Using Design Psychology to Maximize Creativity at Home and Work | Donald M. Rattner, Architect | Skillshare

Playback Speed

  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x

Using Design Psychology to Maximize Creativity at Home and Work

teacher avatar Donald M. Rattner, Architect, Author, Educator

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (1h 22m)
    • 1. About the Course

    • 2. Defining Creativity and Innovation

    • 3. The Psychology of Space

    • 4. Tactics Group I: Color

    • 5. Color, Space and Creativity

    • 6. Views, Ceilings, Art

    • 7. Furnishings

    • 8. Furnishings (Continued 1)

    • 9. Furnishings (Continued 2)

    • 10. Nature and Creative Space

    • 11. Tactics Group II: Lighting and Sound

    • 12. Tactics Group III: Action Spaces

    • 13. Case Study

    • 14. The 7 Attributes of Creative Thinking

    • 15. The Creative Home and Next Steps

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

Techniques for enhancing human creativity tend to focus on personal self-improvement. But there's another, equally powerful agent for catalyzing out-of-the-box thinking that’s often overlooked: space. This course will introduce you to the science of creativity-driven design and how you can apply it to the making of high-performance idea spaces, whether in office, commercial, learning, or residential environments.

Among the subjects covered are:

  • Defining Creativity and Innovation
  • The Psychology of Space and Creativity
  • Color
  • Lighting
  • Plantscaping
  • Furnishings
  • Artwork
  • Sound
  • Materials

No previous design or artistic expertise required. Recommended for anyone working in a creative or knowledge-based field, pursuing a creative passion at home, or with a general interest in creativity and design psychology.


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Donald M. Rattner, Architect

Author, Educator


Donald M. Rattner holds a BA in art history cum laude from Columbia and an MArch from Princeton. He is the founder and principal of Donald M. Rattner, Architect, an award-winning architectural and creativity consultancy specializing in the design of creative space in workplace, residential, wellness, hospitality, and retail environments.

Educator and author as well as practitioner, Rattner’s publications include My Creative Space: How to Design Your Home to Stimulate Ideas and Spark Innovation, 48 Science-based Techniques; The Creativity Catalog; Parallel of the Classical Orders of Architecture; entries in professional reference books, and numerous contributions to print and online channels. He has taught at the University of Illinois, New York Academy of Art, New York ... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.


