Why Do We Producers Use Audio Compression | Riley Weller | Skillshare

Why Do We Producers Use Audio Compression

Riley Weller, FL Studio Teacher

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22 Lessons (2h 27m)
    • 1. INTRO

    • 2. How to Ask Questions + Leave Review

    • 3. 1-1 - Purpose of Compression

    • 4. 1-2 - Single Band vs Multi Band Compressors

    • 5. 1-3 - Different Types of Compression

    • 6. 1-4 - Volume Balancing

    • 7. 1-5 - Molding and Shaping with Compression

    • 8. 1-6 - What are Dynamics + Controlling Them

    • 9. 2-1 - A Compressor's Sidechain

    • 10. 2-2 - The Threshold Knob

    • 11. 2-3 - The Ratio Knob

    • 12. 2-4 - The Attack Knob

    • 13. 2-5 - The Release Knob

    • 14. 2-6 - Gain Reduction Meter + Make-Up Gain

    • 15. 2-7 - Input and Output Meter

    • 16. 2-8 - Soft Knee vs. Hard Knee

    • 17. 3-1 - A and B Comparison + Level Matching

    • 18. 3-2 - Setting Up a Compressor Effectively

    • 19. 4-1 - Setting Up Sidechain Compression

    • 20. 4-2 - Pro Tip with Delay + Sidechain

    • 21. 4-3 - Setting Up Parallel Compression

    • 22. OUTRO


About This Class


I guarantee you, compression will be the last audio plugin you learn in-depth.  However, it's the audio plugin which will exponentially improve your sound and creativity.

It first requires an understanding of how audio compression and dynamics work, and secondly, requires a trained ear to hear the benefits and negative artifacts you are applying to your audio signal.

In addition, there are many myths (white lies) on YouTube in regards to compression when it comes to the threshold, ratio, and your output value.

In this course, you will come out with a solid understanding of how to actually use a compressor creatively AS A PRODUCER!

We don't get hung-up on unncessary details about compression.  I tell you exactly what you as a producer need to know, what to listen for, and how to achieve the results you're wanting out of compression.  (Whether that be in mastering, balancing out an instrument, or completely sound-designing a sound through sound-molding.)

As mentioned, audio compression takes A LONG TIME to understand and fully hear what you're applying to your music.

This course will save you tons of hours trying to figure it out yourself.

Let me show you step-by-step Why We Producers Use Audio Compression and improve your beats, mixes, and creativeness today.

