Video Game Music Composition / Production | Adam Caterer | Skillshare

Video Game Music Composition / Production

Adam Caterer

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37 Lessons (4h 60m)
    • 1. Promo Video

      0:37
    • 2. Requirements & Introduction

      1:26
    • 3. What if I get Stuck?

      1:27
    • 4. Where to Share your Music?

      2:00
    • 5. Starting Out

      0:54
    • 6. What Should Game music Sound like?

      6:26
    • 7. Tools for Composing and Planning

      1:43
    • 8. ASIO and Useful Music Vocabulary (In Context)

      10:09
    • 9. Installing Fl Studio on Windows

      1:14
    • 10. How to Install a VST / AU plugin

      7:14
    • 11. Fl Studio Settings and Overview

      6:59
    • 12. Fl Studio Basics

      22:15
    • 13. The Browser and The Playlist

      10:43
    • 14. The Step Sequencer, Piano roll and The Mixer

      16:31
    • 15. Section 4 Introduction

      0:42
    • 16. Core Concepts

      4:08
    • 17. Different Types of Chords

      3:14
    • 18. Practice Ear Training

      3:18
    • 19. Chord Stamps

      1:44
    • 20. Chord Stamps

      8:01
    • 21. Basslines

      11:19
    • 22. Introduction

      4:46
    • 23. Frequency and Music Theory Revisited

      10:57
    • 24. Character Planner and Synths

      4:58
    • 25. Chords Composition

      9:47
    • 26. Bass Composition

      11:19
    • 27. Melody Composition

      10:09
    • 28. Drums and Entire Composition

      9:22
    • 29. Mixing and Best File types for Export

      15:05
    • 30. Mastering and end of Section

      11:56
    • 31. Assembling Our Chords

      9:47
    • 32. Assembling Our Melody

      13:27
    • 33. Assembling the Bassline

      10:36
    • 34. Mixer and Compression

      13:27
    • 35. Adding Instruments

      6:31
    • 36. Compression

      7:47
    • 37. Mastering

      27:51
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About This Class

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Say goodbye to expensive music colleges! Learn everything you need to know about game music composition with me!

Once you've purchased this course you will have access to explanatory lectures giving you information on the following topics: Using FL Studio (and DAWS), Music theory, composition tutorials, themed music creation.

The composition tutorials will cover the following: Battle music, RPG, Casual and Mobile music and Character music.

This course is designed to be extensive as possible to get you started producing music for yourself or your soon to be clients!

Welcome to one of the first online composition courses that fully immerse the students into the world of video game music with a Project-Based design and interactive lectures.

This course will eventually cover every game type with no prior experience required. You'll learn all the skills and abilities you need to come out of this course a competent composer.

This course not only covers composition but it will also take an in-depth look at sound design, Audacity, Unity, F mod and a few other software's that may be helpful to you at a later point.

Overwhelmed? With this course, we start simple and spend a lot of time prepping you to make sure you never feel left scratching your head.

This course is even recommended for Intermediate and Advanced Game composers. As the weeks go by we slowly delve into advanced composition strategies, more complicated music theory, sound design and mixing strategies.

Create Game Music with FL Studio, Game Music Production, Video Game Music Creation, Music Production for Video Games, Game Music Composition

What you’ll learn

  • Compose high quality, video game music for your own game or a clients game
  • A greater understanding of sound design for game music creation.
  • Use a DAW to compose music using unique sounds
  • Learn music theory, music composition, music production, and game music knowledge.
  • Create a career as a Game music composer.
  • Further your Career as a Game music producer.
  • 3000+ Free Drum, Bass, Synth Samples

Are there any course requirements or prerequisites?

  • Fl Studio or any other DAW
  • Computer powerful enough to run FL Studio
  • Decent quality headphones
  • MIDI keyboard (optional)

Who this course is for:

  • Beginner game music composers
  • Musicians wanting to get into game music
  • Game music composers wanting to further their career