1. About the Course: Hello. My name is Donald Ratner. I'm an architect with somewhat unusual area of expertise. I teach people had a boost their creativity through the design of space. I do this by drawing on research and design psychology, linking elements in our physical surroundings toe higher levels of creative thinking. There are some topics and techniques. You'll learn about what colors stimulate in sight. How ceiling heights affect idea, flow. Artwork. Sound which seating arrangements strengthen creative collaboration and which squelch it. Plan escaping lighting materials, the influence of food prep and consumption on mental processing and more. We should take the course, for starters, anyone who works in a creative industry, whether it's writing, media and publishing, marketing, finance, fashion, science, education, coaching or other feel driven by the need to solve problems. My fellow design professionals, of course, in order to serve their clients better and all your creatives out there pursuing a passion for pleasure or profit during private time. Short answer. Everyone condemn. If it and no previous design expertise is required, you can apply what you learnt toe almost any type or size of environment. Whether you're dealing with a large office project, a single classroom in a corner of your living room. You'll also find it useful no matter what your resource is. Many of the techniques accommodating a broad range of budgets A few last things before you start. First, I suggest going through the lessons sequentially, at least the first time since I've designed the material. Toe flow from one to the next could always repeat modules later. And don't be surprised if you do. You're about to get a lot of insights you'll want to capture in use after you finish the course. I also recommend checking out the course project descriptions before you begin, in case you want to do or think about any of them while taking the class. That said, Get ready to learn how to turn workspace into idea space. Thanks for listening and see you in class. 2. Defining Creativity and Innovation: before we dive into the material, I want to make sure everyone starts off on the same page by defining two important keywords that lie at the heart of the course. The first is creativity, which, as you can see from the screen I define as the development of novel and useful ideas for products, services and systems. You notice that all three words novel and useful are bold ID. It's because I want to make it clear that an idea has to be both novel and useful to be considered creative enough. Of course, I mean new, original, unique, surprising but useful yes, in the conventional sense of things that serve a practical purpose but also more broadly to mean things that hold value for people. So, for example, a work of are generally has no real pragmatic utility. Yet we place great value on it as a creative product because of what it gives us emotionally, intellectually and culturally. Second keyword is innovation, which I'll define as the introduction of seminal products, services and systems into the market. Place. Here is you can see a bold of the terms seminal, which is to say groundbreaking when precedented pioneering cutting edge. A classic example of a design innovator is Frank Lloyd Wright. It's writer designs, the first prairie style homes, the first homes with open space planning, the first buildings with radiant floor heating, the first to use live on grade construction, among other breakthroughs. To me, though, what makes right a true innovator isn't just that he was the first to bring these ideas to market. It's that his innovations were then taken up by others in the field and eventually assimilated into mainstream practice. In this course, all mostly used the term creativity rather than innovation. I do this partly because nearly everyone has the mental wherewithal to be creative, whereas let's face it, only a small number of us will ever rise to the level of a Frank Lloyd Wright. And partly because before you can be innovative, you first have to learn to be creative. Coming up next, how space and human psychology intersect 3. The Psychology of Space: in the previous module, we reviewed definitions of the two key words. Creativity and innovation. Now that that's done, I want to get things underway with a quote by, of all people, Winston Churchill, who twice in his life said this. We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us. Let's analyze Churchill statement for a moment. I think the first half is pretty straightforward. The we it refers to our people, whether it's architects, designers, clients, developers, builders, craftspeople, government officials or anyone who has a hand in what the world looks like. So no mystery there. But it's the second half of the sentence where things get a little more intriguing afterwards. Are building shape us, I say intriguing because it leads to some interesting questions, such as exactly how do they shape us? How do we know they shape us, and what shape do they put us in? Well, it would take another 20 years or so, but there eventually emerged a scientific discipline designed to address these issues. That discipline became known as environmental psychology, the science of person to place interaction. Its goal is to solve human problems by studying how the built and natural environments influence how people think, feel and act. And, as I say, it starts to coalesce as a standalone field of study in the 19 sixties and seventies. But we're gonna jump ahead to 1984 because it's in that year that the findings from a truly groundbreaking experiment came out, an experiment that very neatly sets the table for the material. In this course. The author of the study was a young professor at the University of Delaware named Roger S All Rick. Alright have been trained as a medical biologist, but what he was really interested in was whether the physical environment has any influence on the healing process in human beings. He believed it did as a result of a personal experience he had as a teenager. So what he did was travel about an hour north to a town west of Philadelphia called Pay Oley, Pennsylvania. He chose this location because there was a rather large hospital there that could provide him with the resource is he need to test his hypothesis experimentally for subjects he naturally turns to patients who've been at the hospital, but not just any patients. These were all people who met very specific criteria he laid down. First of all, they all had to have been at the hospital within the nine years leading up to the experiment and specifically between the months of May in October, a critical detail. As you'll hear in a moment they all had to have undergone the same type of gold bladder surgery. They all had to have been between the ages of 20 and 69 so excluding the very old and the very young, and they all had to have been free of psychological disorders prior to their visit. Maybe most importantly, given our interests, they all had to have stayed in identical rooms on the second and third floors of one particular wing of the hospital where they all looked out over the same courtyard outside. There was, however, one and only one significant difference in their physical surroundings, and that was the view through the window. Roughly half the patients in the study when they looked out so the leaves of trees that have been planted at one end of the courtyard. So now you know why Elrich only included patients who'd been at the hospital between May and October is being Pennsylvania. The branches would have been bearing other times of year, adding it unwanted second variable to the experiment. The rest of the patients, however, weren't quite so fortunate. Instead of trees, they were treated to an unobstructed view of a blank brick wall belonging to the structure situated across the courtyard. What all Rick wanted to know was this did the different views in any way affect patient outcomes? Find out he pulled patient records and collated the data. Lo and behold, he discovers that there were indeed quite striking differences between the two groups. Those patients exposed to greenery enjoyed shorter hospital stays, required less medication and experienced fewer complications than those facing the brick wall. Let that sink in for a moment. Something out there in the physical world literally altered the course of human physiology . That's pretty powerful stuff, and I think would put to rest any doubts you might have had as to the importance of environmental psychology. Okay, now let's reframe what happened at the only hospital in sequential terms. What we can say is that an input in the form of an external stimulus in this case, the view through the window entered patient consciousness through one of the five senses. Sight, sound, smell, taste, touch where it then triggered an output, meaning a change of condition or behaviour, which at pay only that the form of improved human wellness. Scientists have a name for this triggering action. They call it brain prime ing, the prime from all wreck being the view through the window. Now I would go one step further and suggest that the type of brain crime in all Rex experiment could also be termed a designed trigger. I use that term because the conditions that led to the patients having different views through their windows came about entirely through human agency, meaning as a result of design decisions made by the people who shaped the hospital environment. All of which leads to an obvious follow up question. If Oric was able to discover one instance of a positive correlation between physical space and positive patient outcomes, well, what about all the other factors that make up an interior? What about color materials and finishes, lighting, furnishings, ceiling height planning? Could we not repeat his experiment again and again on Lee testing one of these other variables each time. Instead, answer to that question is obviously yes. In fact, it's precisely what's happened in the decades since all Rex experiment. What's more, the practice has given rise to a new type of design decision making called evidence based design, or CBD, for short. What TBD proposes is that in addition to the traditional criteria we used to shape the built world, whether it's aesthetics, personal preferences, client preferences, technology, construct ability, budget history or context, we should also filter our decisions through the prism of scientifically determined evidence in order to achieve the best possible outcome for users. Not surprisingly, given its history and the stakes at hand, E. B. D. Has had the greatest impact on the health care industry, as you can see from this contemporary design for a hospital room. Reason I know this to be an example of E. B. D. Is that I can trace back many of the decisions made in shaping the space to specific research findings, including the large tree visible through the window. I can also tell where still more work is needed, so that's all good. But here's the question that leads us to the heart of this course. If scientists have been able to discover multiple correlations between physical space and improved human health, could they not also use the same methods to uncover designed triggers, leading to improved human creativity? The answer. In the next module. 