User Research Techniques and Basics | Amy Mauriello | Skillshare

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User Research Techniques and Basics

teacher avatar Amy Mauriello, UX Strategist and Designer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

11 Lessons (46m)
    • 1. UX Basics Welcome

    • 2. What is User Research?

    • 3. Recruiting Participants

    • 4. Field Studies & Contextual Interviews

    • 5. Surveys & Questionnaires

    • 6. Card Sorts

    • 7. Personas

    • 8. User Scenarios & Use Case

    • 9. Task Analysis

    • 10. Affinity Diagram

    • 11. Class Project

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About This Class

This class is about the basic techniques user experience professionals utilize to gather information about users of a website or product. You’ll learn how to conduct an open card sort, conduct structured interviews, create user surveys, and conduct a task analysis.

By the end of the class, you will be able to talk to users in an effective way, gather data about how users are using your website or product, and be able to translate that data into actionable steps. You’re going to have an excellent portfolio piece illustrating your design process to others which is an invaluable skill to have.

Meet Your Teacher

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Amy Mauriello

UX Strategist and Designer


I'm a UX Designer focused on making user interfaces beautiful. I’ve been working in the design field for roughly 13 years, 7 of which have been focused on user-centered design. I’ve worked in a few industries, such as medical, government, consumer packaged goods, financial, software as a service platform, and web development agencies. Each of them pose different user experience challenges and I’m able to use that insight on any new projects I begin.

I’m well versed in agile methodology and determining how UX fits within the process. I naturally have an “engineering first” kind of brain that is able to strategize the collaboration between design and development to meet project deadlines. I’m passionate about impr... See full profile

