned about Marketing from his 30+ books including Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being -- the most widely used book on the subject in the world.

 Michael’s mantra: We don’t buy products because of what they do. We buy them because of what they mean. He advises global clients in leading industries such as apparel and footwear (Calvin Klein, Levi Strauss, Under Armour, Timberland), financial services and e-commerce (eBay, Progressive), CPG (Procter & Gamble, Campbell’s), retailing (H&M), sports (CrossFit, Philadelphia Eagles), manufacturing (DuPont... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • 0%
  • Yes
  • 0%
  • Somewhat
  • 0%
  • Not really
  • 0%
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. Introduction to Motivation: Hey there. I'm betting that at one point or another, you've wrestled with a very basic problem, and that is how to engage your customers. Very often, those customers might seem jaded or distracted or bored or apathetic. And I know that can be very frustrating to you because, after all, you're selling the best possible product or service in the world. So why aren't they getting? We're excited about it. Well, I'm Michael Solomon again, back to you with module number three In my course on why we buy. And in this module we're going to talk a bit about motivation. That is the factors that make it more or less likely, that consumers will basically exert the effort to learn about your product or service and to be engaged with that. So we're gonna talk about some factors that make it more likely that your customers will be engaged, and we're also going to see that Hey, it's not always possible for customers to jump up and down and get excited about every single thing that's available out there. Some things they're just not that engaging. They may be functional and useful, but they're not going to keep you up at night, so we're going to see that there are different strategies available for relatively uninvolved consumers. And so just because you're consumers are not jumping up and down doesn't mean you have to fold your tent and go home. So please join me in this module, and we're going to see what it is that really gets people excited and what you can do to move them at least a little bit more in that direction. 2. 3.0 An Overview of Customer Motivation: We're starting module number three, which focuses on motivation and emotion. Motivation is a key question for marketers because it all boils down to a simple word. And that word is why? Why do consumers do what they do? That is the $64 million question. It's not enough to know what they do. We need to know why they do it, because the next time around they may do something totally different. We need to understand the why in addition to the what, So to understand motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do. Why is it that some people are diehard Coca Cola fanatics and others prefer Pepsi, while others, of course, don't drink any kind of carbonated beverage at all? Why are some people, vegetarians or even vegans? This is a very complicated question, much more complicated than it first appears. It's not about just boycotting meat. For example, some people are vegetarians for health reasons. Some people are vegetarians for social reasons, such as being opposed to animal cruelty. There could be a variety of motivations here. Some people are just doing it because it's a fat and they want to impress their friends. We don't really know why they're doing it. We know what they're eating, but we don't necessarily know why. So in this module, we're going to dig a little deeper into some of the motivations that consumers display, and hopefully you'll be able to apply these questions to your own products and services. 3. 3: Let's start this module with a simple but very important statement, and that is that products concert at ISF I a range of consumer needs. As we saw in the brief discussion about vegetarians in the last section, people do the same behavior for many different reasons. So in marketing, it's extremely important to get beneath the surface and figure out again not just what people do, but why they do it. We also know that motives have direction as well, a strength that means that some motives are focused on attaining a goal, and others are focused on avoiding a goal. We like some things we don't like others. We want some things. We don't want others, and we might work equally hard to either attain the goal or avoid it. How hard are we going to work to attain that goal? Well, that depends on the strength of the motivation. So essentially the more relevant or important the need, the harder we're going to work to attain it. That just makes sense. That's why it's important to look not only at what we want to achieve, but how badly we want to achieve it. So motives are goal oriented. They drive us to satisfy a specific need. We don't behave at random for the most part, but rather our behaviors are intended to get us over the finish line. But what is that finish line? That's that's the question that marketers have to answer. What is that ultimate goal that your customers air trying to achieve? Once you identify that goal, it becomes much easier to help your customers reach that goal, and they're going to reward you for that help with a lot of loyalty. So to understand that the same product can satisfy different needs, let's take a look at a vintage commercial from 1962 for a brand of deodorant that no longer exists. I bought the fresh stick