Watercolor for Beginners - Basic Techniques & Color Mixing - Part 1 | Rachael Broadwell | Skillshare

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Watercolor for Beginners - Basic Techniques & Color Mixing - Part 1

teacher avatar Rachael Broadwell, Fine Arts Teacher

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

13 Lessons (1h 26m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Materials

    • 3. Basic Applications

    • 4. Line

    • 5. Texture

    • 6. Gradient: Wash vs. Glaze

    • 7. Swatch Chart

    • 8. Color Wheel - Mixing

    • 9. Color Wheel - Glazing

    • 10. Mixing Blacks, Browns, and Neutrals

    • 11. Applied Techniques: Negative Painting & Sunset

    • 12. Tube vs. Pan Watercolos

    • 13. Conclusion

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About This Class

In this class we will explore basic watercolor techniques and color mixing through a few simple exercises. I will emphasize starting with minimal supplies that are high-quality to give you the best opportunity to see what makes watercolor a truly wonderful, unique medium. 

Even the most complex watercolor paintings involve very simple techniques! It's important to begin to get a feel for the "behavior" of watercolor so you can let go of control and perfectionism to achieve nuanced, interesting paintings with watercolor. This class is meant to show you the wide range of effects and colors we can achieve with very few supplies right from the start!

Let's let go of expectations and embrace your spontaneous side with watercolor!