Transcripts

1. Promo Video: Have you ever been curious how to produce game music? With this course, you could be producing game music in almost under an hour. We will be using simple composing strategies to get you guys producing as fast as possible . This course contains a complete rundown of FL Studio as well as music theory for game music . We will be covering RPG music, battle music, casual music, mobile game music and character music. All levels are welcome. Come and join our community. 2. Requirements & Introduction: Welcome to the first lecture in the video game music composition course. In this lecture, we're going to go over some course requirements. If you're just joining us now, take a moment to familiarize yourself with the required materials for this course and decide whether this course is right for you. This course requires a Windows or Mac computer for running at full studio as well as the excusable File four FL Studio. But don't worry. If you're new to FL Studio, I will be showing you how to set up and run that program, knowledge vessel, studio or any other dog or digital audio workstation is not required, but it may benefit you to take the beginners FL. City, of course, that is available to you through Meridian records dot c. A. Optional devices such as midi keyboards, mixers and sound cards can be helpful. However, they're not required for this course. And if you have a minute keyboard, I will be showing you how to use that Phil Studio to install it. Okay, let's get into the first assignment, follow the link to the assignment number one and answer the following questions. After you've completed this, please follow the link to the assignment page and answer the rest of the questions related to the article. I will see you in the next lecture where I'll show you how to get help. Welcome to the course. 3. What if I get Stuck?: Okay, so in the short little video, I'm gonna teach you where to get help if you get stuck. So first we're going to go to Meridian records dot c A. And as soon as this page loads up here, we're going to go ahead and click on discussion boards and then video game music, and then we're gonna go ahead and go to production techniques and help. And at the top here, it's going to give you a description of what you can and can't post in here. Uh, the discussion is moderated, so keep that in mind. And then there's some emotions that you can use to comment on other people's posts. Um, obviously, typing in is just a simple a saying, Hey, I need help with something and then, ah, posting it. Okay, Single had post that. And then obviously you can reply to other people's comments up. Vote something down, votes something. Um, you're pretty much free to do whatever you like. You can share it. Um, if that interests you at all. Ah, but that's it. Yeah, that's how to get help. If you get stuck in this course 4. Where to Share your Music?: okay, in this short little lecture, I'm gonna teach you where to share your music, and we're gonna go ahead and go to Meridian records dot c a again. And we're going to go to discussion boards, and we're going to scroll down till we see video game music. Now we're gonna go to music share, and again there are some pieces of information is here for you. Ah, that will tell you exactly what you can and can't post. Okay? And when you are posting in discussion boards, please make sure it's a soundcloud link. That is going to be the easiest way for you to share your music. Um, and it's going to be one of the easier ways for me to hear it and for other students in the class to hear it, um, or just public in general, if you don't want ah, your name to be to be on it, that's fine. You can use a pseudonym or something as well. So this is just me showing you how to basically just create a quick account here. Um, and then, as soon as you've done that, you just go to your profile and you can share your entire profile. Um, or you can just share the one song. I don't have any music. Um, under morning records right now. So I'm just gonna go ahead and share the profile, so just give you a link here to share. He's just copy it, and then you can pace it right into the discussion board, and it comes up with the description. Ah, and everything like that. Perfect. Okay, so that is how to post music. And I will see you in the next lecture. 5. Starting Out: Welcome to Section two, an introduction to music production, music composition and music hardware vocabulary. Oh, by the end of the section, you'll be able to use the inspiration for grid to develop ideas for songs, understand the simple composing strategies I've given to you and have a better understanding of music vocabulary and how that will benefit you. This section will give you a solid understanding of music composition as well as an understanding of music hardware. By the end of the section, all the tools will be given to you to attack the projects ahead. With that being said, let's jump right in. 6. What Should Game music Sound like?: So with those examples, I'm going to give you guys some questions, just kind of rhetorical questions. That'll help get your mind working on this subject. When you're composing something, you should be thinking. What type of game is this? Four was the theme of the game. All music must be seamless and Lubell So Ah, what that means is that your music has to be able to basically go throat the entire track and then restart without you noticing that it's restarting or if you do notice it, restarting and be a very, very minor detail. So it should also be fairly short. So between 30 seconds two, maybe three minutes. Ah, it obviously depends on the game. And ah, what you've created it being seamlessly. Lubell is very important. The music also must be as long as the game requires. So, like, uh, if you've say, gone into a combat area and the music increases intensity, you're not gonna want it to die out suddenly, right? So it has to be consistent for the game. Play in this lecture is Well, I'm going to get you guys invested in some of these composing strategies there mawr for, say, getting ideas than anything else. So what you're gonna be looking for, um, when you're looking for inspiration is going to be location, emotion, character and action. So location like, are we in a desert? Are we in a forest? Are we in, like, medieval times? Are we in mid guard? Like it just It's ah, can be fantasy can be whatever. Um, does the music need to reflect the location? Um, in the game. Ah, and then emotion. So, like, are we in a sad scene? Um, are there say dead bodies all over the place are the main characters having problems with their relationships? Ah, things like that as well. So if it's a story based game, you're probably gonna want to do a lot more with emotion and then with character as well. So, um, if, say, you could sort of imagine this if, say, there's a maybe on a new boss coming, or or some sort of like evil wasteland lord or something like that, Then you're probably gonna want some intense music, maybe some grimy music to show off that he's like, ah, grimy sort of person. He is very much a threatening sort of person, and the last one is action, just like we were talking about before. When an enemy comes into your zone, you're gonna want the music to ramp up in intensity. That's going to give the player sort of a sense of Oh, okay, this is happening now, and I understand what's around me, and I'm having fun playing with this intense music. Okay, so another suggestion would be to try to hear something in your head or listen to a track with a similar theme. Also, being simple with your instruments when you're starting out is very important. But when you're just creating ideas, try to stick to one or two instruments and then you can implement more from there. And the next piece of advice is don't go crazy with all the options. Um, there are so many options available to you when you're producing music and remember that you don't have to incorporate all simplicity is sometimes way more creative, then complexity 7. Tools for Composing and Planning: Okay, Welcome to the simple composing and Planning Strategies Lecture. Before we even get started making music, we're going to set a good foundation to prevent you guys from getting stuck. The most efficient way I have found to produce game music is to start off with a theme. In the last lecture, we discussed how to take a game and pull ideas from it. So let's do that now. If, for example, we pretend have been commissioned by Nintendo to produce game music for their upcoming game , what should we take into consideration? We should take into consideration past games, game, genre and the fourth step model that we discussed in the last lecture. So now we're going to write down what you think gay music is about using the four steps displayed in the previous lecture. So go ahead and write down what you think your theme should be. And then once you've written down your theme, you can start to build ideas off it. So once you have written down your theme, we're gonna focus on these composing strategies. You can choose any of the following to start producing, so you can do melody first baseline first sound design. First hook first or layering instruments first. Each of these strategies will be used in later lectures to create music for our projects. Okay, that's just about it, for composing theory and composition. In the next lecture, we are going to discuss music, hardware and vocabulary. Enjoy. 8. ASIO and Useful Music Vocabulary (In Context): in this lecture we're gonna talk about as CEO. Ah, as you for all is something that you're going to see inside of FL Studio. So let's start off by talking about late and see. Latency refers to a short period of delay, usually majored milliseconds between when an audience signal enters and what emerges from the system as you provides a low latency and high fidelity interface between a software application, FL studio in this case and a computer sound card. Microsoft Direct Sound, which is the primary sound driver, is commonly used as, ah, intermittent ah, signal path for nonprofessional users. So if you weren't using FL Studio professionally, say you were just using it to I don't know, um, maybe make some random soundbites together or suddenly that, and that's what most people would be using, Uh, as you allows musicians and sound engineers to access external hardware directly. Um, this is very important. This is very important for things like sound cards as you stands for audio stream input slash output. It was developed by Steinberg, and it's ah, cross platform driver that's being adopted by many manufacturers of audio menus, many sequencing applications and hardware interfaces. It allows software to have access to the capabilities of a wide range of powerful sound cards. So in this slide, we're gonna talk a little bit about sample rates. Sample rate is expressed in samples per second or hertz, the rate at which samples of analog signals air taken in order to be converted into a digital form. Ah, 44.1 kilohertz and 48 kilohertz. Our sample rates most professional music producers work in and the reason for that eyes You wouldn't really want to go higher than that because it puts a strain on your system, which we're gonna talk about down here as well. So why wouldn't you just go a size they're set up allows? It takes up a lot more resources from the system. When you double the sample rate, the file size also doubles. Not only that, but it also taxes your CPU a lot more, which means your dog or digital audio workstation won't run is fluidly. Now we're gonna talk about something rate and the audible spectrum. Human years are sort of the bottleneck of to why we don't go higher than a 48 kilohertz sample rate the human hearing range spans about 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz and, ah, humans, believe it or not, could actually here is low as negative eight decibels just actually really impressive. The other reason that we don't take hi sample rates into account is because they can actually be damaging. So 100 and 92 killer music files just don't make any sense. Some people think that when you sample analog audio files digital, the digital version enters into the spectrum like a jagged staircase with harsh corners. You could think of it like boxes going up and down. So that stands to reason that you might think that changing to a higher sample rate would smooth out those corners. But it's simply not true. There are actually no benefits to a higher sample rate over 48 kilohertz. In fact, 24 bit, 192 killers can actually damage your hearing. Now we're going to talk a little bit. About 24 bit versus 16 bit. 16 bits is enough to spend the rial hearing range with room to spare. It does not cover the whole signal range, however, 24 bit so professionals used 24 bit samples in recording and production for headroom. What we mean by headroom is that if you have a lot of effects and plug ins, uh, you're gonna want a You're gonna want a higher spectrum rate in order for those plug ins to pop through in a lot of studio environments. Ah, lot of sounds are being run through hundreds, if not thousands, of different effects. They also used 24 bits when recording to prevent mistakes. Swing conclusion. Ah, 16 bit is for distribution of audio, so there's no reason to say Buff Out a song at 24 bit versus 16 bit. It just doesn't have any extra effect when you're distributing it to the public. 24 Bit for Recording of audio. The human hearing range spans about 20 hertz to 20 kilohertz as you provides a low, late and see solution for software and hardware interfaces. Late and see refers to a short period of delay and 192 kilohertz. Music files make no sense. Okay, so what is Midi? Mehdi is short for a musical instrument digital interface. It's a language that allows computers, musical instruments, another hardware to communicate. Many was first developed in the early eighties by Roland and Ah. It was developed to standardize communication between music hardware. Each many note carries instructions, key hit, pitch, velocity tempo, panning, modulation and volume. This sort of what a modern day Midi keyboard looks like. You have your pitch at the top. You have dials on the right hand side from modulation, whether that be cut off, volume, gain compression and then you have some drum boxes on the left hand side. Now those drum boxes were popularized with the launch pad itself and ah, launchpad. I'm sure something that you heard of basically allows you to enact certain instruments at certain times. So if you were to sink certain sounds with certain buttons and he knew where they were located, you could then create a pattern with said buttons. So many connections. The most common one is a five pin cable. However, you can also see them with printer cables as well. Actually, a few different other types actually have a portable version of a AKI professional. It's called the L. P K 25 and I believe it's it's actually one of the same portable keyboards that I've seen the chain smokers you'd using one of their videos, which is kind of funny to see anyways, that one uses a an older type of connection cable. And then on the right hand side, I sort of have a little bit of a diagram on how work So how to connect a midi he board to a PC, which is very straightforward. Talk a little bit about the benefits of media as well, so you can turn any. Maybe he board or launchpad or anything that has the ability to use Midi, including there's actually some touch screens that are coming out that have the ability to change between keyboard launchpad, sort of things like that. You can turn it into any instrument you want. So if you have an accused to Qatar BST, you could hook it up to your dog and use that ah, to play your notes. Many devices are also starting to come in the form of guitars now, which is becoming kind of interesting to he also gives you powerful editing power. So what I mean by that is inside of the piano roll when you type in a a mini note using your keyboard. That note after you've recorded it, becomes edit herbal so you can bring that down to an eighth step. Or you can completely change octaves with the entire melody that you just you just put in or you can change the pitch of it. The velocity can change all of these things after the fact. So, uh, many notes have a lot of power behind them. A lot of creative power that is one of the main benefits of having, ah, any sort of midi apparatuses. You can get your ideas into the piano roll law faster than simply just playing around with your mouse. Um, think dead. Most has said a couple times on a stream, talking about how he wished he would have learned to play the keyboard because it does make things a lot simpler if you are a ah, piano user right now, Um, getting a media keyboard is gonna be the best thing for you. I know that I was classically trained when I was younger, so jumping into ah Midi keyboard was fantastic, and I strongly suggest to anyone who's wanting to start producing music to start playing away with the keyboard right now, um, or even taking any sort of keyboard, a piano lessons. It also gives you full modulation control with proper timing. What I mean by proper timing is that on the keyboard itself, depending on which keyboard you have, obviously, um, you can control different scenarios so you can change. Cut off volume. Ah, pitch. Ah, there's certain things that are a lot user to use in, sort of like an analog setting. Then say, just moving a line up and down NFL studio. And when we get to the modulation section of this course, I'll show you kind of what I mean. 9. Installing Fl Studio on Windows: Okay, guys, I have, Ah, little short lecture here for you, and it's going to teach you how to install FL Studio. So the first thing we're going to do, he said to image line simply type image line into Google, then click on the first link. Once the pages loaded head to downloads, then fl studio trial slash full installer. Go ahead and click on the download link like any other program. Remember, if you intend on Onley using the trial version of FL Studio, you will not be able toe open saves. But you will be able to save projects. So if you're working on something it within the video game course here, then make sure that you are not saving the project. If you're using the trial version once you have opened the installer, click next, then agreed to the license agreement next. Then make sure you were installing with these preferences and ah, as soon as you hit next and click install, then you'll be good to go. Ah, you can just open up fl Studio and then I will guide you through the rest of the set up process. 10. How to Install a VST / AU plugin: So in this lecture, I'm going to be teaching you how to install plug ins. NFL studio. So what we're gonna do here first is go to spice, and then, ah, we're gonna go to free plug ins. So these are all the free plug ins that you can get from spice. Most of them aren't actually hosted on the site themselves. So this is the manufacturer's website. This plug ins by sound magic. So basically, just go ahead and you download it like you download any other program and then obviously down Little started 30 seconds here, so we'll just wait for it for a minute, okay? And then we're just going to click through the installation process here. Um, you're going to want to install to the same directory that I have it set, as which is just your default there and then click in Seoul and then close slash We finished that. We're just gonna go ahead and open up the hill studio. We're gonna press this plus button, we're gonna go more plug ins, right? Then we're gonna go manage plug ins and then find plug ins and what it's doing right now, is it scanning through various folders for the plug in that we just downloaded. Okay, the list is populating and scroll down until you see orange and those air. The plug ins that are installed but not yet activated in this case is actually called neo piano. For some reason, it's not called Piano One. Um, but the instrument that we install in Tunisia piano is piano one, which you'll see in a moment. Okay, then once you open up neo piano, you're gonna notice it says no instruments enabled. So we're going to do is go back into the win RAR file, and we're simply going to drag it in may be easier for you to drag it onto your desktop. Okay, so we're just gonna wait for this to export here, and I'm just going to create a new directory for myself. Um, this is just going to make it easier later if I ever need to move or change the program. Okay. I'll just name it Piano One, and then I'm going to move my file in there. Okay? So let's head back into FL studio here, click on that guy again, and then we'll find our directory where we threw it. And you now have a working sound Magic Neo piano. Perfect. Okay, so the insulation for TL Baseline and Zabaleta, where's ability is going to be quite a bit different from the neo piano installation. So with this 1st 1 here, we're actually gonna be downloading a dot dll file, which is the regular type of VSD file that you're gonna find for most plug ins and effects . So the first thing that we're gonna do right after it's installed as we're gonna find out where r V s T plug ins folder is for most people, it's under FL Studio 20 and then plug ins here and then VSD And then this directory right here is where you just gonna throw that file? Okay, so the download for, ah, several, it is actually going to be a lot more simple. It's just any X e file that you install. Let's go ahead and do that. Just searched through the manufacturers page here trying to track it down, and it looks like it's under products. And then there it is, under free where So we're just gonna download for windows. I m away to That download is complete once it's complete. We're just gonna open up and run the e x e file, and I'm going to stop narrating now. And Ah, you guys, watch what I'm doing here. 11. Fl Studio Settings and Overview: Okay, so the first thing we're gonna do is set up the settings of FL Studio. So once you've opened up that feel studio, you're just gonna go into options here, and then we're gonna go into midi settings to start off inside many settings. It will give you whatever MIDI device you have connected. If you don't have a MIDI device, don't worry about it. Ah, you will not need a media device to complete this course. Ah, it is just a really useful device, and I just