# GratuiTous


1. INTRO: Hey, I'm gratuitous and welcome to my newest course. Why do we producers use compression? So compression is probably one of the trickiest tools we use as producers. And in all honesty, it will probably be the last tool that you fully understand as a producer. It's a very, very tricky tool toe. Understand how to use as well as toe. Listen what you're actually doing to your music, you know, because there's a lot of myths out there on YouTube when it comes to you know, people talking about a compressor, for example. You know, you have, like, your threshold. Your audio goes over the threshold, and if you're ratios to the one, you should have this number. But the thing is, a compressor really doesn't work that way. Because when we have an attack and release knob, these very how aggressive our compressor is gonna be. Okay, So throughout this course, I break down a lot of the basics. We work our way to more advanced concepts on the basic end of stuff, you know? Yes, we cover like the threshold, ratio, attack and release. I also show you, you know, different uses of a compressor, for example, you know, just for simple volume balancing also how to use the attack and release helps to mold and shape the sound. This is something that I never really knew as I was starting up. Producing compression is probably one of the most fun tools to use to, especially when it comes to the attack and release snobs. You can totally change up how it sounds. Sounds simply by your attack and release. I sure you quite a few examples throughout the course with that stuff. So I first cover with you, you know, like, what is the purpose of compression and different uses of it? You know how to actually set up a compressor to get effective results, you know, kind of like a starting point. And then how you could be creative play around the fit to try different approaches and also how to test to make sure that the settings that you are applying on your compressor are actually improving your track rather than damaging it. It's all about testing, testing, testing. I explain to you how a compressor actually works in terms of you know how the input goes in and how you're impressed. Her uses a control circuit to monitor, to compress against the original sound or if it has an external input where we get side chain compression from, like, you know, when we have ah, kick drum, reducing the volume of a pad or like our base and stuff like that, and to finish off the course of also created a section on the creative uses of compression and kind of special ways, you can use a compressor on, um, or advanced level. So by the end of this course, you guys will have a really solid grasp on compression and how to use it effectively in your music again, compression is a very, very tricky tool to use. It takes years to train your ears to know what you're listening for and throat this course . I break down all those basics. It will really speed up your understanding of compression. And by the end of the course, I'm sure you guys will have a really, really solid grasp of compression. Okay, so if you guys want to check with the course, you know you guys can click the buy button, take it. Hopefully, guys enjoy and I will see you guys in my future courses 2. How to Ask Questions + Leave Review: all right. Hey, I'm gratuitous. And thank you so much for taking the course. The reason why I'm making this video is that I just want you to be aware that I also have other music production courses. Currently, I have 16 music production courses. They're based on FL Studio. However, the information does apply to all music programs. There's the odd video, which is FL studio specific. But for the most part, I teach the fundamentals which relate. Oh, everything to do with music production. E que compression sampling. So I just want you to be aware that you guys could be leaving a question as well as leaving a review. Okay, so I want to show you how to set that up. Okay, so let's start with how to lead. Ah, question. Okay. Soto asked me a question on skill share. All you have to do is click the community tab and just click basket question. And that's that. You guys can ask me a question. Post it and I will receive an email from you. And then I will come and answer your question. I'm really active with this stuff, and I want you guys to learn Okay. In addition, to leave a review, all you do is click the reviews tab Now. Skill Share says that you have to watch a few lessons before leak. Leaving review, Which makes sense. So, you know, after you're done watching, of course, just click the button here, leave a review, and I would really, really appreciate it if you would leave a review. All right, Now you know where to leave a question as well as a review. Again, I really appreciate the review. You know, it's gonna help my courses get to number one, hopefully help grow my online course business here. So again, I'm gratuitous, and I hope you guys enjoy the course and learned a lot. 3. 1-1 - Purpose of Compression: all right. So welcome to my course on compression about why we producers to use compression. So in her first section here, I have a couple videos which will really get you thinking about compression in ah, creative standpoint and really understanding how to use compression. Okay, because there's not just one way to use a compressor. A compressor could be used for volume balancing. It could be used for shaping and molding a sound. There's lots of different types of compressors. There's actually like downwards compression upwards, compression expansion and stuff like that. And then also the difference between a single band compressor to a multi van compressor. And by you watching these videos, it will really help you to understand what is a compressor. And it will kind of open up the doors for you. And then you'll really be able to at least understand what a compressor is and how you could be using it as a tool because e que and compression go hand in hand as a producer. OK, when you're mixing your music when you're sound designing, trying to mold a perfect sound for your song and knowing how to use these two back and forth eyes very, very important. And so, by watching these first few videos in this section, you will really have an understanding of what compression is. And then we're going to kind of get into you know, how to listen for compression, how to use compression, how to, uh, you know, all that kind of stuff. So, like I was saying, there's many ways to be using a compressor one of the main ways to use a compressor, and this is probably the main way of knowledge. The YouTube tutorials that you watch and what they show you is that ah, compressor is used for volume balancing. And so what that means is, let's say we take a vocal recording, for example, and there's loud words, and there's quieter words. The compressor will lower the loud words to make a more consistent with the quieter words, and it will make the vocal recording more consistent in your song so you can kind of think of it as an automatic volume control. So imagine someone sitting there with their hand on, like the volume denial and when vocal goes too loud will turn it down. But a compressor allows us to do that automatically. And then depending on the ratio and a threshold that just sends how aggressive you want your compressor to be your automatic volume control, OK, because probably the best approach to, uh, level out a vocal is just use volume automation because compression also has positive and negative artifacts. So, for example, if your compression is too aggressive for this volume balancing, you can actually hear compression artifacts. It doesn't really sound natural. It sounds really, really squashed now, In addition to volume balancing, which is just keeping the actual recording more consistent, you actually have the attack and release knobs. And this is where you can dial in to mold and shape your audio recording. Okay, so this is where you could start being really, really creative with a compressor, and I didn't really understand this until later on as I was producing my music. But using a compressor with the attacking really snobs allows you to mold and shape a sound . So this is take a kick drum, for example. If we have like a longer attack, it allows the initial hit to hit you in the chest harder. But if we have a faster attack It squashes that initial hit and instead of it hitting you in the chest is actually making the kick drum longer. It's kind of fattening it out. It's stretching it out a little bit now, where this all gets really confusing for people because in tutorials that you watching YouTube will be talking about Oh, well, if you set your threshold of this and set your ratio at, like 2 to 1, then you'll have an output of this. Okay, But the thing with the compressor is with the attack and release snobs that actually determines how long it takes to get like your maximum compression. So it isn't just a cut and dry, or if your audio goes over by this amount and you say you're ratio, that you have this output because again the attack of released knobs determine how long it takes. And then, in the case of the release, how long it takes to stop compressing. I'm gonna be covering all this stuff with you. But it's just really interesting because there's a lot of, um, I guess, confusion over there with compression, especially when you're starting up trying to learn about it and compression takes a long time to train your years to understand what you're hearing, what you're doing and how to be creative with it and get the sound that you want. So by watching these videos kind of step by step, it will really break down. What is a compressor? How to get started up with one. And then as we proceed, you'll be able to catch on. And then, once you've done the course, you will at least have a way better understanding of how you could be using compressed air in as a really powerful tool in your tracks for again volume balancing. Or, if you want to be using it for creative purposes, because e que and compression, you know, they go hand in hand as a producer, you know, a mixing engineer or a sound designer. If you want to get that perfect sound, you want to be using EQ you and compression together, and you can kind of get that perfect fit. Okay, so let's get into the videos 4. 1-2 - Single Band vs Multi Band Compressors: Okay, So to start off, of course, I'm gonna be talking to you about a single band compressor versus a multi bank compressor. Now, you may already know about this, and you may be wondering why am I starting the course with this? But I feel that you understanding how a compressor works in terms of single bands and multi bands and stuff like that, it will really open up your eyes to how a compressor works. How you as a producer could be more creative with a compressor and how to get kind of the, you know, the results you want. So for the most of this course I'm gonna be using proceed by fat filter this compressor you can see right here it's one of my favorite compressors fat filter plug ins. I just really like their workflow, but just to share with you that this is a single band compressor. But if I just pull up in e que here. So what I've done is I've just created one band, and this is replicating a single band compressor. We just have one band, and so we're just gonna keep this really, really simple in terms of compression we're not gonna deal with, like, attack and release and stuff like that right now. Just think about you know the threshold in the ratio. So how will compressor works is when the audio goes over the threshold, it will reduce the volume by the ratio amount. You've says if you put it to 2 to 1, you know, if the volume goes over, the threshold is going to reduce it by your ratio amount. Keep it really simple for now now. So in this case, let's just say, you know, we're listening to our our instrument or let's say a vocal and let's just say in the high end, you know, an s sound was way louder than the rest of the vocal. So how that would work is as soon as the school's over the threshold, it would reduce the volume of the whole vocal. Now, as you can see, since this band is the full frequency spectrum, it is lowering the volume of the whole vocal. Now again, on a real compressor, you have an attack at release knob, and that allows you to dial in a lot more transparent sound to your compression. So it is not so aggressive because if you know, if we were listening to our vocal, I'm just reducing the volume like this might sound a little bit unnatural. But this is a really important concept to understand. So, for example, if we were dealing with compression on the master bus, let's say we're compressing the whole track. Typically, the loudest parts of your song is the kick drum, the bass and the snare. And so if those are constantly going over the threshold, they would constantly be triggering your compressor to compress. Even if you know you may not need it, it might be unnecessary. So if we come to a multi van compressor now, so what I've done is I've just created three bands, and if I just highlight them, you know, they would all react to their own frequency spectrum. So let's just say we solo this one as you can see the bars here, right? So that's the low end. If we see the bars here, you know, that's the mids, and then the bars. That's the highs. And then if I had just to gain up here, you know, so your song would be doing this and So what that's doing is it's allowing each part of the frequent spectrum of your sound to react differently to the compressor. And so, for example, let's to say that s example again in the vocal where the S was too loud and it went over the threshold. Just the high end would compress, leaving the rest of the vocal, you know, not compressing or maybe with less compression. Or, you know, however you've dialed it in. So ah, multi band compressor allows you to get a lot more transparency out of the sound while having more control over your dynamics. So if we come to our single band here and if we just listen to this little bee I've created , let's just look at the frequency spectrum OK again, so you'll see the low end. The base, the kick and the snare are typically, you know, much louder than the rest of the track, and again that would be triggering your compressor unnecessarily. So let's just take a peek at the frequency spectrum. So as you can see, the base is quite a bit louder than the rest of the song. If I remove the base but keep the kick drum. You can see that this compressor right now would actually be doing something similar to this. Okay, whenever that kick drum played, it would be reducing in volume. And, you know, again, depending on your settings, it can sound very unnatural. Avery Squash. But now let's just go to the multi band compressor. That's how they all these will listen again, it be like this Or, you know, however you set them up and dialed in like your threshold ratio. Your attack released stuff like that. Typically, from what I've read and stuff like that, um, because a multi band compressor could get really Oda had because it's not just one band you're compressing with. But in our case, we have three bands in each band has his own frequencies, which its monitoring and compressing. Okay, so let's just go back to our single band compressor again. So the reason why I want to start off with this video is because now you know that let's say you're working with a vocal or certain instrument, and there's certain frequencies which are louder than other frequencies, regardless of where the frequencies air going over the threshold on the frequency spectrum . It's still going to reduce the volume of the whole sound. So that's just, you know, something for you to keep in mind as you're using a single band compressor. But I just want you to be aware that when we're dealing with a single bank compressor again on the eq, you a single band, regardless of where the frequency goes over this threshold, it is reducing the volume, okay? 5. 1-3 - Different Types of Compression: Okay, So before we start getting into some actual compression examples in terms of like level balancing where your audio signal because more consistent or molding and shaping a sound with the attack and release Dobbs on a compressor, I just want to reveal to you a couple different ways how you could be using like dynamics. So there's compression, which is, you know, just reducing the volume of an audio signal. But it can be subtle, depending on your ratio amount. Ah, once we started getting into, like, 10 to 1 and and MAWR, I guess that's considered like limiting. Um, but you know, so limiting is kind of like an infinite toe, one ratio. So as soon as that signal goes over the threshold, it just reduces the volume to that level. So it allows you to kind of squash a sound. So again, that's on like the reducing the volume. So it's compression and limiting. Um, and then there's also expansion and a gate, so it kind of works opposite. So instead of the volume going over the signal and then compressing when the volume goes below the threshold, it will actually make it quieter. And this is a really good technique to use. For example, right now, as I'm talking to you, if there was background noise and stuff like that in this room and I was talking to you and I stopped talking, if there was a background hiss or anything like that, you could be using a gate or an expander to reduce the volume once it hits a certain threshold. So, for example, again, if I'm talking about right now, it could be it, like, you know, minus eight. But then this background hiss could be like minus like, thirties, like, way down there. So we can set that expander to be at like, let's say, minus 25 so that anything that goes underneath minus 25 I want you to actually reduce it even quieter, So it might be a little bit confusing to you. We're just gonna go to Wikipedia here for a second, and you guys could just search into Google dynamic range compression, and you guys can just check out, um, this article, it will just really open up your eyes to the different forms of how we can use compression and dynamic range kind of control. Um But the reason why I want to make this video is that it's one of reviewers to you. There's a downwards compression. So, for example, begin Weaver threshold when the audio was over the threshold and we said a ratio is gonna reduce the volume. But now to the opposite. So now when the volume actually goes below the threshold, we can make it turn up in volume. And so Wikipedia here is saying that actually both downwards and upwards compression produced the dynamic range of an audio signal. So in other words, when the volumes going over, we're reducing it. But also, when it's going down where we're actually bringing it up, I guess keeping it just more consistent. So I just want to show you that here on this one is actually pro MB again by Fab Filter. This is a multi band compressor. So before we are showing you with an e que you know, I created different bands, this actually is a multi bank compressor, so I could just come here and click here, and I can create a new band or create another band like that. Okay, so in that case, you know, it had like three bands. And I think you can create apps like £6 on this. Like it gets really, really intense. And it was a play. The song for you, You guys are going to see downwards Compression. Okay, Just like you know what we're going to be explained to for the rest of this course. I just want to reveal this to you because this is just really helpful for you to be aware. Be more knowledgeable about compression. Ah, and if you ever want to use it so again, so how are set this up? So their threshold is at minus 10. So what that means is, if our audio goes above minus 10 we're going to reduce it by our ratio amount in this case is just 4 to 1. So fat filter plugs are nice because a really visual, it allows you to see what's going on. So when I hit play here, you're