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1. UX Basics Welcome: Hi. My name is Amy More yellow, and I've been designing websites and user interfaces for the past eight years. This class is about the basic techniques that user experience professionals use to evaluate the usability of websites and mobile applications. I'm gonna teach you how to conduct an open card, sword task analysis, great user surveys and Dr Destruction Interview. By the end of the class, you'll be able to talk to users in an effective way. Gather data about how people are using your website and translate that data into actual steps to inform future design decisions. You're also going to have an excellent portfolio peas and be able to clearly articulate your design process, toe others, which is invaluable communicating study results and getting hired. Let's begin. 2. What is User Research?: what is user research? We're going to start by talking about the importance of conducting user research. It tells us more about the environment that users complete tasks in and provides context to each of those tasks. This is accomplished their various data gathering techniques. We then make sense of what we learned identify opportunities for design and purse I possible solutions. The goal is to take that data to create usable and useful product design decisions. We're just going to focus on the date of gathering piece today. User research helps us to form a stable set of requirements to guide product development. It supports the popular iterative software development style called agile, that most of the industry runs on. This is extremely important to keeping projects on budget and on schedule. According to a research study conducted by Boehm and Bacilli in 2001 fixing a software problem after delivery is often 100 times more expensive than during requirements and design phase. This isn't a new concept. As far back as 1992 Roger Pressman found that most maintenance costs are associated with unmet or unforeseen user requirements. In other usability problems, user research is not only cost effective, it helps to keep projects and schedule. A research study conducted by Ben Schneiderman observed that managers came to realize that having a usability test on schedule was a powerful incentive to complete a design phase. The usability test report provided support of confirmation of progress in specific recommendations for changes. Nothing really keeps a team going like regular validation of their efforts. How do we know if a product is usable? We weigh it against well established design principles and heuristics. These convey very, but the most common components are good utility. Does it provide the features? You need efficiency. Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks? Error prevention? How many errors do users make How severe those errors and how easily they recover from those errors learn herbal. How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design ? Memorable. When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they re established proficiency desirable? How pleasant is it to use the design? In order to answer these questions, we conduct various requirements, gathering activities they typically include field studies or user interviews, surveys and by surveys. They mean both questionnaires and interviews, card sorting, usability tests and task analysis, competitive analysis, persona definition and user scenarios and use cases. This brings us to our class project. For this class will be evaluating one of your favorite social media, APS or websites. Some examples include Giffey, Twitter, Snapchat, Buzzfeed or Facebook. But you could really pick any app of your choosing. You'll be observing the current design set usability goals. Choose a user research technique, conduct research in create affinity diagrams. Use cases in personas based on your findings. 3. Recruiting Participants: recruiting participants. There are many ways to recruit people to test out your application or website, but first and foremost, we need to get a basic idea of who those people are. You want people who are representative of the target audience, ideally, people who were already using the product or a similar product. There could be some challenges when trying to access users. You may not have access to users. You could deal with conflicting schedules. You'll have no shows or people who show blade. It can be tricky. Just remember that some testing is better than none. Even speaking to a small set of users than the large set of specific ones that you originally set out, four is going to be helpful. Just follow these five basic steps. Step one Defined participant acceptance criteria. What criteria must participants Meet? B is explicit but inclusive as possible. Consider the demographics such as age, gender raised, professional industry, education, general computer experience, experience with products or similar products and knowledge of the domain. One thing that you have to consider is a new incentive. You might want to pay people further time if it takes a significant amount of time or trouble out of their data participate. But in the event that you don't have money or you're doing this guerrilla style like we are , don't worry. People love to give their opinions. You just might have to talkto less people or make a couple compromises on acceptance criteria. It sometimes helps to prioritize which acceptance criteria are the most important ones to include and then work down to the least important. Step two decide how to recruit. You can always start with determining if friends or family or willing to help. Just keep in mind that your relationship to them could introduce bias, especially in the event that you're testing out one of your own designs on them. Just tell them to be honest. And don't worry about hurting your feelings. Additionally, you could always use social media websites such as Facebook or Craigslist Community email list on my bulletin