want to show most people how to connect them. So you're just gonna run a USB to your computer and seal? I'm plugging here once you haven't plugged in, it should pop up here, and then this little button just enables it, and then you can play away. Next thing we're gonna do is jump it audio. So right now I'm using a external sound card and I'll show you what you guys are gonna be using. So where you guys were gonna dio is jump down to as you for all. Um, I'm not gonna change my sound card because it is the thing that is letting me talk to you guys right now, however, as you know for all will be very similar. So go ahead and click on as you for all version two. And this is basically where you're going to click. There's gonna be a little box. It says, opening out as your settings, and then you can choose your buffer lengths. So, um, the buffer length here is usually set at about 500 20 which is about 11 milliseconds. Um, as you can see, that gives me a lot of under runs. And the reason for that is because I am currently using this without ASIO so I can communicate with you guys. So is moving all the way back up? Okay, So keep in mind that you can always change this buffer length even when you are doing even when you're in the middle of projects. So if you have a lot of ah, hi, demanding plug ins such as serum running Ah, you can move this up and down depending on ah, how much clipping you're getting inside your dog? Um, under runs basically under runs will describe how many processes are not going through the way they should. Um, the further up your buffer length. The less under runs you'll have. But the more late and seal have when you play keys or try to put anything into your dog, okay? And then under re sampling quality, you can bring this all the way up to a 5 12 point sink. Um, most professionals keep it a 24 and for good reason. Uh, it doesn't. Ah, put a lot of strain on your computer and you still have lots of head room. Um, I mean, the further side I'd ever go up is a 32 point sink. But there's an even anything that ah, that would require me to do that. My sample rate is currently at 4800. Um, mostly, Most likely air guys will be set at. Ah, 44.1. Going up to 4800 doesn't really do too much in terms of quality. Um, it can be useful later on down the line when you start becoming more professional. Okay. And then we're gonna jump into general. The first thing we're gonna take a look at here is ah, scaling. So scaling is just going to be the size of everything around you. So that's going to be the size of the G A y or the basically display of FL Studio. We can read it up or down. Wouldn't really recommend messing with it too much. Um, I'd like FL Studio in its purest form. Um, it works the same thing with pop of scaling toolbar scaling transparent windows. None of that you really have to worry about too much. The animations can be pretty tough on your computer if you are not running a very powerful one. My computer currently eyes pretty quick, so I just have it on. Entertain me. If you are not running a very powerful PC or very powerful set up, put on don't distract me. Metal brings the animations to pretty much a zero. Next thing going to do is go under advanced, Um, and make sure force high performance power plant is selected, and most likely already is. But just in case it isn't, And then something I forgot about is under audio. Make sure that multi threaded generator processing is clicked on, and same thing with a mix of processing as well. It basically lets your ah CPU use more than one core. And that's very important for live rendering. Next thing, we're going to go under his file. Um, this this spot here, you can choose when to or Sorry. Where to? Ah, save your save your data to, um I just have it under image line data. I don't really care where it saved as long as they know where it is. And then I have my auto save onto Ah, every 10 minutes, I find that works best for me. And, ah, you can change it here to just remind you are frequently or regularly. Ah, but I like it every, uh, every every 10 minutes or so. Okay, now, what else is important here? We're gonna jump into info under here. This is where you can type in the title for whatever you're working on. Name yourself. Uh, selected, Johner that it is. You can select rock or tech now, industrial. All that stuff add comments, Um, and at a web link to it. Ah, the reason he might want to do this is if you are is if you are working with someone else, um you might want to send them a copy of your workflow and comments inside that workflow. Next thing we're gonna go to about here, um, about give you all the information about it, tell you who it's registered, obviously. Most likely registered to you. Um, and then I'll give you some information. Obviously, who was created by, uh, let's go over to the bugs. I know some people have some questions about it. Um, you don't really have to worry too much about about about the bug. It's not something that is really going to be too useful for you. It's basically gonna tell you what you did in the program. And if anything fails within the program Ah, you can always contact FL Studio and ah, throw them a lead as to as to why and what codes came up. But generally it's not too important. Okay, I will see you in the next lecture where we go over the step sequencer 12. Fl Studio Basics: in this lecture, we're gonna be talking about some of the parameters inside fl Studio. So that's gonna be stuff like file at it. Add patterns, Um, and much more like the BPM. Um, Where to find tempos. How to use your keyboard like your regular computer keyboard is a media. He board how to record and all that stuff. So let's go ahead and get into it. The top left hand side of file in here is where you can choose from different templates. Um, you can also obviously export and import files right down the center there where your recent projects are. So let's go ahead and click on new. This is gonna open a brand new blank project for us, so there's gonna be nothing on the screen it all. Then we're gonna also going to goto file and we're gonna check out some of the other things . Let's go into a new from template. So the very top under advanced we have a whole bunch of different parameters that air very useful for, uh, producing electronic music. Um, these won't necessarily be useful for ah, video game music, but nonetheless, they're still available, and you can click on him if you like. They do help speed up production and under minimal. Basically, we just have, ah, some parameters for creating more like rap music, stuff like that, or simple stuff like display and river. The very bottom there. You can also see you can open a empty template so nothing will show up, so there won't be any sort of effects on it at all. Nothing connected to the mixture, etcetera. Okay, so under other Ah, you're not gonna actually find anything super useful. So we're gonna move on right away to advanced. Um, so if you can see halfway down works his launchpad and, um, another one down from Launchpad Issa's machine. These are two different types of many devices that you can purchase. Ah, they can actually be fairly useful for producing music. Um, basically, what you use them for is you load up a sample onto them like kick drum, um, or like, ah, high hat. Um, and then you have all of these buttons to play with. So you could load up like seven, um, to basically 32 depending on how many velocity keys you have. Is it as an instrument and then under utility, we have drum mix, SFX transitions, surround mix and vocoder. Um, these guys here aren't actually going to be useful for you. For now, it is useful to know where they are, though, however, as you might want to use vocoder in a different track and then at the very bottom of the new new from template, we have a ah record template button. Um, that is just basically going to hard line you straight to be able to record vocals or instruments. As you can see now, I'm highlighting, Save, save as and save new version Ah, save me version and save as are gonna be useful just for your everyday producing case. You want to save your project and then save as new version, um, is going to be really useful utility for later case. You've created something you're not sure where it's going. You can save two different versions of it or upto however many you want just to get an idea of where that's going. The next under import, we have midi file. Um, so a MIDI file is basically just a set of notes in place of a file. So you can import that into the Daw and you could start producing from that in case someone has sent you a MIDI file or you've gathered one online or huh? You've come across it. Next we have export. So these are all the different exports available. Teoh. So you have wave file MP 30 g f l A C, and of course, may be at the bottom when you're exporting. I generally recommend you export as a ah wave or NFL A C. Um, both of those are basically the larger file types, so they will hold the most quality. So let's go ahead and pretend we're going export a way file here, go ahead and click on that. And then this is where you're going to save it. So you could just change the name of it. Press save. It's gonna leave it as entitled for now and then these air, all the settings that you can change. Um, basically, you can change it from MP three Dogg to F l A. C. Um, you can change the point sink, which is the re sampling under quality. Down there, you can change it to, ah, the highest mountain float it is to change it from stereo tamano. Um, all of those are options for you there and then 5 12 point sink. As you can see, um, all these parameters are very important for quality. If you want to export something at the highest quality, I would recommend doing that. However, it's nuts not so necessary for, ah, for all for all developments. So I'm just gonna hide. Click on these here you can, ADM. Or Or take away less. So if you want to export a way file and G and N f l a c animated file all same time, you can do that. And you can also export the full song or just the powder in your working on at that moment . This is going to be very useful for you in case you're working with, say, a sense that has, like, 12 or 13 clones. Um, you got the sound you want, but it's wreaking havoc on your computer. Then you just press start at the bottom and your girl good to go. I'm not gonna render anything because we don't have anything to render at this moment. Then the top we have edit, which is just cut copy fairly, fairly self explanatory. And then under add these air all the plug ins that you can add to the channel rack, um, or just all the channels you can add is another way of saying it. So this is just one way of adding a plug in so we can go ahead and press ons already from here, and it'll come up. And when you open a plug in, it opens its own sort of window, and you can drag and move that window around as well, and it adds it to the channel rack. We're gonna go and delete it there and let's move on to patterns. So the main thing that I want you guys to pay attention to under patterns is actually going to be split by channel. That is going to be the most useful part of it because, say, if you have more than one pattern in your channel, Iraq as it stands right now, um, and they're both doing different things, and you want them to be separated so you can change individual controls. Then you go ahead and do that on the top left hand side. This is called the browser and ah, as you can see, right now, you have these packs and these packs air full of samples, these air samples that FL Studio has given to you or a part of the program. You can go ahead and play with those lots of different kick drum samples, this percussion samples, everything like that. And as you can see right now, what I'm doing is just adding more patterns do really quickly through the channel rack. Um, it's like a drum tool or a drum creation tool says you can see here we've created two different patterns. The one of the top is a once every four step. The one at the bottom is a once every second step. So what I'm going to do now is I'm going to show you how to use the split by channel tool. So what this is going to do is it's going to take these two patterns that we've created and basically put them into do different patterns. Eso is you could see. Now we have one called ate away kick and then if we scroll up, we have a snare to so basically it just splits them and takes the name of that channel and places it where the pattern is. We're gonna talk about view. So for view, basically, it's going to give you the option to bring up stuff like the playlist, the piano roll and the mixture Channel. Aziz, you can see just by clicking on that button, it will bring up the mixture channel. However, usually most people end up using the buttons on the top, which is kind of like a short cut. So you don't have to use this man you if you don't want to. Um, the only other thing on here that could potentially be useful his close all windows or close all pattern windows. Um, just because if you have something silly, like 30 patterns up or 30 um, instances of a plug in up Ah, that will help you get rid of it surviving to click 30 times. So just try to remember that shortcut key or try to remember where it is in this menu. Next up is just gonna be options. If you watched the video where we kind of went through and did all the settings of FL Studio, then you're already going to be familiar with everything inside of this menu. So not too much to worry about. For those of you that don't remember, However, I am going to show you how to change your sound card really quick here. So this is just how you change from FL Studio Ozio to ah, primary sound driver. Anything else like that? Ah, this is where you would change your g u i which is basically, um how maximized You want everything to look like. If you're on a small screen, you're gonna want to increase it, okay? And jumping right over to file here. Ah, this is just we're gonna save your projects and then everything else who kind of went through in the film studio settings lecture. Ah, just a reminder for everyone taking this course. If you do end up saving your project, you will not be able to reopen it unless you have a log in for FL Studio. Um, of course, you have to purchase FL studio, so just keep that in mind if you're just running the demo, okay? Next, we're going to jump into tools and at the very top here, we're going to see browse smart find, which will help you find different samples that you have one click audio recording Rift machine, which will help you create rifts if you need to. Mac Rose, which use other programmable controls and Control Creator, which will create those controls on click audio recording. There are some more options. One is going to be too open the recording with Edison, which is your D felt player and the other one is going to be to throw the sample that you just created into the playlist, and the last thing on the bar here is going to be helped. Help will give you some links links to some forums. Um, and also it will give you some information about the product, which we saw earlier in the FL Studio Settings lecture and going up to the top. Right next the bar there is the no no zone. So at the very top, the knob that I'm touching right now is called the Master Volume. This will up the volume of the entire track. Ah, for F. Basically, everything that's connected to the mixer should never need to use this as you can control individual instruments for gain levels and then right below that is going to be the pitch or a master pitch. Sorry, this is going to control the pitch of the entire Daw. Um, again, this is something that you should never need to touch. The only time that you would ever touch this or the master volume is basically if you only have one instrument or you have an entire track that you just want to change the pitch of. But as you can see here, if you change the pitch or the master volume, it can create a big problem for the rest of track. If you don't realize that you've touched it. So just keep that in mind and then right next to the master volume and master pitch, there's going to be the option to change it between pattern or song. You can see here this plays, the pattern went selected, and when you select this, it plays the song which is gonna be located on the playlist which have opened up here. So go on, lay down that track there. Okay. And then right next to that is going to be the play and pause button followed next to the stop button which will just completely stop whatever you're playing and then the record button here. So when you click this button, you're gonna be presented with options. Um, base upon what you choose. This is how it's going to record. So you have four options for recording. One is going to be with Edison. The 2nd 1 is just going to be to dump everything that's recorded through the microphone onto the playlist. The next one. This is going to be notes and automation if you have a MIDI controller and the last one is gonna be everything any many instruments that you've connected to your PC Ah, or anything that's your microphone is recording next up, we're going to get into the step sequencer. Uh, so when you first this plus button at the bottom, it's gonna give you all the plug ins that you can bring up. Right now, I'm gonna open this, which is just a piano plug in. It's called Modern Upright by addictive keys. Basically, how this works. They record the keys of a modern, upright piano, um, in all aspect. So with like, five or six different microphones placed on the floor placed near the keyboard itself placed ah, behind it For us to be able to use this piano in our dog Buzz, you're following along on screen. If you notice I'm starting to record just something I'm playing on the piano here. I'm just basically slamming my hands against the keys just to show you proof of concept. So that would be how you record an instrument next up, I'm going to show you how to record your voice or, um, an instrument that does not have a MIDI connection. So you're just going to go to record audio into the playlist. And once we've selected that, it's going to get us to select the microphone we would like to record with. So let's go ahead and select audio into playlists. Obviously, if you click that, you're going to need to select your microphone. I'm same thing if you select Edison. But in this case, I'll show you how to do that really quick. And then it's gonna record over top of that and we'll give you the recording here. Go ahead and delete that and go ahead and delete that. Go ahead and click off the mixer here. Okay, so next up we have the BPM. So this is going to be the beats per minute. Um, this is how you would say choose between starting a slow song and starting a ah faster song . So if this helps give you any frame of reference at all, most dub step is recorded at 140 bpm. Um, most house music is recorded at 128 bpm. Um, for video game music, you're most likely gonna be recording around 130 um, all the way down to 90. It totally depends on what kind of vibe you're going for. And we'll get a little bit more into that as well in later lectures. Okay, so up the top, here we have your Metrodome. Um, most of you guys should know what a Metrodome is. It's just basically that thing that you see on top of those old pianos, you hit it, it goes tick, tick, tick, tick. It helps to keep beats. Um, it's the same sort of thing in here. Well, is it really quickly actually turn the recording off first? As you can hear it, turn off here. Okay. And then ah, this is just your week, friend. Put to start playing. This has to do with your Maybe he board. Um this is to have it on all the time and then this is basically just wait for it. Wait for you to hit a key four to play. It doesn't really matter which one you choose honestly, Doesn't really do too much. This is countdown before recording. So if you just wanted to record right away, you just click this off and then ah, you hit recorded immediately start recording. Umm, I generally like to keep this on, so I know when to start. But that's up to you and then the next button here is to basically blend recording. So it's going to record over whatever you've recorded recently, and then this one here is going to be loop recording. So if you have a set of, say, if you have it set to four bars, then it's going to record over the four bars that you just recorded in a continuous loop. This one here is going to be typing keyboard to piano keyboard, so if you have a regular keyboard, you can kind of use it like a midi keyboard. I don't really recommend it. Doesn't really work that well. Um, it doesn't do any sort of velocity or anything like that. So everything will be basically 100% velocity. You know, it won't You'll have to manually change it in these four extra buttons here. I'm just going to glance over, um as you won't as you won't be using them. This is going to be the snap. So basically, when you have something like this open So if we give you have a playlist open the snap is going to basically tell us a Z. You can see it's moving up by the bar. But if you change it Teoh, say 14 step, it's gonna move a lot more smoothly, which isn't necessarily something you want. If if you're laying down, don't drum tracks. So keep that in mind that you can change the snap of the piano roll and literally list. By changing this here, you can change it to none, which makes completely free to go wherever it wants. This could be useful. If you are bringing in samples like a kick drum sample. Maybe you're bringing in a vocal sample that you need to be in a specific place and it doesn't want to snap to it correctly. Then you can just change it to none, and then go ahead and change that. So here here you have your channels, like we went over before. So basically, you scroll up and down using your mouse wheel. Um, to select which channel you want to be in. You can go ahead and add them by pressing this button here, and I'll give you with the option to name it and then go from there. Um or you could just scroll up if you don't want to name them. There's a lot more options for this. If you collect the left arrow here, um, find first empty find next empty find next empty. No naming. Um, they're all pretty self explanatory. If you go ahead and read them, it makes sense. Ah, just they do what they say. They dio eso clone clone. Exactly what's here. Um deletes obviously is gonna delete what's here. Move up. Move down. Split by channel, which we talked about when we were inside of ah, patterns there quick renders audio clip. Whatever's in here will be quickly rendered. That could be really useful, actually. And render and replace so that will render this into an audio clip and then replace what's here with the audio clip. That could be a real time saver as well. Okay, moving on along the top here. So obviously you noticed. Since this lecture started going on, that this moves whenever I'm talking. So that will not be happening with your system. Um, at this moment, because you most likely do not have a recording device connected to it. Um, but my microphone is connected to FL studio pretty well all the time. Um, not for any sort of specific, um, reasons other than usability. So right here, it's showing you how much audio is being fed in through, um, and then right here, right here is going to be how much gain is coming through. And if you're hitting the decibel limit next to that, we're looking at how much CPU Usage and RAM the program is using. So let's do something really quick here. I'm gonna load up a couple since, okay, and let's do something really quick here. Let's do a lead. As you can see, this is moving up when more things were added. So the more since the more plug ins you're using the ah, more CPU since you're gonna be using and the more ram we're gonna be using. So keep that in mind I'm undo is simple. It's on most programs. You just basically controls the to undo whatever you just did. Um, open new is going to open the audio editor, which is Edison here. One click out of your recording. Same thing as we saw over here. But this is the actual button for it. Um, help and then save save as render as audiophile if you project info along the top and that will be everything for the FL Studio Basics lecture. I will see you in the next lecture when we talk about the browser. 