going to see that it's going to keep reducing the volume pretty much whenever that kick drum is playing. Because you can see in the low end. So we're gonna check it out here again. Kiss whenever this audio is going above this threshold, that line you're seeing that it's going down and it's actually staying down a little bit because there's, like, a lot of part in this loop okay around here, you know, so we can always bring the structural up a little bit. So it's not compressing as much. You know, we turn off and on. Okay, so it sounds a little natural on your ears, right? Without the compression. And don't this is kind of squashing it a little bit because it is quite aggressive by 4 to 1 and stuff like that off. Okay, So again, that's downwards compression whenever it is going over the threshold or reducing it. So if I just go to my am be here, I set it up. So this is actually upwards compression. So it's the other way around. So whenever the audio goes below the threshold, we're actually going to bring it up to 10 decibels. We'll probably never reach 10 decibels because you know the audio so fast, and it's gonna constantly keep hitting the top, so it'll keep kind of bring it down. But you will see at the quieter parts of this loop you're going to see that the audio comes louder. OK, so hit play here. Que Gacy is going up. If I increase this Teoh, you know, emphasize it. Que los on. Okay, so again, I'm not going to get too much into this. I just want you to be aware of it before we proceed further into the course. It's just a nice set of knowledge. Toe have to know a boat compression. So, you know, if some of them were talking about upwards compression or downwards compression expansion gates limiters, You kind of have a general idea of what's going on. Um, understanding how they work is very tricky on your mind, because it's everything just always opposite, For example, a basic compressor that takes a little while to learn. And once you understand it, they're all of a sudden it's is golden all now we're dealing with upwards compression. So instead of the audio going over the threshold, and then we would reduce it because it went over. You know, that's a problem most simple and understand. And then with upwards compression, you know, you ever threshold and if it goes below that, they were actually trying to bring it back up to that threshold to keep it consistent. An expander is just a gentle gate. It's not as aggressive. You can set your ratio eso that you know you can kind of, ah, dialing the effects subtly. Gate is a very, very extreme effect is kind of like limiting. However, I would say limiting is still a lot gentler than the gate. So with a gate, whenever the volume goes below the threshold, we're actually making a go quieter to the point of silence. And, um, again when we're talking into the microphone and if we use the background Hiss example again with a gate, if you have it set at not the proper threshold, you would kind of get this noise of kind of like in and out sounding of background noise. And it's kind of tea is kind of similar to that and just constant, and it just sounds really, really weird. And, for example, I would be talking to you like this, and then it would just go to dead silence, and it sounds really kind of a normal not normal at all. So that's where in expanders kind of nice, because you could be a little bit more aggressive on the ratio, and you just kind of dial and dial it down. So in terms of music production, there's also ways to be using these tools to look if you're dealing with drum loops and stuff like that, and you want to kind of emphasize the drums or the stairs and stuff like that, but then keep other stuff a little bit quieter. Once the Thea the audio goes that level, you know you can start being created for that stuff. But again, I just want to make this video for you to be aware of the different styles of compressors in a sense of, you know, what's available to you with upwards downwards expansions, gates and stuff like that. There are also different types of compressors. Like, for example, if they're different sounds like opticals or fete compressors and stuff like that. That's going, you know, not really the direction I want to go in this course. A lot of times you'll read online. You know, people are always talking about the classic compressors back in the day. You know what, the 11 76 and stuff like that and it's just like, you know, I didn't start in that era. And I understand that That is the sound that we listened to to all the music over all the years, you know, So eventually, you know, maybe you might want to start to kind of train your ears to the sound or how to use those compressors and stuff like that. But in this course, as we proceed on, I want to break down the basics for you to continue so that no matter what compressor you use, you know the basics. You know the foundations and it's up to you now to dial in the sound that you want and you know how to dial in that sound. 6. 1-4 - Volume Balancing: Okay, So in this video, I'm gonna talk to you about using a compressor to volume balance a sound in this case, I just talked into the microphone, and I said, This is a loud word compared to a quiet word. And on the quiet word, I want to compress the loud to get more consistent with the quiet. Okay, So if we come here to Edison, this is the recording. And as you can see right here, this is where I said loud and I said it loud and, you know, it's quite high. So if we look up here in the top left corner, you can see that we're pretty much at zero. You know, I normalize this so that it brings it up, you know, just under zero, and you can see it's quite loud. So it's gotten up to the max and we come down here to quiet word. You know, this is this is my ass 20 to minus 23 in that area. So give her take. This is 20 decibels. Difference in between the loud to the quiet word. Now, with compression, we can be reducing the volume of the loud to bring it more consistent with the quiet, and you're also going to hear the artifacts of doing that. So let's just listen to it right now. This is the compressor. I have the ratio 1 to 1, and it's off. So we're not even gonna listen to it with compression. Let's just listen to it by itself. This is a recording of a loud word toe acquire word. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. Okay, so toe allowed word to a quiet word. Now, again, how a compressor works is once the volume goes over the threshold, it's going to compress depending on a ratio amount. So since we have our threshold very, very low, that means that is going to be compressing pretty much to the whole talking of me talking here. Okay, which is typically what you don't want. You wanted to only start compressing like when you when you want to reduce the volume. So for this example, you know, let's go back to Edison. I would say a nice area for that compressor is probably around, you know, maybe 11 to 12 ish, because we can reduce this to keep it more consistent with the other words. You know, maybe Mini minus 14 to get more consistent around here again. It's all kind of by ear. But when we're going to minus 30 what is what? I have it at minus 32 case we come here, so minus 32 is pretty much like at this super quiet word. So in this case, you know, it's like that thresholds too extreme. But I'm gonna let you hear it at the extreme, and then we're going to dial it up to kind of get where I would adjust it to make it consistent, yet still sound natural again. The attack and release knob still have a part to play in that because the attack knob is how long it takes for your maximum compression. Okay, cause just cause the audio goes over the threshold doesn't mean it instantly compresses. It takes time for it to get up toe. What your attacks setting is so if it's a longer attack, it takes longer to get to that maximum ratio. And then with the release, the compressor actually still compresses. Even when the volume was under the threshold. On the reason for that is because otherwise it would sound a natural. It was sound too quick. So once the audio was under the threshold, it's still compresses. But it just takes a little bit of time, depending on your settings here to come back to its normal volume, I'm going to be doing more specific videos on each of these. The threshold ratio attack release. I just want to talk to you in terms of how we could be using a compressor and stuff like that. So this is this volume balancing. I have my threshold very low. It's going to be compressing on almost every word. We're going to set up our ratio quite aggressive. So let's just put Appears before one Mr Bickle. 6 to 1. Be a little more aggressive. Typically, you know, Ford of one is kind of getting into aggressive compression. Um and yeah, So we will listen right here. So have to turn it on. Let's listen. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet work. So as you can hear, you know, you can hear it. The artifacts of like the compression, especially at the beginning, and that loud. And then once it gets too quiet, you could see there's very, very little compression going on, like, you know, maybe two decibels versus the 14 decibels, which is going on at these loud words, right? So this is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. But there's one thing you can notice. Those words are more consistent in volume, with quiet right when I say quiet word. So let's take that off again. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word, and now with it on a truck, the volume just so we can kind of level match because so what? The output level or makeup gain does is because we've adjusted our threshold and a ratio. We've actually turned down the volume of her audio signal, so we want to boost it back up in volume just so that it's at the same volume. But now it's more consistent. So let's listen to that again. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. Okay, so this is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. It's very, very consistent, even though is being compressed very, very hard and aggressively. Um, I will be dialing it up here in a second, so let's just listen to that one more time with and without. Okay, so I'm gonna listen to it with this is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. Okay, so let's just bring that up a little bit, cause, like I said, it's quite aggressive. This is May put it to, like, you know, maybe 20 and we'll bring back down the volume here so we'll listen to that again. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. So even here I can hear a little bit of the audio compression spring up. It's a little more like I said, when we're looking here, Edison, we can pretty much see where a nice threshold would be because, you know, pretty much the average around is around here. I would say this is a nice level to put the threshold at, which again, if we look at the top left that's looking at minus 14 to 15 ish around in there. Okay, so I just put it to that in the school of minus 15. And this is listen to This is a sound natural. Still, this is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. Okay, So as you can hear, it's more consistent. It doesn't sound super unnatural. You know, again, with the attack and release, we could be Dowling those to get it. Ah, little bit more natural sounding or more aggressive. Um, but that is Volvo volume balancing. Okay. And again, it's just keeping the loud words to the quieter words. Keep it more consistent. So when you put it into your song, that vocal recording would sound a lot more consistent. Okay, 7. 1-5 - Molding and Shaping with Compression: Okay, So in this video, this is where compression actually starts to get fun. And it's where you are molding and shaping a sound with compression. And like I said, when I first started up, I had no idea that this even existed with compression. I only knew about, like the volume balancing just like the last video I just watched. And you probably thought the video was pretty boring because it's like all you're doing is you're just bringing the loud parts of the sound to the quieter parts of the sound, and you're making it more consistent in volume. You're bringing up the volume with makeup gain to bring it back to the volume it was. And then you put it back into your song. And yes, it does sound mawr consistent in your track, but it's like, That's it. You're done compressions over. But now when we start molding a sound, it's with the attack and release knobs as well. Is it the threshold in the ratio? But what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna play this guitar loop for you, okay? With no compression. And then, as you can see here, I have A and B and I value in different settings. So this one's pretty extreme and this one's really extreme. And so let's just listen to the guitar loop again. No compression. And then we're gonna compare in between A and B and then with the compressor off, you'll hear the differences. And I'm just gonna break down how you should be looking at a compressor and how to set it up for this molding and shaping. Okay, so again, no compression guitar Lute Kate with compression on. Okay, so the first thing that you should be noticing with that and again, all this stuff takes time to understand and to listen to to train your ear, to hear differences between compression. Compression is probably the last thing in your production career, which you will start to get a hang off and become better at. So the first thing that you should be hearing is at the beginning of that guitar note. You actually hear the pluck a lot more powerfully. It's a lot louder. OK, so with the compressor off, it sounds really rounded and soft, almost dull, and with a compressor on. We're hearing the pluck, and it sounds way more energetic and aggressive. So again, let's listen to it on and I'll turn off okay at the beginning of the sound. So right now we're hearing the pluck and turn off. It's rounded. Okay, so now let's compare in between the A and the B, So I'm just gonna go to be here. This is a really cool way to use a compressor. And any tool just allows you to kind of compare back and forth. So here we go. This is what? The B settings again, This is very, very extreme compression. We have the threshold of all the way down, so it's always compressing. We have the ratio at limiting. Uh, we have a very long attack. A very fast release. Go to a don't. So you can hear the pluck of the guitar very, very aggressively. Almost like staccato. Right? And if I dial the attack faster, you will listen. What happens? Got a Now let me turn the compressor off. So now do you hear? It's well rounded. Turn on. So we're actually hearing it The devil pluck. Now. This attack is really, really aggressive. So let's dial it back. Make it longer. Okay, so it sounds more natural. Now let's go back with the compressor off. Really, really rounded sounding Let's go back to a compressor. Off on gonna be Okay, So that's how powerful a compressor can be in a sense of. We had our sound before it sounded really rounded. But the thing is, if you recall back to the beginning of the video, you listened and you probably thought, Well, that loop sounds not bad. And then we added the compressor on and you may not have noticed at the beginning, you know, the actual pluck of the guitar when I pointed it out to, you know, now you might be aware of it, and then we go to be here and be was way more aggressive And then when we actually turned off the compressor, it almost felt like so with a D s are when you're, uh, sound designing a sound your attack. If you have a longer attack, it makes the sound really rounded sounding, you know, you don't have the initial pluck. And to me it it kind of felt like that sound had a longer attack. No, on the compressor. I'm talking 80 s are so up here in your volume envelope. You have attack right here. So if I turn off the compressor, I'll show you what I'm saying Here. So right now we have our guitar like this. But now if I died in the attack, you know? So now you're gonna hear some rounded, so don't have her pluck. It's gone. Right. Bring it back one more time. Okay. So that's how you would sound design, like a pad. You know, just a little side note. So what I'm saying is right now, the sound almost sounds as if that attack is dialed in and compared to when the compressors on. So right now it's like the attack, us fast. We have her plucks, right? Let's listen to it again. Way dialed back in that compressor again on B. This is the most aggressive one. Go to a Now, I'm just gonna talk about the compressor settings here just so that you can kind of get up and running. But in the future, videos like in the next section of these videos, I'm gonna break down. You know what is a compressor? How does it work? You know, your threshold ratio. I'm gonna go over each knowledge specifically. I just want to give you a general overview just for you to visually see and hear how will compressor works? You know how we can mold and shape a sound, and then we're going to actually get into some fundamentals so that, you know, now everything's going to get a little more clear in a sense of the attack, the release and what you're actually doing on your compressor. But so when we're dealing with a threshold on our compressor, Okay, so the threshold is once the audio was over the threshold, then the compressor works. If the audio doesn't go over the threshold than this compressor isn't working at all, so it's just it's just sitting there doing nothing. So one thing to say about this is you can see that there's an input here. So if I've dialed this input level 20 that means that the audio was never going to go over the threshold. So even if we go to be down and you can see that the threshold is at minus 36 that's the lowest. Aiken, take this compressor, go back to a Let's just put this to 36 So, in other words, that the volume is that silence. It's never gonna compress, even though our threshold is at minus 36. And then on the flip side let's say we take this volume and we boosted up Super super loud . Now what's happening is even though my thresholds down here, yes, it's always going to be compressing no matter what, because it's just so loud. Even if I bring my threshold up here, my audio is probably always going to be compressing still, because the volume is just so loud going into the compressor again, depending on the plug ins you have before the compressor, this could be affecting the volume going into compressor to That's just something to take into account, because this is what you call Siri's processing. So coming back here, if I'm telling you, Odile in 18 decibels, a threshold will, that's not telling you anything because you have to be looking at the audio level of your signal coming into the compressor because, like I'm saying, well, minus 18 Well, if the volume is way down here, your compressor is not compressing. And if you know if I say oh while you know go to minus eight. But if our volume is way up here, it's like, Well, your compressor is always compressing, and it's probably compressing weight on it. The body still. So all I'm saying is the threshold you kind of have to take with a grain of salt and all, like the tutorials you watch from people you always have to take into account of Where is the audio signal? Just like when we came here to this vocal example and we were looking at, you know, where should we start compressing in the balancing video? You know what kind of came to the conclusion? If we look up here in the top left again, you know, I'm looking at minus 15 ish around there. You know, that's going to be a nice starting point, because this is where this audio signal is. So what I'm saying is, with the threshold you have to take with a grain of salt, you have to know what the input signal is coming in. And so for myself, I usually leave the input at zero because my audio signal when I'm making my beats is typically pretty loud