boards, etcetera to gather more users. This is pretty easy if you're doing anything remote. If you have a decent budget, you can always hire professionals to do this. The benefit of doing that is that you'll get people that will fit your profile. The downside of doing that is that it's pretty expensive. It can be almost 100 to $150 a head. But a lot of the online tools, such as surveymonkey, an optimal workshop, have their own databases, which are actually much cheaper to use. If you're only looking for a small set of criteria, the more complex your audience, the more money that you can expect a pit step. Three. Create screening questions. The goal is to have less than 20 questions, and for them to take no more than 10 minutes. The type of questions that you need to ask really depend on the criteria that you have set for your recruiting participants, as outlined in Step one. If you're looking for people within a certain age range, make sure to ask that if you're looking for someone who makes a certain amount of money, make sure to ask what amount of money they make. It's really up to you. If you're conducting the screener over the phone, introduce yourself and explain why you're calling or contacting them. Describe the nature of the study, the amount of time it will take to participate, the date of the study and how you got their name, ask them if it sounds like something they might be interested in stuff or get the word out . Now that you know who you want to recruit, you can begin creating advertisements or adding listings, Teoh social Media sites and sending out invitations. A few ways to reach your audience would be to share a link to the study information on social media or directly on the website or mobile application that you are studying. Alternatively, if you already have a newsletter database, tap into it. Step five Schedule confirmed in Remind. Make sure that you are keeping an open line of communication with the people who said that they would help you. You want to make the process is easy as possible for your participants, so letting them know that you have an upcoming study and reminding them of that study is going to make things easier for you and also reduced the amount of late shows or no shows that you'll encounter things to keep in mind. The truly random sample is a very high bar. You're likely to have some sort of bias, so just do your best to keep an eye out for patterns in your evaluation. Be ready for rejection. Industry professionals estimate that about 1/4 of participants never show you can try and prepare for this by adding plus one Teoh any amount of people that year inviting to this study usability, testing ethics, protect participant privacy and ensure confidentiality by making sure to refer to participants anonymously in any notes or findings that you come up with next steps. Contact 10 to 20 people that are regular or occasional users of the website or application that you're evaluating and ask them if they would be willing to help you with your project . 4. Field Studies & Contextual Interviews: Field studies in contextual interviews, interviews present a unique opportunity to understand users lived experiences through their own words. This is very helpful because it provides context to how they use the product. There are multiple types of interview formats to choose from. To get user feedback, you can choose whichever one makes the most sense based on the project goals and subject matter goals. Gather task information. Learn which tasks people use most, how they complete tasks and why they complete us. Discover any issues they run into that may otherwise be out of scope or not. Thought of collect demographic data about your users, such as their backgrounds and their motivation. Understand environmental factors such as work, culture impacts and social factors, including technical or procedural dependencies. Field Study. The field study is a general method for collecting data about users, user needs and product requirements that involves observation. In interviewing, you would usually observe users as they work or user product, taking notes on particular activities and often asking questions of the user. Observation may be either direct where the investigator is actually present during the task or indirect, where the task is viewed by some other means like a video recorder set up in an office. The method is useful early in product development to gather. Use your requirements. It is also useful for studying currently executed tasks and processes. How to conduct a field study. It's important to clearly indicate what you plan to record before you start the session. It sometimes helps to utilize a note taking brain work for your notes, such as E i o u L. Go through that later. Run a pilot session to get a feel for what to expect and how long to schedule studies for. Try to be as unobtrusive as possible. Try and keep all questions until the end. If possible, take photos of the users environment. Before you go through full analysis, drop down your first impressions. The next activity that would typically take place is a card sort. Affinity diagramming requirements. Meeting. We're testing a paper prototype contextual inquiry in textual interviews involve observers watching users performed job early two tests in interacting with their colleagues in a work environment, the observation and interviews intertwined with the users workday, for example, you might say to the user being interviewed. We're building a system to handle customer enquiries. This is a straightforward process. The system should manage 100 customer enquiries a day. You can build this focus in conjunction with the person or trusting the contextual inquiry . The core principles of contextual inquiry. Our focus plan for the inquiry based on a clear understanding of your purpose context. Goto the customers workplace and watch them do their old work partnership. Talk to customers about their work and engage them in uncovering