just as you told You're absolutely right. It's unique and quick it goes on drop did make me feel cool and sweet. Just as you said. I did everything you said. But my boss still hasn't asked me to lunch. Unlike some deodorants, Fresh doesn't guarantee you'll get ahead in business. All fresh does is keep you fresh when you think of it. That's quite a lot now, that commercial, as you might expect from 1962 is not exactly the most enlightened statement about male female relationships. But the reason I wanted you to look at it is that it does remind us that the same basic product, like a deodorant, can satisfy different needs. Some of those needs are very functional, like keeping you dry, and others are much more intangible and complicated, such as getting promoted or getting a date with your boss. It's useful for us to divide needs into two broad categories. A utilitarian need involves the tangible attributes of products such as MPG in a car. The amount of fat, calories and protein in a cheeseburger were the durability of a pair of blue jeans. In contrast, hedonic needs are subjective and experiential. Here we might look to a product to meet our need for excitement, for self confidence or even for fantasy, perhaps to escape the mundane or routine aspects of life. So it's no coincidence that there's even a chain of adult resorts in the Caribbean known as hedonism and clearly hear the motivations are all about escaping the mundane and perhaps even engaging in fantasy 4. 3: going a bit beyond these two broad domains of needs, it's often useful to identify some specific needs that underlie motivations to buy products and services. And psychologists over the years have identified. Quite a few of these will review just a few of them here. People with a high need for achievement strongly value personal accomplishment. They place a premium on products and services that signify success because these consumption items provide feedback about the realization of their goals. So, as you might expect, people who are high in achievement motivation are good prospects for products that provide evidence of their achievement. A good example is in apparel. What kind of motivations were needs? Does clothing satisfy? And that's a very complicated question. In one study, working women who were identified as being high in achievement motivation were more likely to choose clothing that they considered business like and less likely to be interested in apparel that accentuated their femininity. Another important need is the need for power, the need to control one's environment. Many products and services allow us to feel that we have mastery over our surroundings. So, for example, the hospitality industry often caters to this need when hotels and resorts and spas claim to pamper their customers and essentially make you feel like a king or queen and and I guess to feel that you're much more valuable, perhaps, than the treatment that you might get it home. 1/3 need is the need for uniqueness or to assert one's individual identity. A classic example of a brand that strongly appealed to this need is the famous advertising campaign for cash A perfumes. The perfume no to women can share. So the tagline here for many years was cachet as individual as you are. Oh, it's time for a pop quiz. Let's see if you've been paying attention to this brief discussion about different kinds of needs. So here's the question, which is an example of satisfying and hedonic. Need a getting approval from your friends for your new car? Be figuring out how to fix the coffee maker. See being sure you are hydrated after going for a run or D scouring the newspaper for coupons before you go grocery shopping. If you picked a getting approval for your new car, you have satisfied your achievement needs because you have passed this little quiz so getting social approval is a great example of a hedonic need. And certainly this need for approval is present in many of the consumption decisions that people make. So more generally, how can we make sense of all the different needs that consumers have? Probably the most prominent framework to organize needs is found in what is called Mas loves hierarchy of needs. The psychologist Abraham, as Love, originally developed this influential hierarchy of needs to understand personal growth and how people attained spiritually or peak experiences. But of course, marketers love to adapt various frameworks that psychologists and other social scientists have developed for their own purposes. And that's certainly the case for Maslow's hierarchy. Mas loves hierarchical structure implies that the order of development is fixed. That is, we must attain a certain level before we activate a need for the next higher one. And we can see here Maz loves famous hierarchy that looks a lot like a pyramid, and we can take a look at how we might apply some of these insights to marketing campaigns or appeals. Maslov basically stated that we have lower level needs and we have higher level needs. We have to satisfy the lower level needs before we can progress up the pyramid to the more abstract, higher level needs. So we start at the bottom with are very basic physiological needs. The need for water need to sleep, the need to eat. So what? This very basic stage We're not too picky about the food we eat. For example, as we move up the ladder, we encounter safety needs the need to have a roof over your head, the need to feel protected. The need to feel secure belongingness needs reflect our desire to be