4. Tactics Group I: Color: at the end of our last module, we were left with the question as to whether the same method scientists used to uncover designed triggers leading to improve human wellness could also be applied to finding triggers, leading to improved human creativity. Once again, the answer is a resounding yes. In fact, researchers have discovered so many techniques for enhancing creativity through design over the past 15 to 20 years that I found it useful to organize them into. Three groups will spend the rest of the course exploring a sampling from each category, starting with what I call creativity tactics. Group One Appearance in the Pertinence. This category contains triggers involving things you see, whether in the construction of a space or an object set within it, like to start off this category with perhaps its most ubiquitous invisible component. Namely, color story here begins in 2000 and nine, when two researchers from the University of British Columbia set out to determine whether color has any impact on creative task performance color. Being a rather broad term, they wisely narrowed down the scope of their investigation to just blue and red. Now, for this particular tactic, I want to go into some extra detail as to how the researchers went about their business. Because I'd like you to see other methods besides the one used by all Rick, which is called a field study, since it involved him going out into the real world to extract his data. The British Columbia experiment is more typical of the research will be looking at in the course, having been done under laboratory conditions in a university setting instead of patients, students now service subjects. And instead of going through surgery, they simply had to take a series of tests in a computer lab to generate the desire data. The tests, of course, are key to the research. So what did they measure? Well, they measure two different types of mental processing, known as analytical and creative and more commonly referred to as left and right brain thinking. But for reasons I'll get to in a bid, I generally steer clear of that particular trope. Let's describe the two cognitive styles by analytical. We generally mean a kind of thinking based on reason and logic that's linear for us to determine one thing, then use that information to determine the next and the next. That's concrete and detailed in scale and narrow and focused on outlook. It's also the kind of thinking used to solve problems, having just one correct answer and that required to go outside yourself in order to draw on objective knowledge. To give an example. If someone asked you how much is two plus two, you're gonna say four. Not because it's your personal opinion or something you feel inside, but because you've applied the objective laws of mathematics to calculate the answer. And finally, analytical processing involves exploiting, which is to say, making use of things as they currently are. Creative thinking is more or less its mirror opposite. Instead of reason and logic, we use intuition, insight, imagination. Instead of sequential thinking, our thoughts tend to bounce around in zigzag and circuitous patterns. Instead of a concrete and detailed outlook, we see things in abstract, non specific terms. Instead of a narrow and focus perspective, we take a broad, big picture view. Instead of looking for just one solution to a problem, we generate multiple options, and finally, instead of looking to knowledge outside ourselves, we look within instead of accepting what is we explore what could be some examples of the kinds of exercises used to measure the two styles for analytical proof, reading and memory recall exercises, since they both involve objective knowledge, right or wrong answers. Another archetypal analytical thinking skills for creativity. A type of test where the goal is to come up with the maximum number of alternate ways to use a common object other than it's conventional ones. Bricks and paperclips being the usual selections or similarly, a test where you're asked to write down as many ways to improve a standard household product as you can in a given amount of time. The last part of the process will mention is how the researchers delivered the prime without the subject's knowing they were being primed. Since you never want to tell your subjects which are really up to for fear of skewing results, the method was pretty clever. What they did was to inset the test materials inside the borders of the computer monitor, leaving a fairly white margin around the sides, which they then colorized in red, blue or white. The purpose of the white was to establish a control group, since wise is the absence of color. Any deviation in scoring among the red and blue people from this baseline group would logically be attributable to the prime ing effects of the two colors. Now, just because the experiment was run in an academic setting doesn't mean it was purely academic and purpose. Like other studies I'll be presenting in this course and environmental psychology generally , the goal of the research was to get practical guidance on shaping environments optimized for creative thinking. For example, imagining you're finishing up a presentation for a workspace at a creative agency or forward facing organization like the one you see on the screen right now, Your client is coming to the office in just a few minutes, and the last thing you need to do is choose a color for an accent wall. Actually, you want to pick a hue that will help, rather than hinder your client in its mission to generate novel and useful ideas, someone on your team tells you they read about this experiment where either red or blue were found to boost creativity among students subjects, but they can't remember which you don't have time to hunt for the information on the Web, which color. Would you choose if you were forced to make the coal right then and there, red or blue? I hope you see what I'm getting at. Absent objective data, the best we can do when confronted with such a question is to infer rather than deduce the answer by the law of averages, that's only going to succeed about half the time. With access to useful information, However, we could do better for our clients and ourselves. Which brings us back to our experiment. Let me ask you now, which color do you think boosted creativity among the students? Red or blue? If your answer was blue, then you were correct. Students exposed to the blue prime did indeed score higher in creative test performance than the red or white. If you picked red well, you had it half right. Those students also performed above their level Onley. They did so on the exercises, measuring analytical thinking. So there's the one of it. But what about the why of it? Why did the blue turnout to improve idea generation? Here's where we start getting into speculative theory. I say speculative, because when dealing with psychological matters, it's nearly impossible to prove why our minds work the way they do with the certainty attainable in other fields. Still, cognitive scientists can draw on their expertise to construct some pretty convincing arguments for the root causes of human behavior, which is what I'm going to try to do. Now. I'm going to try to put forth my own theory as to what led to the results in British Columbia, starting with this thesis statement, our mental, which is to say idea space expands and contracts in direct proportion to our perception of physical space. In other words, the more expansive we perceive the space around us to be, the more open our minds are to new ideas, new perspectives and new ways of doing things. The more constrained that space, the narrower our outlook and the more focused, detail oriented and analytical are thinking becomes okay, all very interesting. But what do space and color have to do with each other? You might ask. Actually, they have a lot to do with each other. To demonstrate, I'd like to call on an expert witness named the Mona Lisa. Take a look at the picture, notice how Leonardo uses color to represent varying degrees of depth in the three main sections of the canvas. In the upper tier, he uses blue to convey an illusion of deep space where the landscape recedes behind Lisa into the far distance. In the middle tier, his palate turns somewhat warmer, creating the perception that the landscape has come closer to the viewer until finally, in the lower third, he's painting with fully saturated warm tones, such as the deep red sleeves of Lisa's dress, which brings the figure right up to the picture plane. This is no mere painterly conceit. The same optical effects occur in nature. Stand outside on a sunny day and you'll notice that things far away really do look blue, whereas colors in the foreground appear warmer and more saturated. Okay, so let's assume we all accept that space and color are related. Cool colors moving away from the viewer, warm tones advancing toward the viewer. How do we now link them to creativity coming up next? How space, color and creativity come together in the psychology of idea generation 5. Color, Space and Creativity: We ended our last module yet again with a question. Had a wheeling color, space and creativity. So is to finally explain why Blue boosted idea formation among test subjects. We link them by means of a model of creative thinking developed by a famous psychologist named JP Guilford. Let's take some time to walk through Gilford's model together. Besides helping to explain the results of the British Columbia experiment, it's also going to tell us a lot about creativity as process a subject we haven't really gotten into yet to start. Let's say you're about to undertake a creative project. Maybe it's, ah design, project writing, project and ad campaign