on articulated aspects of work. Interpretation. Developed a shared understanding with the customer about the aspects of work that matter how to conduct a contextual and Cory as a warm up start with general interview questions to establish a report with the participants. Let them know that everything is going to be kept confidential and make sure to get their consent. It's best to use a video camera or other recording device to document the experience, but if circumstances do not permit the interview to be recorded, you might consider having to interviewers as observers to monitor the session. You'll now be switching the format from an interview style Teoh Master Prentice relationship. This is the recommended way Teoh conduct a contextual inquiry you'll be partnering with them in looking to them as a mentor to teach you how they complete their tasks. You may occasionally interrupt them to ask questions to try to keep that to a minimum observant record in as much detail as possible. At the end of the interview, you're going to summarize what you've learned and ask the participant. If that makes sense, be attentive to their reaction to your summary. You want accurate observations and should encourage them to provide kin back. This process produces that's amount of data. It's important to systematically and thoughtfully analyze the data. This is commonly accomplished through creating an affinity diagram, which will go over later. No taking styles, General Field notes and a e I. O u General Field notes aren't really an official framer to what you are supposed to be gathering. You write down everything. This is typically used when you don't have a specific question or if you're conducting exploratory work, make sure you write down everything as if you don't understand anything about the domain or environment. E. I. O. U is a coating structure pneumonic created by Dublin groups, Lab A's for activities which are goal directed actions that people want to accomplish use for environments, which include the entire area or activities that take place. I is for interactions, which are between a person and someone or something else. These are the building blocks of activities Bose for objects, which are the building blocks of the environment. These air key elements sometimes but too complex or unintended uses and use for users the people providing the behavior. Interview tips. Make sure your schedule extra time in the event the interview runs over. Try not to be disruptive to the environment. Write down things you don't understand, so you can ask them later. When looking at the transcript, you should have talked significantly less than the participant. Write down what you see in here, not what you think is happening. Be aware of technicalities off the interview, such as how long it's taking, how your energy level is any non verbal cues of discomfort from the participant. Also, make sure to write down any quotes of their relevant in time stamp. Your notes don't ask questions that can be answered with a yes or no ask. Open ended questions that allowed participants to reconstruct not remember, tolerate silence. Don't feel that you need to fill pauses with conversation as you structure your interview guides. Start with general information and then moved to specific questions, concluding with a summary followed by any demographic information you're hoping to capture . Common pitfalls. Toe observation. The Hawthorne effect. You being there is changing the situation. So you have inaccurate data asking too many questions, taking too many notes and not paying attention. Being too much of an expert, not writing down everything you see instead of making assumptions about what you're seeing observing too long, the process can be costly because of the equipment that you may have to rent for the space that you may have to reserve next steps. Start interviewing. You can follow guidelines above, but scale back in terms of how rigid you need to be. You just want to get a feel for interviewing. Use a note taking framework interviewed by people in Sceviour Findings for the upcoming analysis lesson 5. Surveys & Questionnaires: questionnaires are best used for answering specific questions from a large and dispersed group of people. They're a form for talking to people and could be unstructured, structured or semi structured. They're less expensive than other research methods and are best used for exploring issues. There are remote surveys, one on one, interviews in group interviews or focus groups. Focus groups are good for gaining a consensus and can highlight areas of conflict. Such is discovering that there are different perspectives within the same organization. This could be eye opening for stakeholders. The caveat to focus groups is group thinking. This discourages creativity or individual responses, especially if there are strong, loud personalities in the room. Focus groups are typically 3 to 10 people. If you're running a focus group, make sure that a representative from each of the user groups are included. Promote surveys. There are many tools out there to create online surveys. One of the most popular survey tools used in one that I am most familiar with is to re monkey running Surveys will give you a clearer picture of who your user groups are and their goals. Let's take a look at Surveymonkey right now, that we know a little bit more about surveys I wanted to show you. Surveymonkey. The end of last year, we ran a study for Missouri Department of Transportation. We got a total of 490 Response is just fantastic. Were able to you get the word out about this survey because we had it listed on their website. So the first thing you want to dio when you're designing your survey is to make sure the have an intro. You want to thank them for taking time out of their day to do the survey, and you also want to have a little bit of information about why this survey exists. There's also this very cool future on the left here. I don't know