accepted by others. So we want to be loved. We want to be liked the next level. Our ego needs the need to validate oneself as an individual. People who are high in achievement motivation that, as we have just discussed, are especially going to be fixated on ego needs, products that demonstrate prestige or status and finally, at the top, self actualization the kinds of experiences that Ma's love was originally interested in in marketing. We don't focus that much on self fulfillment, although we do find, especially in recent years, more of a shift away from focus on ego needs and materialism, to the need for enriching experiences, the need to feel fulfilled or even to have some kind of a spiritual connection. I guess the craze for yoga is a good example of that self actualization need. So on the left of this pyramid, you can see some examples of products that tend to focus in these various categories, such as generics for physiological needs, credit cards and country clubs for ego needs and for experiential needs. Of course, the travel industry, the education industry and hobbies. And on the right, you can see some examples of specific messaging strategies that are focusing on a particular level in MAZ loves hierarchy. So the take away here is not so much about a pyramid, but basically that your customers have to walk before they can run, identify their current needs states, and try to position your product to let them know that you can satisfy their needs where they are at right now. 5. 3: consumers are motivated sometimes to achieve a goal and other times to avoid one. So in this section we're going to look at how consumers experience motivational conflicts that can impact their purchase decisions. To do this, we have to understand that a goal has valence. This means it can be positive or negative. We direct our behavior toward goals we value positively, were motivated to approach the goal and to seek out products that will help us to reach it . However, as we saw in the learning module, sometimes we're also motivated to avoid a negative outcome rather than achieve a positive outcome. Products such as deodorants and mouthwash frequently rely on consumers negative motivation when adds to pick the onerous social consequences of underarm odor or bad breath. We refer to an approach avoidance conflict as one that occurs when we desire a goal but wished to avoid it at the same time, so sometimes were quite ambivalent about the needs we want to satisfy. For example, a woman who wears a fur coat may have some regrets about the statements she's making about animal cruelty, but still also covered the luxury and status of a fur coat And of course, we're often tempted by food products that aren't exactly too good for us. So we can kind of be caught between a rock and a hard place, and we often have to make decisions that resolve these conflicts. For example, should I spend money to fix up my old car, or should I buy a new car? So in these situations, marketers might address an avoidance avoidance conflict with messages that stress the unforeseen benefits of choosing one option. For example, when they emphasize special credit plans to ease the pain of car payments. The take away here is to identify your customers conflicts and help him or her to resolve them, much like you might address objections before you close a sale. 6. 3: I don't think it will surprise you when I say that a lot of our motivations are focused on very simply, making us feel good. People like to feel good and they don't like to feel bad. How's that for a profound statement? So your customers, emotional responses to your products and your marketing messages have a big influence on what they will buy. Let's take a quick look at a company that's been extremely successful, basically because it makes people feel good. The Zumba company started as an infomercial producer. The CEO is brother who was at the time and out of work advertising executive. I saw a movie billboard with some exuberant dancers according to his account of the story, he said immediately. I called my brother and said, You're selling the wrong thing. You're selling fitness when you should be selling this emotion. So the Zimba program began in the 19 nineties as a Colombian dance fitness program. Every week, about 14 million people in more than 150 countries take classes, So the founders of Zumba figured out something that many of us knew already, which is that many of our purchase decisions are driven by our emotional responses, and that's why emotion is so much a part of understanding your customers. Motivational states Unilever, Coca Cola and other companies today use sophisticated technology that interprets how viewers react to ads by their facial expressions. As part of its global open happiness campaign, Coca Cola set up a vending machine at the National University of Singapore, the trade's free Coke beverages for hugs. In addition to just feeling good or bad, our emotions also conserve as a source of information. When we weigh the pros and cons of a decision, the fact that owning a specific brand will make a person feel good can give it a competitive advantage, even if the brand is similar on a functional level, too other competing brands. And although we may assume that marketers want to make us happy all the time, that is hardly the case. Marketing messages can make us sad, angry or even depressed. And sometimes, believe it or not, that's done on purpose. On other occasions, marketing communications may deliberately