already. And then I adjust my threshold toe the point where you know I'm getting a couple decibels of gain reduction. And then if I want to be more aggressive with it, I can dial in Moore. OK, so over to the ratio again. Once the volume goes over the threshold, the ratio determines how much compression do you want. You want to be really aggressive. If you do, you know, six, the ones quite aggressive. If you want to be more gentle, you know, you could be going like 1.5 or 2 to 1. And again, your compressor doesn't automatically. Just go to 6 to 1 compression. It takes time for your compressor to get up to there. Okay, So again, once it goes over the threshold, it takes time. Depending on your attack, a fast attack means that your compressor will start to compress up to that 6 to 1 ratio faster. In other words, it will reach that level more aggressively. When you're attack is longer. It takes longer for your compressor to get up to your desired setting of ratio, OK, and then on to the release knob. So the release Dobbs kind of tricky and the reason for That is because once a compressor stops compressing, it actually continues to compress, depending on your release setting. So, for example, you have your threshold, your audio goes over, it starts compressing depending on your ratio and how long you've set your attack. Okay, that's how long it takes to get to your desired ratio on the release. Once your audio goes under the threshold, the release will take time to come back to not compressing anymore. One thing to mention about the release dog will talk to you about this mawr in the release video is when you're releases too fast, you could actually be getting distortion. And the reason for that is because if we come here to Edison, if we zoom in, if you release is too fast, it actually starts to follow the cycle the single cycles of your audio signal, and actually starts to cause distortions. So instead of the release kind of following the overall signal, you don't kind of nice and smoothly it will actually start going too fast and will follow this stuff and it causes distortion. So if you're getting some distortion in your compression and you're releases too fast, you could just dial it up just a little bit. And once the distortions gone, that's pretty much as fast as you can set your released job and then with my output knob here. So this is what you call makeup game. I'm going to do a specific video on this. It's very, very important. It will make you much better mixer and producer when using compression. So as you saw as we were turning often on the plug in, I dialed this to kind of make it a fair comparison. So, for example, when you're compressing versus when it was off, I was trying to make those similar and volume because if one's louder, typically worse, weighted towards the louder one, we think the latter wants better, even though it may not be improving our song. OK, so that's this video on molding and shaping a sound with compression. Very, very powerful stuff. I just wanted to reveal this to you first before we started getting into the real basics of compression. Uh, just so you can kind of see what we're dealing with, what we're working with That way, as you start to learn the basics, you've already kind of seen this stuff, and it makes it a lot easier to understand 8. 1-6 - What are Dynamics + Controlling Them: Okay, So in this video, we're going to be talking about what are dynamics. Okay, so you'll hear that word thrown around a lot. And what dynamics are is just in a sound. You have loud parts and a quiet part, and the dynamic range is just the difference between that, too. So, for example, if the loud was at 10 and the quiets at 20 that's just the difference. Okay, So for example, if we zoom into this vocal recording here care so you can see that there's quiet parts here and there's loud parts here. And as we start using a compressor, we can actually start bringing down the loud parts to make them or even with the quieter parts, to make these words more consistent, like you just saw in the volume balancing video. Now, when it comes to the mastering stage when using compression and limiting and clippers, it's all about controlling your peaks. OK, so these are the peaks up here. So as your volume goes over the threshold, that's to say on a limiter. So they go to the master track here. So here's a limiter. Okay, so the first thing that's gonna happen is the peaks are going to go over the threshold and typically even on like a limiter, you can get quite a bit of gain reduction, like 23 decibels of gain reduction without audible distortion. So, in other words, you're not going to hear the distortion once the actual audio goes over the threshold quite a bit. So, for example, once we're going to start getting into here, you might actually start hearing some distortion on this voice. And so this is where compression and limiting can come in. So, for example, I'll just set this up here, okay? And I'll open up a compressor again. The compressor has to be before Edison. Otherwise the effect will not be recorded. And so what I'm gonna do is we're just going to dial in quite extreme settings. Okay, So, low threshold, high ratio, fast attack, a little bit longer release. The reason why I'm doing this is I'll show you. I'm gonna bring it into fl studio here, and we're gonna compare that when we bring up the volume that it's gonna be hitting the threshold which you know, was going to have distortion. But if we can kind of control the dynamics before it hits, Do you? The limiter that allows us to boost the volume louder. Now, you got to be careful with loudness because there's the thing called, like the loudness wars and stuff like that. And that's more to do with mastering and meet a ring. But it's just good to be knowledgeable and understand. You know, how are you going to achieve what you want to achieve? You know that you're listening to in your other music and stuff like that. So I'm gonna hit play here, we're gonna record, and we should see a lot of compression happen. This is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word, kids, I'll stop there. So I'm just going to delete this part. So what I'm gonna do is it's going Teoh, Um, I guess I could just drag it in here, so I'm just gonna drag it into here, okay? And we can spring it over. And so what I'm gonna do is just double click it and I'm just going to go normalized. So as you can see, we have, like our you know, our big peaks here. Like, you know, this is so fast that or, you know, even if it goes over the limiter by, like, five decibels, whatever is happening so fast that we probably won't hear the distortion. Um, but as you can see, like, how much more consistent this is compared to this, Like, you know, we're looking down here. This is way vaguer in volume compared to here. You know, this area here has been squashed quite a bit. You can see it's a lot fatter. It's a lot wider turned off the compressor. So this is what it originally sounds. Lice is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. We nose into the really compressed version. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. Okay, So just as you can see when we would actually come to the mastering stage, this would be a lot easier to control, because there's no all these random peaks that we have to compress a little harder or be careful of it's been, you know, quite balanced. And it's a lot easier to work with. However, the end result, like this one is much, um, you can hear the compression on this is a recording of a loud word toe. A quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word. Order the original at word. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet word. This is a recording of a loud word toe, a quiet so as you can hear, you know, it just sounds really, really processed and compressed. However, the peaks have been controlled, so it's kind of a balance in between controlling your peaks to get, you know, you know, like your loudness and stuff in the mastering stage, but at the same time not processing. It's so hard that it's making your music sound like the compressed recording right here, because that's this is just too overdone. 9. 2-1 - A Compressor's Sidechain: Okay, So in this video, I want to talk to you about how a compressor actually works. Okay, so if we go to Wikipedia, you'll see they have this image here. Okay, so they said that the earlier designs was this feedback layout. But the design typically nowadays, is what they're saying is it's this feed forward design. Okay? So, as you can see, what's happening is your audio comes in and they're actually splitting it. Okay, so the split audio goes to this control signal and that will reduce the volume of your signal, and then you can amplify it afterwards. So imagine we're playing a kick drum. Okay, So the kick Trump's coming in and it's going to this amplifier, which you could turn up and down in volume. That's a lot saying, and you can continue it out. However, we have weak follow it through and going to the side chains. So this is also the kick drum Volume two. It comes down into this control circuits. So now inside the compressor, we can adjust our threshold are ratio and everything like that, and it's following the kick drum for its control circuit. Now there's lots of different types of compressors out there. As you can see here, there's like tubes. There is optical, so it actually is light. So, for example, imagine that you're driving a signal into the compressor, and it's not a hot signal, you know, it's just a medium signal, you know. It may only get a certain amount of light, and it will compress based off of that light. However, if you were to drive the signal quite hot, it might make the led or whatever type of light they're using in there a lot brighter. And it might compress a lot harder because it's driving the signal, which is kind of interesting. Like it's just this is like the rial intense, you know, like, this is how a real compressor works real hard, were one and then they're just staying down here. Um, that in the digital world, the mathematical, I guess algorithms are trying to emulate the hardware. So what I'm trying to get across to use because here, pro see, we have with the side chains. However, it allows for an external input. But no, all compressors allow for an external input. So, for example, if we go to the fruity compressor, sort of sort of the fruity limiter. We got a compressor. You could see it has a side chain. So it also allows for an external input. Okay. And so for here, if we wanted this, we get this Taylor to kick drum, go side change of this track. And now we see it as an option. I'll show you how to wrote all this stuff afterwards. But for example, if we go to this compressor, okay, just the fruity compressor. This wonder here, you'll see that this doesn't allow for any type of external inputs. So in other words, you can Onley use this to compress against itself. Whereas the fruity limiter right, we can actually be using an external input as our control circuit to manipulate and other sounds. So this isn't just for E g m, for example, with electron gas music, what you do is you take a kick drum unless they have a pad. Now, whenever that kick drum would play, you can reduce the volume of the pad, and that's just a really common way to get kind of pump into your dance track. It just it's really cool for rhythm and stuff, but you don't just have to use it for a kick drum, for example. Imagine you had two instruments and they're kind of clashing. What you could do is when one instrument plays, you can make it reduce the volume of another instrument, and now they're not really clashing is kind of tucked in the background, and you're allowing one instrument to hit front center and then to take it even further with the side chain compression stuff if we go toe of the fat filter pro and be so This is the multi bank compressor if we create a band here so we can actually be reducing only certain frequencies when it comes a side chain compression, for example. Fickle expert, you can see it has the external input. So, for example, in this case, imagine we had to lead guitars, and when one played with the other, you know, kind of Jin's really sound good. Let's just say so. What we could do is we could set it up so that when one guitar played, it would reduce the volume of this guitar Onley in these frequencies. We could make out big. We want small. We want, we could be as aggressive as we want, right? So just understanding how will compressor works in terms of this side chain is just really important to understand, just to kind of understand what is actually going on with your compressor. Okay, so we go back to Wikipedia one more time to break that down, so your actual audio comes in and it splits off, As you can see right here, this is the audio that you hear that you know, as you're listening to your be whatever this is the audio that you hear. This is the audio which is controlling the compression amount. So, for example, where can you set your threshold where you can use a ratio now, depending on the type of compressor you're with, They also have an option for an out. So for an external connection again, you could be using a kick drum or another instrument and will reduce the volume according to a different audio signal. So, for example, again for using like a kick drum and a pad. So imagine the pad is playing right here. But we set this up to play on the kick drum when the kick drum comes and we said our threshold and ratio Whenever the kick drum plays, it would reduce the volume of the pad, and that's how you can set it up. 10. 2-2 - The Threshold Knob: okay. And our next few videos, we're going to be going over, you know, the threshold ratio, the attack and the release. This video, we're going to be focusing on the threshold. Now again, the biggest thing with the threshold is you have to think in terms off. You know, what is your audio signals level if your audio signals levels very, very quiet, but your threshold is set quite high. Your compressor will never turn on. And then on the other side of that. So if your audio signals very, very loud and it's always going over the threshold, that means that your signals always going to be compressing. And that may not be what you want. It could be what you want, but I'm just saying you have to be thinking about your audio signals level. So if I play this guitar note here, so if you look on the meter, okay. And if you look in the top left here, it shows how loud the sound is gonna play. So I'll just hit the note here. Okay, so let's showing about Listen, stay minus eight. Okay, So what that means is the actual peak like the you know the actual transient of that sound is at minus eight. So if we put our threshold to minus eight, you know, that probably was still not really trigger. They're compressed or too much. We want to go down a little bit more into the body. Now, that isn't really how I use the threshold as I am mixing when it comes to mixing. What I usually do is I would just, you know, maybe before the one just kind of set, like a fast medium attack and like a faster medium release. And then as I'm actually listening to this guitar, Lou, you know, I might just be like K. Okay, so you can hear is like that's being compressed very, very hard again. If we do there level match comparison just to hear how it sounds okay off, you know, it doesn't sound too bad. Like that's the biggest thing you want to be making sure that like your your levels are fair. That way you can actually compare Ah, one of the thing I'll do is I'll turn off all their other compressors and we'll listen to it again. Killed a little more up. Okay, so in this case. Well, what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna copy it. I'm gonna go to my other state and be just to kind of get a different comparison. And let's just bring that threshold off a little bit. Let's just see. You know what we can dial in. So I'm going to zoom in on my scale here a little bit, See? Might gain reduction. Okay, Often on a little back. I like how that sounds right there. You know, it sounds balanced. It's bringing out the articulation of the actual pluck a little bit. Let's go back to a which was compressed very, very heavily. Okay, so that's pretty much it further the threshold knob. Ah, few more things I'll tell you about it is there are different approaches you can take when you're setting your threshold. So, for example, that say, we work in the mastering stage. What you can do is you can set this threshold really, really low, and you can also set the ratio really, really low because what you're doing is yes, you're compressing this song 100% of the time for the whole song. But since the ratio is set so little. All you're doing is you're just kind of balancing out the song. So that's just a technique that you can try and you know again, it's just a kind of a mindset with the threshold. Another thing you want to think about with your threshold is you know, how aggressive do you want your compression to be? Because typically what you can do is you can go low threshold, low ratio, or you can kind of go like high threshold high ratio. OK, because, like since you're not getting into the body of the sound, you're kind of more hitting the the top, so you can be a little bit more aggressive with sounding a little bit more natural sounding . Or if you are into, like, the body of the track, you can kind of school a medium ratio or something like that. But it all depends on the sound you're working with. Is there certain problems with that sound? And if there is, you know, maybe you have to take two compressors. You can take one compressor and you can set it for high threshold, high ratio, you know, just like this. Really problem sounds. For example, if someone sent to a recording of them playing guitar, and they're all over the place. You know, what you could do is you can again take two compressors. You can have one to kind of mold the sound how you want. But then you can also have another one to help tame those loud notes that they're hitting. And that way, once it goes to your mastering stage, you don't just have this guitar that's just all over the place. And in addition to the threshold knob, Wikipedia also has an image which you will see a lot online when people are talking about compressors. Okay, so what you're seeing here is kind of the whole process of how a compressor works. So you have your you know, your audio is coming in. It hits over the threshold Boom. Now, this is when the attack time happens. So again, once the audio goes over that threshold, your attack here. So this is how long it takes to get to your actual compression level and then your release . So once the actual audio has gone below the threshold that you're seeing here, this is what we're working with. Another, the threshold went to goes below that threshold. The actual compressor is still compressing your audio, and it's gonna take a little bit of time to come back up. And this is just all dictated by how fast or slow you've dialed in your attack and release settings were going to go over a specific video on each individually. But I just want to show you this because right now we are working on the threshold. So as soon as the audio goes over, that is triggering the compressor toe work in terms of the ratio, the attack and the release, okay? 11. 