if this is available if you have a free account, but Surveymonkey does have a question being that you can draw from. If you wanted to find out some recommended questions, ones that you've already used before just trying to make your survey rating process even faster. So I'm going to go Teoh the preview and score page. This shows you a preview of the survey in a desktop tablet in mobile format one of the other things it does is evaluate how easy the survey is or how easy they predict it to be to fill out. And if there are parts of the survey logic that aren't tracking correctly, it will also come on over here. There's just one small flag right now recommendation about one of our questions that has a lot of rose, so just gonna ignore that. But this is the type of stuff you would seeds. It's very specific. All right, So for collector sponsors is so as you can see below, I can create different links. And if I want to add some different values to the end of it, I can track. How many people did they get in from Twitter? How many people today get in from Facebook? You just need to make sure that you're sharing it to the correct channel so you can trace it. There's also an email version. I have actually not used this one before, but we have purchased responses before super your to click buy responses. You can get a little bit of an estimate here, so if we were looking around 200 people, we can start paring down the location to specific regions. Let's just pick state, for example, like for some reason I want to pick Alaska and then if we want to pick the other option options that you can see here are different genders, ages, household incomes. There's also off money, more options so he can see. And then you start seeing the price per response and you can estimate how much that's going to cost. The more options that you pick, the more expensive it's going to be, which is something we talked about in the first lesson. But anyhow, I'm going to jump back because this is a close study and I do not need anything. So uhm, I'm going to just go to analyze results. Here is what you can expect to see when you go to analyze your results. It breaks down the questions and it will show, um, you know, if you have other responses, like another section, you can go through and read them individually. That's why it's helpful to try and make us much use out of the multiple choices you can. But you also can customize the way that you're looking at this information. If you wanted to see it in a pie chart or if you want to see it as a stacked, vertical far or line chart which would not make sense for the state of other way. Um, you can, though, if you want Teoh. Okay, so we go through some of the more complex area is you can start to see why it might make sense to change to a different display view like this would be a good one to kind of visually look a different. I'm going to scroll back up to the top. If there is a specific person, Um and you want to dig more into their data, you can also filter it out by individual responses, which is a little for this. It's a lot to go through. You can also segment your data based on a question. So if you were asking them what kind of user you are, for instance, we wanted to know if they're a resident or not. Yes, President, you could change this to say I am, however old from however place, you know, really, it's up to you. You can apply that filter and it will filter out anyone who doesn't fit whatever criteria that you're looking for. So yeah, just a little peek at what Surveymonkey looks like. Next steps Great, a free surveymonkey account and read a survey consisting of 10 to 20 questions. Make sure to ask users about their online habits. Their devices in general, demographics such as age and education also ask them if they're familiar with similar APs, or just ask them which APs that they enjoy using most. It's important to write their questions in a non prescriptive way in order to reduce bias. Instead of asking someone, How often do you use Facebook? You would ask them. Which social network do you use the most? Unless Facebook, among many other options this way, you're not leading them to a specific product. You would follow up a question like that with something that asks, How often are you on this social network? Share the link through one of the methods we discussed in the first lesson about recruiting participants, such a Z asking friends and family posting it to social media were posting on Craigslist. Make sure to leave the survey open for about five days, and, after the five days is up, analyzed the data. This is something we'll go into in depth in an upcoming lesson 6. Card Sorts: carts aren't exercises are run to gain an insight to use yours mental model of an information space, the gold stolen, how people think and make sense of the information, not whether or not they confined it quickly in a home page. So when you're labeling cards, make sure to name them for the concept that they represent versus their current name. You can run a tree test to test naming schemes in locations at a later stage. In the design process, there are multiple types of card sorts, such as open, closed and hybrid, an open cards, or is when you provide cards to users, Ask them to put them into groups that make sense to them, and then create a name for each of the groups, close card sorts or similar. But instead of asking users to come up with their own group names, you would provide the group games first and then ask them to place appropriate cards into those groups traditionally, and ideally, you would conduct card sorts in person, but it can be costly and take a significant amount of time. Luckily, there are several online tools where you can conduct card sorts remotely this is great because users can participate on their own schedule and in the comfort of their homes. I prefer using open card sorts because you can see how people decide to name concepts and information on their own, instead of directing them