13. The Browser and The Playlist: Okay, so let's go into the browser on the very left hand side. You're going to see the browser here. You could make it larger or smaller by pulling on this tab here, and you can switch between current projects. You're plugging database. So what kind of plug ins you have different plug ins. Exactly. Etcetera, Um, your current projects, um, it's pretty self explanatory. The main thing I want to get into is going to be the sample browser. So basically, if you have samples you want to throw into here, you can actually go ahead and just open up whatever you want. So, like, let's say let's try and find my samples here. So here's my sample library, everything that I own basically just filled with files that other people have created but have license to me. So what I'm gonna do is I have a sample I very here. So I'm just gonna grab it, throw it into here. Bam! Now everything's available. Simple is that, but we'll get into some samples for video game music. When we get into our first project, you can't find a plug in. You can use thesis urchin bar at the top here. Um, all you have to do is type in, Say, I'm looking for a kick. If you know the specific name of the kick, then we'll bring it up. Okay, Now let's go into the playlist. So click on the playlist and we're going to expand it. All right, So now, as you can see, you have all these tools at the top and some of the patterns that we just created. So let's grab the paint tool and lay down are you to wait? Kick And then let's click the F P. C snare and lay down that as well. So now we click on song. We have this that's going on for 10 bars. Okay, so the draw tool, we'll let you grab things and place individual things. Um, pretty well, same thing with the paint tool. The paint tool just lets you put down more options. The pencil tool or the draw. Tulloch's, they call it. We'll only be able to put down one option and then move it around to delete whatever you want to delete. You can click the delete button and then hold that down or on the draw tool and hold down the right click button or on the paint tool and hold down the right click button. Now, if you wanted to cut something like, say, you had some sort of sample which we can open up here, it's going to you. Browse option Yeah, and grab it back. Let's go to a nice little techno sample. Maybe going back into the playlist Well, ground that techno beat. Throw it in here and now you can basically cut things. So if you just wanted a smidge or, ah, one thing from inside of here, you just click down and it gives you the option to snap to something. You just basically cut right through the sample. Or, if you hold down shift, it will go completely straight up and down, which I find quite a bit more useful. So we'll go ahead and delete everything that we have inside of our playlist here. Go ahead and click the pencil button again, and we'll go over some of the other things. So let's go back to our F. P C snare and radio weight Kick will lay down another a few bars of this here, and we'll talk about the selectable so you can select complete items by pressing the select tool and then obviously control and, ah, obviously copying them over again. Or you can do that using the control key, um, and holding down the left mouse button. And then you can press control, see and then control the in order to move them and copy paste everything and again holding down the left. Then again, holding down the right click button will delete everything. Magnifying tool is fairly self explanatory, but we will go over it anyways. So just lay down on a few bars of that. And then if we use the magnifying tool, it's going to really zoom in on what's going on. And then, if you want to zoom out and then if you want to zoom out, you'll use this button here to move everything to the right hand side and then this button here to make everything smaller again until you're left with what you had before pretty self explanatory. And then this is the playback button, so this will play wherever you decide to click it. Things could be useful if you are thinking about adding a note a specific point. Okay, So let's bring back that techno beat again, and I'm gonna show you some things about stretching. So So with Stretching say, this was produced at 120 bpm. But that's obviously not fast enough, right for our son. So we have to press stretch here and then click the pencil tool. And then it will give us the option to pull this out to what the beat most likely should be like. And if we play this, you'll notice the pitch is wrong. So every time you stretch something, you have to go to the sample. You have to right click on it. You have to go to the sample, click on it and then go to pitch. Right Click on that and press reset, and it'll sound normal. Okay, it's moving over to the left hand side here. We're gonna take a look at some of these options. Um, most of these options are the things that are available to you in the form of, um, those neat little dialogues, like the pencil tool and everything like that. This is just a quick rundown. Okay, so, edit. Um, we'll let you paste things without having to use your keyboard. I'm I do recommend using the shortcuts cause they will get, um, get you producing much faster. Everything in here is fairly self explanatory. Shift life shift left shift right Ship up. Shift up. Shift down. Mute mute Merge patterns and clips Merge similar patterns and clips. Um, this could be useful if you want to see merge. Eight await and the snare again Tools. Qantas start times We'll get more into quantities quantities ation when we talk about the piano roll. But basically what quanta izing is is when you record something, um, it's not going to be perfectly aligned inside the playlist or inside the piano roll. See you press Kwan ties and quantities is basically, um, going Teoh Use its best guess to decide where to place your notes so that everything sounds in line view is also very self explanatory. Basically, you can get rid of the track separations and stuff like that. I don't recommend you really player alone around with this. Um, it's not really that useful unless you are using it for a different application than we will be. Using it for snap is going to be the same as what's up here? Um, the only difference is that this is only going to affect the playlist, and this is going to affect the entire dog. So everything inside the piano roll and inside, um, the playlist year select is exactly the same as using the select button here. Um, so this is just a different way of doing it. The group is the same thing, is pretty well, a select sealed group. Everything together. Then you can move. It is one. And then zoom, zoom in. Zoom out. Quick zoom. All of that is fairly self explanatory. Ah, this might be something you might find useful. So time markers, I will say, let you place things in certain areas. So let's go. Um, this is where my intro starts, and now you can see that this intro piece here has has been added. And if you want to move it, basically, just click on it here and then you can drag it to wherever the the intro starts. You can do the same thing for course. If you want to add a time marker for chorus as well, just going here, add one current clip source. That's basically what pattern that you are laying down at this moment and then center well , center everything so it won't center everything in the playlist, but it will center the actual playlist inside the dog, then detach. You might find useful detaches going to bring it to a full screen mode. Um, so if you ah, have pretty well produced everything you want to lay down and then you can press this button and then just basically scroll through these options here in order to lay down your patterns. Okay, that's it for this lecture. We'll talk about the piano role in the next lecture. 14. The Step Sequencer, Piano roll and The Mixer: Okay, let's move into the channel rack. So in order to access the channel rack, you're going to be pressing this button here. It's already up, but let's press it anyways. Now we compress all audio or sore unsorted. Someone, sort, it is going to give us all of our plug ins. Audio is going to give us our samples, and then all is going to give us a collaboration of both of them. Okay, so liquid kind of went over before in order to add a simple beat to a kick drum or to a snare or a high hat or a, um, hat or a Tom or anything like that. Basically, what you're gonna be doing is ah, right clicking. And then you can go fill each two steps, fill each four steps, fill each eight steps, then that is gonna give you the ability to lay down these tracks very quickly. So also inside here, um, you're gonna be able to access the piano roll by pressing this button here, and that will give you the piano roll. Basically, this is what's go actually going on when these notes okay, so insert, you can insert a different plug in into that specific channel, and now it's available inside there and you'll notice that Thea the it a weight has just moved down. Okay, so we could go replace and that'll actually replace it. So let's go again. Keys and then it will replace it with addictive keys. Of course, it didn't do anything because predictive keys is already in there. A clone will create click it of whatever's here. So all the settings inside it will be duplicated as well. Ah, deletes. Obviously, that's just going to delete your plug in, um or sample. Okay, now clicking on each of these individually, you're going to get these options here. If you click along the top, it's gonna give you even more options. So let's stick with the audio waveform pattern here. So this is the wave of the actually it away kick, and we can do things like reverse it, normalize it, reverse polarity, fade stereo which make it fade from left to right swap stereo, which will make it swap between the left and right, and then when the actual plug in starts, cross fade, trim and then when it actually starts. This is when the plug in starts here as well. So there's lots of options here to control what's going on time stretching. Um, obviously pitch. If you pitch it up, it's going to sound. He picked it up. It's gonna sound Squeak here could pitch down. It's going to sound. It's gonna sound deeper. But it depends how far you want to pitch it up along the octave range. Your next option year is going to be, Ah, volume and modulation. Um, this I find that you guys are gonna be using this too much because most of these options nowadays are actually inside individual plug ins. Um, but we may revisit this in later lectures. Ah, levels adjustments. So if you want to say, move the pan panning, so if you want it to Ah, if you want to sound to come from the right, then you're gonna be moving the pan of the right. Same thing to the left. Fairly self explanatory volume knob. Fairly self explanatory modulation. Those were going to be controlled inside of here, like again. I said, we're not gonna be using that too much in this course. Um, gate, um and then all of these other options here we're not really gonna be using because most of these are actually available inside. Ah, other plug ins or inside, um, different effects inside the mixer as well. Okay, so at the left hand side here, these options are going to be the mute tracks. So if you want me to check, you just click it. It will no longer be playing. If you want a mute, everything you right, click on it, click solo and this will only be playing and everything else will not. If you want to own solo it, you just right click again and un solo it. So this is a channel panning. So if you wanted to the sound to come from the right again, it's right here. Volume for this channel is here as well, and this is going to be the ah mixer track that is actually assigned to. So if you click on this and assign it to say number two and you head over to the mixer and you start playing it, you'll notice that it on the mixer track Channel one into. Okay, let's move on to the piano roll. Since this is primarily where you're gonna be doing most of your work, so we open the piano roll by pressing this button up the top. Here. You can also press F seven as well. Actually, let's open the piano roll using a plug in that everyone has. So we'll just go two fl Keys, which is inside effort, and it's just a little piano plug in. So we'll go into the piano roll with FL Keys here. As you can see, we have it selected. We can lay down some notes. We wish Teoh Um, let's do like, yeah, just something basic here. And then we'll go ahead and select it, and that will paste it way. Have just a quick example of how that works there. You can also obviously move these different directions, select them again, move them up, down. All right, so this is a tool that you may actually find really useful. Um, if you want to create different kinds, um, of chords and such so like, if you lay out cords like this year, we'll do it really fast, Major, Uh, sounds really boring right now. You can hear, but if we wanted to send a little bit better, weaken dio so you can use this to kind of create ideas. And then you can basically take those chords and shorten them, make them longer, make the more repetitive, cut them down so that there's two quarts playing. It's all your call, and we'll get Mawr into producing cords and such in the lecture. Four music theory. So don't worry. I'll go over how all of this works together and everything. Um, and some helpers inside of the piano roll for you guys as well. Okay, So what? The top left hand side here is gonna give you some options? Um, the main one that I find very useful for ah, for beginners is going to be under helpers here. And then you're going to make sure that ghost channels are available and the other one is You're gonna go to view, and I'm going to go to keyboard style or sorry keyboard labels. And then you're gonna click all notes instead of just having your route notes on. So this is going to give you all of the notes and you'll be able to see them without having to Ah, basically, guess if you're just a beginner here, Okay? So All of the tools are very, very similar to that of the ah, that of the playlist. Um, all of your mute tools, your drawing tools, your paint tools are all the same. What I mostly want to show you that's quite a bit different is going to be your control of the law city down here. So velocity is basically how how much gain your note has when you play it When you play on a midi keyboard, they will all be different. But if you just laid down a note, everything will be right in line and be the same. Um, I do recommend changing up your velocity depending on what you hear on here with your ear. So, like, if you want to know to hit a little harder say, like this this court here, you want to add a little bit harder than you just basically use that use of velocity here, um, something with, uh, no panning. So if you want one of your notes to be more to the writer left, you have that control. Um, and then with the release, you have that option as well. So releases how fast it dissipates. So if you ah, click say, like C five on your on your piano or inside the piano roll. This is going to be how fast the note is over with. If that makes sense, you can also control that parameter, obviously, by shortening the note. But this makes it so your transition into the next note they're not overlapping. Then channel volume and channel pitch those air also, all the all the ah, all the options that we already had available inside the channel rack there. Okay, let's move on to the mixer. So this is the mixer. You got a little bit of an introduction to it before on the very right hand side where this bar is going up and down because of my voice. Um, you're going to see the gain. So basically, this is your volume. Um, if you get past zero here, if you get past zero decibels, it will start to clip and basically clipping Is the volume being too loud? Simply put, clipping is when the volume is too loud. So if you were to be playing, say a kick and you went up past year decibels, it's going to sound very gross. and ah, very scratchy would be the word that I would use. Okay, so let's go ahead and click on Channel one. So as you can see, you have all these slots a basic equalizer down here, and then you have these sort of knobs here in these buttons here, we're going to get into every single one of them. So that's all this is going to give you an option to record. So this is where you would select your microphone and ah, it would start relaying exactly like this one is here. So all of these slots let you choose plug ins. So let's go ahead and select the parameter, the fruity Parametric EQ You and this is going to let you basically control your base, your sub and your frequencies. And you can move this by just using your scroll wheel. This is going to be how much the mix is affected by it. So if you only want your mix to be slightly affected by the EQ, you can have it all the way down to 9% or all the way. 100%. It depends on what producing. Obviously there are certain rules for certain productions, but you can break them. This would be how you mute it, just like it was on the channel rack. And then this is your basic equalizer here that you can use if you wish. Teoh my personal, like using Ah, the parametric eq you. But that's your call. And of course, there's lots of other options here. Um, and I suggest you get familiar with some of them like delay and compression. But when we start getting into mixing and a little bit of mastering, I'll teach you about the proper order. Ah, for the, uh, the audio signal to come in and I'll teach you about, um, how these plug ins work. And I'll teach you about how these effects work. So I'll teach you about ah, compression. And I'll teach you about equalization. Um, and of course, ah. Course And stuff like that when you're producing music. Okay, let's get into some of the stuff on the actual channel track here. So we have number one connected to our ate away kick. This was mute, that little ah, try it. Those triads we had there and let's meet this as well and we'll start wants to play this really quick A Z. You can see it coming through Channel one and it's affected by the parents kick you so we can turn down the volume. Obviously, by grabbing this now, this is kind of like in a studio, and then we can ah enable the effects slot, which this down here or disabled it by pressing this button. This is track Layton, See? And this is armed disc recording. We're going to skip over those for now because you're not going to be using them any time soon. This where you see the link is is going to be how much volume is flowing into the Master Channel from it. So if you could get here lest we have here less, that's gonna be added. And as you can see, we're clipping up here, you can probably hear that as well. Okay, so let's link some other stuff. So if you want to link this to a track safer side training side chaining if you don't know , is where the kick goes up through the mix to make it more punchy. If you want to say side chain something to it, that is how you would do it. So if you want a side chain the kick to say if this was a piano, then you could do that very simply by pressing that button. And then you just press side chain of this track and there you go. There's your parameter for side. Cheney. Very simple. If you right click on the actual channel itself, you can actually rename, and I call on them if you want to. So let's call this piano, even though there's no piano connected to it. It is not a cult called Piano here, Um, and you can also change the color as well. So let's change it to like a purple. And now the track is purple, so that will help you with color coordination. Um, if you're that organized sort of person, channel routing is, ah, basically the same thing. Um, as selecting which channel you want the track to be linked to in the channel rack. Um, you can use the shortcut control al Titi. That's way more simple as well. I'm something you might find useful. If you have, say, added, a whole bunch of it was, just add some random stuff here, so you have added a whole bunch of parameters to, ah, number six here, and you don't want to individually delete them. You can right click on a channel that has nothing on it. Go file, save mixture, track state as, and you can just drag it right over to Channel six and voila! It no longer has any effects on it because it's the same state as the previous track was. All right, that's pretty well it for a first introduction to FL Studio. 