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Rachael Broadwell

Fine Arts Teacher


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1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to my studio. My name is Rachel Bradwell and I'm an art teacher here on skill share. In this class, we will explore basic watercolor techniques and color mixing through a few simple exercises. I will emphasize starting with minimal supplies that are high-quality to give you the best opportunity to see what makes watercolor a truly wonderful, unique medium. Even the most complex watercolor paintings involve very simple techniques. It's important to begin to get a feel for the behavior of watercolor. So you can let go of control and perfectionism to achieve nuanced, interesting paintings with watercolor. This class is meant to show you the wide range of effects and colors we can achieve with very few supplies right from the start. Let's let go of expectations and embrace your spontaneous side with watercolor. Let's get Painting. 2. Materials: The supplies for this class are going to be very minimal and simple. These are the colors I'll be using just three. This is the Daniel Smith primary sets. This is a Windsor and Newton watercolour sketchbook. The paper insight is 100% cotton is very small, it's just five by seven inches. And then I have some scrap paper next to me that I can test colours on and test washes. I'll be using a small pallet. Of course you're going to need a cup of water. And then I'm only going to be using these two brushes, a large flat brush and then kind of a medium sized round brush. These are very versatile brushes and we can do a lot with them. Of course, you'll have some paper towels by your side. And that's really it. So now I'm going to show you how to load your palate with your paints and using paint from a 2B is just a little bit different. Of course, if you want to use watercolor paints that are in a pan, that is fine. I personally strongly prefer to paint just because I find that I can get a lot more control over the saturation of my colors when I have that, It's a little bit more difficult to get full saturation with your watercolor paints when you're using pan watercolors, but that's just my experience. You should of course just use whatever you happen to have. The tricky thing about 2GB watercolor paints as that the first time that you open them, if they've gone through any kind of transportation where the pressure has changed, there's a strong likelihood that when you open up that tube for the first time, the paint is just going to kind of burst out of the tube. So what I have here is just a silicone tool. This is actually something that you can find, I think in the clay section of most art and craft stores by use silicone tools for a lot of different things. And I actually don't do anything with clients, so they're very useful because they don't have bristles, so you're not going to lose a bunch of paint getting lost inside bristles. And I'm just basically using this to remove all of that excess paint that's sort of bursting out of the tube and it's inside the lid of the paint as well. I don't like to waste anything, so I'm gonna try to use up whatever I can before I even squeeze that tube at all. So I really didn't have to squeeze the tube at all to get any paint out of there. Just a matter of using my tool to kind of dig out all of that paint that was just going to be coming out anyway. So same thing here with this red woops. All right, everything's fine. Saved that tube. And this is just the excess paint that is kind of coming out of the tube right at the onset. I'm not going to squeeze this one at all either because this paint is just coming out. So I'm doing the same thing with my tool. And I'm also going to here you can see him getting some of that excess paint out of the lid because when the pressure changes for these tubes, a lot of that paint is just going to be squeezed into the cap. And I think it's best, of course just to get that out so you're not losing any paint, not wasting any paint. And also when you tried to put the cap back on the tube and it has a lot of paint inside that cap. It's gonna make a mess. So you may as well just find a way to get that out. Alright, so last but not least, I'm going to then load my yellow paint into this palette. And the amount of paint that I'm loading into my palette right now is quite a lot in basically that's just because so much of that paint was just bursting out of the tubes anyway, you can kinda see the yellow tube is actually the worst of all three. So this is actually more paint that I would really need to load into my palette to do a couple of exercises, but I'm going to just get all of that excess paint out and we'll end up using quite a bit of it actually. Alright, so let's get to painting. 3. Basic Applications: For this first demonstration, I'm going to show you some of the most basic applications that we will use in watercolor painting. So I'm opening up my sketchbook here and I have some squares sketched in. And I've labeled the technique that I'm going to be demonstrating right underneath each square. So the first one that I'm going to show you is a wash. And you'll actually see that there's two squares labeled wash because there's two different ways to do this. The first way that I'm going to do is I got my brush just a little bit wet in the water and I'm gonna go ahead and pick up some paint and start applying it directly onto this dry paper. And in order to make this a wash. What I'm going to do is just start adding some water to it and I'm actually going to wipe off some of the paint so that you can see a little bit of a gradation here. So I'm just adding more water to this wash as I go down the square. So you can see that we have a much lighter value and it's a really nice soft gradation. So this is a great technique and one that we will use a lot, especially in painting skies and various soft things like that with little color shifts. For this next watch, what I'm doing is just applying some clear water onto the square before I apply any paint. And you can see that as soon as I start applying paint, that paint is going to start running down that square. And now I'm just going to go in with a little bit more water and not so much pigments to also create a really nice soft gradation. So this is just another way to do a wash. And you would probably want to do this technique in situations where you don't want a lot of chroma or saturation. Now I'm going to be applying this paint wet onto dry, so my paper is completely dry. And I went in with some wet paint. And my objective here is basically to just to get a really nice solid color. So I'm not going to have a gradation here. I'm going to have a lot of consistency. So this is what paint onto dry paper. This isn't something that you would necessarily do over a large area because it would be very difficult to keep it consistent over a large surface area. The next thing I'm going to demonstrate is going to be dry brush. So I'm actually removing water from my brush by a wiping it off onto the paper towel. And then I'm going into this red paint which does have a little bit of water in it. It has to have just a little bit at least so that the paint actually transfers from your brush to your paper. But you can see here that I'm getting a much more textured effects. This is partly because of the texture of the paper. I'm using a very rough cold press paper. But also because there isn't a lot of water in the paint, it's very dry. And so it's going to kind of move over the surface in a more textured way. For this next square, I'm going to be demonstrating a glaze, but I actually have to put down some color before I can show you the effect of glazing. Because when we apply a glaze in watercolor, where basically applying some transparent color on top of some pigment that is already on the paper and already dry. And then same thing for the stumbled technique. I need the paint underneath to be completely dry, what I call bone dry so it's not damped at all in order to apply a stumble or a glaze on top of it. And just to make the glaze a little bit more interesting, I'm going to have a couple of different colors, so I'm going to have both red and yellow. I'm going to leave a little stripe of white in between them. And then I'm also going to add just a little bit more chromatic read once that is dry as well. So I'm fast-forwarding through the parts where I'm allowing the paint to dry. But you can tell that my original color in this square is dry because when I apply more red on top, it's not bleeding into that other color. And I have a nice hard edge and same with this little square. I waited for everything to dry before I applied that so that I would have more of a hard edge between those colors shifts. All right, so here I am applying the stumble over this dry yellow color. And this is basically a dry brushing on top of another color. So we're getting a nice optical mix here where it appears to become Orange because we're stumbling this red on top of the dry yellow. We're allowing that yellow to kind of peek through. So our eyes register that as kind of a mix. So it's almost as if we mixed and orange. But if you look really closely at that square, you can see that there's definitely no actual mixing between the reading yellow. We're allowing that yellow to peek through the red stumble. And while I'm waiting for my glaze squared to dry, I'm just gonna do a little bit more dry brushing so that you can see that you can build up your value or your chroma by applying more dry brush so that less white is showing through. So you can see there is almost a gradation from the bottom of the squared, so the top. And then once that's dry, I'm going to show you now one instance where you might use dry brush a lot, which is to paint something like a tree and you want a lot of little branches. And so you don't want these branches bleeding into the background are becoming too