you're putting together work, maybe something fun you're doing at home. What does every project need to begin? It needs a problem to be solved in our model. That problem is represented by the question mark on the far left. In real life, it can take the form of a concept for a book you want to write Project Brief for a job. You just got hired for a dinner that has to be prepared, using just what's in your fridge and anything else that involves a goal with an obstacle in front of it. Once you're clear about the problem you're trying to solve, you move to the next stage, which Guilford calls the divergent phase. Also known as the ideation, or generative phase. This is where you start sketching or playing around with chapter outlines or whatever it takes to get your ideas out of your head and into the world. Gilford's term dive urgency is an apt description of your cognitive state during this period. The boundaries of your mental space diverging or whining as you seek to capture as many different ideas for solving your problem as you can. In that sense, you're a lot like a fisherman who casts the widest possible net to catch the greatest number of fish. The fact that along with that Big Ned comes a couple of old tires and a bunch of odd looking creatures that get thrown back in the water doesn't bother the fishermen, and it shouldn't bother you. To paraphrase the famous scientist Linus polling, if you wanna have one good idea, you'd better be prepared to have lots of bad ones besides better toe let a few losers through than risk what creativity experts call premature closure, where you choke off a promising direction by being judgmental too early in the process, there are limits to dive urgency, Of course. At some point you're going to run out of time or fee budget or pencils or maybe even ideas . When that happens, you go in the opposite direction, winning out your less successful efforts while advancing those worth developing To determine which schemes liver die you exercise with. Guilford calls convergent thinking the aim now being to converge toward a final solution by making choices rather than creating them. That means, in part, drawing on your rational faculties to judge whether a potential solution is going to work, that being what it takes for an idea to be useful. Hence the synonyms, validation and verification for the convergent phase. But now you've probably noticed the several ways color, space and cognition overlap in the model. Take divergent thinking, just a div. Urgency correlates with expanding mental space. So, too, does the color blue imply expanse of physical space as we saw in Nature and the Mona Lisa. Likewise, just a czar. Mental outlook has too narrow for us to pare down our options in the convergent phase. So, too, does red trigger the impression of shrinking physical space. You probably also noticed that they've urgency shares a lot of characteristics with my description of creative thinking, exploring multiple options to a problem, thinking intuitively rather than rationally exploring what could be rather than what is thes air traits that fit either term the same with convergent and analytical processing, both of which call on reason and logic, focus thinking and detail level analysis in order to move the process towards a definitive solution. Given this confluence of mental and physical space, it could well be my thesis is correct that the students in the British Columbia experiment who saw a blue did better on their creative tests because their mental space expanded in tandem with the optical expansion of physical space. Students exposed to read were natural, then new best on the analytical exercises, which is what happened. A few less comments on Gilford's model before we move on, the first concerns a matter of semantics. These terms creative and creativity. It can be a bit slippery. For instance, the way creative is used at the bottom of the screen could be interpreted to mean they were Onley creative during the divergent phase, and that is how people often use it. If the title at the top of the screen suggests the model refers to creative thinking as a whole, implying that both cognitive styles are part of the equation. So which is it? Well, I've seen arguments for either usage. At the end of the day, though I personally believe creativity should be understood as whole brain thinking, entailing both divergent and convergent processes. One thing is consistent with my definition of a creative idea, as one that's demonstrably novel and useful. Think about it. If you only get Aziz Faras the divergent phase, you might end up with an idea that's novel, but you won't know if it's truly useful until you've verified its viability in the convergent phase as well. Having said this, I will often use the term creative in its narrower sense of straight out idea formation. As we go through the course, I do this for no other reason than that it's just really hard to constantly come up with synonyms for creative when referring to idea formation. Finally, I want to reiterate that where we're looking at here is a diagram as such a deviates at times from real life. For one thing, a real world project beyond a certain level of complexity almost never goes from problem to solution in a straight line progression. As you're no doubt aware, it's more likely to be a two steps forward, one step back kind of experience where you jump back and forth between divergent and convergent, thinking in the course of solving a problem. Oh, and one more thing. As you also might know, any creative project beyond a certain scope is going to involve not one, but maybe hundreds, thousands, even tens of thousands of divergent convergent cycles. The cycles might involve problems and some problems that range in scale from the initial big idea down to refinements of minute detail. But each cycle will follow a similar structure, as we see in the basic diagram. So I've put forth here what all acknowledges a fairly conceptual argument to support my position that the greater the sense of surrounding space, the more open minded and generative people will pay. But if I am right, then shouldn't receive the same thing. Occur with other design triggers involving spatial distance, some of them being much more literal in conveying a sense of depth than pure color, coming up all about views, ceilings and artwork. 6. Views, Ceilings, Art: picking up from our last module, I left you wondering whether there might be other creativity primes besides color that researchers have found to improve idea flow by enlarging our sense of space. As a matter of fact, I'm going to show you several now, beginning with views, which literally extends space by allowing the I to travel beyond enclosure and into the more expensive world outside. And how about ceiling height? After all, space isn't purely lateral running from side to side of front to back. It also exists in the third vertical dimension. If my theory is true, wouldn't people occupying a space with a tall ceiling experience an improvement in creative thinking while those in a low ceiling environment would out perform an analytical thinking ? Seems to me the wood, the only question being what constitutes told versus low ceiling heights? Happily, researchers have answered my question, finding that subjects working under a 10 foot ceiling solved creative problems more successfully than those under an eight foot ceiling. The reverse being true for the analytical exercises. This particular design trigger has even gotten itself a nifty name. It's known as the cathedral affect the phrase, obviously alluding to the extreme verticality of the great medieval churches of Europe. Then there are studies involving artwork, one of which found that hanging travel posters in a workplace boosted creative output among staff. That a visual representation of distant space could have the same effect as its actual experience underscores an important point about prime e crimes do not have to be literal to effect cognition. The mind will respond to metaphorical and indirect use. Justus. They will to direct ones we saw as much in the case of the Blue Red experiment. This is simply another example of the same phenomena for that matter. Nor do distance related crimes have to be based on spatial metrics. E vocations of near or distant time have also been found to move us toward one cognitive style or the other. For instance, if you chose vintage travel posters and according to the research, you'd compound the prime in effect by queuing a far off time rather than a distant place. So with all these distance based primes uncovered through research, wouldn't you think that somebody besides me would have noticed the pattern and proposed a comprehensive fairy to explain the phenomenon? Well, sure you wouldn't. To be honest, they have. That theory is known as construe will level theory, or CLT. It's a somewhat awkward name, but it gets the point across. What CLT proposes is that the farther way a person construes an object or event to be the more abstract and broad minding their thinking becomes the closer they are, the more focused and detail oriented. The mindset. Ah, good way to visualize CLT is to imagine yourself open an airplane. You're flying over farm country and you look down. What do you see? Mostly you see fields of color, pattern, light and shade, maybe a few scattered objects that you can just barely tell what they are, your eye being too far away to take in enough information to identify them. Let's say you parachute at the plane in land directly below. Now what can you make out pretty much everything and in quite fine detail to from the lettering on the tractor toe. What kind of crops are growing in the field around you? If some of the terms I just use make you think back to an earlier slide, well, they should. Abstract broad brush thinking is exactly the kind of mental processing we do when we're in creative mode. So it makes sense that perceiving things at a distance, literally and figuratively affording us a big picture view of the world aligns with ideation by the same token and makes equal sense that being close to something induces an analytical mentality, since proximity allows us to focus more narrowly on the object of our attention and to process it at a much more granule level of information. Well, I didn't come up with CLT myself. I don't want toe. Have you leave this part of the course thinking I misled you when I took credit for the thesis statement I delivered at the beginning of the color discussion. You know, the one about idea space