Vocabulary and Grammar for Advanced English Students: Essay writing tips and more! | Rebecca, IELTS fanatic | Skillshare

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Vocabulary and Grammar for Advanced English Students: Essay writing tips and more!

teacher avatar Rebecca, IELTS fanatic, CELT Qualified Teacher for 12+ years.

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

10 Lessons (25m)
    • 1. Welcome

      0:34
    • 2. A few words on food and health

      1:16
    • 3. Common mistakes with passives

      2:41
    • 4. The dreaded inversions made simple!

      1:27
    • 5. Comparing quantities

      4:34
    • 6. A bit of Business English

      2:49
    • 7. Solving all the worlds problems

      2:12
    • 8. Easy-peasy prefixes

      2:08
    • 9. Building vocabulary

      2:12
    • 10. Linking it all together

      5:10
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About This Class

Hello and welcome. Oftentimes advanced students know they still have gaps in their knowledge but struggle to fill them in. This class is intended to challenge you no matter how proficient you are at English, and teach you some handy practical vocabulary and grammar that you can start using straight away.

As it is intended to specifically target things that Advanced students do not know, it covers a wide variety in a short amount of time. 

 Learn what you've been missing!

Meet Your Teacher

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Rebecca, IELTS fanatic

CELT Qualified Teacher for 12+ years.

Teacher

Hello! 

My name is Rebecca, I'm from Ireland, and I've been teaching English for over a decade.

Perhaps more importantly, I have 25 years experience learning languages. I've experienced what it is like to fail miserably despite all your efforts, and I know how wonderful it is to finally succeed and reach that coveted C1 / Advanced level.

I know where you can go wrong, and I know how to help! 

While I am very serious about teaching, I try to make classes fun and entertaining wherever possible. I also try to include a wide variety of approaches, because we can't really learn much while we are bored, can we?

So I hope you have fun and learn a lot! 


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¡Hola!