evoked negative affect, such as regret. If you forget to play the lottery, perhaps a more productive way to harness the power of negative affect is to expose the consumer to a distressing image and then provide a way to improve it. For example, a nonprofit organization might run an ad showing a starving child when it solicits donations. Recently, we've seen a trend in advertising toward inspirational stories that manipulate our emotions like a roller coaster. Think about the commercials. Budweiser likes to run about a puppy who befriends a horse, gets lost, finds his way home. This practice even has a name. It's advertising. And, of course, when we think about what goes on online, we recognize that a lot of our social media activity involves the expression of affect, both positive and negative. We may share particularly good or bad feelings on Facebook or Twitter, or even resort to corny emoticons and texter emails to convey how we feel. A nice example of an online advertising campaign that focuses on emotions is one that's being run by Jello, featuring it's putting face mood meter. In this campaign, Jello will randomly send coupons to users it finds who type in a frowny, face emoticon on one of their social media posts. Jell O's manufacturer, craft, will monitor the Twitter sphere and the company will launch coupons whenever the national average of smiley faces dips below 51%. A technique called sentiment analysis refers to a process sometimes also called opinion mining, that scours the social media universe to collect and analyze the words people use when they describe a specific product or company. The take away your customers typically react emotionally first. Then they find logical reasons to explain how they feel. Be very mindful of the emotional content of your messages. 7. 3: at the beginning of this module, I said that motives have strength as well as direction. Obviously, the strength of the motive is extremely important to us. Consumers will work much harder and be much more motivated to satisfy a need that is extremely important or relevant in some way. And that's why the concept of involvement is really, really central to a lot of marketing decisions. The way we evaluate and choose a product depends on our degree of involvement with the product, the marketing message and or the purchase situation. So in this section will spend a little time talking about each of these types of involvement and why it's so important for you to understand how involved you were. Consumers are with your products, messages and situations. So let's start with an example to consumers buying a car first, Consumer says, I want the one I read about in the latest issue of Car and Driver magazine. It has a six cylinder turbo engine, a double clutch transmission, a 90 stroke bore and 10 to 1 compression ratio. On the other hand, consumer number two says I want a red one. Clearly, these are two very different kinds of car buyers. So involvement reflects our level of motivation to process information about a product or service that we believe will help us to solve a problem or reach a goal for that first consumer. Clearly giving him or her lots of information about the technical specifications of a car is really going to be important. While that second consumer is much more of a hedonic consumer, that is, he or she is really looking to buy a car much more on an aesthetic level. So let's think of a person's degree of involvement as a continuum that ranges from absolute lack of interest in a marketing stimulus at one end, two obsession at the other, starting at the end that is characterized by a lack of interest. Unfortunately, many purchase decisions fall into this category. Inertia describes consumption at the low end of involvement where we make decisions out of habit because we lack the motivation to consider alternatives. At the other end of the spectrum, we have cult products, cold products like Apple or, for that matter, hide rocks. Harley Davidson Jones soda Chick fil A, Manolo Blahnik, designer shoes. Think Carrie on sex in the city or the Boston Red Sox command fierce consumer loyalty, devotion and maybe even worship by consumers. Product involvement describes a consumer's level of interest in a particular product. The more closely marketers can tie a brand to the consumer, the higher the involvement level they will create. Products are more likely to be highly involving if the consumer believes there is a lot of perceived risk associated with them. This means that the person believes there may be negative consequences if he or she chooses the wrong option. So it's fair to say that any purchase involves a degree of risk. But obviously some purchases are much riskier than others, and we can go a step farther and talk about different kinds of risk. Physical risk describes the possibility that the product can actually harm us. That is, if it malfunctions, it may injure us in some way. Functional risk is Theo Extent, to which we believe that the product won't work as promised. Financial risk refers to the idea that we might lose money by making a bad decision, and then we have social risk and psychological risk. Social risk refers to the possibility that the product will create a feeling of disapproval or rejection by some group that the customer values and psychological risk involves the possibility that the product will damage one's self esteem or will somehow interfere with satisfying some of the needs we discussed earlier on in this module, such as achievement