to prescribe categories conducting. Ideally, you want to limit the sort to 30 cards or less. There are other schools of thought on this, but since we aren't completing this for academic or scientific research, we can stick to a smaller sized sort. Anything over 50 cards runs the rest of participant fatigue and could impact study results . You could also begin with pre study questions, if you'd like, based on how many questions that you need to answer. Many of the remote card sorting tools offer this feature, but I'm going to get to the cards themselves. Let's take a look at one of the remote card sorting tools. Now this is optimal workshop. We're going to go through a car tort study that we did for a collaborative workforce platform last May. All right, so we have our cards, this client in particular, who already had contacts with the participants of the study, and they were very engaged and excited to be part of the process. So critical book. This is an open card sorts. We don't have any categories if we were to also take a look at the messages, which is basically welcoming them to the study and explaining how long it will take, which is really important to include, since people are taking time out of their day and they need to plan for that. And it also explains why we're running the study. Here are the instructions where we are really spelling out what the user should be doing, and this is helpful, especially with a tool like this one, which I'll walk you through in a moment. We also have a thank you message at the end. We want to make sure that we're leaving them on a positive note. So if we were to take a look, here's an example of what the actual study itself look like. We first asked them to indicate which of the user groups that they feel they're part of We wanted them to make sure that, you know, it's something that closely identify with because they may not necessarily think of themselves as exactly this group of people. This is how the test itself looks like. And basically, what you do is you just drag the cards into Rose and you would click here to give us the name and so on. I'm just kind of dragging these randomly right now, but after they're done, you would click finish. I'm going to jump out of this because I don't want this toe effect our data at the end of this Once we have all of our results, there are a number of different ways that we can take a look at him there certainly a number of ways to view this data. So one thing that we noticed about this study is that there wasn't as high of agreement as you would like to see. As you can see, this is an example of how the cards are believing to each other. So 100% of the time, people put recruiting new employees and retaining employees together. And you can, you know, read this and evaluate by hovering over dark spots, taking note of spots that are particularly light. And you would basically take this information and taken note that if something is a darker blue. Or if something has, ah higher number, you would most likely want to keep those two items together because there is a high agreement that they are similar. Here's an explanation of exactly what this Milly similarity matrix shows. And if we were to take a look at a den drug, Aram, which is the other popular way of looking at these type of results, this is pretty spread out again, not necessarily what you want to see. You want to see things a little bit more closely aligned. Did you have this best merge method that evaluates AH cards a little bit differently? But again, it's just a visualization tool. All of these air visualization tools better looking at the number of times that certain sets of cards air together and just trying to illustrate patterns. The most interesting way to look at this is the participant centric analysis. So as faras, the most popular information architecture thes five groups are basically the most prominent of all of the submitted groups or suggested groups. So you could look at these types of labels and decide from businesses mentioned twice. But employers also mentioned twice, so that kind of decision. You know, from a subject matter expert standpoint, you could probably lean one way or the other, depending on what the project goals are. But anyhow, this is just another way to look at this information, and I'm going to dip a little bit into analysis. This is the kind of delivery herbal that you can expect to come out of these type of activities we have. The summary of what we used our methodology was an open card sort. The list of the number bribed how many people actually completed it. Seven individuals were omitted because they basically, through all of the cards, into one category. Here's the breakdown of the different user groups that completed the study. So as you can see, we have a kind of a higher concentration of staff members versus and users. It's definitely something you want to keep in mind, because there could be bias based on what the company thinks their users want. But it's important to note that they also have a stake in this platform because they're actually gonna be using it daily, Dark blue areas, air, strong agreement. And, um, you know, we just kind of pulled out. Which ones are the most scattered as faras cards that don't have a lot in common with any other cards? We also took some additional feedback and pulled out some quotes that were meaningful, and we highlighted some categories that were considered mislaid. Ius again. This is something you know. One of these items is not like the other. So one of the things that we consider when your name is type of feedback is this warrant having its own menu item? Or would it be better served as a piece of embedded or in line content on a page? Or it could tell us that the way that we labeled these was confusing to the user, and we've also shared the participants, signed trick analysis and just kind of elevated this view. So based on that information, we were able, Teoh put together recommended