Mi nombre es Rebecca, ... See full profile

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Transcripts

1. Welcome: Hello, This course is going to teach you what you've been missing. So it's aimed at advanced students who've been studying English for many years, but who still have some gaps in their knowledge. It is filtered the sorts of things that take students along time to learn or that students find quite difficult even after they've reached an expert level in English. So it's a little bit random, it's a little bit mixed up and a little bit chaotic, but I think you'll enjoy it because it jumps around in order so that you know all of the things that you need to know. So I hope you enjoy it. 2. A few words on food and health: So what do you call someone who doesn't meet me? What do you think? Vegetarian, right? What do you call someone who doesn't need any animal products? And Megan, what is another way to say to eat? How else would you say to eat, to consume? And of course the noun is consumption. Okay, so consumption of meat, for example. What's another way to say to give up? Because give up is a phrasal verb, so it's informal. So what's another way to say that? To forego rice, to forgot to go without this person, the pitcher is foregoing meat, for example. How might you say to make a problem less serious to ease a symptom? This is a super useful word coming up to alleviate, right? So the storm trooper is taking headache tablets to alleviate his headache. So now you understand when I say She went vegan hoping that for going animal products would alleviate her digestive problems. 4. Common mistakes with passives: Okay, so we're going to have a look at some passives, correct the mistake in the upcoming sentences. So these are all the types of sentences that students often make. Let's see. It is incorporated nutrition classes into the school curriculum. It is incorporated nutrition classes into the school curriculum. You can't say it is incorporated, right? So what can he say? What do you, what should you say? Nutrition classes are incorporated into the school curriculum. Now that it is only for very specific passives, it is worried that global warming will cause more natural disasters. But you wouldn't say it. It is incorporated fashion nutrition classes. Not another no, that's not how it works. Okay. Let's see. Next one. It is thought that nutrition classes should be incorporated into the school curriculum. So that works, That's okay. Because think is one of the verbs that can go with it is batch. Other verbs like this are, it is thought that it is believed that it is said that it is worried that it is advised that hopes that we can fight global warming. It is thought that it might already be too late. It is believed that global warming is accelerating, something like this. So specific phrases like worry, think, believe they can go with this. Okay. I see a significant number of people are being made adjustments to their diets. Do you think? So that's wrong, right? The people aren't being made. The adjustments, right? So the person has confused, which is the subject, which is the object. So it should be active. A significant number of people are making adjustments that are diet just normal, active, not passive. Or I guess you could say adjustments are being made to the diets of significant numbers of people. But then you're like, What's the object there is the government adjusting their diet, not just make it active. Now, every sentence has to be passive and not every sentence can be passed. Okay, Next one. Governments in many countries have been introduced incentives to promote better health. So this is wrong, right? Because it sounds like the governments are what has been introduced, but they're not. The incentives are what has been introduced. So in many countries, incentives to promote better health have been introduced. So if it was active, governments have introduced incentives. If it's passive incentives have been introduced by government, or it's kinda obvious that it's the government. So you can just omit the government completely. 5. The dreaded inversions made simple! : Before we go and look at the final version of the essay, all completed, let's analyze a useful inversion. So, uh, wait a minute, what is an aversion? So we usually study inversion as advanced students. But here's an inversion that you already know, no matter what your levels are you okay? That's an inversion because you have inverses. You are okay to make, are you okay? And that's what you get when you have an advance you version as well. So for example, that's easy peasy, right? But you could have, not only am I okay, I'm doing great. So there's your inversion. Am I okay? Not only am I okay, I'm doing great. Or not only am I okay, but I'm doing great. So let's see some out of contexts examples of this being used in IOLs task two. Not only is it incorrect to think that nature always triumphs over nurture, it also implies something quite harmful that we are slaves who are genes with no free choice over our actions. Let's have a look at another one. Not only did the reintroduction of the death penalty not reduce crime rates, they continue to climb at the same rate as before. Not only would these new safety measures safe lives, they would also improve peace of mind. 6. Comparing quantities : Check out this bar chart and see what you notice. Okay, where do you do your e-learning tablet or smartphone? Men, women. Let's get the introduction and overview out of the way. So keep looking at the cherish. Pause it if you wanted to write this yourself, and then I'll show you why one in three to one. The bar chart shows the popularity of two electronic devices among people learning online. The information is organized according to gender. Overall, we can see that smartphones were more popular than tablets for both male and female students. Now, let's put a new grammar structure in our detail paragraphs. So you can see that the yellow is larger ice, but we're not going to say that. What does it mean that the yellow is larger? What do you notice about the graph, right? You notice immediately the yellow is larger. So how much larger is, ish? We're going to talk about that. An easy way to say this might be five men use a tablet while ten men use a smartphone. How can I express that another way? How can I make it more fancy or just different? So it's not repetitive? Be think. For men, the popularity of smartphones was that of tablets. But do you think what word might you put in there? Double, right? You can say the popularity of smartphone was doubled up tablets. Let's try another word. Give me another sentence. As many men use smartphones as tablets or it could go there. What do you think? Twice, right, twice as many men use smartphones, tablets. All right, let's have a look at another sentence, but this one has a mistake in it. So why is the following sentence wrong? Menu smartphones twice as much as tablets. What do you think? Why is it wrong? So this is wrong for this particular chart. So the grammar was okay. But for this chart it's wrong because it sounds like Men new smartphones twice as often as tablets if you say twice as much. And we aren't actually given information about the frequency or the amount of time, just the number of men. So watch out for that. You can make a beautiful grammatical sentence, but it's got to actually describe the graph you're looking at. Okay, ladies, your turn. Let's see, let's practice the same grammar again. 