2-3 - The Ratio Knob: Okay, So in this video, we're going to be working with the ratio knob, so the ratio knob is a ratio. So when we have a threshold and it goes over a certain amount, we divide it by the ratio, and that is what we should have in theory, left over the threshold. So let me give you some numbers. So if we ever threshold and we go over by 10 decibels, okay, and if we have a 2 to 1 ratio, that means that over our threshold we should have five decibels now, case he cuts it in half. Now, this is what you'll read about it online. But the thing is, in my opinion, it doesn't really make sense. And it actually makes things more confusing because then what's the point of your attack and release snobs? Because when it comes to the attack, like I've been telling you along, the attack is how long it takes to get to your actual desired ratio. OK, so, for example, if your sound only goes over the threshold really quickly, the compressor might not have enough time to get to that maximum ratio. So, for example, if we have, like our threshold at minus 18. And how you measure audio is it's backwards. So zero is the loudest. And if we have a threshold at minus 18 anything over minus 18 His louder. OK, so let's just say we have it at minus 10. So if our threshold is at minus 18 and our audio goes to minus 10 that means that our audio is eight decibels over our threshold again, with a ratio to tow one, we should only have four decibels over our threshold. But again, depending on our attack, how fast or how slow we've adjusted it. That's how long it's gonna take to get to our desired ratio amount. Okay, so that's a little bit confusing for a lot of people. But when you are listening to how I'm telling you, it kind of makes a lot more sense because you might never reach that 2 to 1 ratio that you've adjusted. So how I think about compression, I don't really think about it in terms of numbers, you know, in a sense of Oh, my thresholds here and I'm over by this much. Now, I should be left with this. I don't think about it. like that. For me, compression is all the boat might years and having a fair comparison to the before and after. So, for example, if I'm working on a sound and you know it's kind of getting lost in the mix, this is Sam working on a piano. So let's just play some court. But then the kind of individual notes in between, let's say those air getting lost. So in that case, I might just be, like, 18. What? I might be a bit more aggressive on my ratio. That's put other 4 to 1 or maybe 6 to 1. You know, just as a starting point and I would dial down my threshold, I would boost up my makeup gain. In this case, they're calling open level. And then I would turn often on the compressor while I was listening to the song. That's a big thing in future videos. I'm going to explain how to properly use a compressor, how to set yourself up eso that you know that you're actually making the proper adjustments and accurate adjustments which are improving. And that's just kind of how I think about using the ratio knob. Okay, so I'm as I'm working with the sound. You know, I'm kind of thinking over the way. We just kind of want a level it out a little bit or, well, maybe over to school, a lower threshold and a low ratio, maybe a faster attack and a fast release. That way, it's always compressing, and it's not really allowing the sound to go to extreme. But at the same time, it's also releasing fast so that it's staying really consistent. So I feel the best way to think about the ratio knob is just you got to decide. Do you want a lot of compression doing a little bit of compression? And again, the ratio on the threshold kinda go hand in hand if you're thresholds up super high. But you've dialed in a super intense ratio setting again, 100 to 1 is limiting. As you can see, it's infinite toe one. They call this limiting even 10 to 1. I think a lot of people still call limiting, but again, So if the threshold is here minus eight, but let's say are audio only goes to minus 10 because again we measure audio backwards, so minus 10 is not going over minus eight. Therefore, the compressors never working. So you do have to make sure that your threshold is actually hitting your audio. And once it is, then if you have only dollars your threshold just to a little bit of like, you know, just like the peaks of that audio. The same thing. You know, even if you're dialing in 10 to 1. If the audio is only going over one or two decibels, that's like that's all you're going to see for even gain reduction. So, like I'm saying, the threshold in the ratio they go hand in hand if you're dialing it down quite deep into the body of the sound, this is going to be very, very intense compression. However, you can just dial back your ratio, you know, for balancing or whatever you want to do. But if you have a higher threshold and you go higher ratio, you know again, this could be more transparent because you're just kind of shaving off the peaks. However, you might not be getting that much compression. When you think that you should so legal handed hand, you have to think about how much compression do I want apply to this sound, and it's just kind of, you know, trial and air back and forth in between the threshold and the ratio. And then I also kind of think in terms of the attack in the release, I kind of think, Well, do I want the transience to kind of stand out? You know, for in this case of the guitar, I really liked how it was bringing out the articulation of that guitar. But some sounds, you know, there might be two plucky sounding, you know, maybe they're cutting through to heart, so you want to kind of tame them to make it more consistent with the rest of the sound. So in that case, you would use a faster attack. Now, I know I'm kind of going back and forth in terms of the threshold the ratio of the attack in the release, But when using a compressor, they all go hand in hand. Okay. Like so when you're dialing in your settings Yes, I'm thinking about Yes, I want a lot of compression, but at the same time, if I had a low threshold Ah, high ratio, but a very, very long attack. You know this might be similar to having a very, very fast attack, a medium ratio and a medium threshold. So there's lots of ways to get the sound you want with compression. So that's the ratio again. I just think of it in terms of how much compression or do I want to apply as well as how much do I want the gain reduction to possibly be okay? Because you got to think if if it is only you know 1.25 or let's keep it simple, let's just go to tow one, because I can kind of do that math in my head as I'm talking to you. So if the threshold is very, very low and it is over 20 decibels, yes, you are going to be bringing it down. So you only have 10 you know, like the potential for 10 decibels of gain reduction. But if you are way more aggressive, like 6 to 1 or even 4 to 1, so you know you have the potential to have way more gain reduction at those settings to so hopeful that clarifies gets you thinking and also lets you be aware that there's multiple ways to get the sound that you want, depending on how you set your threshold, ratio, attack and release the all kinda go hand in hand. More ratio has more potential for more gain reduction, less ratio, obviously less. But depending on all these knobs together as a whole, you can be getting the sound and kind of multiple ways. 12. 2-4 - The Attack Knob: all right. In this video, we're going to be focusing on the attack knob. The attack knob is what allows you to affect the transient. So, in other words, the beginning of your sound. And we're gonna be working with the kick drum because this will help show you how to emphasize your sound. So again, you have either a fast attack. Which means once your audio goes over the threshold that has helped fast, it takes to get to your desired ratio. OK? And if we open this up a little bit to make it a longer attack is going to take a little bit longer to get to your ratio. And you have to think this stuff is in, like milliseconds. So it's still happening very, very fast. But it's not happening so fast. To the point of, for example, Fecal, back to our guitar here it was making the sound almost sound like a staccato when originally it sounds like this. But when we went to really, really intense settings, okay, like this kill open up a little bit and we'll play that open up a little bit. Okay, so it kind of sounds like staccato right depending on our attack. If we open it up, it's not compressing as fast is taking a little bit longer. So we're allowing the indicia transient to come through and do this, Okay, If you listen music clicking. Okay. So let's quickly look at that Wikipedia image again. Okay, so our audio is coming in, it goes over the threshold. Now, our attack is the time it takes to get to our ratio. So, for example, if we keep it really simple, let's just say it's 2 to 1. Okay? So if our thresholds at 18 if audio goes to 10 that means we've gone over eight. If it's 2 to 1 ratio, that means that we should have only four decibels over our threshold. Now, in theory, Okay, but again, this all depends on your attack time and how fast the sound is, right? If the sound is very, very fast, you know, it might come back under the threshold before it even reaches like the maximum compression . So all these things are factors as you are dialing in your compression settings. Now, I'm gonna go to a kick drum here. Okay? This one here and what we're gonna do is we're gonna will put up a compressor. Okay, Just the battle to proceed. Now let him sink. So the transient is the initial hit right here. If we trim this and I used the oat, the transient is literally just this area right here. Okay? And you can emphasize the transient, or you can squash the transient. And what it's going to do is if you squash the transient, it's making it. So for example, if the sound is really big and really, really small here, but you're doing if you're squashing, it is you're actually making it like this. And then if you amplify that in volume, your sound now becomes like a big sausages. What they typically say, however, if you do it the other way. So, for example, if our transients here and our sounds only this big, what you can do is you can actually make the transient go bigger and keep this around the same. So you're amplifying that transient. So in the case of a kick drum or a snare, if you're enhancing the beginning, the initial transient, you can hit you in the chest a little bit more, or if you squish it. You're making the body a little bit longer, making more sustained. So we'll play the kick drum here. It's not being compressed or anything. This is just how it sounds. Just rate out of my sound kit paternalism, compression kiss when I was quieter. So we have to bring up our volume. So if we look right here, you know, it's saying that it's, um, you know, reducing about about six decibels. This is very boosted by, like, 2.5 turn off. Okay, so let's bring up against let's go for catcher and off on. So in this case, you know, we're kind of shaping at a little bit. I'm hearing maybe it's a little bit brighter with our compression versus without the compression. So let's be really aggressive with this, and what I'm gonna do is actually gonna record this into Edison, and you're going to see the difference in between the attack knob. OK, so I'm going to be dialing really, really extreme settings just to help emphasize this, you know, just strictly for learning purposes. But what you can do sometimes to help you learn compression mawr is you can use dramatic settings and then just dial them back. So, for example, if you set up your ratio to be pretty intense, if you set up your attack to be pretty intense and maybe all you have to do is just may bring up your threshold so that it isn't compressing as hard into the body of a signal, you know? So there's lots of different ways you can try and be aggressive and then just kind of bring it back a little bit just to help you train your ears because compression takes a long time to really here is going on. So what I'm gonna do is this. Let's just go really intense. Just go right down to the body. Let's be really, really aggressive on a ratio on. Let's just open up our attack. Okay, Let's just listen to it, Okay, So what we're gonna do is bring up the volume a little bit. I'll bring Edison over here just so I can ah turn often on the compressor. So it is what it sounds like without is with. So again, we're amplifying that initial transient. In this case, this is way too aggressive. We don't have any body on the kick drum anymore. We've sucked out the life of it. Um, but so what? I'm gonna record it. Okay, so that's what we got. And if we trim the compressor off, come back here. Record this again. So those are the two different sounds we're dealing with here. Okay, so just right. Click and go like medium slicing, and we will delete this area in here. Just we can seem a little better, So that's the difference. Okay, so here we've amplified the transient, and here are transient is pretty much the same level as the sustain of this kick drum. Okay, so that is the difference. Now, let's do it the other way around. So let's just squash that attack like hard. Okay, turn the compressor on. But it's trump the volume cause he had to have fair comparison. So we'll come back to Edison and I hit record motives, removal. This will move in between, and we'll right click and go medium slicing. Okay, so let's just listen to those again. Okay? So we kind of amplified the sustain a little bit more. You can see around here, right? It's kind of boosted it up a little bit this stuff's really, really, really subtle. But as you can see, the 1st 1 wasn't subtle like this is, You know, we're actually enhancing this quite a lot the transient, but we've really, really reduced the sustained. The reason why I want to show you that it's just because every sound has a transient. It's the very, very kind of beginning of a sound. On depending on your attack settings, you can amplify or you can squash it. And they both give you a different sound in the shaping and molding off, using your compressor again. When the attack is fast, you're squashing that transient, which again? So if I do this again so if the transience of it bigger than the body And if we squash the actual transient with a fast attack it makes like this, and then when we boost the volume were able to get mawr volume out of it because that initial transient isn't in your way. Okay, because what is stopping you? An audio is the loudest part of this of the sound. And in this case, if you're transients way bigger than the body, this if you push this, you know this is gonna distort before the body gets in there. So if you were to clamp down with a fast attack on the compressor to put it to hear what's happening is now you know you're not going to get distortion when you amplify this and tell , you know, it goes over zero and starts clipping Yours are starting when you're in the mastering stage . Typically, you're wanting to use longer attack times, and the reason for that is just just to allow your actual music to breathe. But you just want, you know, you just want to using your compressor toe actually kind of control the dynamics, and then the limiter is what you would be using for, like, kind of, you know, other kind of peaks. But a compressor is more just to kind of balance out the track in terms of, you know, just kind of, as they say, glue the mix, and if you're attack is very, very fast. Typically, you could be kind of sucking the life out of your mix. You know, your clamping down, whereas when you're attack is a little bit longer, you're allowing a lot of the transience to kind of come through And the thing is, every single plug in is a little bit different to sometimes they have different numbers. You know, down here, they might have even smaller numbers are up here. You know, it might not, may not correlate that way, but what I'm trying to get across to you is like, you know, a fast attack is like when it's all the way, far left, kind of medium attacks. And at the middle along, attack would be all the way on the right kind of thing. And when you're mixing your track, if you're always using a fast attack, you could be again sucking the life out of a lot of your sounds if you kind of opened it up a little bit and again, it's all about depending on the sound you're working with. But if you do open it up, you're kind of allowing more of the transience to come through and, you know, have a little bit more balanced into your music. 13. 2-5 - The Release Knob: Okay, So in this video, we're going to be checking out the release knob. The release now is probably one of the trickiest knobs on a compressor for you to actually hear what you're doing to your sound. Even still, nowadays, the release knob still kind of eyes tricky for me in a sense of really hearing what it's doing. And what I mean by that is the trick to a compressor. A lot of times is to dial in Mawr extreme settings, and then you can kind of dial it back. Now, a general rule of thumb for the release knob is you kind of wanted to be in time with arrested your beat. So, for example, like that, like the loud parts you know, you might want to clamp down, but you want to release almost as fast as it kind of went down. And that's just kind of a general rule of thumb. But depending on if you want to put your own taste with your compressor on your music, that is where you can either dial it now a little bit faster, or you can dollar in a little bit longer. So when you release time is longer. So, for example, if we put it to big TV around, let's say 500 ish or something like that. You have more control over the audio because your compressor is actually still compressing once the audio goes under that threshold. Okay, so let's go to Wikipedia. So again, as you can see, the audio is coming in, right? It goes over the threshold now, depending on our ratio and our attack setting, this is the time it takes to get toe are desired compression amount. And then once the audio goes under that threshold, as you can see, the compressor is still compressing your music. And then, depending on how long you have your release time, that's how long it takes for the compressor to let go of compression. Now, if you have a fast released time, this can help. Your music sounded a little bit louder because as soon as the audio goes underneath the threshold, it is releasing and it's keep your music loud. Um, but it can also sometimes down a little bit aggressive, and also if we're working with, like, a drum loop, for example, if you have a fast released time, it can also bring up kind of like the room sound, Um, of your of your loop. Now, if you have a ca longer released time, it kind of smooths out your music and it gives you a little bit more control because it's not fluctuating as fast. It's kind of, you know, as the changes are happening, it's going with it, but at a little bit slower pace. Okay, so let's go back to FL Studio and we'll check this out on the Master Channel. Okay? I have my compressors set up like this and it a hit b. You can see that I have a fast release time. So the long released time and a fast released time. So we're gonna listen to the song here, and I'm gonna try often on, and we'll switch in between and be and you will listen for what the release is doing. But I will give you a little hint. And for me when I was listening, it makes the baseline a lot more consistent and has more control over the song When I have the longer release. Okay, so with a So we'll leave it like this well hit play without compression. I'll add it in with the fast release, and then we'll switching between the long release and what I want you to listen for is the baseline. And just how much more consistent and audible it is throughout the whole song. So without the compression that you hear the base But at times in the song, it kind of goes away a little bit. But then it comes back in iconic a new note or something. But with the long release, that baseline stays quite more consistent and you're always hearing it so without compression, and then we will go with a fast release, okay? With depression. Okay, so one thing I'm hearing with the fast release when the compressions on is this guitar sound so we'll come back here. So this guitar son has reverb on it, Okay, I have the sends on it turned back on the river. So with this compression setting, it is bringing up the river of that guitar. Okay, so listen to the river on