state map. There's a lot of complexity to the site map. It's a little bit more detailed than some of the record, the ones that you would see. This certainly isn't something that you're going to be doing for your project unless you really want to go above and beyond. But this platform is pretty robust and has a lot of content. So in summary, we made recommendations about the content and how it's currently broken up. One of the things that we knew going into is that the labels weren't gonna be providing. One of the things that was apparent is that the light labels is that the legals aren't providing enough context about the content that they represent. And we've also suggested that we put together something that's a little bit more conversational or just a different way of getting the user into the content that they represent. General tips Make sure your card names aren't too similar. Instead of two cards that begin with the word planting, you could make their structures different by labelling one planting corn and another wheat planting. This is a good tactic to take, because if someone is confused about where things belong, one of the first natural things to do is do you look for words that are in common, so you want to reduce that as much as you can because you're really asking them to organize concepts, not words. Make sure to give participants enough time, then if you ask for them to do more than 30 cards in one sitting, Pay them for their time. Below is an estimate on the time required to sort of specific number of items. Next steps. Take what you've learned and sign up for a free account on optimal workshop and create the card sort and have them organize your website or application content. Take Snapchat, for example. Make a card for each tab in major features on those tops. 7. Personas: what are personas of persona and user experience? Design is the characterization off user who represents a segment of your target audience. They answer the question. Who are redesigning for? They help to align strategy and goals to specific user groups. Characteristics of a persona include technical ability, age, job, educational background goals, motivations and frustrations. Here's some example personas. How they inform design. They can reveal points of interest that would lead you to elevate different areas of content that you may not have considered next. Steps. You have collected lots of data at this point. Look for themes across different demographic characteristics. Are there consistencies? Are there variants? How does their characteristics impact their goals and motivations? You're going to be creating two different personas that include a name and age job title, Cole's motivations and frustrations. Based on the feedback that you have received from all of the different data gathering techniques that you used thus far, feel free to post and share your progress as you're working on this project and feel free to message me for some guidance. If you have any questions or need help completing something 8. User Scenarios & Use Case: user scenarios and use cases are important to driving user requirements and communicating context to the design team. Thies to deliver bles are often confused and used somewhat interchangeably. They are similar, but they differ in respect to whom is meant to digest the information. A user scenario is the narrative story of persona characteristics. Let's take an example persona from art. Previous lesson. We have Linda, the hiring manager from a workforce platform. Linda is part of the Employer User group. One of her user goals would be to share upcoming job information. Here is a user scenario to best describe that functionality. Linda, a hiring manager in the Rochester community, locks into the work force platform she used to share information about an upcoming job fair that is taking place at her company. Providing this. Use your scenario. Help stakeholders understand a typical situation that the persona would encounter with the product. A use case places emphasis on the system. Interaction there primarily used to communicate the experience. The development team in our an integral part of the agile software development methodology . Here's an example of a typical use case. Employer logs into the platform employer navigates to an Event Page employer creates the event. Blur fills out the form about the event named Time, Location and Contact Information, an employer, and publishes the event. They also condemn Scribe Normal, an alternative course to stay informed system and user interface requirements. So this tells us that the platform needs toe have a log in that has authentication. We need to have a very clear way of getting to an event page, a form to create an event. The form itself needs tohave places for the event name, time, location and contact information and the ability for the employer to publish run. Although there primarily targeted for developers, it's helpful for the design team to refer to them for user interface requirements. Next steps Now that you've learned about your users and created personas, identify one user scenario in one use case for each persona. If you want to describe more than one feel free 9. Task Analysis: task analysis. Once you have a clearer picture of your users to pull user experience, it could be helpful doubt. Line it into smaller steps to better understand any complexities. Task analysis analyzes a task in order to document step by step, how the task is completed. They analyzed the underlying rationale and purpose of what people are trying to achieve and how they're doing it. This might seem very straightforward and simple, but some of the easiest task can include more steps than you realize. Once broken down, for example, How descended email. Once you break this down, you could notice that there is a more steps and you might have originally considered. First, you look like a new email button like inside the to field type. In the recipient's email