or power. So how can we minimize these types of risk? One strategy is called mass customization, and this describes the personalization of products and services for individual consumers at a mass production price. In other words, we can minimize risk to at least some extent by tailoring the product as closely as possible to an individual's characteristics or specifications. Mass customization has become a very popular technique in a lot of domains. So we see it, for example, on websites where you can customize, Let's say you're your daily newspaper so that it shows you on Lee the sections of the paper that you're most interested in seeing. We see it with computers like Dell, for example, where you can customize all the components and basically create your own system in the realm of clothing. Levi Strauss, for example, pioneered the idea of mass customization by offering blue jeans where the different components of the pants, such as each pants leg, are tailored to an individual's measurements. So to be clear, mass customization is different from having something tailor made where every component is made from scratch. But rather it's assembling components from a pre existing set to make sure that they match the customer's needs. Here's another example of mass customization. Maar Snack food introduced Eminem's faces to encourage consumers to bond with its chocolates. In other words, they're taking a simple, fairly commodity product like pieces of chocolate and now raising the level of product involvement by allowing people to put their own imprint literally on the pieces. Another way to raise the level of product involvement is to get the consumer to literally become involved in the construction of that product in some way. Researchers call this the i Kia effect. This occurs when self made or at least self assembled products including furniture, Legos and even origami enhanced the value we attached to them. Because our own labor is involved. The take away here is to turn your customers into co creators to boost involvement, particularly product involvement. To the extent that the customer participates in the production of a product. They essentially are bonding with that product and will be much more interested in what they produce than something they've just bought off the shelf. At the extreme of product involvement, we have the phenomenon of brand loyalty. This occurs when a consumer is highly involved with a specific product and really is the Holy Grail for marketers. Because if a person exhibits brand loyalty, it will be very difficult to persuade them to leave that product. So brand loyalty is repeat purchasing behavior that reflects a conscious decision to continue buying the same brand. Although we value brand loyalty, it's very hard to come by and in many categories it's more common to find some degree of brand switching. Ironically, brand switching often occurs even when our current brand does a very good job of satisfying our needs. So over and above the functional needs that product satisfies many of us have a need for variety. We literally switch for switching sake. When researchers for the British brewer Bass Export studied the American beer market, for example, they discovered that many drinkers have a repertoire of 2 to 6 favorite brands, rather than one clear favorite. So with variety seeking, we find the desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones. And sometimes we can be influenced to switch from our favorite products toe ones we like less just for the sake of variety. This can occur even before we become satiated or tired of our favorite brand. Research supports the idea that we're willing to trade enjoyment for a variety because the unpredictability itself is rewarding. 8. 3: let's talk a little bit about message involvement and message involvement is distinct from product involvement. It's it's nice to have both, but you might have one or the other. A great example of a campaign that boosted message involvement in a very innovative way was Jay Z celebrated campaign to promote his autobiographical decoded book. During this campaign, the agency Droga five created a national scavenger hunt when it hit all 320 pages of the book mostly blown up versions of those pages in outdoor spots in 13 cities that somehow related to the text on each page, for example, on cheeseburger wrappers in New York. Or, as you can see here on the lining of a jacket or even on an automobile, generally speaking print is, ah, high involvement medium, whether it appears on a dead tree or in an e book. The reader of print content has to actually process the information and, if desired, he or she is able to pause and reflect on it before turning the page. In contrast, television is a low involvement medium because it requires a passive viewer who exerts relatively little control other than some remote control zipping now and then over content . TV's passive nature explains why advertisers try to place their ads and shows such as American Idol that engage viewers. They want to increase the likelihood that their audience will pay attention when their messages come on the screen. And they do this for good reason. Research evidence indicates that a viewer who's more involved with a TV show will respond more positively to commercials he sees during that show, and furthermore, these spots will have a greater chance to influence his purchase intentions later on. The take away here is a little more complicated. We know that we want to boost message