15. Section 4 Introduction: welcome to section for In the section. We're going to be going over some of the core concepts of music theory. Basically how notes work together, we're going to be discussing major and minor courts. Ah, we're not going to go too far in depth. Ah, but this is going to be a very important section to cover, as it will be needed for the rest of the course. So these are going to be the lectures available to you guys. We're going to go over core concepts of music theory, your training chord types, melody progressions and baselines, as well as some FL studio helpers that will really help beginners get their ideas out with less frustration. 16. Core Concepts: in this lecture in the music theory section, we're gonna take a look at some of the core concepts of music theory. Okay, so this is the musical alphabet. We have A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Corresponding toe. 123456 and seven. The reason that this is important is because a lot of people tend to use 123456 and seven to describe their notes. Let's movinto octaves. Moving octaves results in difference in pitch. When you move up in octave, the no will be the same, but the pitch will be higher and vice versa. It's like how when you move up on a keyboard, the note becomes higher and the frequency and sound waves are moving faster, so you could be playing a but move up a knock tive with still the same note. The note will be at a higher pitch and vice versa. Sharps and flats The notes A, B, C, D, E, F and G R will be call whole notes or natural notes. The notes that fall between them, a sharp be sharp, C Sharp, D Sharp, e Sharp, F Sharp and G sharp or sometimes called half notes or sharp. If they're displayed with a lower case, be symbol. They're called flats, and there are 12 notes in total, but generally seven in a scale, which is why a lot of musicians you tend to use that 1234567 scale instead of the alphabet scale. A collection of notes is called The Scale Major Scales Air created by arranging whole notes and half steps in a specific pattern. Half steps of the distance between a whole note, and it's corresponding flat or sharp. Example. If you have a 1/2 step would be a sharp. If you had be 1/2 step would be be sharp. If you had be sharp, 1/2 step would be be or it would be see. So with scales in order to create a scale, you would pick a note on your keyboard or, in this case, inside FL Studio and you would go whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step half step, and that would create a major scale. So if you wanted to create, say, a C major scale, you would start at sea and go whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step whole step half step, and that would create a major scale. Same thing with a minor scale. Cords are basically three notes played at the same time. You can play more than three notes, however, and a lot of songs have four and five note progressions. Three note chords are also called triads. Courts give song mood and feeling a major chord is happy. A minor chord is mysterious or sad. An interval simply put and intervals the distance from one note to another. It's the backbone of both harmony and melody. A melody is one note after another. So it would be like playing. See, then be two notes at the same time. Would be like playing see and be together. Understanding melody and harmony is going to be one of the most important tasks that you can do when learning music theory. So now that we've finished our basic theory, let's jump into FL Studio and solidify the knowledge some more 17. Different Types of Chords: Okay. Welcome, everyone. In this lecture, we're going to be discussing different types of chords and how they sound. So accord is simply a group of notes played simultaneously. A group of three notes is called the Triad, commonly triads or made of 1st 3rd and fifth notes of a scale or more. And there's lots of different types of chords. So your major chord, your minor chord, your diminished your major seventh, your minor seventh, your dominant seventh and your extended. There are also lots of other different types, of course, as well. But for now, just focus on the's as you're not going to be needing the rest of them to start your career . They're just not worth remembering at this moment. Let's jump into a major court, as we discussed before. A major chord sounds happy, and a major court consists of a route now major third and a perfect fifth, and opposing that we would have our minor court should consider to be sad or serious. A minor chord consists of a root note, a minor third and a perfect fifth. Now that we're comfortable, let's talk about something that we haven't discussed before, So a diminished chord is accord that sounds tense and unpleasant. A diminished chord consists of a root note, a minor third and a diminished flat slash fifth major Seventh chords are considered to be thoughtful. Soft major Seventh chords are also considered to sound jazzy because they're commonly used in jazz. And a major seventh chord consists of a root note, a major third and a perfect fifth. And a minor seventh chord is considered being moody or contemplated. If major chords air happy and minor chords, air sad and minor seventh chords are somewhere in between. A major seventh chord consist of a root note, a minor third, a perfect fifth and a minor seventh. Let's move on to the dominant seventh. A dominant seventh chord are considered to be strong and restless. Dominant seventh chords Air, usually common found in jazz and blues, as well as um, jazz inspired RB to hip hop and E. G. M dominant Seventh Chord consists of a root note, a major third Ah, perfect fifth and a minor seventh. Okay, and lastly, we're gonna talk about the extended courts, so I don't recommend going out and trying to remember the extended chords because there's so many of them. But I thought I would mention them. Um, if you're kind of that Ah, overachiever, then maybe you go for that and see where it takes you for beginners. Seriously, don't worry about trying to trying to remember all of the courts. Okay? That's gonna be it for this lecture on, um, cords and different court types. We're gonna move into FL studio now, and I'm gonna show you some helpers for beginners. So you don't have to remember all of these cords off the bat because it is it is pretty challenging to remember them. 18. Practice Ear Training: all right. Hello, everyone. And welcome to the year training lecture. So this lecture is gonna work by? I'm going to play a note on my keyboard. Here on that sound is going to relate to you. And you are going to basically have to judge what that note is just using your ears. Uhm, I'm going to play a quick scale thistles going to be the middle notes starting from C. 19. Chord Stamps: Okay, So in this two minute lecture, I'm gonna teach you guys basically how to use the helpers in fl Studio. So you just go up to the top arrow and then go down helpers. And now you presented with all the cords you could possibly want if you don't know how to lay down chords or don't know how to play them. This is a great first step for beginners. It's super helpful. So you just click on it and then you click anywhere in the piano roll where you want that to be laid down. Okay. Same thing with with every other cord in this little dialog box, you just click it here. I clicked the octave. So it puts one at seed and other one at C six, and you guys get the idea. So I'll just let the rest of you guys watch this lecture. Um, till the end. If you need Teoh, I'm just gonna be clicking on different chords and showing you what they look like. Um, but of course, since you have FL studio, um, yourself, you could do this on your own 20. Chord Stamps: Okay. In the last lecture, I showed you guys how to make baselines. And now I'm gonna show you guys how to make top melodies so enjoy and just watch me pretty Oh, here. But yeah, here time . 21. Basslines: Okay, so welcome back, guys. In the last lecture, we talked about note velocity and our melody, and we got our melody completed. Um, well, the first section of the melody completed, and the first section of our courts completed too. So now we're gonna move over into the baseline. So I am going to go ahead and I'm gonna open up. I think I think Let's try Citrus on this one. I'm going to go through some of the presets here and see what I like. - Let's take a look at some of the base that's in here. I like that. So let's try that out. So something that you should know with your cords is that the bottom of your cords we get this open here are actually baselines. So right here are actually baselines. So all of these are your base notes. So we could just produce a ah, the exact same thing by copying and pasting that what's on the bottom here. But we're not going to do that. We're going to try doing some variation and changing some things here already. So let's go back into here and we're gonna copy this project. We're sorry not this project, but our helper tool by pressing control. See scrolling up to pattern three, impressing control V And then up here, we're gonna change the name of it again. We're just gonna call it base. Perfect. Okay, then we're gonna go ahead and lay down our pattern three. Okay? So I'm just going to cut this note. I'm just gonna cut this note in half here, and I'm thinking about making this kind of, like a, uh, sort of sort of thing. Here, maybe try that. Okay. Okay. So now we have our eight bars of baseline here. Um, and something to remember about bass lines is that they have to support the melody. Um, and they have to support the courts. So if it's going, if the melody is going up, then your baseline needs not necessarily needs to, but it should be going up. Um, but just make sure you're listening and doing it by ear when you don't have a lot of music theory experience. This is the best way to do it. Okay. And so before we move into the drums, we're gonna play around with one more thing, which is broken chords. So Let's go back into where the cords are. We're gonna press control. See, I'm going to scroll up past the base and we're gonna paste them in here by pressing control . Be go into the piano roll and we're going to start cutting away at thes. I'll show you how this works. So basically, what we're gonna dio is we're going to cut at each length here, and they were gonna delete some of the courts. So for here, we're going to go and delete G five in E five. And here we're gonna delete C five and G five and here we're gonna delete all these three. So now we have so in this pattern, - continue to cut these here, - Okay ? And I'm kind of like you know, that sounds we're going to go ahead and do the next section here by cutting all of these guys. I'm just gonna cut all of them up right now just for use of use. Perfect. Go back over to the pencil tool. I think we're going to do the G five and then I'm gonna mess with the velocity a little bit here. But this is a very popular technique with music production is Teoh. Break up your cords. Um, a lot of different composed uses it. So let's put all this together right now. Let's go back into our patterns here. And they were going to just click down sense with everything together. Let's remove this and just use our broken courts. Okay, so now we have our little to in here. Um, and, uh, I think we're going to do is we're going to bring up the volume a little bit on our cords. Okay, So I hope you're learning some stuff in the next section. We're going to take a look at our drums, start producing some drum tracks. 22. Introduction: again, guys. And welcome to section for which is character creation. Um, in this section, we're gonna be planning and producing game music for characters. So in the section, you're gonna learn some more music theory to solidify what you've already learned in previous sections. You're gonna learn more strategies to help you out with their compositions. You'll learn the optimum audio formats to export your game music in, um, the section will also form a strong foundation for music theory NFL studio. So if you ah were in the last section a little bit confused about how music theory works, then this should clear that up for you. And this is also going to gain you a lot more music theory and music production knowledge. So while we're planning our character here, we're gonna be composing with the cords first, as opposed to the melody. First, um, it's going to be Lubell and seamless like we discussed before, And something to note here is don't pick a character you are already familiar with, like link where Mario picked character from a game you're creating or go online and find one. So I have this handy dandy template for you. here. And this template is gonna be available in the resources. Um, basically, we're gonna do is you're going to in search a character image that you find online, Uh, or if you have one already that Ah, your making for your own game and you can insert it here. You're going Name off the character traits. Like is he, um, independent, heroic things like that. And then you're going to give the name, history, gender appearance, personality, role in the game skills that he has and his goals. And then down here for origin of inspiration, we're going to select the number of instruments. So, uh, because we're ah, going from beginner here, we're going to select, most likely around three. We definitely want to limit ourselves just because we don't want to get too crazy on our first production here and then vibe. So what, John are you going for, um, generally epic vibe here just because we want to know if the if the fits mysterious Ah, is it dark? Is he moody? Things like that of that nature. And then for track length, we're going to do one minute imposing method. We're going to do chords first, okay, And then this will be available in the resources for you to fill out. Okay? And once you've paused the video and you filled out your your little character bio there, I'm continue on, and then we'll get back to that. So what to do when ideas aren't flowing? So, uh, the first thing that you should do is improvise. So go on to your your piano or your keyboard and just start hitting some notes, check out different instruments inside of FL Studio for different kinds of, ah, vibes and genres that you might be interested in. Like if you think the character is going to be more mysterious. Um, then you you might want a, ah, minor key, which is a lot moodier. If he's ah ha pretty happy character. Then you're gonna be producing, most likely in a major key. You can also go online and listen to music in the same genre. So, ah, if say, your character is resemblance of, um, like something from Pokemon, then you can go take a look at some of the Pokemon music, Um, for like a specific characters, like like ash or something like that. You can also look for instruments online that fit your genre over five. Um, so, like, you can download different v ST's? Like I showed you before, there was lots of free ones available online. And you can pick up things like wind instruments, like flutes and such like that. Like, if it's sort of like a, uh maybe you doing like something a little bit more medieval, you might want some, like wind instruments in some percussion like that. Maybe some trumpets or something. If you follow these steps here, if you're ever stuck for ideas, then these will definitely help you. Okay, so now we have a task here. You're gonna look online to see what kinds of free instruments are available. Look through fl studio to find out what instruments are available to you. Ah, this is gonna be free instruments. If you want to pay for instruments, you can do that as well. But for the sake of this course, we're just going to stick with free instruments, um, and then poster findings on the Q and A so that everyone can respond to them. 23. Frequency and Music Theory Revisited: Okay. In the last section, we talked about character planning and what to do If you ever get stuck. Eso Now we're gonna move on to frequencies and instruments. So what kind of instruments do you think go good together? Why did they go well together? And why might two instruments clash? So the first thing they're gonna need to know, um or actually backdate past that. If you guys have ever taken a physics class, then you know that there are different types of wavelengths in light and in music and sound as well. So the larger the wavelength, the lower the frequency, the shorter the wavelength, the higher their frequency. So this is a sound spectrum for you to get an idea of how piano bass vocals, acoustic guitars, kick drums, snares and Cymbals work within the frequency range here. So, as you can see, your piano takes up from 30 hertz all the way up to 16. I'm your bases around 32 all the way up to eight K and vocals is 125 ish up to around 16 k Of course, you can manipulate everything in here. Okay? And if you're you ever unfamiliar with where a instrument should sit while you're ah, equalizing it. Then you can refer to this one and the next one here. So this right here is a equalizing. Okay, so this right here is gonna be an equalizing helper. Uh, so it'll show you where your male and female voices are, where your kicks should sit. Your Tom's your snares pretty well. Every instrument that you've seen in here, um, is all available. So if you're ever in doubt about where your instruments should be sitting, then you can reference this here. So choosing instruments that complement one another, instruments that are in the same frequency work well together and add depth. So you can think of this like, um, two synthesizers or maybe two different acoustic guitarists played at the same time, which is called layering or even the same acoustic guitar played at the same time of the same instrument played at the same time. It's called layering and add depth. The instrument should cover different frequencies. Um, so this doesn't work for everything, but say like, we have a piano and then we have a base. Those instruments are gonna work really well together because the piano does not cover the lows. And the, um the base is not cover the mids and the highs. Very well. Instruments that are similar in nature go well together like a cello and a violin. So stringed instruments go well together the same way that wind instruments go well together. And, ah, instruments that occupy different frequencies contrast each other, which can be a good or bad thing. Remember, if you're doing stuff like this, you always want to do it by year. So, um, if there are two instruments such as, say, say, as a bass guitar and a sub, the sub is going to take up the very low frequencies. It might not even be audible. And then the take up just the low or medium low frequencies. Sometimes they ah mixed together and create a muddy sound. Um, so be aware of that. So the process of choosing instruments and seeing what kind of instruments work well together is called instrumentation. Um, and it's basically a ah process that all composers use in order to pick their instruments. Here's a good example here, So, in pop music, ah synthesizers occupied the sub base range. The base the mid and high frequencies, so sub sub so synthesizers can actually cover the entire range because they're so variable guitars occupy a mid to high frequency range. The base occupies a low frequency range and the piano effects a low to high frequency range . Um, all depending on where your notes are in your composition and your drums like Tom's, they ah, the occupy. The low to mid snares represent the mid The kicks were the bass drum, which is the same thing. Occupy the lower range frequency and the hats are he paid the high rain frequencies. So like we talked about back in section three, major and minor scales are laid out here, so we have C d e f g A b and then starting again on C with the C major scale and then the sea harmonic minor, which is what you're mostly going to be producing with in this course is gonna B C D E flat , B, G, a flat B and C. So something I want to I want you to pay attention to Here is from E here, So Oops. So from e flat here, if we go down to where e flat is. It's right here. It's also called D sharp, so I want you guys Teoh to recognize whether this is the correct way to place it. So basically, how you can tell is that it wouldn't make sense for this to go C. D D Sharp, even though he flat in D sharp of the same note because there's already a d here. So the correct way to display it would be C D E flat, F G and then a flat instead of G sharp and then B and C. Something else that you guys need to know about is this seventh note here. So, basically, the sea harmonic minor, um, generally floats between the C minor and the C C. Harmonic minor. So let's talk about this year. So with B, sometimes you're going to be floating between B and B flat. And the reason that the's sound so similar is because obviously, this is just to be flat, which is 1/2 step away. So something that ah you need to be familiar with is that ah, with the sea harmonic minor scale, it might make more sense to go down to a B flat than to stay at a B, and it's all dependent on what you're hearing. So especially in this section here, since a lot of ah, my students are unfamiliar with music theory, the best way to explain it is gonna be by year. So if you're producing a melody and you go from, say, G two g two g t a fuel from G to a flat and then you go to be and it sounds off, you should consider moving it to be flat. And if it still sounds off, then obviously and you could need a change to a different note entirely. But go by year. Okay, so now I'm going to teach you guys how to make major and minor keys. We talked about this a little bit before in section three, but I just want to go over it again, to really solidify that knowledge for you. Okay, so if you want to do an f major chord, we're gonna do a whole step here, which is gonna be 2/2 steps. So from F to G Flat is 1/2 step from G flat to G is gonna be another half step. So here to here is a whole step. And then from G, we're gonna do another whole step, so it's gonna be a and we're gonna do 1/2 step, so that's gonna bring us up to be flat and then from Beef B flat here, we're gonna do another whole step. So remember, that's 2/2 steps. So let's go down 1/2 step and then another half step that's gonna bring us to C five and then we're gonna do another whole step. It's gonna bring us over to D five and another whole step. She's gonna bring us over t five and then 1/2 step. Which brings us back toe f. Okay, so let's do that one more time. So it's whole step. Host up, Half step whole step, whole step. Whole step half step. So F g a B flat C d E f. So that gives us our scale. Now, let's do the sea harmonic minor scale to slightly more complicated for this because of this whole and 1/2 step. Okay, so let's go from C four down here. Let's go. Whole step. So see, for two D four is gonna be a whole step and we're gonna do 1/2 step from D four to e flat is gonna be half step. Then we're gonna do a whole step from here. She's going to get us down to f and then from here, we're gonna do another whole step Gonna be over to G four and from here it's another half step up to a flat. And then from here, it's going to be a whole step and 1/2. So half step, half step, half step, We're gonna end up right here, and then we're gonna do another half step over to see So there we go. So there we go. That's the see Harmonic minor. Now, we can also do, say, a B harmonic minor or a G harmonic minor. All you have to do is follow this pattern here, and same goes for the C major. So you just have to follow this pattern here. Okay, so for this task, I'm gonna get you guys to create major and minor scales. So I would like you to produce a B major scale, and I would like a e harmonic minor scale. Or, if you're feeling inventive, just pick any of the notes and go from there. It works even if you're going off, say, like a B flat or in a flat. Okay, I hope you got something out of us, and we'll see in the next lecture. 