12 women use smartphones was just three use tablets for their e-learning. So that's the easy way to say it. How can I make it fancier? What do you think? How else can I say that? Get ready to pause and think about what do you think? What's the missing word in that gap? The number of women using smart phones was the number using tablets. What could I put there? It's not double. It's not trouble. It's actually quadruple rice. Huge difference, quadruple, which means four times. So what word can I put in this gap in this sentence? As many women use the smartphone as used a tablet, a couldn't say quadruple this time. What could I say? Good as she say four times, four times as many women used a smartphone as used a tablet. Lovely. Right, so let's have a look about full detailed paragraphs that you've already seen the introduction in the overview. Now you're going to see those lovely phrases in a full detailed paragraph 321. A closer look at the graph tells us that for men, the popularity of smartphones was double that of tablets, five versus ten. While four times as many women use smartphones as used tablets, the three Vs 12. Therefore, when we compare the genders, it is clear that though, as previously mentioned, both sexes preferred study using a smartphone, this preference was much stronger for women. Indeed, men were nearly twice as likely to use tablets for study as women were. 7. A bit of Business English: Call it when you no longer work with everybody else, or maybe one day a week you don't work with everybody else. You actually work in your house, what do you call it? And what he called the place in your house where you do that work? So you're working from home? Working in a home office. Okay. What about accompany? What are some synonyms for company? You can call a company a business or an enterprise, the Starship Enterprise. And Star Trek, it's a deme, shift cipher. An employee is also at. Worker can also call them. An employer is also a business owner, maybe business manager, some more synonyms for it. The money you have left over after all your expenses have been accounted for. So imagine my company spends a hundred-year one sugar in order to make lemonades. And when Nero and lemons, and then people buy, people spend €200 on our lemonade, right? So then we've made 99 Euro profits. Well, 99 year-old, great. Go to the cinema. And what can you call the place that a business has to rent in order to offer its services or do its work. And this is one of those strange nouns in English that even though it's singular, it ends in an s. So what do you think? A premise or premises? A premises is the building where business does its work. And you might see this in a shop window of a closed shop. They might say change location or we have changed premises are premises has moved. We have moved premises. And needles. If you produce a lot of you are productive. So the adjective from producer is productive. You have high. So the noun from produce is productivity. We don't say big profits, we say profit margin. But do you think? Yes, profit margin. We don't say small profits. We say, let's opposite of white and narrow profit margin. Okay? The hours you spend working our year, this was really difficult, careful. It's really advanced. Working hours. There you go. So if you're working many working hours, we don't say that. What's the colocation? We say long working hours. Long working hours. So that's business English Korea. If you're working long working hours, you probably have a headache now. So take a break. 8. Solving all the worlds problems : I'm going to solve all your problems while okay, for essays. So when you have a problem solution, I say, I'm going to give you some useful phrases you can use to solve. First of all, one way this might be solved, Sorry, one way this could be solved might be to rather, but another possible solution could be to five Baba. While there are no easy answers, it may be of benefit to blah, blah, blah. One way this could be solved would be to raise taxes. Another possible solution could be to raise taxes. While there are no easy answers, it may be of benefit to raise taxes. But wait, Rebecca, how do I actually solve the world's problems? Subsidize everything? So this is useful for basically any essay. If the government versus subsidized, then we might see vast improvement in the situation. So subsidize alternative power, subsidize electric cars, subsidize education, subsidize healthy food, subset, want like whatever. So often if you throw money at a problem, you can pretend like you think it will go away. A government subsidy on would make it more affordable, enabling citizens to make more responsible decisions. So again, the government subsidy on greener, up on greener choices would make them more affordable, problem-solve. Another thing that could solve everything would be to change legislation. So just change the law. You can make things illegal. So make this a legal ban, this 4-bit the sand of this. And by doing that, everything's fixed. Another way is awareness campaigns. Just make sure people know about the problem. If people know about the problem, problem will go away as so encouraged to. So for example, encourage parents to supervise their children, encouraged people to exercise more, maybe inform on. So inform the public on the importance of regular exercise and farm the public on the dangers of global warming. So those are some ideas for you when you're at a loss for what to write. If you already have your own ideas on how to save the world from whatever problem is asked about, use them instead. But these worked for basically anything. 9. Easy-peasy prefixes : All right, so before we go ahead and do the next essay, Let's have a look at some prefix vocabulary that will help us to prepare us. So what is a prefix? First of all, prefix, you know, is a group of letters that go at the beginning of the word and change its meaning. So next, you're going to add some negative prefixes to some words to make them mean they're opposite. Let's go. Advantage. Of course. Disadvantage, practical, impractical, and there's a rule here. So m is the most common prefix with words beginning with P for which m. Can you think of some examples? Impossible, right? Immortal and flexible, inflexible, dignified, undignified. And there's a rule here. On is the most common negative prefix. So when you're not sure, you want to make a negative prefix and you're not sure. Stick this at the beginning of an adjective and see if it works. Restrictive. What do you think? Unrestricted, reversible, irreversible. Here's another rule. I, r is the most common prefix, but words beginning with R. But as you saw with unrestricted, there are many exceptions. So watch out