fluctuating in parallel with our sense of physical space as word of the thesis is a bona fide original statement of mine. So is my link in the results of the British Columbia color experiment to the perception of dimensional space. But that said, it's time now to turn our attention to a whole other facet of design psychology 7. Furnishings: well, look at a few different aspects of furnishings, beginning with arrangement by which I mean how furnishings disposed people in relation to each other and have those relationships than influence, collaboration and creativity. Take this idea space, for instance. You can tell it's an ideas face from the graphics on the partition visible through the glass at the back. Check him out. There's a line drawing of a human brain with sparks coming out of it, a well known symbol of creative insight called the Idea Bulb and finally, an ironic quotation that says everything that can be invented has been invented. Given the context, it's hard to escape the irony, especially in that it was said by the director of the U. S patent office, way back in 18 99. Message to the people in the idea room is pretty obvious. Be creative, get good ideas, invent stuff and do it together as a group. That's why we put in all those chairs is just one problem. The table. It's not so much about creativity as it's about revealing and maintaining power. Okay, we all understand that organizations have power structures, but how does that negatively impact creativity well visualized the room dynamics during a brainstorming session. The way brainstorming is supposed to work is that every new idea is supposed to be considered equal until later proven unequal. In that sense, brainstorming operates very closely to Gilford's divergent convergent model. The problem with the tables that where the person with an idea sits could preemptively influence how that idea is judged by others. Save the idea. Originator occupies the power seat at the end, the one where the CEO or department head or project leader usually sits. In that case, any ideas that person puts into circulation arrived with the in premature of authority. So how do you think those ideas are going to be received by others? I think very well on the whole, given the political cost to rejecting them. If, on the other hand, the idea comes from someone located in seeding Siberia like down at the other end, well, maybe it'll fly and maybe it won't. Proximity to power confers power distance weakens it. Another thing that suffers when people are arranged in straight lines is collaboration. For instance, the distribution of conversation tends to be unequal because the distances between people are unequal, same with visibility. People who sit across the table see each other perfectly. Those who sit in the same row or at the extreme ends will have to lean forward and crane their necks to make eye contact or be heard, which impedes the free exchange of ideas. So if a table like this is so detrimental to creative collaboration, why was it Specht? And why are 90% of the meeting room tables in the world just like it? For the same reason we're still using a keyboard layout device for manual typewriters on our Elektronik computers, old ideas die hard. That might should be evident from this classroom photo from the turn of the last century. Notice the similarities between this room and the previous interior. Both situate occupants in grids. Both temper collaboration the classroom even more so in having everyone face forward and both direct group attention toward a single person wheeling power over the room from a privileged position at the edge of the space. Only now it's the teacher standing at the front instead of the CEO and instead of running a meeting there, delivering information top down to their students who are expected to absorb it through memorization and wrote repetition all this done to prepare them for the workplace of their time, where they would again be a rate in straight lines and grids, these being optimal for maximizing industrial output. To be sure, creativity and innovation were also happening elsewhere. Buildings like this, but in another type of space and among a different demographic than occupied the shop floor . This system worked extremely well for a long time, made our society very affluent and raise the world standard of living exponentially over everything that had come before. But that was then, and this is now. Today we're in a different kind of economy. New paradigms for disposing people in space are needed to keep pace with this change, starting with learning environments and continuing into the workplace, where everyone from the mail room in turn and warehouse worker up to the executive suite or potential sources of creative ideas. In terms of arrangement, the goal is to move away from gritted a raise and toward radio and centralized patterns. Instead, it says three distinct advantages. One. It eliminates hierarchically privilege positioning, since everyone is now equidistant from a common Centrepoint, endowing all the seats with same status to it redirects attention from the table perimeter to the table center, transforming the center into an idea basket into which everybody can toss their ideas and expect toe have them evaluated without prejudice. And three, It's much easier for participants around the table to see, hear and share ideas with each other. And let's not forget about the surrounding space. You can reinforce these same qualities by designing the setting as a whole. According to similar principles. The square room plan and circular lighting track visible on screen are a good example of reentering the geometry of the table within the larger environment. A couple of terms to take note of here first, So seo Few Guell, which is a mash up of the words social and centrifugal, refers to gridded configurations that direct energy outwardly into a designated location along a perimeter and second socio pedal, a fusion of social and centripetal to signify the inward and central life focused of circular centric and radial arrangements 8. Furnishings (Continued 1): so you don't think I'm ignoring the widespread view that sitting is the new smoking. By dwelling on seating arrangements, I want to look at a couple of alternative postures that have been linked to improve creativity and well being. The most frequently recommended option is to stand rather than sit, and certainly history is filled with high achievers. You've utilised standing desks amongst them Ernest Hemingway, Winston Churchill, Virginia Woolf and Thomas Jefferson. And many contemporaries swear by them as well. If you already use one or specify them on jobs, good for you. If not, you might want to consider doing so for a while. I think there's still more research to be done to definitively link them to accelerated idea flow. There's little question that encouraging users to be upright rather than glued to a standard desk chair for long periods can improve physical health. One caveat, though, is to play some kind of resilient cushion or movable platform under the feet. Our bodies air simply not engineered to stand on super hard surfaces, more or less motionless for long stretches. Doing so could lead to serious back in muscle ailments. The purpose of having a device like a rubber pad or bobble board underfoot is that it will make the person shift their weight in small increments so as to keep them limber and in motion. Less commonly known but more validated scientifically is to recline when doing creative work. Author seem to be particularly found of this posture, among them Mark Twain, Truman Capote, Michael Chabon and Virginia Woolf. Again, as for why this particular posture fuels the imagination, one speculation is that it has to do with a part of the brain called the locus Saru Lius. When activated as it is when we prepared a stand up or spring into action locus SARU aliases releases a hormone variously called nor epinephrine, or nor adrenaline. The effect of the substances to raise alertness, energized memory and focus attention all helpful functions for someone about to be physically active. But in conflict with the unfocused, mind wandering, dreamlike style of mental processing that engenders breakthrough ideas, Reclining has the opposite effect de activating the locus saru lius, reducing the supply of norepinephrine and putting us into the more relaxed mental and physical states conducive to creativity. To me, though, at the end of the day What ultimately matters most is to avoid remaining in the same position for too long. Whether it's alternating between just two postures or assuming all three is part of one's regimen is a matter of personal choice. Whatever the decision, the key is sticking to it. Has the writer Vladimir Nabokov did, He would begin his afternoon writing session by working at a standing desk, then shift to conventional vests, eating after a set period of time. The third and final stage found him writing while lying in bed that is had. By then, he's taken off his shoes, tie and jacket, reinforcing through dress the same message embodied by his posture that he's in an especially relaxed physical and mental state. 