soft necessarily. And so you're going to often use a dry brush technique to paint trees and branches. And in the next demonstration, I'm going to show you a little bit more about painting different kinds of lines. So that will also be very helpful if you're planning to paint a lot of trees. Let's do just a little bit more stumbling to, to get more of a gradation. So we're covering up a little bit more of that underlying yellow with this jumble of riding, you can see that every time I pick up some pigment, I am just kinda blotting off onto my paper towel. That's mostly just to remove any excess water that might be in there. So that I get this nice gumbo. If I go in with a brush that's too wet, it's going to be more like a glaze rather than a stumble. Stumble should have lots of texture and should allow that underlying color to really peek through. With a glaze. We're going to be doing a wet transparent color on top of a dry layer. I'm actually going to do just a little bit of glazing on top of this dry brush just to show you that it can be done. So everything in this squares very dry. And so I can go over it with a glaze and it just changes the whole dynamic. It's going to optically mix with that underlying red and even with that blue just a little bit. All right, I think that we're finally ready to apply a nice glaze. So I'm going to keep this very transparent, very watery. Lots and lots of water in the brush. And then I'm just going to drag that across those colors. And you can see that the glaze really changes the way that we perceive those underlying colors. I'm going to leave the middle part on Glazed just for comparison sake. But these colors are not actually mixing. So it looks like there's a purple, it looks like there's even a little bit of a green. Those colors are not physically mixed. They are optically mixed and glazing is one of my favorite techniques and watercolour and I think one of watercolors biggest strong points. So you should really explore that, have a lot of fun with it and get to know these really basic techniques. 4. Line: So now let's turn the page and look at different ways to create lines and watercolor. Now, depending on your specific style of painting, this might be something that you use a lot or actually may not use very much at all. But I do want to show you that you can have some degree of control with watercolor. Now, in my watercolor technique, I really like to paint very loosely and so I don't use a lot of line work in my painting, but I do think that it's good just to practice and understand how much control you actually can have with watercolor if you want that. So I'm gonna start out here with a very thick line. Basically what I want you to notice here is that I'm applying a lot of pressure to my brush so that my bristles are splayed out to their full width as I apply these lines to the paper. And if I want an even thicker line, I basically just need to add another thick line while the initial lines are still wet. And then we're going to get a very uniform look to that thicker line. Even though we used multiple strokes to make it for a medium width line, I'm basically going to apply medium pressure to my brush so the bristles are not splayed out to their full width, but probably just about halfway down to create those lines. And to create thin lines, of course, we're just going to use the tip of the brush. And to create lines. You definitely want to have a round brush handy. I think it's a little bit confusing to call it a round brush because it actually comes to a nice sharp points. But it's called a round brush just because it is arranged in a circular way. So the bristles are bound in a circular fashion at the handle and then they come to a point at the tip. So a round brush is going to give you a lot of versatility and the marks that you can make because you can apply big washes or blocking colors, but you can also do a lot of precision work. Alright, so here I am creating some varied lines. So basically what I want to do is vary the pressure that I'm applying with my brush. So to make a thinner part of this line, of course I'm just using the tip of the brush. And then as I want to make the line thicker, I'm just pressing down, applying a little bit more pressure as they move along the line. And so this makes a really nice organic line. I think that this is really helpful if you're painting something like water or some kind of texture. And again, even if. 5. Texture: So in our line demonstration, you can see how useful lines can be to build up texture. But I went to show you some other techniques as well to build texture. So the first thing that I'm going to show you is going to be lifting. Now this is something where I need this layer of paint to dry completely before I can really show you the technique. So I'm gonna go ahead and lay down a nice light red or pink. And I'm going to make that look a little bit like a cloud. And we'll get back to that because that needs to dry just a little bit. So I'm gonna move on and I'm going to show you what happens when we sprinkle a little bit of salt into our wet paint. So I'm going to have some fairly dark colors here just so that you can see the effect a little bit better. So I've got some blue and then I mixed up just a little bit of a reddish violet here. And then while this is still wet, I'm gonna go in with just some regular table salt. Just kinda sprinkle that on there. And if you look closely, you can see right away that texture that this is going to create a win. It's all dry, we'll just dust off that excess salts. But basically what the salt does is it soaks up some of that excess water and it's going to create a really nice sandy texture. The next thing I'm going to show you again with kind of a darker wash. So some violent and some blue is just creating a little bit of texture by blotting on some plastic wrap. Now you don't want to move the plastic wrap around. You kinda just wanna press it down and then lift it straight up. And it creates a really nice texture. Now you can't really control a lot of these textures. You gotta just be okay with them doing whatever they're going to do. But these are really great ways to get some interesting texture into your paintings. And now I'm going to show you what happens when you drop a little bit of isopropyl alcohol, commonly known as rubbing alcohol onto your wet paint. So I'm going to apply a nice green and some yellow and just kinda let those colors run together. And then what I'm going to do is get a dropper and put some rubbing alcohol into that dropper. And then I'm just going to drop this on to the paper. You could also spray the alcohol on and it's going to give a little bit different texture. I think that this dropper effect is really cool and it makes me think of like an underwater or under the sea kind of scene. So this isn't something that I use a lot. I pretty much keep it really basic with my watercolors. But it is interesting just to kind of explore these and start thinking of ways that these could apply to a painting. The next thing I want to show you is going to be scraping. And I'm gonna do this in two different phases. So I'm going to start out with just a nice dark violet colour. And what I'm going to do first is I'm going to scrape into this While the paint is still wet. And then I'll come back a little bit later when it is dry and do a little bit more scraping and show you some different ways to do that. So this is actually just another paintbrush that has a sharp and well, not it's not super sharp, but it is. Angled in a way that makes it very easy to scrape into the paper wouldn't work so well with a handle that is round at the end. You can see that this is a really interesting and great way to do trees. So this is something that I use a lot if I'm doing like a winter scene. So the trees are bare and maybe there are actually lighter in color than the background. So you could actually scrape your trees out of a background. This last square, I'm going to show you how you can use a waxy colored pencil as a little bit of a light resist, so it's not going to be completely white. It's going to absorb some of the color where I applied those colored pencil lines. But you can definitely see that I have a nice texture built up there. So I initially applied the colored pencil and then I applied the water on top of it. But now on the bottom part of the square, I'm going to apply some watercolor. I'll let that dry and then I'll come back with a colored pencil to show you that affects. So let's go back to this first square where I'm going to show you how to do a lift. So I am applying a little bit of violet on top of that pink. I'm just using my paper towel to literally just lift some of that wet paint off so that the initial dry layer shows through. This is something that's really great to do for clouds. I especially like to do this when I have a nice soft light cloud and I want a nice soft edge on it. And so the easiest way to do that is often just to lift it off of the background. I'll paint the whole sky the color that I want my clouds to be. And then I'll apply the darker color on top of that and then just lift up where I want the clouds to be. So here I'm just doing a second layer of plastic wrap and you're not going to see as much texture because the paper underneath is no longer whites colored, but you can get a subtle texture by applying a second layer with this plastic wrap technique. And I'm also going to do my lifting technique a second time with just a little bit more of a darker, more pigment color in the background. So I'm applying some darker, more chromatic blue. And then I'll go back in with my paper towel that kinda soften these edges just by picking up some of that wet paint. So you can see how that would really easily applied to painting clouds. But I actually use lifting all the time. And now that my square with the colored pencil technique is dry, I'm gonna actually go over this dry paint with my colored pencil. And you can see that I can create a lot of texture this way too. And I do like to mix colored pencils in with watercolor techniques pretty frequently. And I find that the best colored pencils to use are the PRISMA color colored pencils just because they're nice and waxy. So now I'm going into the dry scraping square and just showing you how you can do it a little bit more scraping when the paint is dry. With my paintbrush, I didn't get quite as good of a strong effect. So here I actually have a box cutter and I'm very gently using this to scrape into that dry pains. And this will give you a little bit more of a rough scrape, which can be very useful, especially for painting trees. 