24. Character Planner and Synths: Okay, guys. So before we get into Ah, the lecture, which is what is a synthesizer where I teach you what a synthesizer is and how it works. We're going to be going over some or character planning. So if you remember, I gave you that that character sheet resource, I'm would order for you to plan out your character. So I've planned out my own character here. So we have, ah, character traits here. My character is introverted, heroic, um, shows little emotion, and he's vengeful. And this is just an image I picked up, um, online of a character that I liked. And then Ah, his name is Andrew. Um, history Father was a night that fought in the Battle of Valhalla. Um, Battle of the dragon, um, and then is genders male and then appearances. Red hair with an emotionless complexion. And ah, personality is introverted but very intelligent. Rule in the game is the main playable character. And then for skills. He's a sword swordsman Bowman and a night and the goal for his character is to beat the evil dragon that attacked his village and ventures father's death and then down here for the origin of inspiration. We're doing three instruments. Um, the vibe is mysterious. So he's a mysterious character when you don't know much about him. And then the composing method, like we talked about previously is gonna records first. So with that being said, we'll get into what is a synthesizer, synthesizer or synthesizer. Often abbreviated to synth is an electronic musical instrument that generates audio signals that air converted into sound. Um, this used to be a analog instrument. So if you ever heard of anyone referring to a cent in the seventies, it would have been a physical thing, just like a keyboard, like a computer keyboard. Sorry, not a computer keyboard, but like a ah piano keyboard that you Sanusi. Now, um, there were hundreds of different kinds of stents and ah, a lot of them are very desirable today because of because of signal processing, which we won't be getting into in this section. Um, but I thought I'd mention it. Eso synthesizers when digital, like the plug ins in FL studio. So if you've done the task that I asked you to dio, um, you would have ah checked out all of the plug ins inside of fl studio, so you'll know like there's Harmer and oscillators and Citrus. And all of those guys are are basically synthesizers, um, digital synthesizers created by image line. But, ah, they were once a physical thing. Just so you guys were aware. So we're going to get back into clashing. Um, which is basically when we were talking about four. How to instruments may or may not be good together, um, and ways to decipher if they are, they aren't. So the first bullet point I have here is to go by ear. There is no right or wrong. So what I mean by this is if it sounds good, it is good. If you're mixing, say, a cello. Ah, and a guitar together. And the guitar and the cello sound great together. Then there is no reason to assume they're clashing because someone else told you that the clashing. So if it sounds good to you, just remember that it most likely will sound good to other people or get a friend, um, or someone in the family to check out and see if they sound weird together. That's a good Ah, that's a good way to do it. if you have any sort of third party information Morris, Third party critiquing and then when in doubt, refer to the frequency chart. If we go back here to the frequency chart, then this will give you an idea of where the guitars should sit in the cello should sit. As you can see, they're very similar in the range here. So just keep that in mind. And if they ever sound muddy, we can eq you them, which is something that we're also going to get into in this section. So before we get back in fl studio, these are the lectures that we have visited the planning of our character. What to do if you can't come up with ideas, frequencies, instruments, synthesizes and clashing. And, of course, last thing that we visited was a little bit more music theory to help you guys out. Okay, I will see you guys in the next lecture where we start composing our cords 25. Chords Composition: Okay. Welcome back, guys. In this section, we're gonna be taking a look at location music. Eso What I've done here is I have another little planner for you. So this is one that I filled out. Um, so obviously origin of inspiration is gonna be a place I've just gone online to pick up this image, just searched up RPG town and then answer the following questions for planning purposes Location, name, history of the place and appearance. So I have put ah, town of mystery old town, generations old hidden items left in town by elders and then appearance green. Ah, lots of foliage. And then a number. Instruments. I've put 3 to 7, depending on what I choose to do during the production process. And for vibe, I put mysterious slash sad and then for composing method. We're gonna do chords first. Okay, so with that said, let's jump right into the production here, and we're going to save that. Okay, So open up. Fl studio. And the first thing that I'm going to do here is I am going to drop the BPM two. I think about 90. Okay, there we go. There's a 90 and we're gonna start producing the cords here. So I think what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna grab another piano, maybe. Yeah, lets go of a piano. Okay, so I'm gonna try Teoh accomplice some chords here. Not sure if this is gonna be a major or a minor key yet. So, uh, - so I'm just going to go into the piano roll now. So I thinking I'm going to do start producing with C five e five on then f sharp Appear something that you may find helpful is if we go up to the top here and we simply go Teoh, I believe it's under view. Ah, you can actually put keyboard labels on, so it'll tell you. Ah, all the notes instead of just the root notes go back there. There you go. I think in f sharp here, See what we can dio Uh uh We're going for, like, a kind of a dark, mysterious, sad vibe. So I think I'm going to be producing Ah, with a minor key. So well Ah, well, start up for the minor key. And ah, if I don't like it, then I may change it. But for now, Let's start with the minor key. Yeah, I like that. Okay, So I'm just going to coffee this over here, and I remember if it's not lining up exactly, you can use the old button, and that will basically make it so it's not snapping to anything, and then you have to zoom in, make sure it's actually there. Okay. Okay. So those are our cords here. I'm thinking, going Teoh, manipulate some of the velocity as well we can. Oh, that's right. Um, so if you have one part selected, it won't let you minutely the rest. I just didn't notice that was selected. Okay. - Okay . And I think going to copy this over again and we'll start producing the next part. Okay. Okay. So that's gonna be pretty, well, it for our cords here. So these are just some simple triads just to get us started. And in the next lecture, I'm going to start producing the melody and we'll see what we come up with. 26. Bass Composition: Okay, so welcome back, guys. In the last lecture, we talked about note velocity and our melody, and we got our melody completed. Um, well, the first section of the melody completed, and the first section of our courts completed too. So now we're gonna move over into the baseline. So I am going to go ahead and I'm gonna open up. I think I think Let's try Citrus on this one. I'm going to go through some of the presets here and see what I like. - Let's take a look at some of the base that's in here. I like that. So let's try that out. So something that you should know with your cords is that the bottom of your cords we get this open here are actually baselines. So right here are actually baselines. So all of these are your base notes. So we could just produce a ah, the exact same thing by copying and pasting that what's on the bottom here. But we're not going to do that. We're going to try doing some variation and changing some things here already. So let's go back into here and we're gonna copy this project. We're sorry not this project, but our helper tool by pressing control. See scrolling up to pattern three, impressing control V And then up here, we're gonna change the name of it again. We're just gonna call it base. Perfect. Okay, then we're gonna go ahead and lay down our pattern three. Okay? So I'm just going to cut this note. I'm just gonna cut this note in half here, and I'm thinking about making this kind of, like a, uh, sort of sort of thing. Here, maybe try that. Okay. Okay. So now we have our eight bars of baseline here. Um, and something to remember about bass lines is that they have to support the melody. Um, and they have to support the courts. So if it's going, if the melody is going up, then your baseline needs not necessarily needs to, but it should be going up. Um, but just make sure you're listening and doing it by ear when you don't have a lot of music theory experience. This is the best way to do it. Okay. And so before we move into the drums, we're gonna play around with one more thing, which is broken chords. So Let's go back into where the cords are. We're gonna press control. See, I'm going to scroll up past the base and we're gonna paste them in here by pressing control . Be go into the piano roll and we're going to start cutting away at thes. I'll show you how this works. So basically, what we're gonna dio is we're going to cut at each length here, and they were gonna delete some of the courts. So for here, we're going to go and delete G five in E five. And here we're gonna delete C five and G five and here we're gonna delete all these three. So now we have so in this pattern, - continue to cut these here, - Okay ? And I'm kind of like you know, that sounds we're going to go ahead and do the next section here by cutting all of these guys. I'm just gonna cut all of them up right now just for use of use. Perfect. Go back over to the pencil tool. I think we're going to do the G five and then I'm gonna mess with the velocity a little bit here. But this is a very popular technique with music production is Teoh. Break up your cords. Um, a lot of different composed uses it. So let's put all this together right now. Let's go back into our patterns here. And they were going to just click down sense with everything together. Let's remove this and just use our broken courts. Okay, so now we have our little to in here. Um, and, uh, I think we're going to do is we're going to bring up the volume a little bit on our cords. Okay, So I hope you're learning some stuff in the next section. We're going to take a look at our drums, start producing some drum tracks. 27. Melody Composition: All right. Welcome back, guys. In the last lecture, we talked about creating, um courts. So we've created these cords here. OK, so these are our courts. So what we're going to do now is we're going to change the velocity of them, and you may be wondering why we're going to do that. So changing the velocity of these keys here makes it seem more human and more organic because a a person does not. I was gonna change everything onto one line here. A person does not play every note perfectly. So if we change this year and we just move everything down just by changing the volume of the keys a little bit, you can create an era of, ah, natural plain. Um, And if you are just pacing your notes down using your your mouse here, this is gonna be super helpful for you. Okay, so now we're gonna move into the melody. All right? We have RFL keys loaded up here and in the court section really quick. We're just going to rename this one, so we're just going to rename this to cords. Then we're gonna scroll up, go to pattern to, and we're gonna rename this one. We're gonna call it lead, okay? It's going to our lead here. And I forgot. Almost before we do that, we're going to paste down our courts. And I think we're just gonna do this one section first here cause we might make some new courts for this section here. Okay, let's go into our lead. So we're just gonna start off making eight bars here? We're gonna change. It's a song. That way. We have, um, Samir for it. We have our chords playing in the background and something I'm going to do for you guys. It's gonna be really helpful is we're going to go and add another instrument so it doesn't matter which one it is. We're just gonna choose three exhaust later for it. I'm going to turn it off by pressing this button, which just mutes it. And they were going to go into the piano roll. And inside here, we're gonna go to the top, go to stamp, and then we're going to go to a major, and then we're going to click on what we're using. So we're doing just a C major scale. So now we have this and these are all the notes that you are going to be able to use. So if we select all of this and then we simply drag it out, it was just keep going past 16. That should be enough for now. Then we're going to select everything. Press control. See Control, be make sure it's on C there. Control C Control V. Perfect. And then we're gonna do to down from that. Oops, it's appear, and there we go. So now if we go over into our leads here, open the piano for that. Now, we have all of these channels here, and, ah, if you don't see these channels, simply go into helpers and then make sure that ghost channels air on, and that will help you. Okay, so now you can hear were in the piano roll, and that's a little bit too quiet for my taste. So, for now, I'm just gonna boost up the volume of it. Go back into the piano roll here. All right. Shortened some of these notes here, and I'm just gonna play along on my keyboard until I get something I like. Okay, I think I have ah, kind of got something in my head of what we're gonna do. But before we do that, we're going to go over to our lead here. We're gonna press control. L that's gonna sign it to a mixture track. We're gonna do the same thing with cords control l And this is going to give us a better control of our volumes and our pan ings for right now. Okay, so fully gets back. Here we go. Okay, okay. And on the lead here in the piano roll for this one. I'm just going to be pasting notes because I realize that some of you may not not have a keyboard that you are comfortable with using. So let's go down here. So our first chord starts on a C. So I'm thinking we might do something like a Let's go back into here and let's paste our lead, some thinking of like a And by the way, you can also hold down Ault. And then you can place your notes wherever you want, so that doesn't have to snap to this grid. You can sometimes be frustrating, so just see your where, okay. And then we just I'm thinking about maybe going down from here. So thinking of like, uh uh, it's like that. It ah guh And then, ah, let's move this over. So let's do something up here as well. Okay, So use as you can see this shape here, I'm kind of resembles a ah, you and then an upside down U. There's lots of different melody shapes on this is one of them here. And if you're playing or ah picking notes by ear, generally you'll end up, um, producing this kind of ah, these kind of waves. Um, and that means that you're definitely on track. So we're just gonna go ahead and I'm gonna vary some of the some of the velocities here we did before. - Okay ? And I'm really liking the way that sounds. So in the next lecture here, we're going to get into the baselines. 28. Drums and Entire Composition: Okay, guys, Welcome back. The last three lectures were all silent lectures eso As I stated before hand, the reason I did that was so you wouldn't be comparing your music to mine. I find that students end up producing better music, and they stop doubting themselves. Ah, when they just have the dog in front of them and they just start picking notes. So what? That said, let's get into the drums here. I've downloaded this Ah, this free drum VSD called beat factory drums. And it gives you percussion like all that here. And I've just created this little beat. I'll show you what that does. Sounds like this. We go to pattern click on that. Now, the reason I went was something a little bit more odd is because I was shooting for something. That's, ah, a little bit. How would you say underwhelming like, um, not like he's not in a very stressful situation. He's not a very stressful person. He's fairly relaxed. So anyways, we're just going to take a look at how this works here. So, as you can see on here, uh, some of the keys are actually controlled. Like if you're clicking on your computer keyboard. You can control some of the percussion, the collapse, the hi hats, the symbols, the hits, um, and the snares. So Ah, I would go ahead and download this. All you have to do is look up, beat factory drums. Ah, and you'll come to a web page. You just have to basically put in your user name and password or create one rather. And then you could download this guy and install it the way I showed you before. And ah, you can lay down your notes like this inside the piano roll. Or you can record using the record button appear and by clicking on everything here. Okay, So Ah, yeah, that's the, um that's a composition I've done for the drums here, and we're gonna move back over to where the the cords are, the base and the lead, and we're gonna let you hear what I have. So let's go here. Is it the cords that I have, then this It's going to be our lead here, Go to it. So as you as you can see, we're kind of doing this Ah, little Shapey sort of thing. So it kind of looks like a part parabola. Um, that's pretty common. Ah, select we did before. We're actually going to vary some of the velocity here. You and the way I achieved the sound here is basically I took FL keys, and then I layered it with another instrument. Um, this is called Citrus, and I just went through the presets until I found something that I liked clicked on that and away went on. Then I just copied and pasted this pattern simply by pressing control, See, and then control v down here. All right. And then I'll let you guys here the base that I created in the previous lectures as well How? How? Oh, and something doesn't sound right about that f there. So it might change them. No, that sounds better. Okay? And I also added this Asian string down here if we can scroll up to that. So I've just added this pattern here. I felt like this would have gone nice in the break, so I added it in, and I'm gonna go ahead and vary some of the velocity here, too. Perfect. That sounds very nice. So once we have completed this year, we're going to go back into our arrangement. So I've already pre arranged this just because it takes me a while to compose things just like it would take most people, right? Eso as you can see here I have our drums and then there cut as you can see, the patterns cut here and then the ah, the There's just some percussion going on in this sort of break and I'll let you hear with this. All of this all sounds like so I've got the chorus to lead the bass and the drums all play in the beginning, and actually, five might have been the right key. You, too, didn't sound right to me in the moment, but it may have been right in the composition itself. - So if you bring up our character again, you can kind of see where I'm getting the inspiration from to make this. Hey, looks like he's a fairly, um is a fairly introverted character. Um, he's in a fairly happy environment at the moment. Ah, this is just what I have imagined him to be in. The music is fitting that it's on. Then, as you can see, it just loops over again. another time here. Okay, So I'm going to get you guys to pause the video here. And, ah, make sure you up. You're up to a point where you have at least 60 seconds of a composition. Um, with your lead, your cords, your base, your drums And if you want to add another instrument, you can. However, we did stick originally to a three instruments, so that would have been accorded leading a base. Eso That's your call if you want to add another one. If you think it would work for me, I just love the sound of the string. I just had to add that in. Okay, I'll see you guys in the next lecture in the next one. We're going to start looking at mixing and how to go about doing that. We're also going to get into a little bit of light mastering, and I'll show you some of the best audio formats for you guys to ah to use when you're exporting as well 29. Mixing and Best File types for Export: Okay. Hello again, everyone. In the last few sections, we've taken a look at creating chords, melodies, baselines and drums. And ah, now we're going to start to get into how to do some mixing. So the first thing that I'm going to do here is I'm going to reduce all of these back down to not and then we're gonna start from the beginning. So I'm gonna bring all of my volumes up to this pace here and then