9. Furnishings (Continued 2): let's talk now about a different dimension of furnishings, which is how they dispose people not towards each other but toward the space they occupy. To do this, I want to introduce you to something called Prospect Refuge. Theory is there. He was first proposed in the mid 19 seventies by an Englishman named Jay Appleton. Appleton's thesis was that humans were originally bioengineered to seek habitats that afforded maximum prospect, which is to say, 100 and 80 degree views of everything that lay in front of them while simultaneously providing protection from behind an overhead. Nature's purpose in imbuing us with this instinct, according to Appleton, was to promote survival of the species in a hostile environment. Of course, most of us are no longer under daily threat of attack by predators intent on making us lunch. But it does seem that the residual effects of Prospect Refuge remain inside us. Our nearly universal attraction to sites affording views for one could well be driven by this same innate compulsions. Prospect. Refuge may also make itself felt when we're in a negative relationship to space, such as when we're oriented with our backs to a room like the anxious gangster sitting with his back to the door of a restaurant. To be seen without seeing can cause subliminal mental discomfort in the form of increased stress. Because I'm sure you've heard stress can be bad for your health when you're experience too much of it. But what you might not know is that it could be really bad for creativity to in fact, stress could well be considered the number one idea killer. The reason has to do with how stress impacts cognitive style. Let me give a real life example. You're driving down a country road late at night and all of a sudden a deer darts right in front of your car. How do you react internally? Your body begins pumping the stress hormone cortisol into your system. This prompts you to enter a high state of mental and physical alert, your muscles tense. You crashed the wheel tightly and you become super focused on the situation at hand. It's for your brain. It's got into hyper rational mode as it calculates the actions that will save you from your predicament. Hopefully, sounds like analytical thinking, doesn't it? And well, it should, since this would not exactly be a good time to indulge in Creed of fantasizing. Now you want that one right answer to your problem, and you want it now. In other words, fear fosters focus. Not only that, it also discourages risk taking, exploratory behaviour, non specific reasoning and other cognitive operations that undermine the goal of self preservation. Creativity, on the other hand, draws precisely on these kinds of thinking, which means that it thrives when you're in a relaxed state of mind. That makes sense. Feeling safe, you're more willing to take risks, experience failure, explore uncharted territory. Try something new, all behaviors we associate with being creative. It's for applying prospect Refuge to problems of design. The core dictum is to face your space. You do this by positioning your principal workstation so that your back is oriented to a solid plain and you have a view of the greatest part of the room in which you're situated for optimal results, maintained perpendicular or direct sight lines through exterior openings, as well as to the place where people enter the space. With these guidelines in mind, what would you do to improve the quality of this creative space from the standpoint of design psychology. That's right. You'd flip around the work table where the fellow is sitting, so he looks into the space rather than at a blank wall. That simple move would actually yield multiple benefits for one, his sense of physical space, and by extension, his mental space would no longer be so compressed. For another, he gained access to views and natural life for the window visible on the right. I understand there will be situations where it's really hard to avoid being tied up against a solid wool or having your back to a room. In those cases, you can compensate by drawing on other creativity enhancement techniques, whether it's coloring the backdrop, blow hanging artwork or displaying elements of organic nature in the space. What about the shape of furniture? Anything to talk about? Their? Yes. As a matter of fact, several studies have looked at whether populating a space with curved or straight furniture alters our mental state as it relates to our capacity for invention. What researchers found is that curved furniture is more favorable to eliciting at creative mindset than furniture dominated by straight lines and crisp edges. Same was observed in shaping space as a whole, Subjects were more inclined to associate interiors dominated by curved elements and rounded surfaces with a creative mentality than boxy right angled spaces. Think Karim Rashid versus Mies van der Rohe. In terms of creativity psychology, At least it's Rashid by a knockout. Any thoughts as to why the strong preference for the curvilinear over the rectilinear? Well, ask yourself this. Have you ever hurt yourself with a spoon? No, I didn't think so. Then again, how many times have you hurt yourself with that knife? Yeah, I figured as much we all have, which is why we're usually more focused and attentive when handling sharp things, then rounded or soft things. Sure, some of this we learned by experience. But cognitive sciences also believe that we're wired to react differently toward things, depending on perceived danger. This theory is called approach avoidance motivation. It works like it sounds. Things in situations we feel could hurt us, prompt us to raise our guard and back away from them. Those that make us feel safe lesson, alertness and causes to be more open minded and relaxed. Instead, as you saw with Prospect refuge, the first instills an analytical mindset. The second a creative one 10. Nature and Creative Space: in talking about things like approach avoidance, Prospect, refuge, bioengineering and early humans you know, wandered into a sub discipline of environmental psychology. Cold evolutionary psychology. What's the difference? Well, if the mantra of environmental psychology is, we are where we are that of evolutionary psychology would be. We are who we have always been to understand what I mean. Consider these five points 50.1. The brain inside your head is about the same size and shape as the brains. Inside the heads of the first Homo SAPIENs appearing on the African savanna, about 100 and 90,000 years ago 0.2. Those brains were obviously engineered to enable the species to survive and thrive in a purely natural environment. There being no other kind 0.3, if you take all the time since hominids came into being, until now, about 99.99% of that done has been spent in natural environments. 0.4 evolution moves very, very, very slowly, which leads 2.5. Our brains simply haven't had time to catch up to the fact that people in the industrialized world now spent 90% of their time in indoor environments. This lag would explain why we experience behavioral anomalies like tensing up, because our back is to a space where we see a piece of straightedge furniture. Some brain parts think we're still roaming the savannah. Others are operating in a very different external reality. Knowing about these potential disconnects can help us optimize creative space by informing various design decisions, such as how the best place furniture in which shapes to favor. But to treat the problem incrementally would be to miss the larger implications of evolutionary psychology, which is that our whole way of thinking and being remains rooted in the natural world and that the more we divorce ourselves from that world, the more we undermine our own mental and physical well being. Okay, that does sound bad, but what do we do about it? Obviously, we're not going back to living in caves and trees. One possible solution is to turn to a school of thought cold bio fell IQ design. The aim of bio Filic design is to reconnect human beings to their natural habitat through the medium of building. That means following a set of principles and practices like integrating naturally source materials, such Aziz wood stone fibers and hides into the building fabric, letting an abundant natural light incorporating plant products incorporating naturally occurring smells and sounds. For example, floral scents and falling water and mimicking physical and formal characteristics found the nature from coloring things green to replicating fractal patterns of grove from creating settings visually rich in detail and complexity. Toe applying structural principles consistent with how things stand up in nature. This is no pie in the sky stuff. All Rick study it. Paley Hospital is just one among many instances where bio Filic design has been scientifically shown to result in a material improvements in human health, and it should be mentioned in happiness as well. What links Bio Filic designed to our area of interest is that researchers have discovered that nature has the same positive impact on creativity as it does on health and happiness. For example, several experiments have found that simply having plants in a workplace could boost creative output among staff from 15 tough 40%. Similar improvements have been documented for each of the bio Filic design techniques I've identified on screen. Let's take a quick look now at a couple of theories that might explain the mechanics behind Bio Filic design. The first proposed by Ullrich himself, is called Stress Reduction Theory, or SRT. It's 30 suggests that our stress levels go down when we see elements of nature because they signal a life sustaining environment, a piece of information that pleases our survival obsessed caveman brains. No end Lower stress, in turn, is good for our health, which is why the patients who saw treason Paley had better patient outcomes than nature deprive subjects. As you also heard. Lower stress is also good for ideation, a relaxed mind being a creative mind. My favorite theory, though, has to do with eye movement. So say you're looking at a blank sheet rock wall. What does your ideo? It probably goes to somewhere around the middle of the wall and then sits there until you turn away. That's because there isn't much to pull your attention in any particular direction. Everything being so uniform, let's say, instead of sheet rock, the Wallace finished in reclaimed woods. How does your I act now? It bounces all over the place from left to right and back again, drawn by the highly variegated appearance of the material this rapid back and forth motion of the I is called Socratic Eye Movement. What it has to do with creativity is this. When are I looks to the left? The right hemisphere of our brain is activated. When it looks to the right, the Left Hemisphere lights up. The effect of moving the I back and forth strengthens the connection between the two hemispheres by forging new neural pathways between them. Which is to say it amplifies the kind of whole brain processing that Guilford identified as the basis for creative thinking. Let's finish up with a fun fact about Bio Filic design. Recently, a team of scientists decided to take another look at this fellows brain, you know, the one that was stored in a jar for decades. What they discovered was that his corpus callosum, which is the brain part that runs right down the middle and bridges the two hemispheres, was unusually large. That's surprising, though, when you think about I say, as the consummate creative here is a man clearly capable of exceptionally complex analytical thought it who always said that concepts came to him first in pictures and only later in words and symbols that he could think both metaphorically and analytically, visually and numerically, and had a large corpus callosum would suggest that we're on the right track when we designed creative spaces that stimulate eye movement by means of detail and material. 