6. Gradient: Wash vs. Glaze: For this next demonstration, I basically want to just do a comparison between applying a wash and trying to create a gradient using glazes. So I have two columns here and I'm going to try to create a nice gradient from dark at the top to a little bit lighter at the bottom of each of these rectangles. And on the left, I'm going to try to accomplish that by applying some glazes. And then on the right, I'll do it the more traditional way of just going in with a wash. You're gonna find that the wash is easier. Apply, especially once you get used to the medium of watercolor and how the water is going to flow. But a glaze can yield very interesting color results. So over on the glaze side, I'm going to start with just a very light wash of just some blue. So this is very much like applying a wash, but we're going to let this completely dry and then we're going to glaze on top of it to try to create a nice gradation. But on the wash side, we're basically going to be able to do the whole thing all at once without having to wait for anything to dry. Because remember the important thing about glazing is that you're applying wet paint on top of a dry layer of paints. So with the wash. We're just gonna go in with a lot of pigment up at the top. And then as I move down the rectangle and just adding more water, so I'm not going in getting any more pigments. In fact, I'm removing some of the pigment from my bristles so that I get a nice gradation here. And what I want to do, instead of just having a single color for this wash, I want to add a little bit of yellow in here so that it transitions from blue to green. And then I want it to be a little bit of just a pure yellow down at the bottom. So I've added some yellow to the center. And now I'm washing off my brush, removing all of that blue pigment that might still be in there. And then down at the bottom, I want it to be a very light yellow. And so all this while I'm waiting for my glaze rectangle to dry completely. Remember that it has to be bone dry in order to apply a glaze on top. Otherwise, you're going to get physical mixing in with that bottom layer if it's still wet or damp at all. So I'm really trying to push the chroma up at the top of my wash square so that it's nice and dark, very chromatic. And then as it moves to the bottom, I want it to be lighter in value and also less chromatic. And I used my paper towel on my glaze rectangle just to try to remove any excess moisture or dampness. And then once I tested that with my finger and found that it's completely drive, I'm gonna go ahead and start glazing on top of this layer. So I'm going to start with just basically some blue again. You can see that up at the top, it's not nearly as dark or chromatic as my wash that I did all at once. But with a glaze, we want a more gradual build up. And then I glazed that yellow on top of that initial blue layer starting about in the middle. These two squares aren't going to look identical. And the thing about watercolor that you really have to embrace is that you're never going to get an identical result. You're never going to get a perfectly even application of color. And that's something to embrace about watercolor. But I think it's also something that makes it difficult for people to get used to. But I think the more exercises that you do, the more technique applications that you do, the more you're just going to learn to appreciate the results that you get, whether that's what you had in mind for it or not. So this is actually a second glaze layer. I waited for that first glazed layer to dry completely. Of course, a fast forwarded through that so that we didn't have to literally watched paint dry. And so I'm going to try to get as much chroma at the top as I can. So I applied that second glaze of blue and then also more yellow to get a nice transition of blue to green to yellow. And what I want you to notice between these two different techniques is that with the wash, you're getting more of a physical mixture of color. So it's a little softer, it's more gradual. And that can be very useful for a lot of things. I think that the strength of glazing is that you really get some very unexpected results with your color. So you get more of an optical color mix than a physical one. And it can be very interesting to look at. In my opinion, it's just a little bit more dazzling. But of course there is a time and a place for every technique. 7. Swatch Chart: Alright, so now we're finally ready to get into a little bit of color mixing. And the first thing that I'm going to show you is how to create a swatch charts. And there's lots of different ways to do this. One way, of course, is to mix every individual colour and then paint each square one by one as you go. So you can mix your orange by putting your yellow and red together and then putting that in the red and yellow, orange square all the way down. But I'm going to actually show you an easier way to make a swatch chart. And we're going to do this by glazing. I'm going to start out with my primary colors and I'm going to paint the columns first, so the vertical columns here. And for these vertical columns, what I'm going to do is use kind of a full Cromer, full saturation color application for each of these. So I'm going to start here with my red and then I'm going to skip over the orange for now and then just paint the yellow and the blue. And then I will go ahead and mix my secondaries on my palette to apply those. But the important thing here is that for all of these vertical columns, I'm trying to keep my paint as fully chromatic or as fully saturated as possible. So my blue, for example, is going to appear very dark. And then when I do my horizontal rows, I'm going to have a little bit more water in these mixes so that they're a little lighter, a little bit less chromatic. So we'll get some nice variations. And what I'll do when I get to the horizontal rows is I'll actually be glazing those colors on top of the columns. So I'm gonna go ahead and paints in all of these columns first, I'll let those completely dry. And then once those are dry, I'll go in and glaze on top of them. And we're going to get some really nice color mixtures that are mixing optically. Because remember with glazing, when we're applying what paint on top of a dry layer of paint, it's creating a nice optical mic's not a physical mix of paints. So you can see I mixed up my orange on my palette and then applied that, going to do the same with green here. So with these, you'll want to just play around with the balance between your primary colors. So my orange is a little bit leaning toward red and I feel like my green is leaning a little bit toward blew. It doesn't really matter. You don't have to get an exact correct or whatever you see in your mind as being a stereotypical orange or green or Violet's. Basically anytime you're mixing two primary colors, you're going to get a secondary colour and it can lean more toward one of those primary colors than the other at this point. Let's not worry too much about that. So in my last column here, this is going to be my Violet's kind of a reddish violet. That's totally okay. And now I need to let these dry completely. I'm gonna get some fresh water while I wait. And now I'm back and these are all dry. So what I'm going to do for my horizontal rows is apply a lighter glaze. So right up at the top, I'm actually going to start with my violate. It was the last color in my vertical columns, but it's going to be the first one in my horizontal rows. So I'm going over those dry rows with a glaze of light violet. And this is just to give you an idea of how some of these colors will interact. Now I'm going to go in with my blue. I'm going to do all of my horizontal rows all at the same time. So they might bleed together just a little bit, but that's again completely okay. And actually in watercolor, that's very desirable to have these nice combinations of colors. So you get a lot of really interesting mixes. For example, if you look at where the green and the violet or intersecting that creates a really interesting neutral color. And also if you look at where the yellow and the violet intersect, that's a very interesting color. These are things that you might not necessarily think would look great mixed together, but I hope that you'll see that there's going to be a lot of contexts where we want to use a very neutral color. And so we'll be mixing together are complimentary colors, colors that are opposite from each other on the color wheel. And in the next two exercises and demonstrations, I'm going to show you two different ways to paint a color wheel. Alright, so let's take a closer look at some of these color combinations. And hopefully you can see that these are just really nice, subtle ways of getting more neutral colors and of mixing our colors. So have fun with this exercise and see what you get. 8. Color Wheel - Mixing: So let's further explore color mixing. I'm going to show you two different ways to paint color wheels. This first way is going to be by actually mixing each color on our palate and then applying it to the color wheel. And then on the next page I'm going to show you how to do the same thing by glazing, rather than actually physically mixing all of these colors. And you'll just be able to see a