for that logical AND logical. Another rule is the most common negative prefix for words beginning with L. So again, that will help you guess. Now those are the only rules and tendencies, I'm afraid. So from this point on, you just have to memorize them, unfortunately, but you'll see that they're dead handy. Like for example, you have a question and the vocabulary in your question is flexible. And instead of saying not flexible, you can say, well, it's important not to be inflexible. You know, not to be inflexible. So prefixes, negative prefixes can fill in for synonyms and can be very helpful in that way. I hope this video was. 10. Building vocabulary : So the essay that we're going to be talking about is related to vocabulary for buildings. And so we're going to have a look at some vocabulary can use to have more precision, more specific vocabulary if you get an essay relates to this topic. Here's the essay again, you're going to see against. So don't worry. Hello, can you say to build, what do you think? How else can you say to build, to construct rice? To construct what's the, what's a synonym for our look as in, I love the look of log cabins or IE, I love the look of a city with uniform architecture where everything is. What do you think? It's in the look or the aesthetic. Okay. The ascetic and that phrase, log, log cabin, That's what you see in the picture there. So it's a cabin built out of logs. So log cabin. Okay. What do you call people who design buildings? What do you think? What do you call people who designed buildings? Architects. What do you call someone who designs buildings? An architect and feels that architect work in is called architecture, right? And the adjective from this architectural, architectural that says, what do you call the outside visible portion of a building, the Kolisch. This author's word also means when something or someone is all surface and there's nothing underneath, it's just a facade, it's fake. But what a building, it doesn't mean that. It just means the outside portion. The facade. I said it tonight. I said it that made it easier. And that's it. So that's only a few words. As you can see, am book, the thing about vocabulary is if you have a few words in the essay that are specific to the topic, as long as they fit in the sentence and they don't look strange in the sentence. They're not forced in, then you'll get your precision mark. Now if you know more words, there'll be easier to find a word that looks very natural in your essay. But usually you're going to know, Like might say seven words on each of the common topics. You're probably gonna get a chance to use them. 11. Linking it all together : All right, So paragraph timing for advantage, disadvantage essays. Let's have a look at the question first. In some countries there are no rules about how new office buildings and houses should look. This leads to everybody building in whichever that way they want without consideration for the overall look of a city or town. Do you agree that the advantages of this policy outweigh the disadvantages? So we know that they're going to want to know our opinion, right. Because extent do you agree that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? They're going to want us to talk about the advantages and disadvantages. And and yeah, that's that's, that's it. Okay. So how to plan the paragraphs? I'm going to show you a sample answer with everything done already. But all the paragraphs are mixed up. And I want you to read it and figure out the order they should be in. Once you've done that and think about how you recognize where each paragraph goes and what I'm wash that might tell you about how to organize your own essay. So get ready to pause. Okay? So I'm about to show you the right answer and see how you did. There we go. There's a right answer. Okay? Now decide what the missing words might be. I want to say as well, if that's too small, use a bigger screen. I'm kidding. Or I'm going to have a document with this lesson where you can download it as an actual documents so that you can set the size yourself if you have a pure watching this on a screen. So now decide what the missing words or base, and now we're going to do a linkers. So in paragraph 2, how did we start it or how well might be sterile? So what do you think? On the one hand is one thing you might say, Okay, now, what would have been wrong with saying, first of all, here, because it's my first body paragraph. So what would have been wrong with saying, first of all, what do you think? Well, first of all, it sounds like you're going to make a second on the same topic. That's how you'd use it. So I say, first of all, I don't like your attitude. And second of all, I don't like your clothes like that. So those are two points on the same thing. My captain, the person who don't like them, right? And I might say, first of all, I love your attitude and second of all, I love your goals. That's nicer. Well sounds like the next thing that comes afterwards is going to be on the same topic. Probably not. You're not gonna have time to write two paragraphs on 12 paragraphs on the other axis that needs to be balanced. And my next paragraph is not about the advantages, but rather about the disadvantages. So I'm not going to say first of all, okay, paragraphs three. Um, I started really think. On the other hand, because I'm putting in another contrasts. You know, I'm putting in time. But the other thing I could say, it regards the disadvantages or yeah, something like this. What if I said despite this would be wrong with that? Despite this would only work if something in the previous paragraph had made the facts in the second paragraph more surprising. Now let me give you an example of what I might mean by that. For instance, it's widely known that buildings which are painted white reflect the sun and need less air conditioning. Despite this, some people prefer to paint their homes different colors anyway. Anyway, would be extra emphasis, but it would be informal, don't say it. So despite this, It's surprising that people would paint their homes whatever color they once. And maybe it's not surprising, but it goes against what the first sentence says. So I love your clothes despite this. I'm sorry, I don't want to buy them, you know. And so even though I love your photos, I don't want to buy them. It's not the same as saying there are disadvantages despite this, there are advantages because the fact that there are disadvantages doesn't make it surprising, but there are also advantages, right? Okay. Last paragraph. This is the, this is the easiest one. You can do this. What's missing? To conclude or in conclusion? Of course, to conclude or in conclusion, it is a conclusion. There are only two ways to start this. If you do me an exercise that I correct and you don't start, the conclusion would in conclusion. I'm going to cry. I'm just going to I'm just going to show it to you. Automate you cry. Don't do that. And so know that in all caps, no other cohesive device will work. No other cohesion device will fish for the conclusion. To conclude that it is over.