the guitar here. Let's may be sold out. Trailing. Okay. We'll be listen to that river. Okay, That reverb there. And now it's a quite far apart, so like I'm saying, compression is very, very tricky to hear the difference. But when that compressor was on, the reverb was a lot closer and volume to the original signal of that guitar. And it kind of made the music sound a little bit folder because the river was playing, in my opinion, the rivers maybe a little bit too loud. The song Is it mixed or anything? Now let's go to a and I want you to listen to the baseline, okay? And I'll switch in between A and B and then also turn often on the compressor. And again, I have dialed this so that all the volumes are pretty similar otherwise again, that conspicuous your judgment. Typically, we always think the louder one is better, even if it is or isn't. Okay, So I really want you to watch for the A and B as I turn it off and on, OK, because if I speak, it will kind of skew your judgment too. So just watch When I turned often on and you will see the release not change And just listen for that baseline. Okay? With it off a case like that. Baselines coming in but it's not consistent. So again we can hear the base, but you kind of lose it a little bit. Even here, with the fast release, it's a little more consistent long release. Okay, so that's the release nob again. When your audio goes underneath the threshold, that's how long it takes for your compressor to stop compressing, depending on how fast or how slow you're released. Knob is set now again, when you've a fast release, it kind of brings up the room sound. Um, it can make you music sound lower, though, but also depending on the compressor that you're working with. If you have too fast of a release again, it can follow like the single cycle way form. So again, if we go to Edison, it could actually follow like, thes actual single cycles, and it can cause distortion. So if you are getting distortion, that's just telling you that you have to have a little bit of a longer release when to stop hearing the distortion. That's pretty much the fastest. You can set your release time with that compressor that you're working with again. And then as we listen to the music here for a second. I'll just show you what I meant by the pumping. So typically again, people usually say that it's kind of like an elastic band. Okay, so as hard as the music is pumping into the compressor, that's kind of how fast you want to release again. It's just a general rule of thumb. A lot of times will dialed my compressor like to that area, and then it's kind of like a listen. Like while Do I want a little more control over, uh, that sound? And if so, I my dialing ah longer released time. Just so it's not, you know, leading goal of compression so fast. That way I have a little more control over the sound. Or if I wanted to be very, very loud in then I'm all have, like, a faster released time. So again, this is hit play here, and I'll show you what I mean by kind of the elastic nous of this. Okay, so we resumed in here, so we're compressing quite hard, right? Consistently again, This is on our master track. So just style this down a little bit ago to be a little bit longer release, we'll go up our threshold to maybe a little bit longer release. Okay, You kind of see how it's bouncing with the music, you know, a little bit longer. You'll see that it's not really going with the music anymore, Okay? We can't even go up in the threshold here. That's actually not too bad. Okay, a little faster Case, let's try this compressor often on. So do you hear how it just sounds more consistent? It's bringing up a lot of like the more quieter sounds and is making the song as a whole sound like a commercial track. So gamma turn off. Okay, so if you're not really able to hear the difference again, like I'm saying, Compression takes quite a bit of time to train your ear to hear the difference. Because for the most part, when you're using compression and especially like the mastering stage and stuff like that, it's very, very subtle. But in my opinion, at that point, the comparison between before and after brought the music to be more energetic. It brought up a lot of that. The quieter sounds. It made it more consistent, such as like the river. But even like the kind of the high hats and just kind of the energy of the song by dialing and these settings to the before and after. So this kind of put a little of a polish on it, making it sound more consistent, ready for the world to listen to before you know, it sounded not bad, but I feel that this compression improved it. So that's the Release nob again. In my opinion, it's play one of the trickiest knobs to really hear the difference between what you're doing. But you can always dial inm or extreme settings so that you can really hear what you're doing and then this dial back toe, where it suits the sound that you're going for. 14. 2-6 - Gain Reduction Meter + Make-Up Gain: Okay, So in this video, we're gonna be talking about the gain reduction meter as well as makeup gain. So when you're first starting up, I know for a lot of people is kind of a confusing concept of, you know that. What do you really trying to achieve? Other compression? Because what you are doing is you are making your music quieter, and then you're just using makeup gain to boost the volume back up to where it waas. But when you're using a compressor, you have your loud parts of your quieter parts. And then after your compression, depending on how aggressive you've been with your compressor, it brings down this loud part, and it makes it more consistent with the quieter part. So instead of it being kind of like, you know, your music's like this, it would be more consistent, and it would be more steady throughout the song now And so now what you're doing is with this being allowed part up here, and now that you've compressed it, your makeup gain kind of brings the whole song off, and that's the whole idea behind your gain reduction and your makeup game. So when I hit play here. You're gonna watched, You know, this is the gain reduction meter in the middle. And just because this compressor in this case, let's say we go down toe 10 decibels of gain reduction, which is quite a lot. That doesn't mean on our makeup gain that we have to boost it by 10 decibels. Okay, so in this case, you know, if it was reducing by 10 I might start it maybe 7.5 for my makeup game, and then I turn it off and on for a fair comparison, because when oneness louder again, we typically get swayed it to the one that's louder, whether it is improving or not, our music. So let me hit play here. You're gonna watch the gain reduction meter, and we can adjust the makeup gain accordingly. Okay, so I'm just going to set the makeup gain, and we will listen. So I turned off the compressor so you can hear you can hear is loud. And we're compressing to, like, you know, minus eight, which is again quite a law. And this is on the master mastering. You want to be very, very subtle. So this is boost us up. So right now this is user scale. Here is to school a little bit. So we consume in a bit so worried about, you know, 7.5 game reduction. Let's put this just a five. You know, a little starting point. Turn us off really close, a little bit louder. Let's go 5.5 often on the deal of the latter Esko 6.25 Okay, so that's just kind of a general idea of how to use your gain reduction and your makeup gains. So the gain reduction is telling you how much compression is going on again. Were the mastering stage and that's really, really extreme is really, really excessive, you know, um, I will do a specific video on mastering and using compression later, so make sure you follow that, but this is just kind of more just to show you how the gain reduction meter works to your makeup game. So the gain reduction is this. How much compression is going on again? Just because it's you know, you have 10 decibels of gain reduction doesn't mean that you need a 10 decibel boost. It's just kind of a by ear thing because when you turn off and on, you want to be a fair comparison so that as you are adjusting your compression settings, you can actually hear. It's like Are you actually improving your music or are you damaging it? 15. 2-7 - Input and Output Meter: Okay, So in this video, I'm just gonna quickly cover the input and the output graph here. I'll tell you right now that I really don't use this to understand my compression. However by me just kind of telling you the basics of it. It might just kind of give you some confidence and kind of complete the course. But again, like I'm saying, when I use a compressor, I'm mainly looking at the gain reduction meter and using my ears. Do I like what I'm doing to a music or not again? Adjustment volume turn off and on. And that's how I use a compressor. So if I hover over this, we're going to read the little pop up here. So it says that this is the input output ratio transfer curve. Ah, the horizontal is the input signal, and the vertical is the output signal. Okay, So what that saying is from left to right is our input from bottom to top is our output. And so what you can see here is my ratio is actually one toe one, and this means that is linear. That means that as the audio increases in volume, it stays the same. There's no change happening to it. No compression is being applied. Even if I adjust my threshold, Nothing is happening because I haven't adjusted by ratio. So if I put 2 to 1 ratio, you can see that my threshold would now actually start working and are compressor will be working. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna put this threshold to minus 12 because that allows us to have a line that we can follow to make it really, really simple for you. Now, how you read an input output graph is from here. This is your threshold. Okay? So as your audio comes up, nothing in here is changing. This is which again, what you call then year. This is your threshold right here. And I have adjusted a heart me in instead of a soft me which I'll cover in her next video. So ah hardly allows you to really visually see where compression actually starts happening . So now how you read an input open graph is from this threshold point, you go to the right. Okay? And then you would go up. And as you can see there six decibels of difference. 12 divided by six is too. So that means that our ratio would be to one. Okay, so again you go from your threshold. You work your way to the right. Right now, we're at 12. We go up at six. So that's telling us that we have a 2 to 1 ratio. OK, now, if I put this down to, let's say 18 that's that's gonna be another line that we can easily see if I go in between . We don't really have a definite number, so it makes it hard. So this is going 18 because it will put us rate 18. So now again, I have a 2 to 1 ratio. So we start from here, we follow ourselves all the way up, and it's like a This is kind of in between. But if we go 18 divided by two, it's like, Well, that looks like nine to me now, since I met 18 here. And if I go to 3 to 1 ratio, so we start from our actual threshold where compressions happening right now, we're at 3 to 1 ratio. So we come across here case where 18 but we have 12 sort difference in between that is six and the difficult 18 divided by six. That gives us a 3 to 1 ratio. Okay, so, over the calculator here, so 18 divided by six is three. Okay, so again, how you probably got that. So we have 18 with minus it by 12. Because that's where it showing. You hear the difference in between? That is six. So then we just go 18 divided by six. That gives us 3 to 1 ratio. OK, so it's 21 more example here again, I do not use this at all. As in using my compression. I just want to show you it just so you can kind of visually see, um you know what you're looking at on this compressor. So this is put us to 30 Okay? Because we have a line right here. If I again go to tow one. Okay, so right now this is at probably 15. It kind of looks like it, doesn't it? So 18 12 in the middle of the 15 so 30 divided by two is 15. Or in this case, let's keep it simple. OK, so if it's 30 let's put it 3 to 1 case that means that there's 10 decibels difference. Uh, in between that. So again we go 30. Ah, minus. In this case, what do we have? You know, that looks like 20 to me. So here's minus was minus 18. 24. That looks like it's in the middle of that. So that's 20 so minus 20 So we're left with that. So if you go 30 divided by 10 that means there were 23 to 1 ratio, 3 to 1 ratio at 30. Okay, so, like I'm saying, I don't use that effort. I just want to show you just for kind of completeness of the course. One other thing I'll show you just so that we don't really talk about this again. Just to kind of break it down in this course is there's also this gain reduction meter up here as well. So I really like this meter to follow this meter. But this pink line here is also a gain reduction meter. Sophie, watch this. It gives you a better representation of how your attack and release settings are kind of working together. So if I'd be really, really aggressive on my settings, okay, so you can see that the pink Here, Let's, uh, bring the in all the way down and let's bring the o all the way down. Okay? So you could see that this is being really, really aggressive. Let's bring it up a bit. Okay, So this is how our attack and release settings are working. If I have a longer attack police, you can see that it's a lot smoother. Okay? There's not much dynamics really changing. There's a lot more consistent. If I go fast release, you're gonna see that it goes up to zero and probably down here as well. Care the school faster attack. So as you can see, this is really amplified our compression, so we're getting way more compression out of it. If I open up my attack a little bit, it just kind of shows us a graph of you know how it's how is compressing her music. Okay, this means that it's constantly, always being compressed, staying more consistent, but it's causing the compressing hell of a faster on the release. Okay, get a little more balanced out of our music. It's not always compressing or an actual. In this case, it is. You can see, it's not never hitting zero castle. There you go. So is hitting zero appear and it's compressing only when it really needs to. So as you can see, this is just the another gain reduction meter, just a different representation of it. I personally was really like this one allows we really just see what's going on. Okay, so that was just kind of a quick overview of your input and output graph. Um, you know, this is almost like of ratio again. I really, really don't focus on it. I focused more on the fact of just my threshold, my ratio, my attack and release and a look at this gain reduction Just to hear how much is happening , I will boost up my makeup gain. I'll turn often on here. I'm actually improving my music. And if I am, they want, like the next sound 16. 2-8 - Soft Knee vs. Hard Knee: okay. And in our final video for this section of how a compressor works, I'm just going to talk to you about a knee. Now, Annie was a very, very tricky thing for me to understand what I was first starting up with compression to. So I really like to learn off of a hard me. Harden is really, really simple. Because, as you can see, you come up to a point, and it's just that's where your threshold is. So you start compressing right there. Let's put this to 12 again, Okay? Make it really, really simple. So down here, no compressions happening. It's linear. This is the same thing as a 1 to 1 ratio. Want your actual audio goes over this threshold? Okay, it starts to compress right here, and that's a hard knee. Okay, so that means that no compression is happening and tell your audio actually goes over that threshold. Now, when we go to a soft knee, this is what throws people. You know, it makes things a little bit tricky for people with a soft me. Your audio actually starts compressing a little bit before your threshold. Okay, so let's go back to a hardening. So we have a threshold. Our audio is coming and it passes. We start compressing with a soft knee instead of it being hard. Think of it as kind of rounded. So your audio kind of wood start compressing around here and then hit more compression. Okay, So as we go to the soft me, you can see that it doesn't really have a fine point. It's more rounded. Okay, So instead of it actually starting to compress at 12 you could see that. Well, it's actually starting to compress around 16 17. You know, even around here, it started to compress. Go back to the hard. Okay, It's his linear up to that point of 12 but we go to a softy, and it's actually starting to compress lower down. OK, so that's just the difference between a hardy and a soft me. Some compressors also even have a dial, so you can kind of dial in between, you know, real hard knee versus a soft me, uh, again, if we even go to, like, limiting here. Okay, so right here. This is limiting. So as our audio this prison minus 18 So as our audio comes up again. It's linear. Nothing is changing. No compression or limiting is happening once it goes over minus 18 that is when in this case, limiting would happen. But if we go to a soft me begin, you can see that. Well, the limiting is actually starting to happen around minus 24 vs minus 18. Okay, so that's a knee. It just determines when the compression actually happens. It's the difference between having a gradual buildup versus and abrupt buildup. Okay, so you have your threshold. If it's hard me when the audio goes over, it will start compressing only when it goes over. Ah, soft me actually starts to compress a little bit before. 17. 