really interesting difference between these two different techniques of mixing colors. So what I have here is just a very basic color wheel, and this will be a template available to you in the project section. What I want to do for each color is I want to have at that very outer ring, I want that to be fully saturated color, so fully chromatic, as dark as I can get that color. So not too much water, lots and lots of pigment. And then as a move toward the center of the color wheel, I'm just going to add water, so I'm not going in and getting any more pigment. I'm just basically adding more water so that I get a lighter value as I move closer to the center of the color wheel. And I'll be doing this for each color. So I'm starting out here with R1. And you can see that as I get closer to the center of the color wheel, I want it to be very, very lightened value. Now, don't worry if these are not perfectly even in smooth washes. Again, I want you to start embracing the unpredictable nature of watercolor and just let it flow the way that it is going to flow. So all I'm doing is adding more and more water to get a lighter value as I move closer to the center of the wheel. And other than that, I'm just going to let that water flow and the pigment kind of combine as it wants to. And you're gonna get some really interesting textures by doing that. Same with the blue. So now I'm just adding more water. I'm really going to have to remove a lot of pigment from my brush in order to get it very lightened value. So it's a very strong color and so is red. With the yellow, it's a little bit more difficult to see that shift between the more chromatic yellow and like the medium yellow, for example, because yellow tends to have a much lighter local value, and blue has a very dark local value, while red tends to be more in the middle. So now I'm moving on to my secondary colors. This is my violet. You can see very, very dark when it's fully chromatic. And now I'm just going to start adding more water. Again, not putting any more pigment into my bristles. There's already some pigment left over in there. So I'm basically removing pigment from the bristles of my brush, adding water to it so that I get that lighter value. And here you can see it's bleeding a little bit into my run. Again, just embrace that. That's what watercolor is meant to do. That's what gives watercolors such a unique characteristic that a lot of people are attracted to. Because we get those unexpected combinations. We get flows from one color to another that we don't necessarily plan for, but we just let them happen. Now I'm moving on to orange. And as I get closer to the center where it's going to be much lighter and value. It really isn't gonna look too much different from my yellow because I think that I just have a lot more yellow in that orange then read, alright, last but not least, green. And I find that with this particular set of primary colors, I get more of a teal green now I could of course go really heavy with the yellow so that it's more of a yellow green. But one thing that you're going to find that depending on the actual pigments that you're using, you're not going to get the exact same violet or green or orange that you might with another set of pigments that are a little bit different. But again, I'm keeping everything for this class very, very simple. So we're just going to work with the pigments that we have. Even if maybe this isn't my favorite green to mix up. Personally, I really like to mix a yellow-blue with my yellow. I find that that creates a really pleasing green. Of course, every different iteration of every color has its place and its use. But just know that when you're using a very limited palette, you may not be able to replicate every single color, but you can get very, very close to the more you get used to your particular pigments. And I think that it is best to start off very simple. It helps you just to really get to know your pigments and its characteristics and the ways that you can best apply it. So here we have our colour wheel that we mixed on our palettes and applied it directly onto our dry paper. And in the next demonstration, I'll show you how to do it. Another color wheel by glazing. And I personally prefer it. I might be a little bit biased, but I do love glazing, so let's move on to that. 9. Color Wheel - Glazing: Now I'm going to show you how to do a color wheel by glazing. And as I said before, this is just my personal preference. I really loved glazing because I find that the results are a little bit more gem like and dazzling and just visually interesting. It also can be in some ways easier. Now, the hard part is that you have to wait for that initial layer to dry before you can apply your glaze. So patients is very necessary. Alright, so I'm going to look at every triangle that is going to involve red. Red is going to be the first color that I apply. So of course, we'll want that on that red triangle, but also on our violet and our orange triangles. So I'm just gonna go ahead with some pure red. And again, I'm going to keep it fully chromatic, fully saturated at the outer ring here. And then as I move closer to the center of the color wheel, I want the color to be a little bit lighter in value and less chromatic. So I'll just add more water to those sections. So I'm going over again the violet, the red, and the orange triangles. And now that I've got this outer ring done, I'm just going to add more water and try to get that nice gradation from that full chroma darker value to a less chromatic, lighter value at the center of the color wheel. Just of course, by adding more water and not any more pigments. And then once I have this on here, I have to let it dry completely as I'm gonna get. I'm gonna do some other things and come back when this is bone dry. Before I can move on to the next application that I'm going to glaze on top of this rotten. So let's let this dry. And when I come back, the next application that I'm going to apply is going to be blue. So I went to look for all of the triangles that include blue. So of course that blue triangle, but also violet and green. So here I go into the blue and you're gonna see that I'm going to do this whole color wheel without actually mixing any secondary colors on my palate. They're all going to mix optically by applying transparent glazes on top of those dry layers. So here you can see I'm applying that blue glaze on top of my red in the violet triangle. And that's how I'm going to achieve that violet secondary color. So this is really the first secondary colour that you're seeing come to fruition. And then here is going to be my blue triangle. And then of course I'm going to apply my blue into the green triangle, where I will glaze over it with yellow. And again, it's going to be fully chromatic. Very much the darkest value that I can get at that outer ring. And as I move closer to the center, you're going to see a lighter value. And so you can really see that violet showing through now. The red is very strong. It's actually a little bit more powerful than my blue, so it's going to be more of a red violets. But that's okay. When you're using a limited palette of colors, you're really going to get to know the properties of your pigments. So a lot of times what you'll find though, is that your red is going to be much stronger and overpowering, even more so than most blues. I'd say that the only exception to that is going to be like a failover blue. Alright, so I've let this blue layer dry and now I'm moving on to the yellow glaze. So of course, I'm going to be applying yellow onto this yellow triangle here. But I'm also going to glaze the yellow on top of the red that is in the orange triangle. And I'm also going to apply this glaze on top of the blue, where I want my green triangle to be. So already you can really see this color. We'll come to completion. Again. I think that this is actually an easier way to create really nice mixes rather than mixing everything individually on your palate and then applying it. You get some really interesting interactions between your colors and some very unexpected optical mixes that I personally find very pleasing. And again, the only trick to this as being patient, waiting for your initial layers to dry completely before you put a glaze on top of them. Because if you put a glaze On top of paint that's still a little bit damp. It's not a glaze. You're actually physically mixing those pigments together. So now you can kinda see the difference between these two colour wheels on the left where I mixed everything on the palate and then applied it and then the glaze is over on the right. So there's always a time and place for every technique, but you can kinda start deciding what is your preferred way of mixing colors. 