involvement if possible, particularly because, as we've seen, there are so many messages competing for viewers attention. So there are actually several ways that you can boost message involvement. One is to use novel stimuli such as unusual cinematography, sudden silences or unexpected movements in commercials. When a British firm called Egg Banking introduced a credit card to the French market, it's ad agency created unusual commercials to make people question their assumptions, one ad stated. For example, cats always land on their paws and then to researchers and white lab coats dropped a kitten off a rooftop, never to see it again. Needless to say, animal rights activists were not very amused by this message. Another tactic is to include celebrity endorsers. Consumers process MAWR information when it comes from someone they admire, or at least know about whether that person is Michael Jordan, Bill Gates or maybe even Kim Kardashian. Or you can provide value with your messages that customers appreciate. One of my favorite examples is a campaign run by Charmin bathroom tissue, where the company set up public toilets in Times Square that were used by hordes of grateful visitors. You can even invent new media platforms to grab attention. Procter and Gamble did this when the company printed trivia questions and answers directly onto its Pringle. Snack chips with ink made of blue or red food coloring encourage viewers to think about actually using the product. The's cues can be subtle but still effective. For example, you can orient an image of a cup with its handle to the right, so that, at least for right handed people, it matches the dominant hand and facilitates mental stimulation. Some marketers like to create spectacles where the message is itself a form of entertainment. Axe Body products, for example, sponsored a posh Hamptons nightclub for the whole season. The club became the Axe Lounge, and it sported branding on the deejay booth and menu and acts products in the restrooms. The third and final form of involvement is situational involvement, and this refers to engagement with a store website or a location where people consume a product or service. So one way to increase this kind of involvement is to personalize the messages shoppers received at the time of purchase. Justus we saw with product involvement. To the extent that you can personalize anything, you're in good shape because consumers will pay much more attention to the message and process the information in a much more elaborate way. So, for example, it some Dunkin Donuts locations, Ah, person who orders a morning coffee season ad at the cash register that pushes hash browns or breakfast sandwiches to go with that coffee. Many retailers and event planners today focus on enhancing customers experiences in stores , dealerships and stadiums. Industry insiders in sports marketing refer to this as a quote butts in seats strategy. So, for example, many professional teams have now taken to encouraging their cheerleaders to circulate among the fans before and during the game to offer them photo opportunities as a way to increase involvement with the situation. 9. 3: Let's review the major points we discussed in Module three. First we saw that products concert Atis fi, a range of consumer needs. So we emphasized the importance of digging a bit deeper to understand more about not just the what of your consumers, but the why. In other words, what are the specific needs that your products are satisfying? We saw that consumers experience motivational conflicts that can impact their purchase decisions, so it's not unusual for your customers to feel some degree of ambivalence. Maybe there are some forces pushing them toward a goal and some forces pushing them way just like closing a sale. By anticipating objections, you might want to give some more thought to some of these conflicts and how you can provide some ammunition to help your customers make the right decision. We saw that your customers emotional responses to your products and your marketing messages have a big influence on what they will buy. Essentially, we first have an emotional reaction to many products and messages, and then later we fill in the blanks by deciding why it is that we had these reactions. So if your customers don't initially have the emotional response that you are hoping they will have. That is a big red flag for you. Finally, we saw that the way we evaluate and choose a product depends on our degree of involvement with the product, the marketing message as well as the purchase situation. Don't just assume that your customers are involved with your product just because you are. In many cases, customers are shockingly indifferent about the products in a category. This isn't necessarily a bad thing, but it does mean that you have to adjust your messaging strategies accordingly. We'll talk about this more in a later module, but essentially you can't deliver high involvement marketing messages to consumers who are in the low involvement camp and vice versa. So be realistic about how involved your customers are. But do try some of the tactics I suggested, particularly in terms of heightening consumers engagement with your product message or situation. That's the end of module number three, and we're gonna move on next to Module number four, where we talk about the self and we think about all the ways that our feelings about ourselves and our desire to express these feelings to others really have an impact on marketing strategy