3-1 - A and B Comparison + Level Matching: Okay, So in this section, I'm going to break down how to actually use the compressor to get the best results with your time with your settings and with the end result of your song. So in this video, we're going to be covering a and B comparison, okay? And level matching. So you've been seeing me do this all throughout this course. However, this section is just gonna be the basics. The fundamentals of how I use a compressor so that I could test make sure that my settings are actually benefiting my music. And then, you know, I'm onto the next sound. I can keep moving and actually eventually finish my track. So again, with a and B comparison, you have this switch up here, and most compressors do so even if we open up like the fruity limiter here. So dynamics go to the fruity limiter, so even they haven't a and B down here. Okay, So, for example, if I go to the compressor section here and if we, uh, no doubt down the threshold here and the ratio and if I save the state and then I make the ratio of more intense would be less threshold attack. Adjust the attack. If you switching between here, you can see that it's switching a before and after and again. If you adjust your makeup gain, you know you can kind of get it to where you want, so to go back to proceed now. So as you are a and being, this is an awesome way for you to kind of compare two different states the compressor to see Well, do you like a fast attack, or do you like a long release? Or if you do want more compression here or less compression, you know, higher threshold, more ratio are you know you can kind of play around with two different states to see what you like, But the biggest thing that you want to do is you want to make sure that your level matching and what that means is that your volumes are the same, so that when you go from a to B or when you go from off and on that your compressor is the same volume. Okay, now it doesn't have to be like perfect, but if there is a volume difference there, typically you are swayed ID and sometimes what I even do like, especially in the mastering stage. You know, let's say I was kind of unsure if my compression is actually benefiting the music. Well, actually, put my most here. I'll close my eyes and his a bunch of times and then I'll listen and I'll click on and off and on and off, or whatever it is that the state renounce right now is on. But I'll do that to kind of compare. It's like, what is? You know? Is it benefiting? Or is it isn't it? Can I really hear the difference between my compression? Um, you know what? I'm closing my eyes and just actually listening. That's sometimes a trick I used to. But the most important thing is that you are adjusting your level and again. Just because your gain reduction is showing three decibels of gain reduction doesn't mean that you have to boost this three decibels. And another thing, Teoh, think about two is depending on where in your song you're listening to at that moment. For example, if you go from verse one to the chorus, typically in your chorus, you're probably going to be getting mawr compression because there's usually more instruments. If you've even boosted some of the volumes to be louder in your chorus to have a bigger impact, you have to think that, um, you know, you might be getting more compression there. Um, and in the mastering stage, you know, it might just be a matter of having to automate your ratio knob that when it goes to like the chorus, you could maybe dial it back a little bit. That isn't something I do very often. But I'm just talking to let you be aware that when you're using a compressor, it's all about fair comparison. And it's not just compression. You know, I just recently did a course on how to use your EQ You effectively, you guys could just check that open the same thing I was just talking about everything has to be a fair comparison in terms of volume. So when you're turning off your Q and turning it on, turning off your compressor, turning it on if they're not a fair comparison, you know you're kind of handcuffing yourself because you could actually be putting in bad settings. But just because it's louder, you might just like, Yeah, I know it sounds way better. Okay, so that's just kind of the basics in the sense of the A and B allows you to get to different flavors to see what you like. Make sure your level matching and then especially when you're turning off and on. I also reference to that to also another thing to keep in mind with your compressor is this is what you call in series. So, for example, if we haven't e que here, okay, and then if we have another compressor, So school save preset put it here and we'll put Thea compressor up here. So now we have a compressor and eq you and a compressor. So if we have compressed it really hard and done some really intense e que stuff, this compressor right here, Kayla, she's closes out. This one down here will be seeing a different audio signal, you know? So now if I do turn them off now, it seems a different audio signal because what's happening is as the audio goes through, it's getting process, then goes to the next plug into, gets processed and goes to this plug in, and now it's too seeing different audio So, for example, if you've come here and you've dialed in settings, you can like it as it is. But then now you come back to the EQ, you and you dial in different settings, you know, now this compressor down here is going to react differently because it's not seeing the same audio is when you initially dialed in that compressor. So there's just all these things to think about as you're using these tools. I just want to kind of break it down for you just so that you're aware of them. So as you are mixing and, you know, sound designing, making your beats, that you kind of know the pros and cons to your decisions. Okay, so that's all I want to talk about in this video is just more like the A and B and the level matching going forward. That's what I'm going to continue to do. And I hope that's what you do so that you could make wiser decisions so that you could actually hear is the decision that you're making benefiting your music. We're making it worse 18. 3-2 - Setting Up a Compressor Effectively: Okay, So in this video, I just want to talk to you about you know, how to use a compressor and how to set one up. And, you know, does your sound even need compression and kind of what to think about, You know, before you apply compression onto a sound, all that kind of stuff. So let's just say you are working on a song, and you've you know, you have all your instruments, all your kick drums, stairs, high hats, all that stuff. Everything's in your mixer and it's ready to go right here. Okay, so the first thing I personally do is I'll go, Anil. Actually, volume balance manually. Case will take my most. I listen to the song all you know, maybe reduce the kick drum, you know, boosts up the collapse or bring down the hi hats. You know, whatever it takes to get the volumes sitting toe where you know, the song sounds pretty balanced. And then from that point, then I would start bringing out e que and compression. And the thing is, the e que and compression that kinda go hand in hand. Like I said, I just created that course on E key, which you guys can check out. And then once a volume balance Mashal song, Well, then think in terms of what did these certain sounds in need in order to make them, you know, fit better in the mix. So, for example, like, you know, does that sound have too much high end or doesn't have not enough? High end is there, you know, is kind of, like muddy and at the low mids or is a to Basie or is, you know, are some notes. I can hear some notes. Really good. But I can't hear other notes. And all that comes into play of both CQ and compression together. Now, let's just say we're working on a sound. And, you know, some of the sounds are too loud in some of the sounds are too quiet. In this case, we're just gonna put a compressor on. Okay, So to set it up, I'm just gonna go default settings now. How pro See works that has an auto gain. I usually turn that off because I want to be in full control off my settings. So how they set this? You know, the threshold is fine. It's good starting point, the ratio. That's a pretty good starting point. The attack in the release. You know, I'm gonna bring this up a little bit. Otherwise, you just constantly squashing your music and it's just it's just constant, right? So let's just hit play here on the full track again. This is that this is at the mastering stage, the mastering. You have to be quite more gentle. So we'll just listen to this after this war, the guitar solo and I will dial in some settings in this video with you, too. So let's just hit play and see where this puts our song. I'll tell you right away. You know, we're gonna have to boost a per volume here a little bit. But I'll do that, uh, with my fair comparison and since I opened up all these, let's just delete these, okay? I was put to the first plug in, and this is it right here. So our thresholds minus 18 ratio is two point. Let's just let's just go to tow one. Okay? So 2 to 1 you know, Mr is our attack. It's kind of Ah ah, fast medium attack. You know, this is a fast to medium release, and I haven't Ah, I don't have any makeup game. So let's hit play. Castle compression is quite aggressive again. Pro C has this filter to filter out the kick drum and the snare so that it allows your compression to be a lot more natural sounding. But I'm just gonna leave it like this because most you guys may not have a compressor that has that option. So in this case, there's two options I can go. I can either go less ratio and lead a threshold where it waas a bit more aggressive. And this is open up the attack here a little bit because this is mastering. Okay, someone's gonna call me the State, and now I can go in between a and B to kind of here between both of them. So on, be this. Just be a bit more aggressive, But let's be open up this attack quite a bit. And the release speaking to be a little bit longer on the threshold. Let's bring it up because this can't see it's constantly compressing. I will bring up the volume of schooling two decibels. Mistress turned off and on. Okay, I can bring up the volume a little bit more so 3.25 off Bring the threshold up just a little bit more and again. You have to think about when you move when you bring the threshold up is actually increasing the volume because it's not compressing as much. So I'm just gonna compensate, maybe like 2.2 point eight off. So with it, with the compression on its louder so 2.5. Okay, so it's sounding a little bit fuller. Let's just go back to a So let's just bring the threshold down quite low. Let's go a little bit less ratio on Let's just go faster release. Okay? And this brand this volume was pretty again. 2.5 on a shirt off. Let's go Hard knee. So, in other words, is not compressing before the threshold. Well, from the attack, A little more. Let's bring the pressure up just a little bit. Bring the volume down a little bit and you could also be holy done like shift and stuff. So if I hold on shift and click, you can see that I can find tune instead of going so fast on me. Let's turn off. Okay, so with it on, you can hear that it's a bit more consistent just in terms of like the hi hats and kind of like the ambiance that the river been stuff. We're kind of bringing that level up of it, making it more consistent, and that will also allow it to sound better on my kind of smaller speakers and stuff, too. Like nothing's getting lost. Music is sounding a lot more consistent, so with it on a little more ratio, turn the volume a little bit. Let's go to 25 maybe 2.5 up on the threshold. A little bit off. You know, setting stop bad there. I'm going to go to be que Chernoff case. In this case, let's bring the structural up quite a bit. Let's be a little aggressive on the ratio again. This is mastering. Typically, you want to be using, you know, very, very late ratios, but if you're on a higher threshold, you could be a bit more aggressive and again, Kick drum is triggering this quite a big. So if I were to dial in this filter again, it filters out that low end that kicked from the stair, and it's not tricking the compressor unnecessarily. So right now about a higher threshold, let's go to 4 to 1. Let's turn off the expert mode. Just just keep its or regular compressor, which you guys probably will be using. Go higher threshold low, faster attack, Faster release, Turn off. Let's go to 2.75 and you can also kind of here. It's kind of sucking the life out of my kick from a little bit. Turn off. It does sound brighter. It sounds more polished. It's just sucking the life out of the kick. Drum is a little bit so maybe let's just go stylist down to, like 3.50 probably attacked us a little bit that will all the kick drum the initial punch to hit you a little more que Chernoff kisses louder. Castle 2.25 This goal is compared to my other compression settings. Now there's also different styles are compressors. So in this case, proceed gives me three different choices. Solicit school like Opto again. You know, back in the day there was like valves show you an image here so as you can see here these like tubes or vacuum tubes? Valves. Um, and what they do is they run their audio through them and it kind of ah, kind of creates a distortion, stuff like that or saturation. And that's what they're using for, um, you know, one type of compressor. There's other ones like optical. So, like I was mentioned, mentioned Q before it actually uses, like an led light. So depending on how aggressive you your input volume goes, that's how bright the light will go, and it will compress accordingly. A Z you see, this is opt over optical. So let's just kind of comparing between these two. Okay, So turn on. We'll bring upon the stress a little bit of being quite aggressive on the threshold. Yes, maybe just a little more aggressive on the ratio. Bring up to stretch a little bit. Let's go A soft me brand. The volume Go 4.25 shirt off. Okay, which allowed 3.5. Okay, so too loud. Just go 2.25 I think that's where I had it. Case. Let's just kind of bringing up a little bit. I'm really hearing too much of a difference between the before and after. With that one. I do kind of like this setting. So let's compression on this. Sounds a lot more polished. Okay, so let's just applying it with the master track again. Typically, we're using very, very gentle compression settings, like very low ratios, like 1.25 you know, fresh holding kind of play around with. But as you could see, what I was doing there is you can dial in, you know, like a lower threshold and like, a less ratio or more ratio. But then open up your attack. Um and that's just where it's all just kind of playing around with this. So let's just play with this guitar sound here. I worry shortly before how you know the difference between the volume balancing and molding and shaping. But again, I'm just going to show you just a starting point. So in this case, if we listen to our whole song as a whole, Okay, but we are gonna be compressing the guitar again. The guitar is this one. Okay, so in context of the whole song and again, my compression settings are just this, you know, they're just kind of a good starting point. So sometimes, you know, it's all about kind of being creative and trying new things to. So let's just try classic women tried that one yet. I'm just gonna start with 1.5 makeup gain and we're gonna play here, and we're just gonna hear how we're gonna affect the guitar. Okay. Under to zoom in on the scale. Chernoff case was louder without the compression. So with compression, this bring it up to put five livable three. Okay, Because since I'm zoomed out, it doesn't look like much, but I'm actually bringing down to about five. Right? So zoom and more with all compression again, we can open up The attack could be more aggressive on our ratio. Bring the special down a little bit. Bringing up kiss again. It's sounding grounded, right? Like a showing you before thistle on the actual attack. The actual kind of plucks the guitar. The more articulation to hit us. Okay, just copy this gonna be Let's be more aggressive. Chaos school 81 uh, lower threshold. Proper attack. Bring her release this Make it faster because we don't want clamping down the whole time. I just want to be quick just to kind of help that attack pop through and kind of pull out right after. Let's bring up our thresh a little bit. Kind of sucking the life out of it. This, uh, often on. Okay, case or a bit louder. Let's just put it five for five. Dial back on the ratio a bit. Let's go. Five cough. Okay, lets go. 4.25 before I can't. So I like that where it is. We're gonna go to be our story. Now, let's try the other way. Let's try and squash on the attack. Just turn the volume so off. Okay, so it's just dial it back a little bit. This ratio Or maybe in this case, so watching. I can copy this. We're gonna go to be Let's try to different settings will go. Ah, high threshold for 10. We'll go. Aggressive ratio. Sorry, we didn't will dial down open. We're gonna go back. We're going to dial down the ratio, and we're gonna go a little bit lower threshold. Let's put it maybe 27 kit and well styled on our outfit. So off. Okay, a little faster release because it's kind of sucking the whole life out of it, you know, slow off a little water three. Now we're going to go to the other one. So again this soon is the high threshold a high ratio, fast attack medium release, so turn off. So what's happening here is this is where it comes down to, understanding your mixer and the signal flow on the mixer. I do have a course on this. You know, I don't want to keep plugging you two different courses of mine, but for your education, I have a course called Fl Studio Mixer workflow, and it breaks down how a mixture works in terms of the signal flow. So you have Siri's and parallel processing. So this guitar is going to the delay. So whatever I'm doing to this guitar again, if I'm processing it quite hard with heavy compression, that compressed signal is then going to the delay. And so what I want to say about that is, since I'm compressing it, it's allowing the compressed signal to go to the delay, and it's making actually the delay sound more consistent, too. So if you listen to the delay again now, good hit play alert from the pressure on and off and just listen for that delay. Okay, so for example, right around here, So I kind of got lost that delay a little bit when I turned on. It's a little more consistent. Open up the attack a little bit like we're squashing it, right? So it's just kind of compare so before a little bit ladder. So 1.75 But that's kind of how I use compression. That's how we set it up. I looked like my gain reduction. My out put, you know, like my makeup gain and I keep training often on I keep kind of comparing in between hearing it's like, Am I improving the song? You know, what am I doing? And you know, finally you, all of a sudden just kind of get that spot where I like how it sounds like it sounds cool. You know what E feel? It's more consistent, or I feel that it makes the music sounds more energetic, more fuller, so hopeful. That helps you out in the sense of setting up your compressor. You know, does your sound even need compression? And if it does, you know what wrote do you want to take you trying to squash to make it more consistent? Are you trying to mold and shape the sound to make it sound totally different? Um, as you saw, you know, I I just tried a whole bunch of different things there. I really like pro. See, in my opinion, it just makes the process, you know, more enjoyable for visual. The fruity limiter is a great compressor to, but you can You guys come to supply the same things I've done there, too. So if we open it up here quickly, I'll just run down just how it works. So again, you just go to the compression tab. You just dial in your threshold, you dial in your ratio, and as you see, they actually have a variable knee. OK, so that's the same thing is going to soft and the hard knee. So if you want the hard me, that means that the compression is actually happening rate where, um, the threshold is if you dial it back, you know, it's a lot softer. You have your attack is the same. Thing is this is attack right here. You have your release here. Okay. In addition, they also have a curve. So I guess you know, you can adjust this different curves to be more or less aggressive. And then this sustained is I believe this is kind of like a thing called like a hold. And it kind of holds that release for a little bit longer. I believe once it kind of starts compressing again. FL Studio always has an awesome help menu if you just f one. So if we go sustain here. So as you can see, the efforts to help manual is very, very helpful in a sense of, you know, just kind of breaking down how things work. You just hit F one inside fl studio for that. Okay, so that's how I set up a compressor. That's how I use it. Hopefully is what helped you out. And I'll see you guys in the next video here. 19. 