10. Mixing Blacks, Browns, and Neutrals: You might think that using just three colors, three primary colors is going to really limit your options as far as developing really interesting and nuanced colors. So in this lesson, I want to show you just a small sampling of the variety of neutral colors that you can mix with very, very few initial colors. And one of the biggest challenges, of course, is going to be mixing black. So on these first three squares on the top row, I'm going to show you three different blocks that we can mix. Now mixing any neutral, including black, is basically going to be a combination of all three primary colors. What makes the difference is the ratio or the balance between these three colours. So typically when we're going to mix a black, we're going to have a strong foundation of blue. And this is for a couple of reasons. Blue tends to have the darkest local value, meaning, especially if you compare it to yellow, you can see that the value of blue is much darker. When we combine blue with red and we have a fully saturated, fully chromatic color, we get a very deep violet. And this alone can actually create a nice chromatic black. But if we add just a little bit of yellow to that, it really neutralizes it down. So here in this first square, I'm going to mix a black that leans a little bit more blue. So the ratio of blue in this mixture is pretty strong in comparison with the other two primary colors, yellow being the least. So here we have a nice cool black and a cool gray that I created by just adding a little bit more water into the pigment. Now, I'm going to try to mix a nice neutral black, something that registers more as a true black to most of us. And this can be a little bit of a challenge because when the mixture is so dark as it is, it can be a little bit difficult to judge if it's leaning a little bit too cool or maybe a little bit too warm. But basically, again, I need a strong foundation of blue to give it a nice dark value, quite a bit of red, but this time I added just a little bit more yellow than I did the first time. And so you're gonna see that compared to the square over on the left, this is going to be much warmer in temperature. And then by the time I get the last square painted and you compare all three of these, you're going to see that this is really a nice neutral black and nice neutral gray and the lower part of this square. And again, just to get a little bit of a lighter value so that it registers as more of a gray. I just added a little bit more water just to lighten the value a little bit. And I'm going to be using this same pile or mixture of color for all six of these squares. So I'm not ever going to have to start over from scratch. I am going to use what's already there. And basically what I'm doing is I'm adding pigment just to shift the temperature or the ratio of pigments. Now in this last square, I want a nice warm black. And so I need to have again that strong base of blue because that's going to be my darkest value. But then I added more red to the mixture and didn't add too much yellow. But I was able to be pretty liberal with the yellow because this is going to be a nice warm black. And then again, for the warm gray here, I just added a little bit of water to bring the value up a little bit, make that a little bit lighter in value. And so I think if you look at the square on the left and the square on the right, compared those with that square in the middle. And not really, looks like a really nice neutral black, what we would kind of think of as a stereotypical black. So you can see that even with just three colors, you can definitely mix a lot of nice dark neutral colors and blacks. And now in this bottom row, what I'm going to be mixing is three different versions of what I would consider to be Brown's. So this first square is going to have more of a reddish brown. And so obviously I reuse that same mixture that I had used before for the blacks. I just basically added a lot of red to that in a little bit of yellow. It still has some blue in it, which is what neutralizes it so that it's not orange. Now in this middle square, I want to have more of a yellow brown, so kind of a neutralized yellow. So because red is such a strong pigment, I do have to add quite a bit of yellow into this. And remember, because I reused the same pile from the blacks, there's already some blue in there. And unlike black, with any kind of brown or warm neutral, you don't need to have that strong foundation of blue in there, but you do need at least a little bit just to neutralize it a bit. And then in the last square, I'm actually going to mix a greenish brown. And I often think of this as being kind of an olive green color. And really you can neutralize every color. I could show you endlessly to mix every secondary and tertiary color and neutralize them to get a lot of really interesting nuance. But that's a little bit more advanced and we're just going to keep it simple for this class. And so basically what I'm doing is I added a lot of yellow into that mixture and then just a little bit of blue. And remember, because this is the same pile that we used before. It already has a little bit of red in there, which is what neutralizes the green and makes it a little bit more brown. So you can see that this is a really nice olive green here. So I hope you can see that just from these couple of examples, there is such a huge range of color that you can mix, even starting from just three primary colors. It's really limitless. And I will show you in a subsequent video that I can actually match a lot of pre-mixed colors using just these three colors. So I really encourage you to try to start simple. Get to know these pigments and get to know what you can do it then that really unlocks your potential as a painter and helps you get to know color on a more intimate level. 11. Applied Techniques: Negative Painting & Sunset : And now I want to put a lot of these techniques and color mixing concepts into practice with just a few simple demonstrations of how we can use these techniques to create some more finished painting so that you can actually see how these techniques and color mixing concepts apply to an actual watercolor painting. So here you can see I have two rectangles and I'm going to be kind of simultaneously demonstrating these two different paintings. And the reason I'm doing two at the same time is just because while I'm waiting for things to dry on one painting, I can just go ahead and work a little bit on the other painting. And this is how I frequently do paint with watercolor. Especially if I know that I'm going to have at least one painting that has a lot of glazing techniques where I need to wait for things to dry. I'll have another project, even if it's just a small side project on hand that I can kind of fiddle around with while I'm waiting for things to dry on the initial painting. And this is just a kinda keep me occupied while I wait so I don't get impatient and try to rush ahead. So on this top rectangle I'm going to be demonstrating what is called the negative painting. Negative painting is something that we need to understand in watercolor because watercolor is a transparent medium. And we typically are going to build up our values by applying our lightest values first and then building our darker values up over time. And this can be a little bit of a challenging aspect of watercolor painting when you have a subjects in your foreground that is lighter in value, then your background. A lot of times what we will be doing with watercolor painting is a painting in an entire background. For example, a sky which tends to be lighter in value then the foreground or trees or anything that might be in front of it. And so we can paint the entire sky, not worry at all about the foreground or trees or whatever else is in front of the sky because they're darker in value than the sky. And then we can just add those on top when we get there. But when we have a subject that's actually lighter in value than the background, we need to approach it just a little bit differently. So what I'm going to be painting here for an example of a negative painting is a white duck sitting on some grass in kind of a shadowy area. So you can see I went ahead and just kinda loosely applied some color to the doc. I'm making the shadow a little bit of a blue violet because the duck is white and so we could either mix up a grey or what I usually try to do is have a really chromatic gray for my shadow colors. So a lot of times I'll choose some kind of variation of a violet. And then I'm going to go ahead and just block in some really light green into the background just around the duck. And the duck is still wet, so there's going to be a little bit of merging, but that's totally okay. In fact, with watercolors, sometimes that's really desirable just to have some nice loose soft edges where things are kind of merging together makes it a little bit more visually interesting in the long run. So we're not going to worry about anything like that right now. We're just going to embrace the way that the water wants to flow. And I'm kind of just blocking in a lot of these lighter, more vibrant colors right now. And you can see that I'm working around the duck. So this is kind of a very simple way of doing a negative painting, of course, right now everything's very soft and merging together. And we'll go a little bit darker once these initial washes and this initial block in has a chance to dry a little bit. But basically what I'm going to want to do is paint the dark background around our subjects, which is that white duck. So once we have everything in place doesn't need to be perfect by any means. In fact, with watercolor, we really want to embrace the imperfections and let things just happen the way that they're going to happen. And what we really want to make sure that we don't do is try to exert too much control over our watercolor by trying to prevent certain things for merging if there's too wet edges and they're touching their going to merge together. And so you can either wait for things to dry if it's really important to you to have a nice hard edge or just embrace those accidental merges. And typically that is what we love to see in watercolor anyway. So while I let my duck dry, I'm gonna go ahead and get started down here on this bottom rectangle where I'm going to be painting some clouds. And what I have in mind here are some nice pink clouds and maybe the sun is setting a little bit. So I'm going to paint the brightest, most vibrant color first. And also what is going to be lightest and value so those pink clouds and then this guy is going to start merging into kind of an orangeish yellow. I think my yellow might be a little bit strong here, but that's okay. We're just kind of playing around and I'm just going to let those merged together. And as they dry, they will actually light an invaluable just a little bit. And then here at the bottom, I think I'll just have a little bit of blue. We're just gonna keep this very, very simple. And of course, the yellow and the blue where they merge together, you might see a little bit of green if I had watered down my