11. Tactics Group II: Lighting and Sound: I share this 1984 portrait of the young Steve Jobs in his California home by way of introducing our second group of creativity tactics, thes having to do with the ambience of space. Look at just two examples, starting with lighting and, more specifically, lighting levels. What you should want to know is first is lighting influence, creative output and if so, as a specific level of Brighton has been calculated for peak idea generation to cut right to the chase, the answers are yes and 150 lux. But that figure in perspective, the minimum amount of light recommended for reading is 300 Lux for General office lighting . 500 for a supermarket of 1000. Lux Daylight runs anywhere from 2000 lux under an overcast sky to as high as 100,000 lux in bright sun. By most measures, then 150 Lux is pretty darn dim. Why so dark? Well, one possibility takes us back once more to my thesis about the relationship between physical and ideas Space, as you can see in the jobs photo walls shrouded in murkiness, are less distinct than when normally lighted and therefore weaker and conveying the impression of enclosing space. With that dissolution of visible enclosure comes a greater openness of mind and enhanced idea flow. Another possibility relates to a psychological concept called locus of control. Locus of control refers to the degree to which people believe they have control over their lives. Lighting conditions can affect that perception, subject to person to bright lights, whether in an overload office, or to take an extreme example in a prison courtyard under the glare of searchlights. And they'll experience increased stress as a result of feeling watched, which, in the latter case they actually are put those same individuals and Dibley lighting surroundings, on the other hand, and their sense of autonomy and freedom to think outside the box, literally or figuratively, will grow under cover of darkness. Bottom line creativity only thrives in environments where people feel free to think freely . Now let's talk about sound. What would you think is the optimal sound level for creative space? If you're like many, you'd say none. Zero zip. I mean, who doesn't like quiet when they're trying to come up with creative solutions to challenging problems? Actually, according to the data, quite a few people, most of us. It turns out our at our creative best when subjected to background noise of 70 decibels, which is about what it sounds like in your favorite coffee shop on a moderately busy day. Kind of like this. A possible explanation for the finding. Having a little bit of background noise takes just enough edge off our concentration to keep us on the divergent end of the cognitive spectrum. The danger with total quiet is that we've become too self conscious of being conscious, which fosters an analytical mindset. Two. CAVEATS Here There's good sound distraction, and there's bad sound distraction. White noise like coffee shop, cheddar, crashing ocean waves and rainfall are good for ideation, content specific inputs like a one sided phone conversation or bad for it. Second, the data applies to people who are neither full on introverts nor extroverts, which is most everybody. True introverts, on the other hand, really do function best under noiseless conditions. Next, we'll look at how things we do in space can boost creativity 12. Tactics Group III: Action Spaces: Let's close things out with our third and final group. The action tactics, these air creativity enhancement techniques that arise from things we dio they directly affect how we shape our surroundings by influencing our decisions as to what kinds of spaces and resource is should be included in creative environments. Take play, for example. Play is maybe the premier creativity catalyst in that it encourages fantasy exploration rule breaking an anything goes mentality, a willingness to fail, role playing and physical locomotion, all known engines off idea generation. There are mountains of data to back up this view. In one study involving alternative use, test subjects instructed to come up with many different things to do with a household object as they could have the most ideas when given a chance to play and tinker with the object first. It's hardly coincidental in that the workplace started to see an influx of space is designed to accommodate place, starting in the New Economy era of the 19 nineties, a time when creativity and innovation emerges economic drivers and imperatives on a whole new scale. Another type of space that's acquired new found importance as the break room or its residential equivalent, the naps space. Here again, there's experimental data attesting to the performative value of such places. Studies show that people will solve a problem or effectively when they enjoy a brief hiatus in the course of their efforts and when they try to work straight through. One reason for the improvement is something I've alluded to on several occasions. Our brains can only maintain high levels of cognitive processing for a limited time at a stretch. Taking a break or nap means our brains have actually shut down. According to several studies, our minds are still actively working on a problem. When we step away from it, only they're doing so in the background by absorbing, consolidating and reworking the information received in the preceding period. Speaking of our brains, as powerful as these organs are, even the smartest among us can only go so far in solving a complex problem through purely mental means. Eventually, we almost always have to externalize those ideas to move ahead. What way to harness the built environment for this purpose is to put your walls to work by turning them into pinup or display boards or in tow, oversized drawing and writing surfaces by applying whiteboard or chalkboard paint. Besides getting ideas to where we can work with them, walls that prompt us to draw doodle diagram or right do something else to improve idea churn, they exercise the hand. Turns out our hands are just as much an idea engine as our brains. In fact, it's believed that ideas originate in the hands and travel to the head, as often is the other way around. But that's still not all. Working walls conduce to foster creativity, given their scale and often public nature. They're great for getting people to collaborate on ideas in real time in space. That's tough to do when your thoughts are tucked away inside a notebook or the circuits of a computer. It's that potentially communal aspect of working walls that also makes them a vehicle for accidental creativity, such as when somebody passing by gets a thought because of something they happen to see on the wall. Coming up next, a case study showing how multiple techniques could be used simultaneously to make a successful creative space 13. Case Study: Let's look at how the various tactics we've been exploring can be applied to. Real world space is also taking the opportunity to introduce a few new ones now, the first step in fitting out a creative spaces to inventory the constraints that things that would seem toe limit your options, which presents significant challenges to overcome constraints, are not necessarily a bad thing in the design process. In fact, many would argue that constraints actually ignite creativity in confronting us with clear problems to solve. In the case of the workspace onscreen, I'd say whoever was responsible for putting it together was faced with four main constraining factors. The first was size. The alcove looks to be somewhere between four and five feet across and 2 to 3 feet deep, not very big by most standards. I guess it was either a storage closet that was converted to a death space. Or maybe it was planned like this from the start. Either way, it men starting off without the luxury of a physically expansive space of the sort that would lend itself to instilling that sense of openness. I talked about early in the course, exacerbating the problem was the absence of any openings within the out Kolff. Instead, the user is compelled to look directly at a solid wall just a few feet away, which further threatened to inhibit a creative mindset. If left unaddressed, 1/3 constraint was orientation. By utilizing a recess for a creative space, the occupant is necessarily compelled to sit with his or her back to the adjoining room, a condition that conflicts with the principle of Prospect Refuge. I told you about the final constraint worth mentioning was budget. True? At first glance, this space looks rather rich, what with the built ins, the abundance of decoration, the nicely finish woods used for the casing and flooring and the very professional looking paint job on the inside walls. And that was certainly my initial impression. But then they looked a little closer and thought a little more, eventually deciding this wasn't entirely the case. For one thing, a person with really deep pockets would probably not have limited themselves to such a modest sized space For another. When you examine the decorative objects, none of them turned out to be particularly expensive. In fact, most looked like flea market fights. They do reflect someone with a pretty good I and the ability to combine things in pleasing arrangements, though, but that's a matter of skill, not cost. The final giveaway that this person had financial limits, like anyone else, was the molded plastic chair, which might well have come out of a Nike catalogue, which, by the way, can be a great resource for finding good design at an affordable price. So those are the limitations. What I like about this space is how the person responsible for its realization overcame them to make something that ultimately works on a practical level, as well as in terms of design psychology. Notice how they compensated for the shallow depth of the alcove by painting the backs and sides of beautiful blue. A recessive color that you'll remember from an earlier segment has the effect of optically deepening space, relieving the sense of compression that it might otherwise impact on the user 0.2. The abundance of artwork, starting with the botanic prince above the top shelf and continuing down with smaller pieces scattered about including a few small landscapes and on Lee, does the presence of creative work products stimulate creativity in and of itself, but the fact that it all references nature helps us attain heightened idea. Generation 0.3. Speaking of which noticed the adept use of bio filic design elements, including several small flower groupings, whether artificial or real, a glass cylinder filled with river rock and the naturally finished wood flooring and trim work point for assuming at least some of the flowers Aerial, Most likely the ones on the desk. We could add the positive stimulant of sent to the list of bio Filic elements employed. 