4-1 - Setting Up Sidechain Compression: Okay, So in this section of videos, we're gonna be covering the special uses and kind of creative approaches of using compression. So the most common one that I'm sure you guys are aware of this side chained compression. And this is when you use one sound to reduce the volume of another sound. So, for example, let's just take a kick drum and bass line. So whenever that kick drum plays, it just reduces the volume of the baseline. What that is doing is because you know your baseline and your kick drum. They're both low end frequency content and they can clash. So now when you're kick drum plays, it's hitting nice and tight. It's not gonna be clashing with the base. And then when they kick drum stops, playing your baseline is going to be nice and clean now and now. In addition, you guys can also be using you know, your kick drum to like a pad or other instruments, and it just reduces the volume of that pad whenever the kick drum plays. Another way you could be using side chain compression is in like in, like broadcast this stuff like that. So right now, I'm talking to you. If there was background music, whatever my voice came in, you could be using side chain compression to reduce the volume of the background music and then depending on your release timing. If you said it longer, uh, the music would take longer to come back in. Also, another way you could be using Sachin compression is like I mentioned earlier, if you have to, let's say guitars and they're kind of clashing when they played together. But when the one comes in, you want to be like front and center is like a part of the chorus. You could make that one reduce the other guitars volume whenever it plays with side chain compression, depending on how aggressive you've been with your compressors settings. So we're just going to go toe Wikipedia here quickly, and now we're just imagine this is the baseline audio. Okay, so the baselines coming in, it's going right to the AMP. But it's also being split and is going to the control circuits. So what that's telling us is that this compressor is using the same signal to compress against itself. So imagine, you know, we said our thresholds of minus 18 and are based wrangles over that it would compress the baseline depending on your compressor settings. Also, like I was telling you earlier, some compressors also have an external input on the side chains. So again, what that allows us to do is set up a kick drum here. So the kick drum plays the compressor, sees it, and depending on your settings is just reducing the volume of whatever the audio going in is it could be your baseline, your pad, you know? So that's just kind of house. I chained compression works, and I'm just going to show you how to set up here in FL Studio. Okay, so what I've done here is I have my kick drum brother to 10. I have my clap started to 11 and I have all my high hats going to 13 14 15 and 16. OK, And then what I've done is that put them all into a subgroup. If you want more information on how to set up, you know your mixer with signal routing and being creative on the mixer again. You guys going to check out my course? FL studio makes it work flow, but you know, the benefits of having a subgroup is now This one mixer insert is controlling all four of these sounds. If we put on the EQ, you are a compressor again. It's affecting all four of the sound, so it just makes it really easy to mix and control the sounds. And if you want to find tuna sound, you can just simply go into the individual insert. So why have set it up this way is because I want this compressor to reduce in volume whenever the kick drum plays. So, in other words, is gonna be reducing all four of these high hats you know is going to reduce their volume. So how you do that NFL studio is I'm going to click on the kick drum. I'm gonna right click on high hat to go side chain to this track. Now, the high hat subs able to see the kick drums audio signal. But we can't hear it if you start to increase it. Now we can hear its volume, which is what we don't want. So what we're essentially doing is we are just doubling the volume again, which is what we don't want. So if you look at the kick Drum is being run into the master. But we're also writing it to the high hat sub. And then the high hat subs also going to the Masters to the cable. Now again, since I've increased this volume, what we're doing is we're essentially just doubling the volume. So we wanted at zero just to let the high hat sub can see it as an external input. So if we open up pro see here, Okay, So what you have to do is you just go to the expert tab, you go external, you come up here to the gear, you go to processing, you're gonna right click, and you can like the kick drum. Okay, So if you're using the fruity limiter, what you can do for that is we're just going to go dynamics fruity limiter. Now all you have to do is just go compressor on the side. Cheney is gonna right clicking you go kick drum. And now all you would have to do is just turn on the threshold, turn up the ratio, and now, whenever the kick drum would play, okay with these high hats, you're gonna hear it kind of pumps. So in this case, I'm using the Fergie limiter for this. Okay, let's bring out a threshold more well for the attack. Faster release if I turn this off Case of what it originally sounds like. Okay, so I get a little more pump out of it, Turn off. Okay, so this example isn't great. Um, I will set one up for you in a second here. So again, with this kick drum, we're going to right click and go to the baseline, for example. So we go base, let's do the same thing. I'm going to use the proceeds. So I'm just gonna come up here to expert external, come to the gear and now we can see this as an external input. So even though I have rotted this kick drum as an external input on pro see, you still have to enable external Otherwise, it was still just gonna follow. In this case, it would just follow the baseline to compress against itself. But now we are using the kick drum whenever the kick drum place is going to reduce the volume of the base. So let's just turn the base in the kick drum on. Okay, Just turn on the volume a lot Que turn off again. Your baseline and your kick drum could clash in this case is this isn't clashing too bad. Um, if I turn it on, these have really, really extreme settings. You're gonna hear big pump now, typically, when I am dialing this in for the kick drum and the bass, for example, I'm being a lot more subtle. So in other words, I just wanted to clean it up. I'm just wanting that kick drum to hit through a little bit harder and not clash with my baselines. So, you know, I might not be going down to, like, That's always the bottom of the threshold. I might be up here. I might be a way lighter ratios there might only be going, like, maybe 4 to 5 decibels of gain reduction again. That's give or take. It all depends on the song that I'm working on. So which are on the compressor? Okay, so still quite aggressive. This medical, this So 1.25 Google, that little higher threshold and a little more aggressive ratio Que Chernoff. Okay, so that's just a longer kicked from to cut through a little bit better. So, for example, if we just go to our base here, I'm just gonna press control shift and see it will clone it on. I will just make one one note just for us to keep compressing against and you will see just kind of how it works. Case So I have a kick drum begin. The baseline is going to nine. The kick drum is going to 10 on the kick drum I've right clicked and went side chained to this track again. We don't want any audio to be heard So we're just allowing the base to see the kick drum as an external input because I went to the gear and went stereo and I selected the kick drum. So now this baseline is seeing the kick drum as an external input and I've just looped it. So it's just the kick Drum is gonna play with this single note base and we're gonna listen , case we're just going to turn up the volume a little bit on that. It could be really, really aggressive. Turn off, try it on kill. Let's bring it up a little bit. Let's open up the attack a little bit, a little bit longer, release a little less ratio and mortar shells cast looking off. Okay, so that's just how you set up sides in compression. And I just allowed you to kind of hear the effect of it again. It's It's a really, really Calman thing to do in music production, especially in dance music, you know, with certain instruments, especially if you have a pad, it's just playing. A long sustained note could be using your kick drum to help that pump and kind of add to the rhythm of your song. 20. 4-2 - Pro Tip with Delay + Sidechain: Okay, So in this video, I want to talk to you about using side chain compression with your delay. And this is a really, really cool pro tip. It really helps your delay sound a lot cleaner. Still some full. But before assure you that I was just kind of fiddling around before I was recording. And so if I play both these compressors on it makes this guitar sound really, really cool. So again, this is what it sounds with, like with no compression, this guitar with heavy compression and then with more compression. Okay, No compression, aggressive compression. And then with more compression. Okay, no effects. Full affects. Okay, All together. Castle sounds really, really cool now to this video. So this is the delay. So what's happening is I have set up a delay, send for this guitar. Okay, So when I play this guitar, it's being rooted to this delay. It's also being right upto all these sends and stuff, too, just to make it sound folder. Now, this delay right here is the main one that we're hearing in this tracks when I go like, Okay, you can hear the delay afterwards. Okay? So again, what I've done is I've have one insert, and I literally just came here and just clicked on one. You know, I give it a color, gave it a label put together to for organization purposes. On this insert opened up a delay. Okay. And the biggest thing when you're working with Ascend as you want the dry to be zero and you want the wet to be 100% because down here, you can dial in the amount effect that you want. Okay. So, again, if you don't understanding all of this, send stuff. Just check out my course at flustered and makes the workflow, and you guys will be up to speed with the e que I've just kind of filtered awesome low end just to kind of clean it up. And then now to the video. So this is the side chain compression. So this guitar is, you know, is being ready to the delay. And like I was saying so this compressor has an external input. Now, if I were to set this to the internal input So in other words, what would be happening here is that this delay, this audio signal, I would would just be compressing the delay. Okay, so that's all that's happening. So as the audio is coming through, it was being delayed. I filter out some low end like I showed you there, and now I would just compress that delay so the delay would be compressed, and that would be more consistent. However, this is the pro tip. If I were to use the external input. So, in other words, were using the dry signal okay to reduce the volume of the delay. So whenever the dry signal plays is reducing the volume of the delay, and when the dry signal stops playing, the delay comes in, and what this does is it allows the original signal toe play front and center. And it's never going to clash with the delay, because what can happens if I turn this off and I'm just gonna play really, really fast for you? What happens is the delay overlaps, and it starts overpowering the original notes. But if I were to turn on the sightseeing compression on this delay with the external input of being the original dry signal whenever the guitar notes play, it's reducing the volume of the delay So in other words, we're hearing no delay as the actual dry sound is playing. And then once the dry sound stops playing, the delay comes in and it makes it sound full. So, for example, I'm gonna turn off the delay here, okay? And we're gonna play notes fast. You're gonna hear that the delay overlaps and overpowers the original guitar notes. Okay, so you could just hear it. You know, the delay just kept overlapping, overlapping. So again, all you do is you just put a compressed run here, and I'll show you how to do that with the fruity limiter. So we just take a fruity limiter. And again, if I were to compress just right now, all I'm doing is I'm just compressing the guitar delay, so I'm just making the delayed signal of, you know, less dynamic. But if I were to go with side chain So whenever I play the dry guitar signal, it's reducing the volume of the delayed signal, and we get this now, so I'm gonna bring on threshold and the ratio. Okay, so we're hearing no delay, but now I'm gonna play slower. You hear that? You hear the delay? And so I'm just gonna disable the fruity limiter because the proceed, This is how we set it up before I started creating these coarse videos with you. So again, as I'm playing, we're not hearing delay. But as soon as I stopped startling slower, you hear the delay. But watch this a fight, a school. We're only hearing the delayed is a little bit, but it's kind of filling in the background. But now watch Michael, it's not getting in the way. So this is a really, really cool trick for you guys to try out again. The drives at zero the wet said 100%. And then on the actual compressor, you set the side chain to be the original dry signal. And, as you can see my thresholds down quite low by ratios quite aggressive. And here's like my settings for that and that allows this when I come here to the guitar and play like this. So again, dry signal is not conflicting with the delay. It just delays filling in when we need it to. If I trade off, turn on. So we're allowing the original notes to kind of be more impactful. Delay is just being a filler. Get turned off kids delays almost overpowering the original notes. Let's be a little more aggressive with it. Longer release. Okay, fast release. Let's go back to what I originally had Chernoff. Okay, so you can hear this clashing going on much cleaner sounds way better and again those two compressors on the same time. So I'm really, really cool. Okay? And again, if you go to this compressor, we can look at it. So my tax very, very long my ratio is that limiting my thresholds all the way down at 36. Let's just allowing the initial transient to cut through, making this a really, really big, powerful sound. And this is just one sound like there's no really layering going on on the guitar notes, you know, I just have it up high on a down low, as because Sounds like this. And this is like the delay and sends the stuff like that again for come here and disabled these. This is just what it sounds like. But with the river bond, I have another river for more fullness. I guess I have a little bit delay to serious separation. Allows for wide nous, some distortion for more fullness on. There you go. Get so that is how you can use side chain compression on your delay for a pro tip. This one's really, really cool. It's also really cool for vocals and stuff, too. Like if I was Talking to You Are singing if I was singing you know, whenever you're singing, you don't want, like the delay toe happen. But when the person stops singing, you can kind of fill in and make the song sound more musical and fuller. Okay, so try it. Hopefully you like that one on Let's get into the next one. 21. 4-3 - Setting Up Parallel Compression: Okay, So in this video, we're gonna be talking about parallel compression, also known as New York compression. And I'm sure there's also other terms for this. And so what it is is you literally are just creating a parallel track, your compressing it super, super hard, and then you're just blending it in just a little bit. And the whole purpose of that is to create thickness. Typically, people used on vocals on kick drums on stairs or just like their whole drum loop. I've even heard people who uses from the mastering stage they have their master than they created duplicate. They compress the super super hard, and then again, just blend in what they want. Just add that fullness and thickness to the track. So what I'm gonna do down here is right here. This used to take the high hat sub. I just labeled the drum loops sub. What we're gonna do is gonna hold on Fault. That right arrow key. Put that inside. Here. I use just get organized that way. Ah, for this kick drum, we're just gonna right click on the drum loops sub. So now we can actually hear the kick drum we don't want to go into the master anymore. Uh, the clap, we're just going to right Click Angle wrote to attract only. And so what's happening here is I have just wrote it our whole drum loop into a sub us. OK, so we'll just play these sounds here. Okay, so the kick drums in there, the high outs, Aaron there. And also the crops are in there. And again, if we just highlight these weaken, check out the audio roading. So again, it's going to the drum loops and the drum loops. Subs going to the master again. All these air going to the drum loops up. Now, why I have done this is now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna create another insert, so just grab it here. Got a hold on all in the arrow key, bring it over right beside drum loops of and we'll go. Uh, I usually always type in capitals, so drums angle par. Okay? And we'll give it the same color. Sometimes. Even a cool trick is on the arrow. I could maybe darken it a little bit and we'll enter. Okay, So, just a little bit darker. Quite a bit darker anyway, So what I'm gonna do, So some highlighted on it. I'm just gonna left click here. So now we have duplicated the audio, which is totally fine. So again, the whole drum loop is being played into 10. I've rooted it to 11. And now on here was just opened up a compressor. Okay. And we can compress this super super hard, you know, maybe we'll leave our attack there a little bit longer. Release wanted to be really, really consistent. Okay, so if we just listen to that that turn off here now, an important thing to know here is if I dial the knob down here, less audio is going into this compressor, which means that we're not really getting the parallel compression effect. What we want to be doing is we will just want to be reducing the volume here, because I'll show you. So when a hit play, it's compressing quite hard. And if I reduce it from here, you can see that is not much gain reduction anymore. We want on bike gain reduction because that's Philip compression. But on 11 would have the dial it down here. So we're still getting all that parallel compression for thickening of the dial it down here. So it's turned off. Turn up a bit. Maybe not. You know, it's much ratio. A little lesson. The threshold, David. Aggressive kid turned off case is a little more consistent. Turned down a bit more. Okay, that's just a little trick for you guys again. You could be using your vocals here. Uh, you know, any instrument your base. So all you're doing is you have your actual mixer insert. Let's just say for the base you create another insert. In this case, I just took it, dragged it over with Alton and the arrow keys. Um, I wrote it to their the audio. I put the compressor on there, I compressed it quite hard. And then the biggest thing toe understand with it is that you don't really want to be dialing this because that's going to take away from the heavy compression. You want to dial this slider down, Aziz, that will give you your parallel compression and you just dial in what you want again to turn off and on to hear the difference. And that's it. Okay, so that's parallel compression 22. OUTRO: All right, so that's a course on compression. Hopefully, you liked it. Hopefully you've learned a lot. He's a lot of things that I have learned over the years. Compression is probably one of the most trickiest things that you will learn as a producer . And in all honesty is probably one of the last things that you will get as a producer. It takes a lot of time to understand what you're doing, how to dial in the effects and test. Okay, so for me, I always test like a and B and that level match, and it lets me know, you know, and my improving or, um, a damaging my song. So if you guys got confused anywhere throughout the course, you know, you guys can always leave me a message, and I'll ask you back. Or I could always create another video further describing it. Um, if you guys could please leave a review reviews like the heart of my online course business here. And they really do impact the performance of my courses, and they help them grow. Um, and yes. So if you guys want to check out any of my other courses, I have tons of other courses you know on like e que How to use the mixture. Here. I also have one on sampling. I also have a cooling called organic beats where we take a single guitar. No, and create a full song out of it. That's a really, really cool one. So again, thank you so much for taking the course, and I hope to see you in my future courses.