yellow just a little bit more and let that be a little bit lighter than it probably wouldn't be such an issue. I think that my yellow I applied it just with a little too much saturation maybe. But again, that's just something that you'll get used to as you continue painting just that balance between how much water and how much pigment you have. So I'm just testing to see how dry my duck painting is here. It's dried for just a little bit and I know it's still a little bit damp, but I'm not exactly going to be applying any glazes here necessarily. But I'm gonna go in with a much, much darker value, and this is basically just a very dark violet. And I'm going to start again painting around the lighter areas. So even the areas in that initial blocking or wash layer with the duck, even the darker aspects of that painting are going to seem light in comparison with the darker values that I'm applying now that I've given this a little bit of a chance to dry. So again, I'm painting with this darker value around everything else that I want to be much lighter. And to get that darker value, what we need to make sure to do is to have a lot of pigment and not so much water. And here's where I have to be just a little bit more careful so that I don't accidentally paint into my white dock. And this is the most challenging thing about doing any kind of negative painting is having to paint around your lighter subject. And the one thing about watercolor that a lot of people feel very intimidated by is that if you place a lot of pigment into an area where you didn't want it. It's very, very difficult to go back. So a lot of people see water color as being very unforgiving. But honestly, it's really just a matter of understanding the behavior of watercolor. Knowing when you need to weights, knowing where you need to be careful in where you may not necessarily need to be careful at all. It's just about finding that balance between having some level of control that just comes from experience and also knowing when to let go of control and allow that water to flow the way that it will. So I'm adding just a little bit of orange to the beak. And what I'm going to find out is that because that darker violet color that I just placed around the duck is still pretty wet and I applied that orange to the beak. Those are going to merge together a little bit. And so what I'll do is actually go in with my papers Howell and lift it out a little bit, but you'll see that. And that's another great thing about the technique of lifting because we can use it to create really nice subtle edges. Or we can actually use it to try to mitigate some mistakes that we might make with watercolors. So if you go in with your paper's Howell and kind of blot it in an area. Sometimes you can lift a lot of that pigment up off of an area where you don't necessarily wants it. And again, I need to keep these values pretty dark, so I need a lot of pigment, Not quite so much water. And this contrast is going to make that duck feel very light in white. Even though when I first started painting the doc, I actually applied quite a bit of pigment to the dock just to build up some shadows and A little bit of color variation within the duck. So here I just picked up a little bit of that pigment and you can see it also removes some of the orange. So I'll have to go back in and a little bit with a little bit more orange onto the beak. But for now, I know that I just needed to let things subtle in dry a little bit. So let's move on back to the clouds. So I'm using the same mix that I had, this kind of a neutral violet and I'm using this to start to define some of the clouds. And so this is basically kind of a glazing technique because I've allowed those initial colors in the sky to dry and settle a little bit. And now I can go in and add a little bit of contrast within these clouds, which will allow the areas that are remaining pink to appear more like really light pink clouds at sunsets. So I don't want to overdo it. And I'm also not necessarily trying to mimic any actual clouds here, but I want to add a little bit of texture, a little bit of movements. And you can see that when I glaze with this violet on top of those brighter colors, it actually makes those colors seem even more vibrant and bright in the areas where there still showing through. And so before I move on with this painting, I'm gonna allow this glaze to kind of settle in dry and then I can add a finishing touch to my duck painting. And then when we get back to the cloud painting, I will show you how to mix up a nice neutral black and we'll add some silhouettes of trees to the foreground to really make that sunset feel like a nice sky scape. So you can see here I just added a little bit more of that bright vibrant orange back into our duck. And our negative painting here is done. So you can see that most of the work that I did in that negative painting was actually around the subject. And I even let some of the white of the paper show through just at the very top of the duck's head. And that gives a really nice sense of light and vibrancy to that painting. So that is an example of how we would do negative painting. It takes a little bit of planning ahead, thinking ahead knowing what areas you really need to leave alone and what areas you're going to need to build up. Alright, so here I'm going to show you how to mix a nice neutral Black using just your primary colors. Basically, it's going to be a combination of all three colors. It's just a matter of finding the right balance between those three colors. I usually find that if I want to mix a real true black, I'm going to be using a lot of blue, a medium amount of red, and then maybe just a little bit of yellow to tone it down because of course, blue and red are just going to make a violet. But if we add a little bit of yellow to our violet. That's going to neutralize the violet and help it to up here a little bit more black. And a lot of times in painting, I will actually not use a true black like a blackout of a tube at all because I really prefer to mix my blacks and my neutrals very chromatically. So I'm not necessarily, after getting a true black, I actually want my black to lean a little bit toward one color or another. So as I said, for black, I might want it, my mixture to lean more strongly toward blue. And if I'm mixing a warm neutral like a brown, then I might have more of my red or my yellow dominating that mix, but it's still going to have some blue in it just to neutralize it. So here you can see I started out with a somewhat lighter, almost gray to start blocking in some of these trees. And what I'm doing is I'm applying the color pretty thick at the bottom where the ground is. But as I move up the tree, I'm using more of a dry brush technique so that I get more texture. And I am by no means going in and trying to paint every single branch because these are trees that are kind of in the distance. So while I want them to be a little rough and I want to be able to see that sunset sky through the branches. What I really want to have is a nice rough texture within the mass of the trees. So I'm using a dry brush technique and almost a stumbling technique to apply those trees on top of the sky. And at the bottom it's more of a wet onto dry technique because it's going to be more solid where the ground is. And then I was looking at my duck and realized maybe I could add a little bit of this nice chromatic black just right underneath the duck to help it feel a little bit more grounded. Give it a little bit more of a stronger base. And I think that that does help a lot. And because I've allowed it to dry, I get a little bit more of a hard edge and less merging between the colors. So I can do just a little bit more with this very dark value to really help my doc. I feel like it's sitting on the ground. And also when you're doing a black, if you are needing it to be very, very dark and strong, of course, you just want to make sure that you have a lot more pigments to water. So not much water, lots and lots of pigment, you'll get a nice dark value. And of course, if you are wanting to mix up a gray than you would just add a little bit more water to your mix to dilute it a little bit more and you're going to get a lighter value. So here you can see in my cloud painting, I allowed just a very small dot of white to show through. So that's just the white of the paper. And that kind of symbolizes where the setting sun is. And it really creates a really nice sense of luminosity and vibrance. And that's offset by the silhouette of all of these masses of trees. And then of course we have those nice pink clouds in the top portion of the sky. And I think that that just helps it to feel like a really nice sunset. This is the kinda sunset that I see a lot in my neck of the woods here in Nebraska. So those are probably my favorite clouds to paints. Alright, so I hope that you enjoyed this class. I hope that you are able to take some of these techniques that we went over today and apply them to some very simple paintings. Keep your subjects really simple to begin with. And just try to look for ways to apply these basic techniques in ways that they build up to almost appear very complex. 