A neat trick in order to get the used to go into the Master Channel track fairly easy is either to click on this button and then click route to free mixer track or right next to it where it says control L you can do that. So just press control l and it'll automatically assign it to the next free one. And then you can do that with all of your plug ins here. Control l and then control l control l control l and Control. L Awesome. So if you go into the mixer track now, so we have our song selected. So all of the patterns they're playing at the same time. So our entire compositions playing the first thing we're going to take a look at is the Master Channel, just to make sure that there's nothing routed onto it. So let's head over to the Master Channel. If you have something called the limiter Onslaught 10 or in any of these slots, please delete it by pressing this arrow button here and then it should give you an option. Teoh, remove the plug in, okay? And then you're gonna make sure that this is just at zero where it was originally. So just make sure your master is that, um, the original starting point. And from here, we're going to basically lower and heighten the volume, depending on how loud we want things to be. So I think I'm going to start off with my leads. Which of these two here. And I'm going to do some stereo shaping on them. So that means I'm going to be panning one of the instruments to the left and one of them to the right. Kind of like they've been there being performed live. It gives the essence the ah, more natural sound. So let's go ahead and do that right now on. Actually, we're gonna go ahead and solo these ones. So to solo. Basically, what you do is you just right click on any of them, and then it's going to just play the one track, and then you can select the other one just by pressing the left click button. Okay? And then, as you can see here, even though these are roughly at the same volumes here, they're not at the same volumes in here, so they don't have to be the same. I want this sort of belly sound or bell like cow bell sound to be a little bit louder just because I like the sound that it's producing. So I'm gonna go ahead, pan that more. And when you're patting instruments, make sure that you're listening both from, like a pair of desktop speakers or headphones. Um, especially with headphones. You can really tell which way something is being panned. You have a little bit more of a a reference for it. Um, just keep in mind that when you're mixing, it's important to be listening on different devices. Okay. All right. And then we're gonna move over to the base here. No, Carol, no. I'm just gonna lower the volume a little bit. I'm gonna turn the drums on and see how loud they are. All right, so it's sounding pretty good. The drums sound like they're at a pretty good volume. We don't have to mix the drums if you don't want to. Since the drums already have are already mixed together, you can individually control the instruments by using these, we'll get into that in the next lecture where we're actually gonna be controlling some of the parameters inside the plug ins themselves in order to achieve certain sounds. Okay, way of that. Now we're just going Teoh solo are Asian string and move over to part with her agent string . That's fine for now. Wait for our courts. In the beginning on I'm thinking I want the courts to be a little bit more, um, atmospheric. So I'm going, Teoh, Let them come on later in the mix, or be less of a part of the mix just by pulling this down here. No, on. I think I want the cords coming a little bit from the left side on. I think I'm gonna have the strings come a little bit from the right. Perfect. Okay, So with panning, keep in mind that there's a couple instruments that you don't usually pan. Um Thea kick. Ah, and ah, most things to do with the drums. Like you don't really pan. You can pan the snare, you can pan percussion and you can pan the symbols to sound like that coming from a standard drum kit because obviously they're on different sides of the drum kit. Right? Um, but the kick, it always goes straight through the middle of the mix. Same thing with the base, which in this case is called DJ, and we're not going to change the panning here at all. So I have a task for you now is to, ah, give the video pause and go ahead and change the panning. And, ah, do a slight mix here and make sure that everything is at the proper volume. Okay, so once you've gone ahead and done that, our next step is gonna be playing around with the parameters. So, as you can see here, under each instrument we have, there's going to be different parameters, like environment velocity tuning. Um, under ah, under Citrus, we're gonna have any Q and A filter and volume and stuff. And I'm going to tell you about how these work, Um, and whether or not you should be using them inside the plug in or in the actual mixer. So let's start off and go into our lead here, and I'm just gonna play around with some of the parameters until I find something that I like. We're just gonna solo that track. I think we're gonna move up to lead, maybe forgot to turn it on in our mix. - Okay , so now that I've messed around here, I'm gonna tell you about some of the knobs. So decay is basically how long it takes for the note to end Release is going to be basically, um, how long it takes to release the frequencies in the note. Overdrive is going to basically bump up. Um, some of the frequencies of the note trouble is going to bump up the higher frequencies. Um, and then hardness is going to be basically how hard it sounds when you hit the note. And then a de tuned will pull thief frequencies of the note apart to make the sound sound larger. But if you pulled the d tuned far enough. It will sound out of tune. So keep that in mind while you're playing with the nub and just make sure you're listening to your sounds. All right, let's move into lead to and I don't think I'm going to do anything with this right now. I think I might add some reverb in the mixer channel track after, and same thing with ours. Our base. And we might do some mixing with their drums here. Okay, - Okay . I'm liking how that sounded, so a Z can see down here. I have some of the panning changed. So I have the snare kind of to the right clap to the right. I add to the left and then this high hat to the right. You don't have to follow this exact pattern. Just do what sounds good to you. And then, Ah, there are some parameters down here as well. So there is attack. Attack is basically how fast the sound comes on. Decay is how long the sound continues on for or how long the frequencies continue on for sustained will basically hold the note for a period of time. And then ah releases the same thing we saw under lead as well. Do we have pan reverb in volume? Um, I don't really recommend using ah reverb inside this plug in per se cause reverb on drums is not necessary. A tall pan is going to pan everything in here to the right or left so as you can hear. So I don't recommend doing it all. And then obviously volume will control the entire volume in here. Okay, through over two strings. And again, I'm not going to do anything with this. I might add some equalization and reverb in the mixer. And last but not least, the cords. It's open the plug in here, all right. And let's listen to the cords here. I think I might add some more referred. So if you guys don't know what reverb is, reverb is basically short for reverberation. So a figure in fear in a place like a cathedral. Um, if you play an instrument, the sound is basically coming off the instrument, going into your ears and going out to the walls, coming back to your ears. Going out to the wall is coming back again. So you can kind of think of re reverb as a, um, an ongoing sort of sound that makes it sound a lot more airy. If that makes sense, it makes it a lot louder. Uh, not necessarily Louder. That's not the right word for, but you can definitely hear it. Uh, while I'm in the mix here, I'll show you what I mean. So this is small studio. Our chal could definitely hear the difference. You can hear a cathedral sounds a lot more thick, Okay. And then delay is basically, um, kind of like an echo, if that makes sense, so it's it's going to play the note. It's going to go and continuously basically delay off each other. So ping Pong time down. Uh, it's going to the That's still a and course is also gonna think enough to mix as well changed its high quality here. And I think that's all we're going to do inside of Harmer for now. Here. Okay, Perfect. No, let's jump back into the mixer. So I'm gonna get you guys to pause the video again here and go through your parameters and get everything. Ah, together for the next step. 30. Mastering and end of Section: Okay, everyone. So in the last lecture, we took a look at mixing, Um, we took a look at changing the parameters, and we've taken a look at changing the volumes, panning and stare shaping as well. So in this lecture, um, we're going to basically start from a new file after you've obviously exported it, like you should have from the last lecture. So we're gonna go file, and then we're gonna go new from template, and then we're going to go to empty. So we're going to do is go onto your desktop, grab your character music, and you're just gonna throw it onto your playlist. Okay, so now you have this, as you'll notice it doesn't line up exactly. And that's because we produced it at 130 beats per minute, but this was opened at 1 40 So if you lower it down to 1 30 you notice that everything's lined up again already. So let's assign this to a free mixer track. So we're just going to go to control l. We're gonna go into the mixer. Perfect. As you can see, this is routed directly into the mixer. So on the master itself and again make sure that you don't have a limiter installed just yet. The first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna add some Hugh effects. So let's listen to it again. So we're gonna cut out the 40 below 40. Here it's again and above 18 kilohertz. So it's going to presets. Here we go. I was gonna leave that preset where it is This is going to cut out the audible. I mean, inaudible frequencies. And then we're going to go into Pembridge que we're gonna add another, so to speak. You this one, we're going to pull out the instruments that we like or the frequencies that we like rather just like we did before. - I'm liking the way that sounds. So the next thing we're gonna do is we're gonna go and open up a multi band compressor. So what a multi van compressor is is Ah, basically a compresses, um, and or and Or ads gain to your low band, your medium band in your high band. So basically what compression is is you can think of it like a squeezing down a file to bring out, say, the lows, the highs, a really high. Um, it's sort of tough to explain. And in the next section, I'm going to have a lecture solely devoted to compression. Um, just so it's more understandable for you guys, but for now, just kind of fall along to try it, what I'm trying to say and hopefully it makes sense. So as you can see, it's compressing everything a above a certain limit. So it's compressing the lows so that the mids sound higher. That makes sense. And all these air controlled by the ratio threshold and the game, So take away threshold or added threshold. Rather, the lows get really quiet. Get rid of it. They get really loud. - We're just going to add some more gain to the entire entire track to make it louder. So when you're increasing the game, you're not gonna want to go over the zero decibel limit here. A soon as you do, it'll start to clip. You sound like this. The sound good does it? Okay, guys. And the last thing we're gonna add is a limiter. So just click on pretty limiter here, and the first thing is gonna bring you to is ah thing with gained saturation and ceiling. So gain is obviously how loud the sound is and then sealing, and then sealing is where zero decibels lives. So if you leave it where it is, the ceiling is gonna be at zero decibels. - So basically, what you're doing here is you're trying to bring it up to the loudest volume without it taking away too much of this. The characteristics of the sound perfect . I'm liking that Eso that is a very, very short version of how to master. Um, just I'm by no means a ah, mastering engineer. Um, but this will be, ah, extremely helpful for you if you're making some some game music, and you need to be able to polish it up before you send it off to somebody. Um, it's just for ease of use. So, um, I will be teaching you as a little bit more about mastering in the next few sections here with the town theme in the air PG and the casual games and everything like that. Um, but this is just a basic rundown for you guys to get started. Okay? I know this has been a pretty long section for you guys. Um, and I apologize for that. But now you guys have a good foundation to get started making game music. So up next is gonna be the town theme, and we're gonna do our planning for the town theme. Um, and then I'm gonna pretty well that you guys ah, let you guys loose with that one. Ah, you can pretty well do. Ah, whatever you want. Doesn't matter how many instruments were using. Um, but ah, yeah, We're also gonna touch on some more music theory. We're gonna touch on sound design, and we're gonna touch on adding mawr effects. Ah, where to touch on some of the more effects that Ethel studio has. All right, guys, I hope you're enjoying the course so far. If you are, please leave. A five star review really helps me out. I'm anyways ah, enjoy this through day and I'll see in the next section 31. Assembling Our Chords: Okay. Welcome back, guys. In this section, we're gonna be taking a look at location music. Eso What I've done here is I have another little planner for you. So this is one that I filled out. Um, so obviously origin of inspiration is gonna be a place I've just gone online to pick up this image, just searched up RPG town and then answer the following questions for planning purposes Location, name, history of the place and appearance. So I have put ah, town of mystery old town, generations old hidden items left in town by elders and then appearance green. Ah, lots of foliage. And then a number. Instruments. I've put 3 to 7, depending on what I choose to do during the production process. And for vibe, I put mysterious slash sad and then for composing method. We're gonna do chords first. Okay, so with that said, let's jump right into the production here, and we're going to save that. Okay, So open up. Fl studio. And the first thing that I'm going to do here is I am going to drop the BPM two. I think about 90. Okay, there we go. There's a 90 and we're gonna start producing the cords here. So I think what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna grab another piano, maybe. Yeah, lets go of a piano. Okay, so I'm gonna try Teoh accomplice some chords here. Not sure if this is gonna be a major or a minor key yet. So, uh, - so I'm just going to go into the piano roll now. So I thinking I'm going to do start producing with C five e five on then f sharp Appear something that you may find helpful is if we go up to the top here and we simply go Teoh, I believe it's under view. Ah, you can actually put keyboard labels on, so it'll tell you. Ah, all the notes instead of just the root notes go back there. There you go. I think in f sharp here, See what we can dio Uh uh We're going for, like, a kind of a dark, mysterious, sad vibe. So I think I'm going to be producing Ah, with a minor key. So well Ah, well, start up for the minor key. And ah, if I don't like it, then I may change it. But for now, Let's start with the minor key. Yeah, I like that. Okay, So I'm just going to coffee this over here, and I remember if it's not lining up exactly, you can use the old button, and that will basically make it so it's not snapping to anything, and then you have to zoom in, make sure it's actually there. Okay. Okay. So those are our cords here. I'm thinking, going Teoh, manipulate some of the velocity as well we can. Oh, that's right. Um, so if you have one part selected, it won't let you minutely the rest. I just didn't notice that was selected. Okay. - Okay . And I think going to copy this over again and we'll start producing the next part. Okay. Okay. So that's gonna be pretty, well, it for our cords here. So these are just some simple triads just to get us started. And in the next lecture, I'm going to start producing the melody and we'll see what we come up with. 32. Assembling Our Melody: Alright, guys. So in the last lecture, we produced these cords. - So as you can hear, just simple. Um, but a ah, a good vibe for a town that's not necessarily bustling and super busy. Okay, so let's move into the melody here. So I'm gonna open up. Ah, Zabaleta Or is ever lady. However you pronounce it, it's the plug in that we installed in the earlier lectures. So I'm going to go into the piano roll and Ah, first of all, I'm gonna try toe, play some stuff on my medic keyboard and see if I can come up with anything. Okay? No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. Okay, so I think that might work. Um, So let's go ahead and record that. So go up here to the record button, and then you press notes and automation. Okay? I'm gonna press play. I don't feel like I'm in time here, so I'm going to delete that, and I'm gonna throw the Metrodome on. - Okay , that's a little better then. I'm just going to control click and move everything over loops. Make sure you delete these random keys. It accidentally hit all right? No. Okay. And I'm going to clean this up a little bit. Still, you? No, no, no. I wonder if these air going to sound better on the, um on the half beats or let's see. No, no, no. E sound better like that. Okay? And because I have this done already, I don't need to do the rest of these three here, so I can just copy these over. Okay. No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. Okay, so we're gonna have to change some of the nodes notes in our chords. I'm in order to fit the melody here. Um, but that's no big deal. It's just part of the production process. Okay, select all of these. Zoom in and make sure that they're on the right starting point. Same thing with these guys here because I forgot to do that earlier. Okay, These ones are a little over perfect. - Okay , so I'm just gonna copy all of these All this melody here and we're just going to paste it right there. No, no. All right, let's go back in fl keys, and we're going to change up our chords a little bit or to fit our melody. Okay. No, no, no, no, no, no, no. I don't No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. So remember that your cords have to support your melody. No, no, no, no. They will do. No, I don't know. No, no, no, no, no, no, no, - no , no, no, no. Okay. I don't know. No, I don't know. I don't know. No, no, no, no. Okay, still, it sound pretty good now. Eso now we're just going to get into the baseline in the next lecture, and I will see you there. 33. Assembling the Bassline: Okay, guys, welcome back In the last lecture, we created our melody and we ah, fixed are chords so that they would actually support our melody. So let's go ahead and listen to that. No, no. You know? - No . Okay. Perfect. So now let's open up a plug in. We're gonna use for our baseline here, so let's go ahead and open. Let's see. Um, honestly, Not sure. Let's try. Let's try Boo base. Everyone should have boobies again. Here is just a bass guitar. Okay, So same processes Last time. I'm just going to see if I can come up with the, uh, come up with something here, okay? Hey. No, no, no, no. Okay, so I think I'm going to start off by just going into FL Keys and then copying all of bottom notes and just bring him over, and then I can change everything afterwards. Okay? From what if we try this, I like that. Okay. - So I'm just gonna vary some of our velocity here, and I think I might add another instrument to the base. Um, let's try transistor base. Oh, actually, this. Ah, I've never used transistor based before, and I just noticed something. So inside of transistor base, it's actually not one preset that you play on a piano. It's basically a whole bunch of sounds, um, you can choose from. So this would be more for, like, creating techno music. So we're just going Teoh, change this and replace it with, um let's see with three x oscillator, Okay. And we're just going to create some ah, deuce, a little bit of sound design instead of three x oscillator and see what we can come up with . Okay. Lets just mute all the channels. Except for this one. That's what it sounds like right now. Oops. There we go. Okay. And I'm just gonna copy everything inside of Abu Base. Just control. See? And then control V Okay . And I'm just dropped. It knocked of here, see what that sounds like with everything else. Right here. So in case you guys didn't know, these are all sound waves. So this right here is a ah, basically analog wave. This is a square wave. This is a saw wave, and Ah, So what I'm basically doing is just changing between them, um, to basically figure out what kind of sound I'm looking for. All right, We're gonna do some more processing on three X oscillator later. Um, just to make it sound, um, better. So, anyways, this is what we have. Now, in the next lecture, I'm going to start adding s'more instruments. So I think I'm going to add a ah, maybe something like Citrus to FL keys, um, to give it. Ah, a little bit more of a spacey vibe, but yeah, I'll see you in the next lecture. 