0.5. Presence of books amongst the shelf suggests that this person is a reader, which is good, because reading not only expands your knowledge base, it also helps you see the world from another person's perspective. Whether the authors or a character's a fluid and flexible outlook, being critical for developing the creative mind 0.6 by complexity, I mean the fact that there's a lot for the eye to see a lot for it to bounce around on. That's good, because active eye movements stimulates the brain and strengthens neural connections between our left and right hemispheres, which scientists believe amplifies our ability to think creatively. 0.7. A few years ago, researchers scanned people's brains while they looked at images of paintings or listen to music that they had judged earlier to be either beautiful or ugly. What the scientists found was that the parts of the brain associated with reward and pleasure lit up when people experience the beautiful inputs while the ugly ones activated areas associated with fear. As with other triggers, positive emotional responses generally foster creativity. Negative one suppressive. All of which is to say that beauty is not just a thin veneer to be laid over physical space . Nor is it necessarily a commodity that only the wealthy can afford. Rather, it's something integral to our physical and mental well being, including our capacity for creativity and finally, 0.8 commitment, by which I mean having a creative space to which you come regularly. Because when you do that, what happens is that your mind becomes accustomed to associating that space with creative activities, to the point where simply stepping into it is enough to trigger a creative frame of mind. It's sort of like what happened with Pavlov and his famous dogs. After ringing a bell each time the scientists fed his dogs it got to the point where he just had to ring the bell to start them salivating. That's called classical conditioning, by the way, and it works on humans. Justus Much is on hungry dogs. Next up, the seven attributes of creativity. 14. The 7 Attributes of Creative Thinking: the last technique will look at is cooking. Cooking is, of course, a creative art into itself, often practiced in the domestic realm, we also find it in office learning and commercial environments, where it takes the form of organized food service and consumption. Besides giving sustenance to people in those settings, food turns out to be very effective vehicle for nurturing organizational creativity by bringing people together in social situations, where they can freely throw around ideas in a less structured atmosphere. The reason I like to leave cooking for last has less to do with it being a creative pursuit or driver than that it happens to share several key characteristics with creativity in general. I call these characteristics the seven attributes of creativity because, well, there are seven of them and because together they reveal a lot about the nature of creativity as a whole. I share them with you now with the idea that the more you know about the creative process, the better you'll be at it. So, in no particular order, let's begin with the observation that both creativity and cooking are by nature, combinatorial and cooking. We combine ingredients to make something new in creativity, we blend existing ideas to fashion new ones. History of product design is particularly rich with combinatorial concoctions. For example, the Gutenberg Press was a mash up of a repurpose wine press, movable type and various other already existing features. While smartphones merger, many previously stand alone products into one Jobs himself acknowledged that creativity is just connecting things away makes it all sound a lot easier than it really is. Same goes for non material inventions, too. Einstein's famous scientific equation is a classic example. Strictly speaking, he invented nothing new here. All three factors were already known by his time. The novelty of his inside derives entirely from how he combines them in a particular relationship, no doubt after trying out different arrangements in what he called combinatorial play. A second attribute comment to both cooking and creativity is that they're each collaborative and social in nature. True, at a fundamental level, ideas do come to the individual and true, a person could certainly cook alone, But in reality nobody works in a vacuum. Everything we know comes from those before us or alongside us. Nor can any idea really come out of our heads and into the world without the participation of others. Yes, cooking can be a chore, a times and, yes, creativity can be head banging Lee frustrating to, But they're just is often fun, which is our third attributes. And making something fun is how nature makes you want to do it more. Another commonality is that both cooking and creativity are Eurest IQ. A Eurest IQ is a soft approach to problem solving that enables people to discover or learn something for themselves. Think of it as the opposite of an algorithm, which is a pre existing formula or rule for problem solving that produces a precise and reliable answer. Heuristics, by contrast, are not guaranteed to work or toe work the same in every instance. Take the act of making a piece of toast the way you like it. I don't know about yours, but my toaster can produce quite varying results, depending on whether someone's used it just before me. Whether I'm toasting one or more peace and so forth, finding a consistent setting that will work all the time gets to be very challenging, so I have to fiddle a little here and there pretty much each time I use it. In my case, I'm using a Eurest it called trialling. Never. Other heuristic methods include rules of thumb educated guesses, intuitive judgements, industry standard stereotyping and common sense, all of which people use every day in creative pursuits. Here's a little known fact. The Popsicle was invented by accident. So is the ice cream cone, potato chips, cornflakes and the microwave. Fact is a lot of noteworthy inventions, both edible and not came about simply because somebody stumbled on them rather than from some grand plan or well crafted insight. That isn't to say they came about randomly. As Pasture famously remarked, Chance favors the prepared mind. In other words, happy accidents happen most often to people who have made the effort to develop their creativity and who are constantly exercising it. Those are the people who are going to know a good idea when they see one, unlike those on, prepare to realize something sitting right in front of them. Our sixth attributes is based on the old adage that just as you can't make an omelet without breaking some eggs, so to my creativity, entail the destruction of one thing as it brings into being another. Economists have a term for this cycle of super session. They call it creative destruction. Creative destruction is why many traditional businesses and industries air suffering. Right now they're being slowly squeezed out by new approaches to doing things, whether it's transporting people for pay, putting out the news or yes, even teaching as to whether these newly ascendant operators will, in turn someday find their own business model under assault by concepts Yet unseen Onley Time will tell final creativity like cooking is very much a teachable skill. Gone are the days when people could be excused for believing that it was a talent only a special few were born with. We now know that the human brain has been wired to create since inception. Evolutionary psychology teaches us is much without an inborn ability to adapt to our surroundings. Our species might never have endured where others died off. And, of course, the fact that creativity is a subject that can be studied, taught, learned and consciously apply to design is why there could be a class like this at all. 15. The Creative Home and Next Steps: congratulations. You're almost done with the course before we wrap up. I do want to go over a few last items. Let's start with something I said way back in the opening module, which is that the techniques I was going to present could be used for all sorts of environments, whether an office school, commercial space, whatever. Of course, that's still true. What I didn't mention then, however, was that there is one particular place where we consistently get mawr good ideas than any other. And that is the home couple of quick explanations I could offer first. Remember what I said about stress and creativity, standing in an inverse relationship to each other? High stress, diminishing creative performance, low stress, raising it well. Home is, on the whole, a low stress environment, certainly compared to most others, especially, the workplace is, after all, our safe harbor, our refuge from the world at large in the domain over which we exert the greatest control. Given those attributes, it's only natural that we feel more relaxed within its environs and that creative ideas flow more readily. As a result, a second explanation to rise from a curious paradox about creativity we often achieve our best insights when we're trying the least hard to attain. For instance, has a good idea ever popped into your head while you were doing something totally irrelevant to creative problem solving like, say, taking a shower, exercising, reading, sitting by a fire, playing with your pet, sleeping and so on. Sure you have. So have we all. Which is one reason I was inspired to write a book called My Creative Space. How to Design Your Home To Stimulate Ideas and Spark Innovation. 48 Science Back Techniques like this course. Its goal is to help you realize your full creative potential by harnessing the power of space. And also like this course, it's heavily illustrated with over 200 professionally shot photographs of creative interiors, some of which you're seeing on screen right now. Another constructive step would be to check out the resource is page of my website. There you'll find my recommendations for the best books on creativity and innovation, as well as conference listings, learning opportunities, videos and more, but that I'll leave you with a little background music, crediting for the work you've seen throughout the course and my thanks to you for joining so