address, click inside the subject line field. Type the subject one. Click inside the body field. Type the email message, including a greeting and closing sentence at your signature, and then double track the email for correct spelling and grammar hit. Send conducting step one. Identify the test. Analyze tasks are basically the duties carried out by someone on the job. In our case, we would look to one of our personas user scenarios to guide us and choosing a task step to break down the task into sub tasks. Once you identify your tasks, start to break it down into smaller chunks. These air the sub tasks. They should be brief and start with an action verb. For example, take a persona for a social media manager. One of the Social Media Managers task is to add new content to social media sites every morning to define the sub tasks of adding new content to social media. You would consult previously defined user scenarios in interview observations. Let's say you discovered the sub test for adding new content to social media are check the editorial calendar. A new content to Twitter. Add new content only. Did step three identify steps in sub tasks. We've identified our task and we've broken it down into sub test. Our final stuff is to identify enlist the steps for each sub task. This is done by breaking down all of the sub tests into the specific actions that are carried out step by step in chronological order. So if we were to start to break down our sub tasks from previous step, it would look like this. Adding new content to social Media Check the editorial calendar. Navigate to the calendar Web page. Click on today's date. Click on newest article. Title toe. Open the article. Click inside the article You URL bar copy Euro. For article. Teoh Clipboard Highlight title text of the article. Copy the title test to the clipboard. Close the calendar. Add new content to Twitter. Navigate to Twitter account. Log into Twitter account, click tweet button paste. Article from clipboard, Pieced Article year or else from clipboard Quick Tweet button. To publish task analysis tips. Do not include now owns. Avoid getting too detailed. Don't use subject of statements. Don't use gold Stavins Next steps. Take one of the purse on issue defined in previous lessons and conducted task analysis of one of their user scenarios. You should produce an outline of the task and sub tasks based on your findings. 10. Affinity Diagram: affinity diagram. The affinity group model is a generic approach to inductive analysis. Inductive analysis is a qualitative method of content analysis that researchers used to identify themes by studying large amounts of data. It is a tool that organizes data into groupings based on their natural relationships. Affinity diagramming exercises allow you to understand qualitative research data. The goals to highlight any insight or pain points from previous data gathering activities, conducting right down the observations on to post it notes, place them on a wall surface, move notes into related columns or piles right labels for each group and further refine your groups. When you're doing this, try to take a unbiased approach. Don't try to prescribe themes in the data that aren't there, truly absorbed the data and place it into large piles and then split those piles into smaller thieves. This is the best approach to take an unbiased view of data and to make sure that you're truly reflecting what you captured. Next steps create affinity diagram based on your findings from the interview and survey lessons. Take a photo of your diagram and share it here 11. Class Project: class project. Each of the previous lessons included small stops leading to the class Project Class project is to combine the smaller deliverables into one pdf document and write five or more recommendations to improve the existing design. Fresh in your memory these are the various takeaways that I requested for each of the lessons that you just took. Lesson three Field Studies and contextual Inquiry notes from five interviews include high level summary of the major themes that you noticed during this activity. Lesson for surveys and questionnaires. SURVEYMONKEY findings include a PdF of the results from the question summary section of the Analysed Results page. Lesson five card sorts Optimal Workshop Open Card sort Findings. Pick one or two of the various data visualizations and save them to a pdf less than 6% Honest for Sana definitions share one or 2% of definitions, including the characteristics photo of the persona and a name less and seven user scenarios in use cases to find one user scenario in one use case for each persona, you can add this to the persona definitions portion of the deliver verbal above less than eight task analysis. Outline of a task in sub tasks for persona. Make sure to identify which persona you created this for Lesson nine affinity diagram, make an affinity diagram of your interview and survey findings or any qualitative data, such as direct comments or complaints from the users and take a photo of your diagram. Take the seven assets above and combine them into one document. In addition to the seven, deliver bols above. Put together a list of five or so recommendations you have to improve the existing design. A single PdF is ideal, but if you don't have access to it Adobe Akram that pro. Just create a slide, show a PowerPoint for Google slides and downloaded as a PdF Share your project here. I just want to thank you so much for taking my class. I hope you have an improved sense of user research activities and feel confident about communicating your process. You should have a great starter portfolio piece that illustrates your understanding of the typical user research activities required of a user experience. Professional. Please let me know what parts of the classroom most helpful to you Also feel free to identify any suggested improvements. I'd love to create more content for you. Just let me know what you'd like to learn next