34. Mixer and Compression: Alright, guys. So in the last lecture, we produced these cords. - So as you can hear, just simple. Um, but a ah, a good vibe for a town that's not necessarily bustling and super busy. Okay, so let's move into the melody here. So I'm gonna open up. Ah, Zabaleta Or is ever lady. However you pronounce it, it's the plug in that we installed in the earlier lectures. So I'm going to go into the piano roll and Ah, first of all, I'm gonna try toe, play some stuff on my medic keyboard and see if I can come up with anything. Okay? No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. Okay, so I think that might work. Um, So let's go ahead and record that. So go up here to the record button, and then you press notes and automation. Okay? I'm gonna press play. I don't feel like I'm in time here, so I'm going to delete that, and I'm gonna throw the Metrodome on. - Okay , that's a little better then. I'm just going to control click and move everything over loops. Make sure you delete these random keys. It accidentally hit all right? No. Okay. And I'm going to clean this up a little bit. Still, you? No, no, no. I wonder if these air going to sound better on the, um on the half beats or let's see. No, no, no. E sound better like that. Okay? And because I have this done already, I don't need to do the rest of these three here, so I can just copy these over. Okay. No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. Okay, so we're gonna have to change some of the nodes notes in our chords. I'm in order to fit the melody here. Um, but that's no big deal. It's just part of the production process. Okay, select all of these. Zoom in and make sure that they're on the right starting point. Same thing with these guys here because I forgot to do that earlier. Okay, These ones are a little over perfect. - Okay , so I'm just gonna copy all of these All this melody here and we're just going to paste it right there. No, no. All right, let's go back in fl keys, and we're going to change up our chords a little bit or to fit our melody. Okay. No, no, no, no, no, no, no. I don't No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no. So remember that your cords have to support your melody. No, no, no, no. They will do. No, I don't know. No, no, no, no, no, no, no, - no , no, no, no. Okay. I don't know. No, I don't know. I don't know. No, no, no, no. Okay, still, it sound pretty good now. Eso now we're just going to get into the baseline in the next lecture, and I will see you there. 35. Adding Instruments: Alright, guys. So in the last lecture, we basically took blue base and three x oscillator and created a baseline out of them s. So now I'm going to be adding some more instruments to FL Keys and maybe the melody. We'll see how I feel. But for now, this is Ah, the sound that we kind of have. - Okay , so let's go ahead and add more instruments. You can open up Citrus here and see if I can find a preset that I like this percussion guitar. That's way too. Wait. You grab me for me. I think I might just copy the cords over and then mute everything else. And then we'll just scroll through the presets and see if we can find anything we like. And in case you didn't know some of the names here, obviously they're all different sorts of instruments. But a pad is meant to create ambience. Hence why some of them are actually just named ambience. Just so you're aware if you're ever looking for that, - and I like that quite a lot. So let's let's let's ah, so let's hear what that sounds like altogether. No. Okay, so now I'm going to move on to adding another instrument to several that Ah, let's go into Citrus again and find something I'm thinking, like maybe a string be like this. Feedback solid C. Okay, so just control. See? And then control be to copy pattern. That was like space age way, Theo. And then the velocity on some of these keys is a little bit too high, so I'm going to go ahead and knock some of them down, All right? It's adding some variation. It could be completely random. And then you can just adjust them on the fly after that. - Good . Since we changed the velocity on that one, I'm just gonna copy that over inches. Ever let Okay. Done. - Okay , guys, that's it for adding instruments. 36. Compression: Okay, guys, in this lecture, we're gonna talk about compression. So I am going to apologize in advance for this. Ah, being a little bit of a dry lecture, but it is nonetheless quite important. Okay, so what is Compression? Compression is the process of lessening the dynamic range between the loudest and quietest parts of an audio signal. This is done by boosting the quieter signals and attenuating the louder signals. The controls you were given set up a compressor, usually threshold, which is the knobs I was adjusting in the previous lecture. How loud the signal has to be before the compression is applied ratio, which is how much the compression is applied. For example, if the compression ratio is set for six toe one, the input signal will have have to cross the threshold by six decibels for the output level to increase by one decibel and attack how quickly the compressor starts to work. Release how soon after the signal dips below the threshold compressor stops. So that is a little bit of a mouthful. And don't worry if you don't understand this right now. Ah, as we go forward and then we play along with the compressor. You'll start to see that you start naturally doing stuff like this. So what is compression? Um, these This all right here is gonna be, ah, what's really important? Um, so basically understanding how or what a compressor is, um is really going to help with your mixes. So let's start off with me. Ni sets how the compressor reacts to signals. Once threshold is passed, hard knee settings mean it clamps the signal straight away. And soft me means the compression kicks and more gently, as the signals further past threshold makeup gain allows you to boost the compression signal as compression often attenuate the signal significantly, Which means compression generally makes the sound, um quieter. So output allows you to boost for boost or intend. You ate the level of of the signal output from the compressor, So let's keep going into what is a compressor compressor. So, uh, confessor types compressors come in, uh, various different flavors. These are used by engineers for different tasks, and some sound far better in certain situations than others. So when up to a compressor Opto meaning optical describes a light sensitive circuits that control the compression amount into Opto compressors. I'm the ring that the reason that they're talking about light sensitive circuits because this and every compressor before, um, basically the digital age was all analog, so you would have basically a standing desk just full of effects inside a studio. So let's continue. They often react more slowly than the other compressor types, but this can be desirable. The famed telex tronics L. A. To eight to A is an optical compressor that many producers swear by for vocal and mix bus compression. The L A. To A is also a leveling amplifier, which means it's working nearly all the time, not just when the threshold is reached. F E T compression field effect Can Pressure Compressors are used transistors to emulate a value sound with more reliability, but with a higher signal to noise ratio. They're popular for vocals and great drum compression. The Yuri 1176 is an ftt compressor valve compression valve. Compressors work in one of the same three ways described above, but used valves in the amplifier circuit to get that creamy sound. The L A. To A, which is an optic compressor, uses valves. Okay, so those air all the classic compressors. So something to note about them is that there are lots of, uh, basically simulated versions inside of Dawes that do very, very similar things in terms of sound. So keep that in mind. You don't need any sort of ah, physical box, um, to create great sound nowadays. So we're gonna talk about how to set up how to set up a compressor, whether using ah, hardware compressor or plug in setting up works the same way. Insert the compressor on the channel you want to compress, So channel it being like fl keys or, um, like a kick drum or something like that Inside the makes like we were doing before, adjust the threshold until it the peak in the signals are pushing over the threshold and triggering the compressor. Unless, of course, you really want to clamp something like a live base. Maybe in this case, it can work to make it push over the threshold all the time. Set the ratio to suit the material. Bass guitar Sound good at 4 to 1 drum sound good at 2 to 1. Vocals also sound also at 2 to 1 and electric guitars anywhere from 2 to 1 to 6 to 1, so I would suggest writing this down. Of course, you can break these rules, Um, but I don't suggest it as you're still a beginner, and if you are to beginner and you've made it this far will be getting into some more advanced topics. In later lectures, the ratio and threshold work together, adjust them together and see how they affect the output. The attack and release controls the shape of the compression have of how the compressor reacts. A fast attack would be useful for a rapper or anything that has a sudden peak early in the signal. Slower attack time suit, mastering uses and bus compression. The release control can really affect the sound of the compressor. Short release time causes the compressor to sound like it's working hard, but long released times sound like sound more natural. Use the makeup, use the makeup gain and open control to sit the signal back into the mix without adding any unnecessary noise. Setting the hard soft me would definitely would depend on the material Hard new works well for drums, bass and percussion. Percussive stuff. Soft knee is more transparent and better for vocals and some guitar parts. Look ahead. Plug in. Compressors often have this feature. He uses a slight time delay on the whole song to give the compressor a sneak preview into what's coming. This allows it to catch all the peaks in this move. This way possible. It can sometimes cause a compressor to lose its character. So don't use it by default on Lee if necessary. So as we end here, you should note that you can break almost every single rule that I have given you here. Um, So what I mean by that is that you need to be able to create, um, your own sounds. And if it sounds good, then it usually is good. So don't second guess yourself when it comes to the simple things like putting a compressor on. But something I will say about compression less is usually more. Okay. I'll see in the next lecture 37. Mastering: Welcome back again, guys. Eso in this lecture, we're going to go through my five steps for mastering. Uh, it's very simple steps that you should be able to follow. They are a little bit more advanced techniques, but I'm going to try to break them down as well as I can for you. Uh, so let's get started right into it. So the first thing that you should be thinking about is what is your aim? Um, so, uh, what are you trying to get out of a master like? Are you wanting people to be able to listen to this on cell phones? Like, if it's a mobile game, you're obviously we're gonna want people to be able to listen to it on cell phone on a cell phone, and it sound decent, right? Um, same thing with headphones, um, or or other eso something that you should know right off the bat is. So just because something sounds good on your home speakers in your studio or wherever you are, um, or on the headphones you're currently wearing, um or ah, on your laptop Speaker, um, does not mean it's going to sound good across a multitude of different vice devices. So, um, that is all because of Ah, atonality. Um, so I'm going to address that, and ah, I've also included some free plug ins inside of the resources pack on this lecture that you can take a look at. Ah, please download them and follow along with this lecture. If you need to pause it, go ahead and do that now. Okay. So the first thing we're gonna do here is we're gonna lower our decibels down to 90 again, which is what our song was up. And we're just opening up a new one here. So brand new empty, so new, new from template. And then we're just gonna go advance, not events. It is under minimal And then just empty. Great. Out of 90. Perfect. Okay. And then let's throw our song into the playlist. Here, here is going to be to grab a song. Ah, that you like. It could be a ah, electronic song. Could be, um, a another video game piece of music. And you're going to compare the two sounds together. So I'm not going to bring in anything else just because of time sake. Uh, okay. So the first thing that we're gonna be doing in regards to mastering is we're going to be doing a cut. So it's going to here, and we're just going to press control. L bring it into the Master channel here. Oops, yes, channel and then bring it over. Okay, Perfect. It's linked to the Master Channel tsunami of this year. So we're gonna add another e que. And what we're gonna do is we're gonna cut everything below 25 kilohertz. So this 20 hertz to 18 kilohertz. We're gonna do this here, and I'm just gonna make this larger so you guys can see it. We're gonna pull this until we reach 25. And you can see that in the top left hand corner here. Okay? Everything above 25 is going to be perceived as, um, basically, just, um it's gonna be noise that's coming out in, like, a physical action. So, like, honest pair of speakers when like the bass rumbles something. That's what I'm talking about. So we're moving this now is going to give us head room later, so we'll go ahead and do that. So go ahead and listen to the entirety of the track a few times and see if you hear any clicks or pops. Um, and something else I should mention is that with mastering, um, you're not gonna be able to fix any issues that you made in your mix. So if you ah made a mistake in your mix, you're gonna have to go back into your mix, fix the mistake, and then re export that and bring it back into the Master Channel. Mastering is for taking a look at the overall sound, not the specific sound of one insurance. There are a couple of techniques that I can teach you. Teoh kind of get away with some stuff, uh, which will get into right now. So if you open up another pretty parametric eq you. And if you hear the you hear the base is a little bit too loud. Then you can do what is called a shelf so you can lower that by like a decibel or two on this side Doesn't have to be exactly that. But this is called a shelf here, and I'll show you what that sounds like. No. Ah, and the shelf can be ever so slight. Don't be afraid to mess with the parameters. Ah, the reason is is that say, if you don't know how it's gonna sound if you drop it all the way all the way down Um, do that, uh, do exactly that Because you don't know what it sounds like until you get the full experience of it. And then you can be subtle with the transition. So let's go ahead and Exeter this year, and we will continue on so something else that can be really helpful with tonality. Um, since most of my students probably don't have, um, all the audio equipment you could have want, like speakers, headphones, Um, even like speakers in a club or something like that. Um, just things that most people don't have access to. So tonality, um, can be controlled. And ah, you can have ah, bigger effect on your overall mix If you download that's plug in That I was talking about in the beginning. So is called span, and it's a free plug in that you can download. So what we're gonna do is go into high rez mode, so we're just going to go higher as most, and we're going to go to settings, and we're going to bring the bank size up. Um, Teoh 3 to 768 Which block? Size. Sorry. Which should be it. Natively. And then we're also going Teoh, did you to dio also gonna change this to 2000 roughly around 2000 And then did you do smoothing? And we're gonna change that to half octave. Okay, so this is showing you where are peaks are. Um Okay, so now you have a decent understanding of where your music is and what frequencies it's possessing. Ah, we can move into, uh, Maximus here. That DiDio There's Maximus, and we're also going to bring up another plug in called loudness meter. Okay, so just go into here. You're gonna win. Want to make sure that you're allowed in this meter? Okay, So something you should know is that L u F s downs for loudness unit relative to full scale . So most streaming platforms like Spotify iTunes pretty well. All the big platforms nowadays use a ah lun fast meter. And so what that does is basically if it's going past 14 if it's going past 14 l u f s, then it's going to be reduced. So like Ah, that's not a good thing, though. So before this L E F s, um, basically, policy was introduced by all of these streaming companies. Now there was something called a loudness war. And ah, So what happened was most people think that if you are, ah, basically bringing your track up to as loud as it can be um, then it's going to sound as best as it can be. But that's not sure. So, like, if I have a song that's, you know at, ah, at zero decibels and, um, I'm mastering it and I bring all of my frequencies, um, up to that up to or near that zero desperate mark which ends up making it, um, compressed because of the limiter. Ah. Then then what's gonna happen is if you try to make it any louder than it currently is. When you bring down the volume, it's actually gonna sound worse. So you're wanting to master basically for around 14 Elly fs. The short term can be longer, though, so, like your short term can be longer than than the not longer. Sorry can be louder than the US in the 14 but it consistently shouldn't be, if that makes sense. So you want your entire song to be low, to be below or at a ah or close to a, um of an average of 14 l u F s. So if we play our whole song now a Z, you can see we're averaging around 15. 15.3. Um, but yeah. So what we're gonna dio is we're going to bring up Maximus now, okay? And we're gonna bring both these plug ins up a the same time wherever Maximus keeps going. Okay, Have a listen now, and we're gonna adjust some of the parameters here like pregame. Um, so you're gonna want to make sure you're on the master band here, and you're going to control pregame. Um, and you're going Teoh control threshold in such so something that you don't want to do is, um, control, post game. And the reason simply behind that is that post gain is just going to bring the volume up. Um, after you've already brought the volume up in the first place. So the first thing that we're going to do here is we're going to keep this 45 degree angle on this piece, but we're gonna move it down by a decibel. We're gonna move this over, so as you can see, it's still on the 45 degree. Okay, so this is going to keep it below zero decibels. And, um, it's going to keep the sound sounding nice and rich. Okay, so bring Maximus back up again, but minimize it enough so you can see what's going on in you. Lean. Um, - Okay , So the other thing we're gonna do is we're going to basically ah, boost the attack so it clamps down on all of the peaks as fast as possible. Um, - so something you should know with mastering, um, is that when you're clamping down on sound sounds like this, it does reduce the sound quality a little bit. Um, it's usually not noticeable, but keep it down. Keep it. Keep it in mind that the mawr compression using, um, potentially the worst that could sound. As is the case with limiting. Okay, um, so that's pretty well it for for Maximus here. We're gonna move back into the other, plug in and see if there's anything else we should cut down on in terms of frequency already. Looks like we could probably e around 3 46 And that's going to give us some more headroom to bring up some of the some of the highs here. And I think we might actually bring up some of the highs in our little shelf because we had brought them down. So let's do that now. Um, so just by doing that, we have given ourselves some more head room to bring up the rest of the frequencies. So let's move back into Maximus now. Okay, Span to get out of that, get out of that. Get out of this year, them will go back. Teoh, you lean and Maximus here. Okay, excellence. Here we go. Okay, let's do this again. - And so that's kind of we were looking for. We're looking for, um, basically, let's listen to this again way. We're looking for this to be under 14 or at 14 ish and for this to be below. So if you notice this is a little bit backwards and for what you used to, um, just note that Ah, For most most processes, audio is usually labeled backwards on its label backwards because decibels air labeled backwards. So these air these air what decibels are here? So obviously you Ah, you start start lounge. You start to a large in number, and then you get lower instead of the other way, Like your normal number system works. So just so you're aware. Okay. All right. Let's get this one more. Listen to and see if we can hear anymore Pops and clicks. No, there's no pops and clicks that I can hear. The very last thing that we're going to do here is we're gonna talk about stereo separation . So this hysteria separation here, and basically it's gonna make a sound louder. Um, or it's going to single it down. So I'll let you hear with this that mean? So as you can hear you to the left, that gets thicker. If you move it to the right, it gets thinner. So you don't have to just use this on the master. You can also throw it on the low of the mids and the highs. Just be careful when you're using it. Um, and trying not Teoh make anything, um, sound bad? No. Okay, that's gonna be it for our lecture on mastering. Um Please keep in mind that this is basic mastering. There is an entire art form to mastering that sometimes takes people upwards of 18 hours to or longer than that days to complete a track. So just keep that in mind. Um, and this is just gonna be helpful for getting your songs ready for other people to listen to on other devices without them thinking that your songs are just bad because sometimes they just do not sound good on mono devices. Let's go ahead and ah, export. But before we do that, we're gonna move over to the mixer here and there's something I noticed that I did earlier . But I didn't say anything. I accidentally will put all of my plug ins onto this channel instead of the Master Channel . So what we can do is we can just go file and then save mixture track state as, and then we can drop it right onto this file here. So now what? We can also dio as we can just delete all of these here. Just give me a moment to do that. So if you notice in the last time we did a little bit of mastering. We were just trying to push it as close to zero db as possible. Um, that's not bad for many reasons. For your own control and your own playing in your own. Listening to its fine. Um, I would not recommend doing that. If you plan on sending this to anybody, it's gonna be listening on any sort of device that doesn't have stereo speakers. Like, if its motto, you're gonna want to make sure that you do something like this. Okay, so that's gonna be everything for mastering. Um, enjoy the rest of your day, guys, and I will see you in section seven.