12. Tube vs. Pan Watercolos: In this lesson, I want to address two issues. One being that I know a lot of students are going to be painting using a set of watercolors that comes in pans. So I'm going to be comparing the tube watercolors over on the left with this pan set over on the right. Now this is a set of Windsor and new in Katlyn watercolors, and there is nothing wrong with these. I use them quite a bit. As you can see, I've used this Panza ally. I like to use it when I'm traveling or when I'm doing some planar paintings. So I don't want you to think that tube watercolors are necessarily superior to pan watercolors. But I do want to demonstrate how they are just a little bit different in how with Pan watercolors, you're going to have to do a couple of things in order to achieve what is more easily done with the tube watercolors. So over here on the left, I'm going to basically demonstrate some of those basic tech techniques that we went over earlier in this course. So I'm laying down a wash hair and I'm kind of shifting the color around. I started with blue, which already had a little bit of red mixed than it from before. And then I'm mixing kind of a violet and the middle and then some lighter red down here at the bottom. Not going to be able to replicate these colors exactly using the pan set. Because these colors that I'm using Chrome tubes are just different pigments than what I have in the pan sets. But I do want to just show you how you can use a pan set and still achieve a lot of the same things that we can do with the tube water colors. So you can see that in the top square over here on the left side, ie really used a lot of saturated, highly chromatic color to get some really dark mixes. And then down here, just for comparison sake, I'm applying some lighter washes. So essentially, I'm not worried about a lot of technique and here I'm not really worried about the color. I just want to have some color shifts for comparison's sake. And what I want to show you about using the pans is that it can be a little bit more difficult to get those highly chromatic dark colors, dark values. Because with the pan watercolors, the pigment is given to you in these dehydrated cakes. And when we add water to the cakes, that activates them. However, because they're so dense, it can be very difficult to get enough pigment out of these pans to get the same dark values or highly chromatic colors that we can get with the two paints. Because when we squeeze paint out of a tube, it's already kind of soft and it doesn't need that much activation from water. So here you can see I'm trying to achieve. The same dark value over on the right side with my pan water colors. And already you can see that I just can't quite get it as dark as I could over on the left. I'm adding a little bit of red into this. And you can see that this is actually a pretty dark color. The red that I used out of the pan is kind of an orange, a shred. So when it combines with this ultramarine blue, it's not going to look like your stereotypical violet. It's going to be a little bit more neutral. And then down at the bottom, I want this nice light wash of red. Again, it's just a different pigment altogether from the red that I used from my tube. So it's just not going to look exactly the same. You can see that it just took a little bit more work to get enough pigment out of the pans to apply it to the square in the same highly chromatic or dark value that I had on the left. But it is possible. So this is just something that you're going to have to experiment with if you're going to use pans rather than tubes. And quite honestly in watercolor, we don't do a lot with super dark values. Anyway. Most of what we're going to be doing are going to be lighter values. So this won't matter too much. But it's certainly something to be aware of and to get that little bit of extra practice in just so that when you need to make a dark value or something that's highly chromatic, you're able to get a feel for how that is done with the pan at watercolors. And then down at the bottom I just apply it. Lighter wash of course again, the colors are not completely equivalent. But just for comparison sake, it's much easier to get the lighter washes, the lighter values with the pan watercolors. And honestly, sometimes you can have the inverse issue when you're using tube watercolors and you're trying to get a really light wash and you accidentally pick up too much pigment. So just like with anything else, there are going to be pros and cons and advantages and disadvantages. And honestly, whatever materials you decides used, you're just going to develop a feel for those materials and you're going to learn how to compensate for some of the shortcomings that you have, whether you're using the pan watercolors or the two watercolors. Now the next issue that I want to address is the fact that a lot of times when you buy a pan watercolors like this, this is a really basic set, but you can see that it has quite a few colors. Looks like 12 colors and total, we're really 11 because they aren't on that lower left-hand side in that lower left pan. That's actually why it looks yellow because there's some yellow pigment on the White. I almost never use that. Why? I find it quite useless. But a lot of people are attracted to buying pans sets because it comes with so many colors and they think that that's going to be a huge advantage. And certainly it can be, but I'm going to show you how I can use my three primary colors to come really, really close to matching every single one of these 11 colors. So what I'm doing is I'm just doing little tiny swatches directly from the pan set, not mixing anything. Cleaning off my brush after every time I do one color before I move on to the next color so that my bristles are really clean. And I'm just going to have all of these colors swatch, starting with that lemon yellow up at the top and then going down all of these primaries. So we have that lemon yellow and then we have kind of a medium yellow and orange, a shred, kinda of a magenta read an ultramarine blue, a failable blue. And then starting up at the top on the left hand column of my pan set, we have a viridian green, a Sap Green, a yellow ochre. I think that this is a burnt sienna. And then right below that is going to be a, either a burnt umber or a ROM or I'm not sure. And then of course I'm not going to swatch that white. So what I'm going to do is try to match each one of these colors just by mixing from my three primaries out of tubes. And you're gonna see that for most of these I really get quite close. So my yellow that I have just straight out of the tube is a little bit more close to that medium yellow than it is to the lemon yellow. And what I'm actually going to do to try to match that lemon yellow is just add the tiniest, tiniest bit of blue. And I know that that seems really strange. But it works that lemon yellow just seems a little bit green. And now I'm going to move onto this orange or red. This pan set really doesn't have what I would consider it to be a true read what I have from my tubes for my red, I feel like that's more of a true red. And so anytime I'm mixing from these pans and I am trying to mix, for example, maybe a violet. If I use that orange or shred and mix that with a blue, I'm going to get kind of a neutral violet. And if I use the crimson red, I think that it's kind of a Alizarin crimson or maybe like a permanent rose. It's kind of a magenta read. If I mix that with a blue, I'll get a really nice vibrant violet. And that is one thing that you'll find, especially if you're using a set that has multiple versions of each primary color, is that you're going to get a different violet depending on which red and which BlueMix or a different green depending on which yellow in which blew you choose. I do find that when you get more experience, that can be a huge advantage in painting. So I'm not knocking that, but I do think that that can be a little bit confusing for beginners. And so I would say that even if you're going to be using a set of watercolor that has all of these different colors, more than just three primaries to start out with. You should just choose one yellow, one blue, one red, and just really get to know those three primary colors and how they interact with each other. And as you get more experienced and a little bit more comfortable with color theory, then you can begin to add colors to your palate. But to be quite honest, even when I'm doing a full and complete painting, I typically do not have more than maybe five or six colors on my palette at any one given time. Okay, but back to these mixes, I cut a little bit sidetracked there. So basically what I'm doing is I am trying to match each one of these colors from the pans set with my primary colors. And the ones that I found that I had the most trouble matching where actually the fellow Blue and the viridian green. So they low blue is a really strong color. It's actually a synthetic color that hasn't existed for all that long. But it's a really nice rich blue with a little bit of green in it. And so even when I use my ultramarine blue and I add yellow to it, it's really difficult to mimic that fellow blue because it's such a unique color. And same with that viridian green that is a very strong bluish green. And mixing my ultramarine blue with the yellow that I have doesn't quite get me there. So those are not going to be exact matches, but I think that the rest of these are actually pretty close. Now, going back up to where I mixed my orange a shred, of course I just use my red and a little bit of yellow to get that. Now to get a match for the Alizarin crimson or maybe it's a permanent rose. I actually used a lot of red and added just a touch of blue to it. And that helps it to appear to be a little bit more magenta. And then going down to the yellow ochre, that's just a lot of yellow with a little bit of orange and a small amount of blue. And then the last color, the umber, is going to basically be all three colors with a strong base of blue, but also quite a bit of red and yellow so that it's a nice earthy Brown. So you can see the comparison here. I was able to get pretty close and it's really just a matter of practice. 13. Conclusion: Thank you so much for taking this course. I really appreciate it. I really hope to see your projects in paintings in the project section of this course. And again, if you have any questions or need further clarification, please feel free to post any questions that you have in the discussion section of this course. And remember to check out my catalog of other painting courses here on skill share, you'll find a lot of information and I'm always adding new courses, so be sure to follow me. And as always, happy painting.